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Sample records for knee osteoarthritis pain

  1. Editorial Commentary: Knee Hyaluronic Acid Viscosupplementation Reduces Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the AAOS knee osteoarthritis guidelines, systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection reduces knee osteoarthritis pain and improves function according to the highest level of evidence. PMID:26433240

  2. Editorial Commentary: Platelet-Rich Plasma Improves Knee Pain and Function in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-11-01

    Systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that platelet-rich plasma improves knee pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Ultimately, biologics hold promise for chondroprotection in addition to symptomatic relief. PMID:26542203

  3. Pain sensitivity profiles in patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Frey-Law, Laura A; Bohr, Nicole L; Sluka, Kathleen A; Herr, Keela; Clark, Charles R; Noiseux, Nicolas O; Callaghan, John J; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Rakel, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    The development of patient profiles to subgroup individuals on a variety of variables has gained attention as a potential means to better inform clinical decision making. Patterns of pain sensitivity response specific to quantitative sensory testing (QST) modality have been demonstrated in healthy subjects. It has not been determined whether these patterns persist in a knee osteoarthritis population. In a sample of 218 participants, 19 QST measures along with pain, psychological factors, self-reported function, and quality of life were assessed before total knee arthroplasty. Component analysis was used to identify commonalities across the 19 QST assessments to produce standardized pain sensitivity factors. Cluster analysis then grouped individuals who exhibited similar patterns of standardized pain sensitivity component scores. The QST resulted in 4 pain sensitivity components: heat, punctate, temporal summation, and pressure. Cluster analysis resulted in 5 pain sensitivity profiles: a "low pressure pain" group, an "average pain" group, and 3 "high pain" sensitivity groups who were sensitive to different modalities (punctate, heat, and temporal summation). Pain and function differed between pain sensitivity profiles, along with sex distribution; however, no differences in osteoarthritis grade, medication use, or psychological traits were found. Residualizing QST data by age and sex resulted in similar components and pain sensitivity profiles. Furthermore, these profiles are surprisingly similar to those reported in healthy populations, which suggests that individual differences in pain sensitivity are a robust finding even in an older population with significant disease. PMID:27152688

  4. Pain hypervigilance is associated with greater clinical pain severity and enhanced experimental pain sensitivity among adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Matthew S.; Goodin, Burel R.; Pero, Samuel T.; Schmidt, Jessica K.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Bulls, Hailey W.; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain hypervigilance is an important aspect of the fear-avoidance model of pain that may help explain individual differences in pain sensitivity among persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of pain hypervigilance to clinical pain severity and experimental pain sensitivity in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 168 adults with symptomatic knee OA. Quantitative sensory testing was used to measure sensitivity to heat pain, pressure pain, and cold pain, as well as temporal summation of heat pain, a marker of central sensitization. Results Pain hypervigilance was associated with greater clinical pain severity, as well as greater pressure pain. Pain hypervigilance was also a significant predictor of temporal summation of heat pain. Conclusions Pain hypervigilance may be an important contributor to pain reports and experimental pain sensitivity among persons with knee OA. PMID:24352850

  5. Serum Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Painful Knee Osteoarthritis and Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Marta; Ezquerro, Fernando; Marcon Alfieri, Fábio; Vilas Boas, Lucy; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Chen, Janini; Özçakar, Levent; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder in the world. Among the mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis, biomarkers (cytokines profile) may be related to pain and pain intensity, functional capacity, and pressure pain thresholds (PPT). Thus, the study of these relationships may offer useful information about pathophysiology and associated mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the seric concentration of pro (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis and to correlate the levels of these biomarkers with the patients' functional capacity and pressure pain threshold (PPT) values. PMID:25821631

  6. Pain relief in knee osteoarthritis reduces the propensity to trip on an obstacle.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Nirav K; Piotrowski, Gary A; Pottenger, Lawrence; Draganich, Louis F

    2007-01-01

    The pain associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been shown to lead to an increased propensity to trip on an obstacle. Pain-relieving intra-articular injections are widely utilized in the treatment of knee OA. This study examined the effects of pain-relieving intra-articular knee injections on the ability to avoid contacting a suddenly appearing obstacle in patients with knee OA. Obstacle avoidance success rates, pain, body mass index, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, depth perception, and single-leg stance duration were evaluated in nine patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Obstacle avoidance success rates, pain, and single leg stance duration were tested a second time in the patients with knee OA after they received their injections, which contained a fast-acting local anesthetic to provide rapid pain relief. After receiving the pain-relieving knee injections, patients with knee OA had 48% less pain and were 31% more successful in avoiding stepping on the obstacle. However, after receiving the injection, the obstacle avoidance success rates remained 20% less than those of the healthy controls. The results of this study suggest that knee pain-relief can decrease the propensity of people with painful knee OA to trip and fall over an obstacle. However, pain-relief alone did not return the patients with knee OA in this study to a disease-free risk of tripping. PMID:16529934

  7. Repeatability of gait analysis for measuring knee osteoarthritis pain in patients with severe chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Asay, Jessica L; Boyer, Katherine A; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2013-07-01

    Gait measures are receiving increased attention in the evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Yet, there remains a need to assess variability of gait analysis in patients with knee osteoarthritis over time and how pain affects variation in these gait parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine if important gait parameters, such as the knee adduction moment, knee flexion moment, peak vertical ground reaction force, and speed, were repeatable in patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA over a trial period of 12 weeks. Six patients were enrolled in this cross-over study design after meeting strict inclusion criteria. Gait tests were conducted three times at 4 week intervals and once after the placebo arm of a randomized treatment sequence; each gait test followed a 2-week period of receiving a placebo for a pain modifying drug. Repeatability for each gait variable was found using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with a two-way random model. This study found that the knee adduction moment was repeatable throughout the four gait tests. However, normalized peak vertical ground reaction force and knee flexion moment were not as repeatable, varying with pain. This suggests that these gait outcomes could offer a more objective way to measure a patient's level of pain. PMID:23508626

  8. Brain activity for chronic knee osteoarthritis: dissociating evoked pain from spontaneous pain

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Elle L.; Geha, Paul Y.; Baliki, Marwan N.; Katz, Jeffrey; Schnitzer, Thomas J.; Apkarian, A. Vania

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is a hallmark of osteoarthritis (OA), yet little is known about its properties and representation in the brain. Here we use fMRI combined with psychophysics to study knee pain in 14 OA patients and 9 healthy controls. Mechanical painful pressure stimuli were applied to the knee in both groups and ratings of evoked pain and related brain activity examined. We observe that psychophysical properties and brain activation patterns of evoked pain are essentially the same between OA patients and healthy subjects, and between worse and better OA knees. In OA patients, stimulus-related brain activity could be distinguished from brain activity associated with spontaneous pain. The former activated brain regions commonly observed for acute painful stimuli in healthy subjects, while the spontaneous pain of OA engaged prefrontal-limbic regions closely corresponding to areas observed for spontaneous pain in other chronic pain conditions, such as chronic back pain and post-herpetic neuralgia. Arthritis-related clinical characteristics of knee OA also mapped to prefrontal-limbic regions. In a subgroup of patients (n = 6) we examined brain activity changes for a 2-week, repeat measure, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (valdecoxib) therapy. Treatment decreased spontaneous pain for the worse knee and clinical characteristics of OA, and increased blood and csf levels of the drug which correlated positively with prefrontal-limbic brain activity. These findings indicate dissociation between mechanically induced and spontaneous OA knee pain, the latter engaging brain regions involved in emotional assessment of the self, and challenge the standard clinical view regarding the nature of OA pain. PMID:21315627

  9. Individuals with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis have greater pain than those with common knee osteoarthritis progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Eaton, Charles B; Lu, Bing; Lo, Grace H; Lapane, Kate L; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated whether accelerated knee osteoarthritis (AKOA) was associated with greater pain and other outcomes and if outcomes varied over time differently among those with incident AKOA or common knee osteoarthritis (KOA), which we defined as a gradual onset of disease. We conducted longitudinal analyses among participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative who had no radiographic KOA at baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] <2). Participants were considered AKOA if ≥1 knees progressed to KL grade ≥3 and common KOA if ≥1 knees increased in radiographic scoring within 48 months. We defined the index visit as the study visit when they met the AKOA or common KOA criteria. Our observation period included up to 3 years before and after the index visit. Our primary outcome was WOMAC pain converted to an ordinal scale: none (pain score = 0/1 out of 20), mild (pain score = 2/3), and moderate-severe pain (pain score >3). We explored 11 other secondary outcome measures. We performed an ordinal logistic regression or linear models with generalized estimating equations. The predictors were group (AKOA or common KOA), time (seven visits), and a group-by-time interaction. Overall, individuals with AKOA (n = 54) had greater pain, functional disability, and global rating scale as well as slower chair-stand and walking pace compared with those with common KOA (n = 187). There was no significant interaction between group and time for knee pain; however, there was for chair-stand pace and global rating scale. In conclusion, AKOA may be a painful and disabling phenotype that warrants more attention by clinicians and researchers. PMID:26614536

  10. Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between leg muscle strength, power, and perceived disease severity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in order to determine whether dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. METHODS: Baseli...

  11. Low Back Pain and Other Musculoskeletal Pain Comorbidities in Individuals with Symptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Pradeep; Morgenroth, David C.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Bean, Jonathan F.; Kalichman, Leonid; Hunter, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of concurrent low back pain (LBP), and other musculoskeletal pain comorbidity, with knee pain severity in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods 1389 individuals from the Progression Cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative, age 45-79 with symptomatic tibiofemoral knee OA, were studied. Participants identified pain in the low back, neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, hip, knee, ankle, or foot. The primary outcome was the pain subscale of the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) applied to the more symptomatic knee. We examined WOMAC pain score in persons with and without LBP, before and after adjusting for other musculoskeletal symptoms. Results 57.4% of participants reported LBP. WOMAC pain score (possible range 0-20) was 6.5±4.1 in participants with LBP, and 5.2±3.4 in participants without (p<0.0001). In multivariate analyses, LBP was significantly associated with increased WOMAC knee pain score (β[SE]=1.00[0.21]; p=<.0001). However, pain in all other individual musculoskeletal locations demonstrated similar associations with knee pain score. In models including all pain locations simultaneously, only LBP (β[SE]=0.65[0.21];p=.002), ipsilateral elbow pain (0.98 [0.40]; p=.02), and ipsilateral foot pain (1.03[0.45]; p=.02) were significantly associated with knee pain score. Having more than one pain location was associated with greater WOMAC knee pain; this relationship was strongest for individuals having four (β[SE]= 1.83[0.42]; p<0.0001), or five or more pain locations (1.86[0.36]; p<0.0001). Conclusions LBP, foot pain, and elbow pain are significantly associated with WOMAC knee pain score, as are a higher total number of pain locations. This may have implications for clinical trial planning. PMID:20799265

  12. Factors Associated with Pain Experience Outcome in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rayahin, Jamie E.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Hayes, Karen W.; Almagor, Orit; Belisle, Laura; Chang, Alison H.; Moisio, Kirsten; Zhang, Yunhui; Sharma, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few strategies to improve pain outcome in knee OA exist, in part because how best to evaluate pain over the long-term is unclear. Our objectives were: determine frequency of a good pain experience outcome based on previously formulated OA pain stages; and test the hypothesis that less depression and pain catastrophizing and greater self-efficacy and social support are each associated with greater likelihood of a good outcome. Methods Study participants all with knee OA reported pain stage at baseline and 2 years. Baseline assessments utilized the Geriatric Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, and MOS Social Support Survey. Using pain experience stages, good outcome was defined b persistence in or movement to no pain or stage 1 (predictable pain, known trigger) at 2 years. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of a good outcome. Results Of 212, 136 (64%) had a good pain outcome and 76 (36%) a poor outcome. In multivariable analysis, higher self-efficacy was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of good outcome (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.24); higher pain catastrophizing was associated with a significantly lower likelihood of good outcome (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.83–0.94). Conclusion This stage-based measure provides a meaningful and interpretable means to assess pain outcome in knee OA. The odds of a good 2-year outcome in knee OA were lower in persons with greater pain catastrophizing and higher in persons with greater self-efficacy. Targeting these factors may help to improve pain outcome in knee OA. PMID:25047144

  13. Determinants of pain and functioning in knee osteoarthritis: a one-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Helminen, Eeva-Eerika; Sinikallio, Sanna H; Valjakka, Anna L; Väisänen-Rouvali, Rauni H; Arokoski, Jari PA

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis. Design: A one-year prospective analysis of determinants of pain and functioning in knee osteoarthritis. Study setting: Primary care providers in a medium-sized city. Patients: A total of 111 patients aged from 35 to 75 with clinical symptoms and radiographic grading (Kellgren-Lawrence 2–4) of knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Main measures: The outcome measures were self-reported pain and function, which were recorded at 0, 3 and 12 months. Disease-specific pain and functioning were assessed using the pain and function subscales of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index. Generic physical and mental functioning were assessed using the RAND-36 subscales for function, and physical and mental component summary scores. Possible baseline predictors for these outcomes were 1) demographic, socioeconomic and disease-related variables, and 2) psychological measures of resources, distress, fear of movement and catastrophizing. Results: Multivariate linear mixed model analyses revealed that normal mood at baseline measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory predicted significantly better results in all measures of pain (WOMAC P=0.02) and function (WOMAC P=0.002, RAND-36 P=0.002) during the one-year follow-up. Psychological resource factors (pain self-efficacy P=0.012, satisfaction with life P=0.002) predicted better function (RAND-36). Pain catastrophizing predicted higher WOMAC pain levels (P=0.013), whereas fear of movement (kinesiophobia) predicted poorer functioning (WOMAC P=0.046, RAND-36 P=0.024). Conclusions: Multiple psychological factors in people with knee osteoarthritis pain are associated with the development of disability and longer term worse pain. PMID:27496698

  14. Knee pain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or softening of the patella cartilage as ... knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in the ligaments, osteoarthritis of the ...

  15. Increased joint loads during walking--a consequence of pain relief in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2006-12-01

    Joint pain is a primary symptom in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the effect of pain and pain relief on the knee joint mechanics of walking is not clear. In this study, the effects of local knee joint analgesia on knee joint loads during walking were studied in a group of knee osteoarthritis patients. A group of healthy subjects was included as a reference group. The joint loads were calculated from standard gait analysis data obtained with standardised walking speed (4 km/h). The gait analyses were performed before and after pain relief by intra-articular injections of 10 mL lidocaine (1%). Pre-injection measurements revealed lower joint loads in the OA group compared to the reference group. Following injections pain during walking decreased significantly and the joint loads increased in the OA group during the late single support phase to a level comparable to the reference group. Although the patients walked with less compressive knee joint forces compared to the reference group, the effects of pain relief may accelerate the degenerative changes. PMID:17011194

  16. Knee osteoarthritis related pain: a narrative review of diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alshami, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a common progressive joint disease, involving not only the joint lining but also cartilage, ligaments, and bone. For the last ten years, majority of published review articles were not specific to osteoarthritis of the knee, and strength of evidence and clinical guidelines were not appropriately summarized. Objectives To appraise the literature by summarizing the findings of current evidence and clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of knee osteoarthritis pain. Methodology English journal articles that focused on knee osteoarthritis related pain were searched via PubMed (1 January 2002 – 26 August 2012) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, using the terms ‘knee’, ‘osteoarthritis’ and ‘pain’. In addition, reference lists from identified articles and related book chapters were included as comprehensive overviews. Results For knee osteoarthritis, the highest diagnostic accuracy can be achieved by presence of pain and five or more clinical or laboratory criteria plus osteophytes. Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. Generally, paracetamol, oral and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, corticosteroid injections and physical therapy techniques, such as therapeutic exercises, joint manual therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, can help reduce pain and improve function. Patient education programs and weight reduction for overweight patients are important to be considered. Conclusions Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. However, it is likely that a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments is most effective in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24899883

  17. Pain Management in the Elderly: Transdermal Fentanyl for the Treatment of Pain Caused by Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Hip

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the utility of transdermal fentanyl (transdermal fentanyl, TDF) for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis, OA) of the knee and hip, which was not adequately controlled by nonopioid analgesics or weak opioids. WOMAC is a reliable, valid, and responsive multidimensional, self-administrated outcome measure designed specifically to evaluate patients with OA of the knee or hip. TDF significantly increased pain control and improved functioning and quality of life. Metoclopramide appeared to be of limited value in preventing nausea and vomiting. PMID:24527441

  18. Relationship of Buckling and Knee Injury to Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Web-Based Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Zobel, Isabelle; Erfani, Tahereh; Bennell, Kim L; Makovey, Joanna; Metcalf, Ben; March, Lyn; Zhang, Yuqing; Eckstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of limited mobility and diminished quality of life. Pain is the main symptom that drives individuals with knee OA to seek medical care and a recognized antecedent to disability and eventually joint replacement. Evidence shows that patients with symptomatic OA experience fluctuations in pain severity. Mechanical insults to the knee such as injury and buckling may contribute to pain exacerbation. Objective Our objective was to examine whether knee injury and buckling (giving way) are triggers for exacerbation of pain in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study, a novel methodology in which participants with symptomatic radiographic knee OA who have had knee pain exacerbations were used as their own control (self-matched design), with all data collected via the Internet. Participants were asked to log-on to the study website and complete an online questionnaire at baseline and then at regular 10-day intervals for 3 months (control periods)—a total of 10 questionnaires. They were also instructed to go to the website and complete pain exacerbation questionnaires when they experienced an isolated incident of knee pain exacerbation (case periods). A pain exacerbation “case” period was defined as an increase of ≥2 compared to baseline. At each contact the pain exacerbation was designated a case period, and at all other regular 10-day contacts (control periods) participants were asked about knee injuries during the previous 7 days and knee buckling during the previous 2 days. The relationship of knee injury and buckling to the risk of pain exacerbation was examined using conditional logistic regression models. Results The analysis included 157 participants (66% women, mean age: 62 years, mean BMI: 29.5 kg/m2). Sustaining a knee injury was associated with experiencing a pain exacerbation (odds ratio [OR] 10.2, 95% CI 5.4, 19.3) compared with no injury. Knee

  19. Association of neuropathic pain with ultrasonographic measurements of femoral cartilage thickness and clinical parameters in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mesci, Nilgün; Mesci, Erkan; Külcü, Duygu Geler

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether neuropathic pain is associated with femoral condylar cartilage thickness, electrical pain threshold, and clinical parameters in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients over the age of 40 diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were enrolled. The PainDETECT questionnaire, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Short Form-36 questionnaire were completed for all patients. Electrical sensory threshold and electrical pain threshold measurements were obtained. Femoral condylar cartilage thickness was determined by means of ultrasound. [Results] PainDETECT scores of 13 or greater were observed in 28 (46.7%) patients, indicating the presence of neuropathic pain. These patients were found to have greater average pain severity, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and depression and anxiety scores and lower Short Form-36 scores than patients without neuropathic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain showed lower knee electrical sensory threshold and pain threshold values on average than patients without neuropathic pain. Femoral condylar cartilage thickness was not different between the two groups. [Conclusion] Neuropathic pain is associated with increased pain severity and decreased functional capacity and adversely affects quality of life and mood in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  20. Do the Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Knee Osteoarthritis Pain and Function Last?

    PubMed

    Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Harrison, Paige E; Benjamin, Samantha A; Bhave, Anil; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to decrease pain associated with knee osteoarthritis, which potentially leads to better function, improved quality of life, and postpones the need for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to perform a 1-year follow-up of a previous prospective group of patients with knee osteoarthritis, randomized to TENS or standard of care, who were asked to rate their changes in: (1) patient pain perception; (2) subjective medication use; (3) subjective functional abilities; (4) quality of life; (5) device use; and (6) conversion to TKA. A population of 70 patients were randomized to receive either a TENS device or a standard conservative therapy regimen. Patients were evaluated based on various subjective outcomes at minimum 1-year (mean, 19 months) follow-up. The TENS cohort had lower visual analog pain scores compared with the matching cohort. Subjective functional outcomes, as well as functional and activity scores, were also greater in the TENS cohort. Patients in TENS cohort showed significant improvements in their subjective and functional outcomes as compared with their initial status, while the control group did not show significant change. A majority of the TENS patients were able to reduce the amount of pain medications. Additionally, a large portion of the patients assigned to the TENS group continue to use the device, after completion of the trial. This study demonstrated the benefit of TENS for improving subjective outcomes in patients with pain due to knee osteoarthritis, compared with standard conservative treatments. The results of the study suggest that TENS is a safe and effective adjunct as part of the spectrum of current nonoperative treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:26540652

  1. Knee and hip radiographic osteoarthritis features: differences on pain, function and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Duarte; Severo, Milton; Santos, Rui A; Barros, Henrique; Branco, Jaime; Lucas, Raquel; Costa, Lúcia; Ramos, Elisabete

    2016-06-01

    The association between radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) and symptoms is inconsistent and variable according to each joint. The purpose of this study is to understand the relation between radiographic OA features, pain, function and quality of life, in knee and hip joints. A cross-sectional study was performed using information from EPIPorto cohort. Data was obtained by interview using a structured questionnaire on social, demographic, behavioural and clinical data. Pain was assessed using a pain frequency score (regarding ever having knee pain, pain in the last year, in the last 6 months and in the last month). Quality of life was evaluated with Short Form 36 (SF-36) and function disability with the Lequesne knee and hip indexes. Radiographic knees and hips were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence score (KL 0-4). Linear regression and proportional odds ratios estimated the association between radiographic features, pain, function and quality of life. In our study, symptomatic OA (KL ≥ 2 plus joint pain) was 26.0 % in knee and 7.0 % hip joints. In knee, the increase on radiographic score increased the odds to have a higher pain frequency score [1.58 (95 % CI = 1.27, 1.97)] and was associated [adjusted β (95 % CI)] with worst general health [-3.05 (-5.00, -1.09)], physical function [-4.92 (-7.03, -2.80)], role-physical [-4.10 (-8.08, -0.11)], bodily pain [-2.96 (-5.45, -0.48)] and limitations in activities of daily living [0.48 (0.08, 0.89)]. Regarding hip, no significant associations were found between the severity of radiographic lesions and these measures. Radiographic lesions in knee were associated with higher complaints, as far as pain and functional limitations are concerned, compared with hip. PMID:26445941

  2. EULAR report on the use of ultrasonography in painful knee osteoarthritis. Part 1: Prevalence of inflammation in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, M; Conaghan, P; Le Bars, M; Baron, G; Grassi, W; Martin-Mola, E; Wakefield, R; Brasseur, J; So, A; Backhaus, M; Malaise, M; Burmester, G; Schmidely, N; Ravaud, P; Dougados, M; Emery, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of inflammation in subjects with chronic painful knee osteoarthritis (OA), as determined by the presence of synovitis or joint effusion at ultrasonography (US); and to evaluate the correlation between synovitis, effusion, and clinical parameters. Methods: A cross sectional, multicentre, European study was conducted under the umbrella of EULAR-ESCISIT. Subjects had primary chronic knee OA (ACR criteria) with pain during physical activity ⩾30 mm for at least 48 hours. Clinical parameters were collected by a rheumatologist and an US examination of the painful knee was performed by a radiologist or rheumatologist within 72 hours of the clinical examination. Ultrasonographic synovitis was defined as synovial thickness ⩾4 mm and diffuse or nodular appearance, and a joint effusion was defined as effusion depth ⩾4 mm. Results: 600 patients with painful knee OA were analysed. At US 16 (2.7%) had synovitis alone, 85 (14.2%) had both synovitis and effusion, 177 (29.5%) had joint effusion alone, and 322 (53.7%) had no inflammation according to the definitions employed. Multivariate analysis showed that inflammation seen by US correlated statistically with advanced radiographic disease (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ⩾3; odds ratio (OR) = 2.20 and 1.91 for synovitis and joint effusion, respectively), and with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of an inflammatory "flare", such as joint effusion on clinical examination (OR = 1.97 and 2.70 for synovitis and joint effusion, respectively) or sudden aggravation of knee pain (OR = 1.77 for joint effusion). Conclusion: US can detect synovial inflammation and effusion in painful knee OA, which correlate significantly with knee synovitis, effusion, and clinical parameters suggestive of an inflammatory "flare". PMID:15878903

  3. Associations between Pressure-Pain Threshold, Symptoms, and Radiographic Knee and Hip Osteoarthritis: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Adam P.; Shi, Xiaoyan A.; Gracely, Richard H.; Renner, Jordan B.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between generalized evoked pressure pain sensitivity with distal pressure-pain threshold (PPT) and the presence, severity, or number of involved knee/hip joints with radiographic osteoarthritis (rOA) or related symptoms. Methods Data for these cross-sectional analyses come from the second follow-up (2008–11) of the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project (n=1,602). Pressure-pain threshold measurements were averaged over two trials from both the left and right trapezius. Outcomes of radiographic knee and hip OA were both defined by a Kellgren-Lawrence score of 2–4 and site-specific symptoms were ascertained at clinical interview. Associations were determine with multiple logistic regression models, and two-way interactions were tested at p<0.05. Results The sample was 67.2% female and 31.0% African American. Participants’ mean age was 67.9 (SD 9.0); mean body mass index was 31.5 (SD 7.1); mean Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score was 6.5 (SD 7.4); and mean total PPT was 3.6kg (SD 0.7). Significant associations were found between PPT and self-reported knee/hip symptoms. No significant associations were found between PPT and presence, severity, or number of joints with knee and hip rOA without accompanying symptoms. No significant interactions were found with demographic or clinical characteristics. Conclusion Pressure-pain threshold was significantly associated with self-reported single and multi-joint symptoms. In contrast, after adjustment, PPT measured at the trapezius was not associated with asymptomatic knee or hip rOA. As such, PPT may prove to be a useful indicator of rOA pain processing and of why individuals respond favorably and others do not to treatments targeting rOA. PMID:24643946

  4. Vitamin D, Race, and Experimental Pain Sensitivity in Older Adults with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Glover, T.L.; Goodin, B.R.; Horgas, A.L.; Kindler, L.L.; King, C.D.; Sibille, K.T.; Peloquin, C.A.; Riley, J.L.; Staud, R.; Bradley, L.A.; Fillingim, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Low levels of serum circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been correlated with many health conditions, including chronic pain. Recent clinical practice guidelines define vitamin D levels < 20 ng/mL as deficient and values of 21–29 ng/mL as insufficient. Vitamin D insufficiency, including the most severe levels of deficiency, is more prevalent in black Americans. Ethnic and race group differences have been reported in both clinical and experimental pain, with black Americans reporting increased pain. The purpose of this study was to examine whether variation in vitamin D levels contribute to race differences in knee osteoarthritic pain. Methods The sample consisted of 94 participants (75% female), including 45 blacks and 49 whites with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Average age was 55.8 years (range 45–71 years). Participants completed a questionnaire on knee osteoarthritic symptoms and underwent quantitative sensory testing, including measures of heat and mechanical pain sensitivity. Results Blacks had significantly lower levels of vitamin D compared to whites, demonstrated greater clinical pain, and showed greater sensitivity to mechanical and heat pain. Low levels of vitamin D predicted increased experimental pain sensitivity, but did not predict self-reported clinical pain. Group differences in vitamin D significantly predicted group differences in heat pain and pressure pain thresholds on the index knee and ipsilateral forearm. Conclusion These data demonstrate race differences in experimental pain are mediated by differences in vitamin D level. Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for increased knee osteoarthritic pain in black Americans. PMID:23135697

  5. Characterizing Pain Flares from the Perspective of Individuals with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susan; Lyden, Angela; Kratz, Anna; Fritz, Heather; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Gammaitoni, Arnold R.; Phillips, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA) commonly affects activity engagement, the daily pain experience has not been fully-characterized. Specifically, the nature and impact of pain flares is not well-understood. This study characterized pain flares, defined by participants with knee OA; pain flare occurrence and experience were measured over 7 days. Methods This was a multiple methods study; qualitative methods were dominant. Data were collected during the baseline portion of a randomized controlled trial. Participants met criteria for knee OA and had moderate to severe pain. They completed questionnaires and a 7-day home monitoring period that captured momentary symptom reports simultaneously with physical activity via accelerometry (N = 45). Participants also provided individual definitions of pain flare which were used throughout the home monitoring period to indicate whether a pain flare occurred. Results Pain flares were described most often by quality (often sharp), followed by timing (seconds-minutes), and by antecedents and consequences. When asked if their definition of a flare agreed with a supplied definition, 49% of the sample reported only “somewhat”, “a little” or “not at all”. Using individual definitions, 78% experienced at least one daily pain flare over the home monitoring period; 24% had a flare on over 50% of the monitored days. Conclusions Pain flares were common, fleeting, and often experienced in the context of activity engagement. Participants’ views on what constitutes a pain flare differ from commonly accepted definitions. Pain flares are an understudied aspect of the knee OA pain experience and require further characterization. PMID:25580697

  6. Modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with lower pain levels in adults with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, A Erin; Tucker, Amy J; Kott, Laima S; Wright, Amanda J; Duncan, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With no cure or effective treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), the need to identify modifiable factors to decrease pain and increase physical function is well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that characterize OA patients at different levels of pain, and to investigate the relationships among these factors and pain. METHODS: Details of OA characteristics and lifestyle factors were collected from interviews with healthy adults with knee OA (n=197). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to assess pain. Factors were summarized across three pain score categories, and χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine differences. Multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise selection procedure was used to examine associations between lifestyle factors and pain. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that pain was significantly higher with the use of OA medications and higher body mass index category, and significantly lower with the use of supplements and meeting physical activity guidelines (≥150 min/week). Stiffness and physical function scores, bilateral knee OA, body mass index category and OA medication use were significantly higher with increasing pain, whereas self-reported health, servings of fruit, supplement use and meeting physical activity guidelines significantly lower. No significant differences across pain categories were found for sex, age, number of diseases, duration of OA, ever smoked, alcoholic drinks/week, over-the-counter pain medication use, OA supplement use, physical therapy use, servings of vegetables or minutes walked/week. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy weight maintenance, exercise for at least 150 min/week and appropriate use of medications and supplements represent important modifiable factors related to lower knee OA pain. PMID:26125195

  7. Knee pain and osteoarthritis in older adults: a review of community burden and current use of primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Peat, G; McCarney, R; Croft, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Osteoarthritis is the single most common cause of disability in older adults, and most patients with the condition will be managed in the community and primary care.
AIM—To discuss case definition of knee osteoarthritis for primary care and to summarise the burden of the condition in the community and related use of primary health care in the United Kingdom.
DESIGN—Narrative review.
METHOD—A literature search identified studies of incidence and prevalence of knee pain, disability, and radiographic osteoarthritis in the general population, and data related to primary care consultations. Findings from UK studies were summarised with reference to European and international studies.
RESULTS—During a one year period 25% of people over 55 years have a persistent episode of knee pain, of whom about one in six in the UK and the Netherlands consult their general practitioner about it in the same time period. The prevalence of painful disabling knee osteoarthritis in people over 55 years is 10%, of whom one quarter are severely disabled.
CONCLUSION—Knee osteoarthritis sufficiently severe to consider joint replacement represents a minority of all knee pain and disability suffered by older people. Healthcare provision in primary care needs to focus on this broader group to impact on community levels of pain and disability.

 PMID:11156538

  8. Influence of pain severity on health-related quality of life in Chinese knee osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Jian; Cao, Yue-Long; Zheng, Yu-Xin; Gao, Ning-Yang; Wang, Xue-Zong; Chen, Bo; Gu, Xin-Feng; Yuan, Weian; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Ting; Zhan, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Yin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship among pain and other symptoms intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Chinese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: The study was cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational. A convenience sample of 466 patients with knee OA was recruited in the study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of disease, and Kellgren- Lawrence (KL) scores were recorded. HRQoL and symptoms were assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) index in participants. Results: The sample was predominantly female (82%) with mean age 56.56 years and mean BMI 24.53 kg/m2. We found that WOMAC subscale scores significantly negative correlated with the majority of SF-36 subscale scores in knee OA patients (P < 0.05). There were no correlations between BMI, duration of disease, KL score and the vast majority of SF-36 subscale scores in patients (P > 0.05). In addition, there was a significant correlation between age and PCS, gender and MCS in patients (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed, WOMAC subscale scores significantly negative correlated with the vast majority of SF-36 subscale scores. WOMAC-pain score had the strongest relationship with SF-36 PCS and MCS scores. Conclusions: In summary, pain severity has a greater impact on HRQoL than patient characteristics, other joint symptoms and radiographic severity in Chinese knee OA patients. Relieving of knee symptoms may help to improve patients’ HRQOL. The study provided the evidence that relieving pain should be the first choice of therapy for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:26064371

  9. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... thumb joint also is commonly affected by osteoarthritis. Knees The knees are among the joints most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. Symptoms of knee osteoarthritis include stiffness, swelling, and pain, which make ...

  10. Cingulate GABA levels inversely correlate with the intensity of ongoing chronic knee osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    Reckziegel, Diane; Raschke, Felix; Cottam, William J

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the role of the mid-anterior cingulate cortex γ-aminobutyric acid levels in chronic nociceptive pain. The molecular mechanisms of pain chronification are not well understood. In fibromyalgia, low mid-anterior cingulate cortex γ-aminobutyric acid was associated with high pain suggesting a role of prefrontal disinhibition. We hypothesize that mid-anterior cingulate cortex GABAergic disinhibition may underpin chronic pain independent of the pain etiology and comorbid negative affect. Proton magnetic resonance spectra were acquired at 3T from the mid-anterior cingulate cortex in 20 patients with chronic painful knee osteoarthritis, and 19 healthy pain-free individuals using a point resolved spectroscopy sequence optimized for detection of γ-aminobutyric acid. Participants underwent questionnaires for negative affect (depression and anxiety) and psychophysical pain phenotyping. Results No differences in mid-anterior cingulate cortex γ-aminobutyric acid or other metabolite levels were detected between groups. Ratings of perceived intensity of ongoing osteoarthritis pain were inversely correlated with γ-aminobutyric acid (r = −0.758, p < 0.001), but no correlations were seen for negative affect or pain thresholds. The pain γ-aminobutyric acid interrelation remained strong when controlling for depression (r = −0.820, p < 0.001). Combined levels of glutamine and glutamate were unrelated to psychometric or to pain thresholds. Conclusion Our study supports mid-anterior cingulate cortex γ-aminobutyric acid as a potential marker of pain severity in chronic nociceptive pain states independent of negative affect. The findings suggest that GABAergic disinhibition of the salience network may underlie sensitization to averse stimuli as a mechanism contributing to pain chronification. PMID:27206661

  11. [The relevance of muscle strength--extensors of the knee on pain relief in elderly people with knee osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Slivar, Senka Rendulić; Peri, Dusan; Jukić, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate muscle strength after short-term exercise program by elderly people with knee osteoarthritis that usually non exercising and to estimate if this change have influence on decrease of the pain. This study was longitudinal experiment that involved thirty participants aged 61-80 years with clinical signs and radiographic evidence of knee OA stage Kellgren II and III. They completed individual strengthening program knee muscle stabilisator and hydrotherapy in the pool during two weeks. Muscle strength and pain was estimated pre and post experimental time. The results are analysed by SPSS programme, version 15.0 for Windows. Values demonstrated decreasing degrees of the pain and increasing of muscle strength. The pain decreased 33% in advance, final pain oposite initial estimated 2.4 degrees smaller by VAS. Muscle strength for stronger leg was (initial/final) 93.10/106.33 kg/cm2 (t-test 3.584*, p < 0.001), and for weak leg 71.93/83.37 kg/cm2 (t-test 3.118* p < 0.004). Regression analysis gave small valuables of determination coefficient (R2 of 0.014-0.081) and regression coefficient (B of 0.004-0.015) for stronger and weaker leg. Exercises produced significant increase in muscle strength and decrease in pain in OA of the knee. Hypothesis that increase of muscle quadriceps strength have influence on decrease of the pain in the knee is not confirmed. PMID:21751572

  12. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization as a Treatment for Medial Knee Pain in Patients with Mild to Moderate Osteoarthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Yuji; Korchi, Amine Mohamed; Shinjo, Takuma; Kato, Shojiro

    2015-04-15

    PurposeOsteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability. Mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis that is resistant to nonsurgical options and not severe enough to warrant joint replacement represents a challenge in its management. On the basis of the hypothesis that neovessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain, previous work demonstrated that transcatheter arterial embolization for chronic painful conditions resulted in excellent pain relief. We hypothesized that transcatheter arterial embolization can relieve pain associated with knee osteoarthritis.MethodsTranscatheter arterial embolization for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis using imipenem/cilastatin sodium or 75 μm calibrated Embozene microspheres as an embolic agent has been performed in 11 and three patients, respectively. We assessed adverse events and changes in Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores.ResultsAbnormal neovessels were identified within soft tissue surrounding knee joint in all cases by arteriography. No major adverse events were related to the procedures. Transcatheter arterial embolization rapidly improved WOMAC pain scores from 12.2 ± 1.9 to 3.3 ± 2.1 at 1 month after the procedure, with further improvement at 4 months (1.7 ± 2.2) and WOMAC total scores from 47.3 ± 5.8 to 11.6 ± 5.4 at 1 month, and to 6.3 ± 6.0 at 4 months. These improvements were maintained in most cases at the final follow-up examination at a mean of 12 ± 5 months (range 4–19 months).ConclusionTranscatheter arterial embolization for mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis was feasible, rapidly relieved resistant pain, and restored knee function.

  13. Evaluation of bone marrow lesion volume as a knee osteoarthritis biomarker - longitudinal relationships with pain and structural changes: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow lesion (BML) size may be an important imaging biomarker for osteoarthritis-related clinical trials and reducing BML size may be an important therapeutic goal. However, data on the interrelationships between BML size, pain, and structural progression are inconsistent and rarely examined in the same cohort. Therefore, we evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of BML volume with knee pain and joint space narrowing (JSN). Methods A BML volume assessment was performed on magnetic resonance images of the knee collected at the 24- and 48-month Osteoarthritis Initiative visits from a convenience sample of 404 participants in the progression cohort. During the same visits, knee pain was assessed with WOMAC pain scores and knee radiographs were acquired and scored for JSN. BML volume was summed to generate a total knee volume and an index tibiofemoral compartment volume (compartment with greater baseline JSN). Primary analyses included multiple linear regressions (outcome = pain, predictor = total knee BML volume) and logistic regressions (outcome = JSN, predictor = index tibiofemoral compartment BML volume). Results This sample was 49% female with a mean age of 63 (9.2 standard deviation (SD)) years, and 71% had radiographic osteoarthritis in the study knee. Larger baseline BMLs were associated with greater baseline knee pain (P = 0.01), the presence of JSN at baseline (odds ratio (OR) = 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23 to 1.83), and JSN progression (OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.11 to 1.46). Changes in total knee BML volume had a positive association with changes in knee pain severity (P = 0.004) and this association may be driven by knees that were progressing from no or small baseline BMLs to larger BMLs. In contrast, we found no linear positive relationship between BML volume change and JSN progression. Instead, regression of medial tibiofemoral BML volume was associated with JSN progression compared to knees with no or

  14. Women with knee osteoarthritis have more pain and poorer function than men, but similar physical activity prior to total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major clinical problem affecting a greater proportion of women than men. Women generally report higher pain intensity at rest and greater perceived functional deficits than men. Women also perform worse than men on function measures such as the 6-minute walk and timed up and go tests. Differences in pain sensitivity, pain during function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity levels are unclear. Further the ability of various biopsychosocial variables to explain physical activity, function and pain is unknown. Methods This study examined differences in pain, pain sensitivity, function, psychosocial variables, and physical activity between women and men with knee osteoarthritis (N = 208) immediately prior to total knee arthroplasty. We assessed: (1) pain using self-report measures and a numerical rating scale at rest and during functional tasks, (2) pain sensitivity using quantitative sensory measures, (3) function with self-report measures and specific function tasks (timed walk, maximal active flexion and extension), (4) psychosocial measures (depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and social support), and (5) physical activity using accelerometry. The ability of these mixed variables to explain physical activity, function and pain was assessed using regression analysis. Results Our findings showed significant differences on pain intensity, pain sensitivity, and function tasks, but not on psychosocial measures or physical activity. Women had significantly worse pain and more impaired function than men. Their levels of depression, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, social support, and physical activity, however, did not differ significantly. Factors explaining differences in (1) pain during movement (during gait speed test) were pain at rest, knee extension, state anxiety, and pressure pain threshold; (2) function (gait speed test) were sex, age, knee extension, knee flexion opioid medications, pain duration, pain

  15. Knee pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... the front of your knee around the kneecap Torn ligament. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, or ... into your knee, swelling, or an unstable knee. Torn cartilage (a meniscus tear ). Pain felt on the ...

  16. Evidence for a central mode of action for etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-08-01

    The COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib modulates the peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms in animals. This interaction has not been studied in patients with pain. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover, 4-week treatment study investigated the pain mechanisms modulated by etoricoxib in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomized to group A (60 mg/d etoricoxib followed by placebo) or B (placebo followed by 60 mg/d etoricoxib). The quantitative, mechanistic pain biomarkers were pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation (TS), and conditioning pain modulation. Clinical readouts were Brief Pain Inventory, WOMAC, painDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q), and time and pain intensity during walking and stair climbing. Etoricoxib as compared with placebo significantly modulated the pressure pain thresholds (P = 0.012, localized sensitization) at the knee and leg (control site) (P = 0.025, spreading sensitization) and TS assessed from the knee (P = 0.038) and leg (P = 0.045). Conditioning pain modulation was not modulated. The Brief Pain Inventory (pain scores), PD-Q, WOMAC, and walking and stair climbing tests were all significantly improved by etoricoxib. Based on a minimum of 30% or 50% pain alleviation (day 0-day 28), responders and nonresponders were defined. The nonresponders showed a significant association between increased facilitation of TS and increased pain alleviation. None of the other parameters predicted the degree of pain alleviation. Generally, a responder to etoricoxib has the most facilitated TS. In conclusion, etoricoxib (1) modulated central pain modulatory mechanisms and (2) improved pain and function in painful osteoarthritis. Stronger facilitation of TS may indicate a better response to etoricoxib, supporting the central mode-of-action of the drug. PMID:27007068

  17. Metabolic syndrome and components exacerbate osteoarthritis symptoms of pain, depression and reduced knee function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongxing; George, Daniel M.; Jaarsma, Ruurd L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its co-morbidities in patients with primary knee osteoarthritis and to assess if the severity of metabolic syndrome, and components, correlates with the severity of osteoarthritis symptoms. Methods A case controlled analysis of 70 patients with osteoarthritis compared to a control group of 81 patients. Each patient underwent clinical review including history, examination, and pathology tests. The case-group all had stage IV osteoarthritis as determined by radiographs and intra-operative assessment. In addition a visual analogue scale (VAS), Hospital for Special Surgery knee score (HSS), and Hamilton Depression scores were completed. Results The prevalence of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the patients with osteoarthritis compared to the control group. There is a significant correlation between the degree of hypertension, the presence of dyslipidemia or hyperglycemia and the severity of osteoarthritis symptoms. Variables hypertension, low HDL-C levels, and the number of co-morbidities were all identified as risk factors for increased osteoarthritis symptoms. Conclusions There is a correlation between the number of metabolic disorders, the severity of hypertension and severity of osteoarthritis symptoms. Hypertension and decreased HDL-cholesterol were positive risk factors for increased osteoarthritis symptomatology. PMID:27162783

  18. Knee pain during activities of daily living and its relationship with physical activity in patients with early and severe knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fukutani, Naoto; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Yamamoto, Yuko; Hiraoka, Masakazu; Miyanobu, Kazuyuki; Jinnouchi, Masashi; Kaneda, Eishi; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether knee pain during various activities of daily living (ADLs) is associated with physical activity in patients with early and severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that the painful ADLs associated with decreased physical activity differ according to disease severity. This cross-sectional study enrolled 270 patients with medial knee OA, assigned to either the early (Kellgren Lawrence [K/L] grade 1-2) or the severe group (K/L grade 3-4). Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer. Knee pain during six ADLs (waking up in the morning, walking on a flat surface, ascending stairs, etc.) was evaluated using a questionnaire. We performed multiple regression and quantile regression analysis to investigate whether knee pain during each ADL was associated with physical activity. In the early group, the more knee pain they experienced while ascending stairs, the lower their physical activity was (75th regression coefficient = -1033.70, P = 0.018). In the severe group, the more knee pain they experienced while walking on a flat surface or bending to the floor or standing up, the lower their physical activity was (unstandardized coefficients = -1850.87, P = 0.026; unstandardized coefficients = -2640.35, P = 0.010). Knee pain while ascending stairs and while walking on a flat surface or bending to the floor or standing up was a probable limiting factor for physical activity in early and severe knee OA, respectively. These findings suggested that a reduction in task-specific knee pain according to disease severity could improve physical activity levels. PMID:27041381

  19. The relation of MRI-detected structural damage in the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint to knee pain: The Multicenter and Framingham Osteoarthritis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stefanik, Joshua J.; Gross, K. Douglas; Guermazi, Ali; Felson, David T.; Roemer, Frank W.; Zhang, Yuquing; Niu, Jingbo; Segal, Neil A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Nevitt, Michael; Neogi, Tuhina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of cartilage loss and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint (PFJ) to knee pain. Methods We categorized the location of full-thickness cartilage loss and BMLs in the PFJ on knee MRIs from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) and Framingham Osteoarthritis (FOA) Studies as no damage, isolated medial, isolated lateral, or both medial and lateral (mixed). We determined the relation of MRI lesions in each PFJ region to prevalent knee pain. Differences in knee pain severity were compared among categories of PFJ full-thickness cartilage loss and BMLs using quantile regression. Results In MOST (n=1137 knees), compared with knees without full-thickness cartilage loss, knees with isolated lateral or mixed PFJ full-thickness cartilage loss had 1.9 (1.3, 2.8) and 1.9 (1.2, 2.9) times the odds of knee pain, respectively, while isolated medial cartilage loss had no association with knee pain.. BMLs in both the medial and lateral PFJ had 1.5 (1.1, 2.0) times the odds of knee pain compared with knees without BMLs. Knee pain severity was lowest in knees with isolated medial PFJ cartilage loss or BMLs. In FOA (n=934 knees), neither isolated medial nor lateral cartilage loss was associated with knee pain, whereas isolated BMLs in either region were associated with pain. Conclusions Results were not completely concordant but suggest that knee pain risk and severity is greatest with cartilage loss isolated to (MOST) or inclusive of (MOST and FOA) the lateral PFJ. While BMLs in either the medial or lateral PFJ are related to pain. PMID:25575967

  20. The effects of various physical non-operative modalities on the pain in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Cherian, J J; Jauregui, J J; Leichliter, A K; Elmallah, R K; Bhave, A; Mont, M A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various non-operative modalities of treatment (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS); neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES); insoles and bracing) on the pain of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify the therapeutic options which are commonly adopted for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The outcome measurement tools used in the different studies were the visual analogue scale and The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index pain index: all pain scores were converted to a 100-point scale. A total of 30 studies met our inclusion criteria: 13 on insoles, seven on TENS, six on NMES, and four on bracing. The standardised mean difference (SMD) in pain after treatment with TENS was 1.796, which represented a significant reduction in pain. The significant overall effect estimate for NMES on pain was similar to that of TENS, with a SMD of 1.924. The overall effect estimate of insoles on pain was a SMD of 0.992. The overall effect of bracing showed a significant reduction in pain of 1.34. Overall, all four non-operative modalities of treatment were found to have a significant effect on the reduction of pain in OA of the knee. This study shows that non-operative physical modalities of treatment are of benefit when treating OA of the knee. However, much of the literature reviewed evaluates studies with follow-up of less than six months: future work should aim to evaluate patients with longer follow-up. PMID:26733650

  1. Predicting Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Bruce S; Woodhouse, Francis G; Besier, Thor F; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Lloyd, David G; Zhang, Lihai; Smith, David W

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for osteoarthritis (OA) beyond pain relief or total knee replacement are very limited. Because of this, attention has shifted to identifying which factors increase the risk of OA in vulnerable populations in order to be able to give recommendations to delay disease onset or to slow disease progression. The gold standard is then to use principles of risk management, first to provide subject-specific estimates of risk and then to find ways of reducing that risk. Population studies of OA risk based on statistical associations do not provide such individually tailored information. Here we argue that mechanistic models of cartilage tissue maintenance and damage coupled to statistical models incorporating model uncertainty, united within the framework of structural reliability analysis, provide an avenue for bridging the disciplines of epidemiology, cell biology, genetics and biomechanics. Such models promise subject-specific OA risk assessment and personalized strategies for mitigating or even avoiding OA. We illustrate the proposed approach with a simple model of cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis and loss regulated by daily physical activity. PMID:26206679

  2. Acupuncture and other physical treatments for the relief of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee: network meta-analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, M.S.; Rice, S.J.C.; Madurasinghe, V.; Slack, R.; Fayter, D.A.; Harden, M.; Sutton, A.J.; MacPherson, H.; Woolacott, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To compare the effectiveness of acupuncture with other relevant physical treatments for alleviating pain due to knee osteoarthritis. Design Systematic review with network meta-analysis, to allow comparison of treatments within a coherent framework. Comprehensive searches were undertaken up to January 2013 to identify randomised controlled trials in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, which reported pain. Results Of 156 eligible studies, 114 trials (covering 22 treatments and 9,709 patients) provided data suitable for analysis. Most trials studied short-term effects and many were classed as being of poor quality with high risk of bias, commonly associated with lack of blinding (which was sometimes impossible to achieve). End of treatment results showed that eight interventions: interferential therapy, acupuncture, TENS, pulsed electrical stimulation, balneotherapy, aerobic exercise, sham acupuncture, and muscle-strengthening exercise produced a statistically significant reduction in pain when compared with standard care. In a sensitivity analysis of satisfactory and good quality studies, most studies were of acupuncture (11 trials) or muscle-strengthening exercise (9 trials); both interventions were statistically significantly better than standard care, with acupuncture being statistically significantly better than muscle-strengthening exercise (standardised mean difference: 0.49, 95% credible interval 0.00–0.98). Conclusions As a summary of the current available research, the network meta-analysis results indicate that acupuncture can be considered as one of the more effective physical treatments for alleviating osteoarthritis knee pain in the short-term. However, much of the evidence in this area of research is of poor quality, meaning there is uncertainty about the efficacy of many physical treatments. PMID:23973143

  3. How do people with knee osteoarthritis use osteoarthritis pain medications and does this change over time? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this analysis was to describe comprehensively the cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of analgesic and nutraceutical medication use for knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a contemporary US cohort and to investigate associated demographic and clinical factors. Methods Baseline, 12, 24 and 36 month data were obtained retrospectively from the National Institutes of Health Osteoarthritis Initiative. Participants had symptomatic radiographic knee OA. Multiple binary logistic regression models identified characteristics independently associated with the use of analgesics or nutraceuticals. Results We included 987 subjects (55.9% female, mean age 61.5 years, 71.0% white). At baseline, 68.2% reported frequent use of a conventional analgesic or nutraceutical for joint pain (for more than half of the previous month). Non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently reported medications (26.8%), even in those more than 75-years old. Multiple conventional analgesics were used by 11.9%. Frequent analgesic use was more likely in women (odds ratio (OR) 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 2.3)) and people with more pain (moderate 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4); severe 3.1 (2.1 to 4.7)); nutraceutical use was less likely in non-whites (0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)), those more than 74-years old (0.6 (0.3 to 0.9)) and those with comorbidities (0.6 (0.5 to 0.9)) and more likely in people with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 4 (2.2 (1.5 to 3.3)). Overall there was no change in the proportion of participants frequently using prescription or over the counter (OTC) analgesics at 36 months, although most people had changed medication type; of those using a traditional analgesic at baseline approximately one third were still using the same type at 36 months (ranging from 26.2% of baseline prescription NSAID users to 40.6% of baseline acetaminophen users). All participants reporting baseline analgesic use also reported 36 month analgesic use. Female

  4. Early knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Marta; Ramonda, Roberta; Goldring, Mary B; Goldring, Steven R; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Concepts regarding osteoarthritis, the most common joint disease, have dramatically changed in the past decade thanks to the development of new imaging techniques and the widespread use of arthroscopy that permits direct visualisation of intra-articular tissues and structure. MRI and ultrasound allow the early detection of pre-radiographic structural changes not only in the peri-articular bone but also in the cartilage, menisci, synovial membrane, ligaments and fat pad. The significance of MRI findings such as cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions, synovial inflammation/effusions and meniscal tears in patients without radiographic signs of osteoarthritis is not fully understood. Nevertheless, early joint tissue changes are associated with symptoms and, in some cases, with progression of disease. In this short review, we discuss the emerging concept of early osteoarthritis localised to the knee based on recently updated knowledge. We highlight the need for a new definition of early osteoarthritis that will permit the identification of patients at high risk of osteoarthritis progression and to initiate early treatment interventions. PMID:26557380

  5. Effects of isometric exercise using biofeedback on maximum voluntary isometric contraction, pain, and muscle thickness in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Lak; Kim, Bo Kyung; Hwang, Yong Pil; Moon, Ok Kon; Choi, Wan Suk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of isometric exercises using electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBF) and ultrasound biofeedback (USBF) on maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), pain assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and vastus medialis oblique (VMO) thickness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty females over 65 years of age who had been diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups, each comprising of 10 subjects. The Subjects in the EMGBF training and USBF training groups were trained with the corresponding physical training exercise program targeting the vastus medialis oblique, whereas the subjects in the control group were treated with conventional physical therapies, such as a hot pack, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Subjects in each group were trained or treated for 20 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] The MVIC in the EMGBF and USBF training groups was significantly increased compared with that in the control group, and the VAS score (for measurement of pain) in the EMGBF and USBF training groups was significantly decreased compared with that in the control group. Only the EMGBF training group showed a significantly increased VMO thickness compared with before training. [Conclusion] These results suggest that USBF training is similar to EMGBF training in terms of its effectiveness and is helpful for treating patients with knee OA. PMID:25642061

  6. Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    MedlinePlus

    ... osteotomy may need knee replacement surgery in the future. Arthroplasty is also called joint or knee replacement therapy. A surgeon removes the part of the knee damaged by osteoarthritis and replaces it with an artificial joint made from metals and plastic. All or part of the knee joint may ...

  7. EULAR report on the use of ultrasonography in painful knee osteoarthritis. Part 2: Exploring decision rules for clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Conaghan, P; D'Agostino, M; Ravaud, P; Baron, G; Le Bars, M; Grassi, W; Martin-Mola, E; Wakefield, R; Brasseur, J; So, A; Backhaus, M; Malaise, M; Burmester, G; Schmidely, N; Emery, P; Dougados, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: Synovial inflammation (as defined by hypertrophy and effusion) is common in osteoarthritis (OA) and may be important in both pain and structural progression. Objective: To determine if decision rules can be devised from clinical findings and ultrasonography (US) to allow recognition of synovial inflammation in patients with painful knee OA. Methods: A EULAR-ESCISIT cross sectional, multicentre study enrolled subjects with painful OA knee who had clinical, radiographic, and US evaluations. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was performed to find combinations of predictor variables that would provide high sensitivity and specificity for clinically detecting synovitis and effusion in individual subjects. A range of definitions for the two key US variables, synovitis and effusion (using different combinations of synovial thickness, depth, and appearance), were also included in exploratory analyses. Results: 600 patients with knee OA were included in the analysis. For both knee synovitis and joint effusion, the sensitivity and specificity were poor, yielding unsatisfactory likelihood ratios (75% sensitivity, 45% specificity, and positive LR of 1.36 for knee synovitis; 71.6% sensitivity, 43.2% specificity, and positive LR of 1.26 for joint effusion). The exploratory analyses did not improve the sensitivity and specificity (demonstrating positive LRs of between 1.26 and 1.57). Conclusion: Although it is possible to determine clinical and radiological predictors of OA inflammation in populations, CART analysis could not be used to devise useful clinical decision rules for an individual subject. Thus sensitive imaging techniques such as US remain the most useful tool for demonstrating synovial inflammation of the knee at the individual level. PMID:15878902

  8. Web-Based Study of Risk Factors for Pain Exacerbation in Osteoarthritis of the Knee (SPARK-Web): Design and Rationale

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Ben; Zhang, Yuqing; Bennell, Kim; March, Lyn; Hunter, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent cause of limited mobility and diminished quality of life. Pain is the main symptom that drives individuals with knee OA to seek medical care and a recognized antecedent to disability and eventually joint replacement. Many persons with symptomatic knee OA experience recurrent pain exacerbations. Knowledge and clarification of risk factors for pain exacerbation may allow those affected to minimize reoccurrence of these episodes. Objective The aim of this study is to use a Web-based case-crossover design to identify risk factors for knee pain exacerbations in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods Web-based case-crossover design is used to study persons with symptomatic knee OA. Participants with knee pain and radiographic knee OA will be recruited and followed for 90 days. Participants will complete an online questionnaire at the baseline and every 10 days thereafter (totaling up to 10 control-period questionnaires); participants will also be asked to report online when they experience an episode of increased knee pain. Pain exacerbation will be defined as an increase in knee pain severity of two points from baseline on a numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10). Physical activity, footwear, knee injury, medication use, climate, psychological factors, and their possible interactions will be assessed as potential triggers for pain exacerbation using conditional logistic regression models. Results This project has been funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The enrollment for the study has started. So far, 343 participants have been enrolled. The study is expected to be finished in October 2015. Conclusions This study will identify risk factors for pain exacerbations in knee OA. The identification and possible modification/elimination of such risk factors will help to prevent the reoccurrence of pain exacerbation episodes and therefore improve knee OA management. PMID:26156210

  9. Depression and the Overall Burden of Painful Joints: An Examination among Individuals Undergoing Hip and Knee Replacement for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Zywiel, Michael G.; Mahomed, Nizar N.; Perruccio, Anthony V.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) report one or more symptomatic joints apart from the one targeted for surgical care. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the burden of multiple symptomatic joints and self-reported depression in patients awaiting joint replacement for OA. Four hundred and seventy-five patients at a single centre were evaluated. Patients self-reported joints that were painful and/or symptomatic most days of the previous month on a homunculus, with nearly one-third of the sample reporting 6 or more painful joints. The prevalence of depression was 12.2% (58/475). When adjusted for age, sex, education level, hip or knee OA, body mass index, chronic condition count, and joint-specific WOMAC scores, each additional symptomatic joint was associated with a 19% increased odds (odds ratio: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.31, P < 0.01)) of self-reported depression. Individuals reporting 6 or more painful joints had 2.5-fold or greater odds of depression when compared to those patients whose symptoms were limited to the surgical joint. A focus on the surgical joint alone is likely to miss a potentially important determinant of postsurgical patient-reported outcomes in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement. PMID:25861476

  10. Depression and the Overall Burden of Painful Joints: An Examination among Individuals Undergoing Hip and Knee Replacement for Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Zywiel, Michael G; Mahomed, Nizar N; Perruccio, Anthony V

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) report one or more symptomatic joints apart from the one targeted for surgical care. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the burden of multiple symptomatic joints and self-reported depression in patients awaiting joint replacement for OA. Four hundred and seventy-five patients at a single centre were evaluated. Patients self-reported joints that were painful and/or symptomatic most days of the previous month on a homunculus, with nearly one-third of the sample reporting 6 or more painful joints. The prevalence of depression was 12.2% (58/475). When adjusted for age, sex, education level, hip or knee OA, body mass index, chronic condition count, and joint-specific WOMAC scores, each additional symptomatic joint was associated with a 19% increased odds (odds ratio: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.31, P < 0.01)) of self-reported depression. Individuals reporting 6 or more painful joints had 2.5-fold or greater odds of depression when compared to those patients whose symptoms were limited to the surgical joint. A focus on the surgical joint alone is likely to miss a potentially important determinant of postsurgical patient-reported outcomes in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement. PMID:25861476

  11. Differences in Health-Related Quality of Life among Subjects with Frequent Bilateral or Unilateral Knee Pain: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bindawas, Saad; Vennu, Vishal; Snih, Soham Al

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE To examine associations between frequent bilateral knee pain (BKP) and unilateral knee pain (UKP) and health-related quality of life (QoL). We hypothesized that frequent BKP would be associated with poorer health-related QoL than would frequent UKP and no knee pain. BACKGROUND Knee pain is one of the most frequently reported types of joint pain among adults in the United States. It is the most frequent cause of limited physical function, disability, and reduced QoL. METHODS Data were collected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative public-use data sets. Health-related QoL was assessed in 2481 participants (aged 45–79 years at baseline). The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score QoL subscale (knee-specific measure) and the physical component summary and mental component summary (MCS) scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) (generic measure) were used to assess health-related QoL. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between frequent knee pain and health-related QoL, adjusted for sociodemographic and health covariates. RESULTS Compared with subjects with no knee pain, subjects with frequent BKP and UKP had significantly lower scores on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score QoL subscale (mean difference, −35.2; standard error [SE], 0.86; P<.001 and mean difference, −29.2; SE, 0.93; P<.001; respectively) and the SF-12 physical component summary score (mean difference, −6.25; SE, 0.41; P<.001 and mean difference, −4.10, SE, 0.43; P<.00; respectively), after controlling for sociodemographic and health covariates. The SF-12 MCS score was lower among those with BKP (−1.29; SE, 0.42; P<.001). Frequent UKP was not associated with the SF-12 MCS. CONCLUSIONS Subjects with frequent BKP had lower health-related QoL than those with frequent unilateral or no knee pain, as reflected in lower Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Socre Qo

  12. Weight Status and Differences in Mobility Performance, Pain Symptoms, and Physical Activity in Older, Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Matthew J.; Focht, Brian C.; Dials, Justin; Lucas, Alexander R.; Devor, Steven T.; Emery, Charles F.; Hackshaw, Kevin V.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of functional disability among American adults. Obesity is a strong independent risk factor for OA. While research emphasizes the role of obesity in the OA-physical function relationship, the extent to which weight status impacts salient physical, health, and pain measures in older, knee OA patients is not well delineated. The primary aim of this study was to assess differences in mobility performance (stair climb and 400-meter walk), mobility-related self-efficacy, pain symptoms (WOMAC), and measures of accelerometer-determined physical activity (PA) as a function of weight status. Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences on the dependent variables. Obese class III patients were outperformed by their counterparts on nearly every measure of mobility, mobility-related self-efficacy, and the assessment of pain symptoms. These outcomes did not differ among other weight comparisons. Normal weight subjects outperformed classes I, II, and III counterparts on most measures of PA (engagement in moderate or greater PA and total weekly steps). Additionally, overweight participants outperformed obese class II participants and obese class I participants outperformed obese classes II and III participants on total weekly steps. Collectively, these findings underscore the meaningful differences observed in relevant OA outcomes as a function of increasing levels of body weight. PMID:24963401

  13. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your ... it affects your hands, knees, hips or spine. Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage ...

  14. Efficacy of balneotherapy on pain, function and quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Bellisai, Barbara; Iacoponi, Francesca; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether balneotherapy with mineral sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water could determine substantial symptomatic improvement, and to detect any changes in the quality of life (QoL) of patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was a prospective randomized, single blind controlled trial. Sixty outpatients with primary bilateral knee OA, according to ACR criteria, were included in the study and randomized to one of two groups: group I (30 patients) was treated with a daily sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium mineral water bath; group II (30 patients), the control group, continued their regular outpatient care routine. At baseline, after 15 days and after 12 weeks, patients were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for spontaneous pain, Lequesne and Womac Index for gonarthrosis, SF-36, Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and symptomatic drugs consumption. We observed a significant improvement of all parameters at the end of the cycle of balneotherapy which persisted throughout the follow-up period, whereas in the control group no significant differences were noted. This symptomatic effect was confirmed by the significant reduction of symptomatic drugs consumption. The differences between the two groups were significant for all considered parameters already from the 15th day and persisted during follow-up. Tolerability of balneotherapy seemed to be good, with light and transitory side effects. Our results confirm that the beneficial effects of balneotherapy in patients with knee OA last over time, with positive effects on the painful symptomatology, a significant improvement on functional capacities and QoL. Balneotherapy can represent a useful backup to pharmacological treatment of knee OA or a valid alternative for patients who do not tolerate pharmacological treatments.

  15. Synovial Fluid Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Levels Correlate with Severity of Self-Reported Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei-liang; Liu, Jun; Xu, Li; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xue-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation is considered as one of the main pathogeneses in OA-induced pain. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a well known pro-inflammatory cytokine. We aimed to determine whether MIF levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) are associated with severity of OA-induced pain. Material/Methods We recruited 226 patients with knee OA and 106 controls. Self-reported pain severity of OA patients was evaluated using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) pain scores. MIF levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results OA patients had similar serum MIF levels compared to controls (11.93 [5.68–18.10] vs. 10.06 [6.60–14.61] ng/ml, P>0.05). In OA patients, MIF levels in SF were dramatically lower compared to paired serum samples (3.39 [1.87–5.89] vs. 11.93 [5.68–18.10] ng/ml, P<0.01). MIF levels in SF were significantly correlated with WOMAC pain scores (r=0.237, P<0.001), but MIF levels in serum had no significant correlation with WOMAC pain scores (r=0.009, P=0.898). Conclusions MIF levels in SF, but not in serum, were independently associated with the severity of self-reported pain in OA patients. The inhibition of MIF signaling pathways may be a novel therapeutic approach for ameliorating OA-induced pain. PMID:27342658

  16. Moxibustion Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Wei, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Yi; Li, Bo; Guo, Xing; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine whether the administration of moxibustion is an effective treatment for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We conducted a search of relevant articles using Medline, EMBASE, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library published before October 2015. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities’ Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC scale) and the short form 36 questionnaire (SF-36 scale) were assessed. Evidence grading was evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Four studies containing 746 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria in the final analysis. In terms of quality of life (QOL), the meta-analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) showed significantly effects of moxibustion only in bodily pain (BP) compared with those in the control group (n = 348; weighted mean difference [WMD], 4.36; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 2.27–6.44; P < 0.0001; heterogeneity: χ2 = 1.53, P = 0.22, I2 = 34%) in all of the subcategories of the SF-36 scale, with moderate quality. The meta-analysis of the 2 included trials showed that there was not a statistically significant difference in the pain or function subscale for the WOMAC scale when the 2 groups were compared (n = 322; WMD, 17.63; 95% CI, −23.15–58.41; P = 0.40; heterogeneity: χ2 = 19.42, P < 0.0001, I2 = 95%), with low or moderate quality separately. The administration of moxibustion can to some extent alleviate the symptoms of KOA. More rigorous, randomized controlled trials are required in the future. PMID:27057863

  17. Arthrodiatasis for management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aly, Tarek A; Hafez, Kamal; Amin, Osama

    2011-08-01

    Osteoarthritic disease is the result of mechanical and biological events that destabilize the normal processes of degradation and synthesis of articular cartilage chondrocytes, extracellular matrix, and subchondral bone. Osteoarthritis of the knee can cause symptoms ranging from mild to disabling. Initial management of most patients should be nonoperative, but because of the progressive nature of the disease, many patients with osteoarthritis of the knee eventually benefit from operative treatment. Various procedures have been described for treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, ranging from arthroscopic lavage and debridement to total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of distraction arthroplasty combined with arthroscopic lavage and drilling of cartilage defects for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Nineteen patients (15 women and 4 men; age range, 39-65 years) were operated on. Pre- and postoperative findings were compared. A control group comprising 42 patients treated with only arthroscopic procedures was evaluated for comparison. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Results were evaluated both clinically and radiologically postoperatively and throughout the follow-up period. Clinically, pain and walking capacity improved in most patients. Radiologically, joint space widening and improvement of the tibiofemoral angle was noted in nearly all patients. PMID:21815573

  18. Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxib

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Marc C; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Monfort, Jordi; Möller, Ingrid; Castillo, Juan Ramón; Arden, Nigel; Berenbaum, Francis; Blanco, Francisco J; Conaghan, Philip G; Doménech, Gema; Henrotin, Yves; Pap, Thomas; Richette, Pascal; Sawitzke, Allen; du Souich, Patrick; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride (CS+GH) versus celecoxib in patients with knee osteoarthritis and severe pain. Methods Double-blind Multicentre Osteoarthritis interVEntion trial with SYSADOA (MOVES) conducted in France, Germany, Poland and Spain evaluating treatment with CS+GH versus celecoxib in 606 patients with Kellgren and Lawrence grades 2–3 knee osteoarthritis and moderate-to-severe pain (Western Ontario and McMaster osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) score ≥301; 0–500 scale). Patients were randomised to receive 400 mg CS plus 500 mg GH three times a day or 200 mg celecoxib every day for 6 months. The primary outcome was the mean decrease in WOMAC pain from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included WOMAC function and stiffness, visual analogue scale for pain, presence of joint swelling/effusion, rescue medication consumption, Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) criteria and EuroQoL-5D. Results The adjusted mean change (95% CI) in WOMAC pain was −185.7 (−200.3 to −171.1) (50.1% decrease) with CS+GH and −186.8 (−201.7 to −171.9) (50.2% decrease) with celecoxib, meeting the non-inferiority margin of −40: −1.11 (−22.0 to 19.8; p=0.92). All sensitivity analyses were consistent with that result. At 6 months, 79.7% of patients in the combination group and 79.2% in the celecoxib group fulfilled OMERACT-OARSI criteria. Both groups elicited a reduction >50% in the presence of joint swelling; a similar reduction was seen for effusion. No differences were observed for the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were low and similarly distributed between groups. Conclusions CS+GH has comparable efficacy to celecoxib in reducing pain, stiffness, functional limitation and joint swelling/effusion after 6 months in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis, with a good safety profile. Trial

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain Measure for the knee

    PubMed Central

    Panah, Sara Hojat; Baharlouie, Hamze; Rezaeian, Zahra Sadat; Hawker, Gilian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to translate and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the 11-item Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) measure in Iranian subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA). Materials and Methods: The ICOAP questionnaire was translated according to the Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI) protocol. The procedure consisted of forward and backward translation, as well as the assessment of the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the questionnaire. A sample of 230 subjects with KOA was asked to complete the Persian versions of ICOAP and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). The ICOAP was readministered to forty subjects five days after the first visit. Test–retest reliability was assessed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation. The correlation between ICOAP and KOOS was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Result: Subjects found the Persian-version of the ICOAP to be clear, simple, and unambiguous, confirming its face validity. Spearman correlations between ICOAP total and subscale scores with KOOS scores were between 0.5 and 0.7, confirming construct validity. Cronbach's alpha, used to assess internal consistency, was 0.89, 0.93, and 0.92 for constant pain, intermittent pain, and total pain scores, respectively. The ICC was 0.90 for constant pain and 0.91 for the intermittent pain and total pain score. Conclusion: The Persian version of the ICOAP is a reliable and valid outcome measure that can be used in Iranian subjects with KOA. PMID:27563327

  20. Effectiveness of a long-term use of a minimalist footwear versus habitual shoe on pain, function and mechanical loads in knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an important reduction of joint overload during locomotion in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after short-term use of minimalist shoes. Our aim is to investigate the chronic effect of inexpensive and minimalist footwear on the clinical and functional aspects of OA and gait biomechanics of elderly women with knee OA. Methods/Design Fifty-six elderly women with knee OA grade 2 or 3 (Kellgren and Lawrence) are randomized into blocks and allocated to either the intervention group, which will use flexible, non-heeled shoes— Moleca®—for six months for at least six hours daily, or the control group, which could not use these shoes. Neither group is undergoing physical therapy treatment throughout the intervention period. Moleca® is a women’s double canvas, flexible, flat walking shoe without heels, with a 5-mm anti-slip rubber sole and a 3-mm internal wedge of ethylene vinyl acetate. Both groups will be followed for six months and will be assessed at baseline condition, after three months, and after six months (end of intervention). All the assessments will be performed by a physiotherapist that is blind to the group allocation. The primary outcome is the pain Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score. The secondary outcomes are global WOMAC score; joint stiffness and disability WOMAC scores; knee pain with a visual analogue scale; walking distance in the six-minute walk test; Lequesne score; amount and frequency (number of days) of paracetamol (500 mg) intake over six months; knee adduction moment during gait; global medical assessment score; and global patient auto-assessment score. At baseline, all patients receive a diary to record the hours of daily use of the footwear intervention; every two weeks, the same physiotherapist makes phone calls to all patients in order to verify adherence to treatment. The statistical analysis will be based on intention-to-treat analysis, as well as

  1. Management of knee osteoarthritis with cupping therapy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asim Ali; Jahangir, Umar; Urooj, Shaista

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cupping therapy at a clinical setting for knee osteoarthritis. A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted. Cupping was performed on 0-6(th) day; 9-11(th) day and 14(th) day, i.e., 11 sittings follow-up to determine longer term carryover of treatment effects utilizing both objective and subjective assessment. The assessment was performed before and after treatment spreading over a period of 15 days. The results of this study shows significant and better results in the overall management of knee osteoarthritis, particularly in relieving pain, edema, stiffness and disability. The efficacy of treatment with cupping therapy in relieving signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis is comparable to that of acetaminophen 650 mg thrice a day orally, in terms of analgesia, anti-inflammatory and resolution of edema with minimal and temporary side-effects like echymosis and blister formation while as control drug has greater side-effects particularly on upper gastrointestinal tract. It is recommended that further studies are conducted with a larger study samples and of longer duration. PMID:24350053

  2. Patients with knee osteoarthritis demonstrate improved gait pattern and reduced pain following a non-invasive biomechanical therapy: a prospective multi-centre study on Singaporean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effect of a unique therapy with a non-invasive biomechanical foot-worn device (AposTherapy) on Caucasian western population suffering from knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of this therapy on the level of symptoms and gait patterns in a multi-ethnic Singaporean population suffering from knee osteoarthritis. Methods Fifty-eight patients with bilateral medial compartment knee osteoarthritis participated in the study. All patients underwent a computerized gait test and completed two self-assessment questionnaires (WOMAC and SF-36). The biomechanical device was calibrated to each patient, and therapy commenced. Changes in gait patterns and self-assessment questionnaires were reassessed after 3 and 6 months of therapy. Results A significant improvement was seen in all of the gait parameters following 6 months of therapy. Specifically, gait velocity increased by 15.9%, step length increased by 10.3%, stance phase decreased by 5.9% and single limb support phase increased by 2.7%. In addition, pain, stiffness and functional limitation significantly decreased by 68.3%, 66.7% and 75.6%, respectively. SF-36 physical score and mental score also increased significantly following 6 months of therapy (46.1% and 22.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusions Singaporean population with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis demonstrated improved gait patterns, reported alleviation in symptoms and improved function and quality of life following 6 months of therapy with a unique biomechanical device. Trial registration Registration number NCT01562652. PMID:24383821

  3. Early osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Kon, Elizaveta; Condello, Vincenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Steinwachs, Matthias; Seil, Romain; Berruto, Massimo; Engebretsen, Lars; Filardo, Giuseppe; Angele, Peter

    2016-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness on the importance in identifying early phases of the degenerative processes in knee osteoarthritis (OA), the crucial period of the disease when there might still be the possibility to initiate treatments preventing its progression. Early OA may show a diffuse and ill-defined involvement, but also originate in the cartilage surrounding a focal lesion, thus necessitating a separate assessment of these two entities. Early OA can be considered to include a maximal involvement of 50 % of the cartilage thickness based on the macroscopic ICRS classification, reflecting an OARSI grade 4. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated review of the current status of the diagnosis and definition of early knee OA, including the clinical, radiographical, histological, MRI, and arthroscopic definitions and biomarkers. Based on current evidence, practical classification criteria are presented. As new insights and technologies become available, they will further evolve to better define and treat early knee OA. PMID:27000393

  4. Muscle Impairments in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Context: Muscle impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are the primary underlying cause of functional limitations. Understanding the extent of muscle impairments, its relationship with physical function and disease progression, and the evidence behind exercise therapy that targets muscle impairments is crucial. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to September 2011 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, retrieved articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Results: Quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles are significantly impaired in subjects with knee OA compared with age-matched controls. Muscle strength, especially quadriceps, is a major determinant of both performance-based and self-reported physical function. Whether stronger quadriceps is protective against knee OA onset and progression is not clear. Exercise therapy, including global and targeted resistance training, is effective in reducing pain and improving function in subjects with knee OA. Conclusions: Subjects with knee OA have significant muscle impairments. These muscle impairments affect physical function and should be targeted in therapy. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between quadriceps strength and knee OA initiation and progression and to determine the optimal exercise prescription that augments outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23016099

  5. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your joints. It can occur in any joint, but usually it affects your hands, knees, hips ... spine. Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage is the slippery tissue that covers the ...

  6. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and development of radiographic and painful knee osteoarthritis. A community-based cohort of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kluzek, Stefan; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Judge, Andrew; Karsdal, Morten A.; Shorthose, Matthew; Spector, Tim; Hart, Deborah; Newton, Julia L.; Arden, Nigel K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context and objective: We evaluated the predictive value of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP) levels over 20 years on the development of radiographic (RKOA) and painful knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in a longitudinal cohort of middle-aged women. Materials and methods: Five hundred and ninety-three women with no baseline KOA underwent 5-year knee radiographs over 20-years and were asked about knee pain a month before each assessment. A repeated measures logistic regression model was used where the outcomes were recorded at 5, 10, 15 and 20-years follow-up. Results: The highest quartile of sCOMP was associated with increased risk of RKOA with overall OR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.33–2.91) over 20 years when compared with the lowest sCOMP quartile. The association with painful KOA was similar and also independent, but only when the fourth and third sCOMP quartiles were compared. Discussion and conclusion: This study demonstrates that sCOMP levels are predictive of subsequent structural changes and incidence of painful KOA, independently of age and BMI. PMID:26848781

  7. Effect of the Herbal Drug Guilu Erxian Jiao on Muscle Strength, Articular Pain, and Disability in Elderly Men with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chen-Chen; Chou, Yin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ming; Tang, Yih-Jing; Ho, Hui-Ching; Chen, Der-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Guilu Erxian Jiao (GEJ) is a widely used Chinese herbal remedy for knee osteoarthritis, but its clinical efficacy is unknown. Methods. We enrolled 42 elderly male patients with knee OA, including 21 patients who received the herbal drug GEJ as the case group and 21 patients who did not receive GEJ as the control group. The effects of 12 weeks of GEJ treatment on muscle strength of lower limbs were measured by a Biodex dynamometer, with disability evaluated on the Lequesne index and articular pain measured on the visual analog scale (VAS) between the two groups on the baseline and after treatment. Results. There were significant increases in the levels of muscle strength of TQ/BW-ext-dominant and TQ/BW-flex-dominant between the two groups after treatment (P < 0.05). There were also significant increases in muscle strength of knee extensor muscles in the GEJ-treated group (n = 21) self-controlled before and after 12 weeks of treatment (all P < 0.01). There were significant decreases in articular pain (P < 0.01) and Lequesne index scores (P < 0.01) in the GEJ-treated group when compared to the non-GEJ-treated group. Conclusions. Our results showed that GEJ is effective and is tolerated well in elderly men with knee OA. PMID:25309612

  8. Osteoarthritis of the knees in the COPCORD world.

    PubMed

    Haq, Syed A; Davatchi, Fereydoun

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines and summarizes data on knee osteoarthritis (AO) in Community Oriented Program For Control Of Rheumatic Disorders (COPCORD) publications. A literature search was made through PubMed, Google, Proceedings of Asia-Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology (APLAR) congresses, and Abstracts from APLAR congresses. Data were compiled to examine the prevalence of knee OA and knee pain, sex ratio, urban/rural differences and other risk factors. Data on knee pain and OA were available in a total of 36 COPCORD publications. The pooled prevalence of knee OA was 7.9% in adults above the age of 15 years. It was more common in women. Overweight, squatting and cycling appeared to be modifiable risk factors for knee OA. OA of the knee is the commonest rheumatic disease in studied communities. Further research is needed for identification of its modifiable risk factors and development of strategies for reduction of the community burden of this malady. PMID:21518310

  9. Relationship between frequent knee pain, obesity, and gait speed in older adults: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bindawas, Saad M

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee pain (KP) causes gait difficulties in older adults and is associated with slow gait speed (GS). Obesity has negative effects on health. GS is an important indicator of health, well-being, and mean life span in older adults and is a strong predictor of future disability and mortality. The relationship between frequent KP, obesity, and GS in older adults remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining the relationship between baseline frequent KP and obesity status on GS over time. We hypothesized that frequent KP, obesity, or both would be associated with decreased GS over time. Methods The data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used for this 6-year longitudinal cohort study. We studied 3,118 adults aged between 45 years and 79 years. We grouped the participants into the following four categories according to KP frequency and obesity status at baseline: 1) no KP and nonobese, 2) frequent KP and nonobese, 3) no KP and obese, and 4) frequent KP and obese. GS measurements were based on a 20 m walking test timed using a stopwatch; testing was performed at baseline and over a 6-year follow-up period. Walk pace (m/sec) was calculated as the average pace over two trials conducted at clinic visits. General linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between frequent KP, obesity, and GS. Results After adjusting for all covariates, at baseline, all the nonobese group with frequent KP (β=−0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.07 to −0.04), the obese group with no KP (β=−0.07, 95% CI: −0.1 to −0.04), and the obese group with frequent KP (β=−0.08, 95% CI: −0.1 to −0.05) exhibited decreased GS compared with the nonobese and no KP group. However, the associations between frequent KP, obesity, and GS over time were not statistically significant. Conclusion Frequent KP alone, obesity alone, and the combination of frequent KP and obesity were all associated with decreased GS in older adults. These

  10. Low Vitamin D levels are associated with greater pain and slow walking speed in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The clinical status of patients with knee OA is primarily predicated by their level of pain and their muscle function. Recent studies have shown that vitamin D influences both musculoskeletal health and neuromuscular function. Vitamin D deficiency is common among elders and those with comorbidities....

  11. Correlation of changes in pain intensity with synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate levels after treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee with high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Naitou, Kohei; Nishi, Hideyuki; Oae, Kazunori; Watanabe, Yohei; Kuwata, Suguru; Ochi, Mitsuo; Ikeda, Mitsugu; Uchio, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We sought to determine whether a clinical association exists between osteoarthritis (OA)-associated knee pain and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in synovial fluid (SF). A total of 28 patients with 28 primary OA knees were included. They routinely received intra-articular injection of high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) once weekly for 5 weeks (treated group). Eight patients without knee pain who had undergone an operation for anterior or posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 2 years ago were also examined (control group). SF and blood ATP concentrations, total amount of ATP, total SF volume, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores in all patients were measured and we compared pre-treatment values with those 1 week after the final treatment. We evaluated the correlation of change in total ATP (ΔATP) and change in VAS score (ΔVAS), ΔVAS and change in SF volume (ΔSF), and ATP concentration in SF and blood. In the treated group, SF ATP concentration, total amount of ATP, SF volume, and VAS score were all significantly lower post-treatment than pre-treatment (p = 0.0005, 0.0003, 0.0022, and < 0.0001, respectively). In treated group, ΔVAS was significantly associated with ΔATP (r = 0.56, p = 0.0032), ΔSF was significantly associated with ΔVAS (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001), and total amount of SF ATP and SF volume at pre-treatment were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) We demonstrated an association between SF ATP level changes and OA knee pain, which should facilitate a further understanding of OA pain mechanisms. PMID:20627733

  12. Intra-Articular Corticosteroids in Addition to Exercise for Reducing Pain Sensitivity in Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Outcome from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie; Bandak, Elisabeth; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100 participants with clinical and radiographic knee OA that were randomized to one intra-articular injection on the knee with either 1 ml of 40 mg/ml methylprednisolone (corticosteroid) dissolved in 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml) or 1 ml isotonic saline (placebo) mixed with 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml). Two weeks after the injections all participants undertook a 12-week supervised exercise program. Main outcomes were changes from baseline in pressure-pain sensitivity (pressure-pain threshold [PPT] and temporal summation [TS]) assessed using cuff pressure algometry on the calf. These were exploratory outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Results A total of 100 patients were randomized to receive either corticosteroid (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50); 45 and 44, respectively, completed the trial. Four participants had missing values for PPT and one for TS at baseline; thus modified intention-to-treat populations were analyzed. The mean group difference in changes from baseline at week 14 was 0.6 kPa (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.8; P = 0.626) for PPT and 384 mm×sec (95% CI: -2980 to 3750; P = 0.821) for TS. Conclusions These results suggest that adding intra-articular corticosteroid injection 2 weeks prior to an exercise program does not provide additional benefits compared to placebo in reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee OA. Trial Registration EU clinical trials (EudraCT): 2012-002607-18 PMID:26871954

  13. Energy Recovery in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, Tawnee L.; Schmitt, Daniel; Miller, Charlotte E.; Guilak, Farshid; Somers, Tamara J.; Keefe, Francis J.; Queen, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gaits have been shown to limit transfer between potential (PE) and kinetic (KE) energy during walking, which can increase locomotor costs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether energy exchange would be limited in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Ground reaction forces during walking were collected from 93 subjects with symptomatic knee OA (self-selected and fast speeds) and 13 healthy controls (self-selected speed) and used to calculate their center of mass (COM) movements, PE and KE relationships, and energy recovery during a stride. Correlations and linear regressions examined the impact of energy fluctuation phase and amplitude, walking velocity, body mass, self-reported pain, and radiographic severity on recovery. Paired t-tests were run to compare energy recovery between cohorts. Results Symptomatic knee OA subjects displayed lower energetic recovery during self-selected walking speeds than healthy controls (p=0.0018). PE and KE phase relationships explained the majority (66%) of variance in recovery. Recovery had a complex relationship with velocity and its change across speeds was significantly influenced by the self-selected walking speed of each subject. Neither radiographic OA scores nor subject self-reported measures demonstrated any relationship with energy recovery. Conclusions Knee OA reduces effective exchange of PE and KE, potentially increasing the muscular work required to control movements of the COM. Gait retraining may return subjects to more normal patterns of energy exchange and allow them to reduce fatigue. PMID:24752039

  14. Total Knee Replacement as a Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Raynauld, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Dorais, Marc; Haraoui, Boulos; Choquette, Denis; Abram, François; Beaulieu, André; Bessette, Louis; Morin, Frédéric; Wildi, Lukas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To predict, using clinical and qMRI data, the incidence of total knee replacement (TKR) during the long-term follow-up of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients who formerly received chondroitin sulfate (CS) or placebo treatment. Design. A post hoc intention-to-treat analysis to evaluate the incidence of TKR was done on knee OA patients who had participated in a 12-month trial evaluating the impact of CS (800 mg/d) versus placebo for 6 months, followed by a 6-month open-phase in which all patients received CS. Additionally, the clinical and qMRI predictors of TKR were determined. Results. Thirteen TKRs were performed in the population after a 4-year follow-up. More TKRs were performed in the placebo group than in the CS group (69% vs. 31%, P = 0.150, logistic regression). The statistically significant predictors of TKRs were, at baseline, higher WOMAC pain and function scores, presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs), and higher C-reactive protein levels. Loss of medial cartilage volume and increase in WOMAC pain and function at one-year were also predictors of TKR. Multivariate analyses revealed that baseline presence of BML and higher WOMAC pain score were independent predictors. Time to occurrence of the TKR also favored the CS group versus placebo (log-rank, P = 0.094). Conclusion. Symptoms such as knee pain and function, presence of BML, and cartilage volume loss predict the long-term occurrence of a “hard” outcome such as TKR. PMID:26069668

  15. The Safety and Efficacy of an Enzyme Combination in Managing Knee Osteoarthritis Pain in Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bolten, Wolfgang W.; Glade, Michael J.; Raum, Sonja; Ritz, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and comparator-controlled trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of an enzyme combination, as Wobenzym, in adults with moderate-to-severe osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Adults (n = 150) received Wobenzym, diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID), or placebo for 12 weeks. Improvement in pain scores (Lequesne Functional Index) did not differ between subjects treated with Wobenzym or diclofenac, and both treatment groups improved compared to placebo (P < 0.05). Reduction in total WOMAC scores (secondary outcome measure) did not differ between Wobenzym and diclofenac, although only diclofenac emerged as different from placebo (P < 0.05). The median number of rescue medication (paracetamol) tablets consumed was less in the Wobenzym group compared to placebo (P < 0.05), while there was no difference between diclofenac and placebo. Adverse events were similar in frequency in Wobenzym and placebo groups (7.2% and 9.1% of subjects, resp.) and higher in diclofenac group (15.6%). Wobenzym is comparable to the NSAID diclofenac in relieving pain and increasing function in adults with moderate-to-severe painful knee OA and reduces reliance on analgesic medication. Wobenzym is associated with fewer adverse events and, therefore, may be appropriate for long-term use. PMID:25802756

  16. Assessment of quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Marcio Massao; Araújo, Ivan Luis Andrade; Castro, Martha Cavalcante; Matos, Marcos Almeida

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To assess the quality of life of knee osteoarthritis patients using the SF-36 questionnaire METHODS : Cross-sec-tional study with 93 knee osteoarthritis patients. The sample was categorized according to Ahlbӓck score. All individuals were interviewed with the SF-36 questionnaire RESULTS : The main finding of the study is related to the association of edu-cation level with the functional capacity, functional limitation and pain. Patients with higher education level had better functional capacity when they were compared to patients with basic level of education CONCLUSION : Individuals with osteoarthritis have a low perception of their quality of life in functional capacity, functional limitation and pain. There is a strong association between low level of education and low perception of quality of life. Level of Evidence IV, Clinical Case Series. PMID:27057143

  17. Strategies for the prevention of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Roos, Ewa M; Arden, Nigel K

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) has been thought of as a disease of cartilage that can be effectively treated surgically at severe stages with joint arthroplasty. Today, OA is considered a whole-organ disease that is amenable to prevention and treatment at early stages. OA develops slowly over 10-15 years, interfering with activities of daily living and the ability to work. Many patients tolerate pain, and many health-care providers accept pain and disability as inevitable corollaries of OA and ageing. Too often, health-care providers passively await final 'joint death', necessitating knee and hip replacements. Instead, OA should be viewed as a chronic condition, where prevention and early comprehensive-care models are the accepted norm, as is the case with other chronic diseases. Joint injury, obesity and impaired muscle function are modifiable risk factors amenable to primary and secondary prevention strategies. The strategies that are most appropriate for each patient should be identified, by selecting interventions to correct--or at least attenuate--OA risk factors. We must also choose the interventions that are most likely to be acceptable to patients, to maximize adherence to--and persistence with--the regimes. Now is the time to begin the era of personalized prevention for knee OA. PMID:26439406

  18. Benefits of antioxidant supplements for knee osteoarthritis: rationale and reality.

    PubMed

    Grover, Ashok Kumar; Samson, Sue E

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis causes disability due to pain and inflammation in joints. There are many forms of arthritis, one of which is osteoarthritis whose prevalence increases with age. It occurs in various joints including hip, knee and hand with knee osteoarthritis being more prevalent. There is no cure for it. The management strategies include exercise, glucosamine plus chondroitin sulfate and NSAIDs. In vitro and animal studies provide a rationale for the use of antioxidant supplements for its management. This review assesses the reality of the benefits of antioxidant supplements in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Several difficulties were encountered in examining this issue: poorly conducted studies, a lack of uniformity in disease definition and diagnosis, and muddling of conclusions from attempts to isolate the efficacious molecules. The antioxidant supplements with most evidence for benefit for pain relief and function in knee osteoarthritis were based on curcumin and avocado-soya bean unsaponifiables. Boswellia and some herbs used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine may also be useful. The benefits of cuisines with the appropriate antioxidants should be assessed because they may be more economical and easier to incorporate into the lifestyle. PMID:26728196

  19. Within-Day Variability of Fatigue and Pain Among African Americans and Non-Hispanic Whites With Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, DYLAN M.; PARMELEE, PATRICIA A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fatigue is common among persons with osteoarthritis (OA), but little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence, correlates, or dynamics of fatigue in OA. This research therefore used experience sampling methodology (ESM) to examine fatigue and pain at global and momentary levels among African Americans and non-Hispanic whites with OA. Methods Thirty-nine African Americans and 81 non-Hispanic whites with physician-diagnosed knee OA completed a baseline interview and an ESM protocol assessing fatigue, pain, and mood 4 times daily for 7 days. In addition to analyzing basic group differences, multilevel modeling examined within- versus between-subject patterns and correlates of variability in momentary fatigue, controlling for demographics and other potential confounders. Results Both racial groups experienced moderate levels of fatigue; however, there were clear individual differences in both mean fatigue level and variability across momentary assessments. Mean fatigue levels were associated with global pain and depression. Increase in fatigue over the course of the day was much stronger among non-Hispanic whites than African Americans. Momentary fatigue and pain were closely correlated. Mean fatigue predicted variability in mood; at the momentary level, both fatigue and pain were independently associated with mood. Conclusion Fatigue is a significant factor for both African Americans and non-Hispanic whites with OA, and is negatively related to quality of life. Pain symptoms, at both the momentary level and across individuals, were robust predictors of fatigue. Although overall levels of reported symptoms were similar across these 2 groups, the pattern of fatigue symptoms across the day differed. PMID:26315851

  20. The older worker with osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Background Changing demographics mean that many patients with large joint arthritis will work beyond traditional retirement age. This review considers the impact of knee osteoarthritis (OA) on work participation and the relation between work and knee replacement (TKR). Sources Two systematic searches in Embase and Medline, supplemented by three systematic reviews. Areas of agreement Probably, although evidence is limited, knee OA considerably impairs participation in work (labour force participation, work attendance and work productivity). Areas of uncertainty/research need Little is known about effective interventions (treatments, work changes and policies) to improve vocational participation in patients with knee OA; or how type of work affects long-term clinical outcomes (e.g. pain, function, the need for revision surgery) in patients with TKRs. The need for such research is pressing and opportune, as increasing numbers of patients with knee OA or TKR expect to work on. PMID:22544779

  1. Knee osteoarthritis: a review of management options.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S M; Neilly, D W; Baliga, S; Patil, S; Meek, Rmd

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is a complex peripheral joint disorder with multiple risk factors. The molecular basis of osteoarthritis has been generally accepted; however, the exact pathogenesis is still not known. Management of patients with osteoarthritis involves a comprehensive history, thorough physical examination and appropriate radiological investigation. The relative slow progress in the disease allows a stepwise algorithmic approach in treatment. Non-surgical treatment involves patient education, lifestyle modification and the use of orthotic devises. These can be achieved in the community. Surgical options include joint sparing procedures such as arthroscopyando osteotomy or joint-replacing procedures. Joint-replacing procedures can be isolated to a single compartment such as patellofemoral arthroplasty or unicompartmental knee replacement or total knee arthroplasty. The key to a successful long-term outcome is optimal patient selection, preoperative counselling and good surgical technique. PMID:27330013

  2. Knee osteoarthritis image registration: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José G.

    2015-03-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a very common disease, in early stages, changes in joint structures are shown, some of the most common symptoms are; formation of osteophytes, cartilage degradation and joint space reduction, among others. Based on a joint space reduction measurement, Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale, is a very extensive used tool to asses radiological OA knee x-ray images, based on information obtained from these assessments, the objective of this work is to correlate the Kellgren-Lawrence score to the bilateral asymmetry between knees. Using public data from the Osteoarthritis initiative (OAI), a set of images with different Kellgren-Lawrencescores were used to determine a relationship of Kellgren-Lawrence score and the bilateral asymmetry, in order to measure the asymmetry between the knees, the right knee was registered to match the left knee, then a series of similarity metrics, mutual information, correlation, and mean squared error where computed to correlate the deformation (mismatch) of the knees to the Kellgren-Lawrence score. Radiological information was evaluated and scored by OAI radiologist groups. The results of the study suggest an association between Radiological Kellgren-Lawrence score and image registration metrics, mutual information and correlation is higher in the early stages, and mean squared error is higher in advanced stages. This association can be helpful to develop a computer aided grading tool.

  3. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  4. Psychological Health Impact on Two-Year Changes in Pain and Function in Persons with Knee Pain: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangrong; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Objective We determined whether baseline depressive symptoms, knee-related confidence and general psychological distress influenced changes in pain and function during two years of follow up. Design We included persons in the OAI dataset with baseline pain of 1 or greater on a 0 to 10 scale in at least one knee and no knee or hip surgery during the two-year follow-up (n=3,407). The four outcome variables were repeated chair standing, 20 meter walk and WOMAC Pain and Disability. Linear mixed effects models assessed the association of each mental health variable with the yearly change in each baseline adjusted outcome measure after controlling for covariates. Results Depressive symptoms were significantly predictive of worsening in most outcomes. The magnitude of worsening predicted for each year was small. For example, the dichotomized WOMAC Pain model indicated that depressed persons experience more rapid worsening than non-depressed persons at an average rate of 0.59 WOMAC points per year (95%CI 0.176, 1.013, p=0.005). Similar significant but very small effects of depressive symptoms on other outcomes were observed. Knee confidence was not predictive of change. General psychological distress was predictive of change in 20-meter walk and WOMAC Pain. Conclusions The most consistent psychological predictor of yearly worsening was baseline depressive symptoms. Although a statistically robust predictor of outcome, given that change was very small and highly dependent on baseline status, our results indicate that a considerable degree of persistent depressive symptoms would be required to have a meaningful effect on future self-reported outcome. PMID:21723400

  5. Effect of integrated yoga therapy on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study

    PubMed Central

    Ebnezar, John; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Yogitha, Bali; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of integrated yoga on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of knees. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty participants with OA knees (35–80 years) were randomly assigned to yoga or control group. Both groups had transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment followed by intervention (40 min) for two weeks with follow up for three months. The integrated yoga consisted of yogic loosening and strengthening practices, asanas, relaxation, pranayama and meditation. The control group had physiotherapy exercises. Assessments were done on 15th (post 1) and 90th day (post 2). Results: Resting pain (numerical rating scale) reduced better (P<0.001, Mann–Whitney U test) in yoga group (post 1=33.6% and post 2=71.8%) than control group (post 1=13.4% and post 2=37.5%). Morning stiffness decreased more (P<0.001) in yoga (post 1=68.6% and post 2=98.1%) than control group (post 1=38.6% and post 2=71.6%). State anxiety (STAI-1) reduced (P<0.001) by 35.5% (post 1) and 58.4% (post 2) in the yoga group and 15.6% (post 1) and 38.8% (post 2) in the control group; trait anxiety (STAI 2) reduced (P<0.001) better (post 1=34.6% and post 2=57.10%) in yoga than control group (post 1=14.12% and post 2=34.73%). Systolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−7.93% and post 2=−15.7%) than the control group (post 1=−1.8% and post 2=−3.8%). Diastolic blood pressure reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−7.6% and post 2=−16.4%) than the control group (post 1=−2.1% and post 2=−5.0%). Pulse rate reduced (P<0.001) better in yoga group (post 1=−8.41% and post 2=−12.4%) than the control group (post 1=−5.1% and post 2=−7.1%). Conclusion: Integrated approach of yoga therapy is better than physiotherapy exercises as an adjunct to transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment in reducing pain, morning stiffness, state and trait anxiety, blood pressure and pulse rate in

  6. Pilot Study of Massage in Veterans with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Juberg, Michael; Allen, Kelli D.; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Keever, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To (1) assess the feasibility and acceptability of Swedish massage among Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and (2) collect preliminary data on efficacy of Swedish massage in this patient group. Design: Experimental pilot study. Setting: Duke Integrative Medicine clinic and VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Patients: Twenty-five veterans with symptomatic knee OA. Interventions: Eight weekly 1-hour sessions of full-body Swedish massage. Outcome measures: Primary: Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and global pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS]). Secondary: National Institutes of Health Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System-Pain Interference Questionnaire 6b (PROMIS-PI 6b), 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 v1) and the EuroQol health status index (EQ-5D-5L), knee range of motion (ROM), and time to walk 50 feet. Results: Study feasibility was established by a 92% retention rate with 99% of massage visits and 100% of research visits completed. Results showed significant improvements in self-reported OA-related pain, stiffness and function (30% improvement in Global WOMAC scores; p=0.001) and knee pain over the past 7 days (36% improvement in VAS score; p<0.001). PROMIS-PI, EQ-5D-5L, and physical composite score of the SF-12 also significantly improved (p<0.01 for all), while the mental composite score of the SF-12 and knee ROM showed trends toward significant improvement. Time to walk 50 feet did not significantly improve. Conclusions: Results of this pilot study support the feasibility and acceptability of Swedish massage among VA health care users as well as preliminary data suggesting its efficacy for reducing pain due to knee OA. If results are confirmed in a larger randomized trial, massage could be an important component of regular care for these patients. PMID:25966332

  7. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on progression of knee pain and cartilage volume loss in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA), a disorder of cartilage and periarticular bone, is a public health problem without effective medical treatments. Some studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect against structural progression. A 2-year randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial invo...

  8. The Effectiveness of Thai Exercise with Traditional Massage on the Pain, Walking Ability and QOL of Older People with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial in the Community.

    PubMed

    Peungsuwan, Punnee; Sermcheep, Phawinee; Harnmontree, Papatsara; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effectiveness of a class- and home-based exercise with massage between Thai traditional and standardized physical therapy (TPT and SPT) in older people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects with KOA (aged 50-85 years) in two selected villages were randomly assigned into the TPT or SPT programs. Seventeen TPT subjects received Thai exercise with traditional massage, and 14 SPT individuals performed strengthening exercise with Swedish massage. Both programs consisted of a class with supervision plus home self-care for 8 weeks; the subjects then managed home self-care for 1 year. [Results] After 2 months, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and SF-36 testing showed significant improvement in both groups, but the improvement of the TPT group was greater. After 1year, only the score for the 6MWT was greater in the TPT group than in the SPT group. [Conclusion] The TPT program yielded better results for the 6MWT, but, both programs had beneficial effects on the pain, function, and QOL of middle-aged and older patients with KOA in the community setting. PMID:24567694

  9. The Effectiveness of Thai Exercise with Traditional Massage on the Pain, Walking Ability and QOL of Older People with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Peungsuwan, Punnee; Sermcheep, Phawinee; Harnmontree, Papatsara; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effectiveness of a class- and home-based exercise with massage between Thai traditional and standardized physical therapy (TPT and SPT) in older people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects with KOA (aged 50–85 years) in two selected villages were randomly assigned into the TPT or SPT programs. Seventeen TPT subjects received Thai exercise with traditional massage, and 14 SPT individuals performed strengthening exercise with Swedish massage. Both programs consisted of a class with supervision plus home self-care for 8 weeks; the subjects then managed home self-care for 1 year. [Results] After 2 months, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and SF-36 testing showed significant improvement in both groups, but the improvement of the TPT group was greater. After 1year, only the score for the 6MWT was greater in the TPT group than in the SPT group. [Conclusion] The TPT program yielded better results for the 6MWT, but, both programs had beneficial effects on the pain, function, and QOL of middle-aged and older patients with KOA in the community setting. PMID:24567694

  10. Pain threshold correlates with functional scores in osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuni, Benita; Wang, Haili; Rickert, Markus; Ewerbeck, Volker; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Pain sensitization may be one of the reasons for persistent pain after technically successful joint replacement. We analyzed how pain sensitization, as measured by quantitative sensory testing, relates preoperatively to joint function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for joint replacement. Patients and methods We included 50 patients with knee OA and 49 with hip OA who were scheduled for joint replacement, and 15 control participants. Hip/knee scores, thermal and pressure detection, and pain thresholds were examined. Results Median pressure pain thresholds were lower in patients than in control subjects: 4.0 (range: 0–10) vs. 7.8 (4–10) (p = 0.003) for the affected knee; 4.5 (2–10) vs. 6.8 (4–10) (p = 0.03) for the affected hip. Lower pressure pain threshold values were found at the affected joint in 26 of the 50 patients with knee OA and in 17 of the 49 patients with hip OA. The American Knee Society score 1 and 2, the Oxford knee score, and functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the pressure pain thresholds in patients with knee OA. Also, Harris hip score and the functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the cold detection threshold in patients with hip OA. Interpretation Quantitative sensory testing appeared to identify patients with sensory changes indicative of mechanisms of central sensitization. These patients may require additional pain treatment in order to profit fully from surgery. There were correlations between the clinical scores and the level of sensitization. PMID:25323797

  11. "Feeling better" or "feeling well" in usual care of hip and knee osteoarthritis pain: determination of cutoff points for patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) and minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) at rest and on movement in a national multicenter cohort study of 2414 patients with painful osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Perrot, Serge; Bertin, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures are being developed for more relevant assessments of pain management. The patient acceptable symptom state (PASS) ("feeling well") and the minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) ("feeling better") have been determined in clinical trials, but not in daily pain management. We carried out a national multicenter cohort study of patients over the age of 50years with painful knee osteoarthritis (KOA) or hip osteoarthritis (HOA) who had visited their general practitioner and required treatment for more than 7days. Overall, 2414 patients (50.2% men, mean age 67.3years, body mass index 27.9kg/m(2), 33.5% with HOA) were enrolled by 1116 general practitioners. After 7days of treatment, PASS was estimated on a numerical rating scale as 4 at rest and 5 on movement, for both HOA and KOA, above the PASS threshold in clinical trials. In KOA, PASS was more frequently reached in men and younger people with less pain at rest and on movement, and in patients specifically seeking an improvement during sport activities. In HOA, PASS was most frequently reached in patients with low levels of pain at risk and in nonobese patients. MCII was -1 numerical rating scale point after 7days of usual treatment. This improvement is smaller than that recorded in randomized controlled trials, and was the same for both sites, both at rest and on movement. In conclusion, patient-reported outcome values in daily practice differ from those in clinical trials, and their determinant factors may depend on the site of osteoarthritis. Assessments of the treatment of painful osteoarthritis should be adapted to the characteristics and daily life of the patient, to personalize patient management. PMID:23265687

  12. Conservative biomechanical strategies for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Neil D; Bowling, Frank L

    2011-02-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent forms of this disease, with the medial compartment most commonly affected. The direction of external forces and limb orientation during walking results in an adduction moment that acts around the knee, and this parameter is regarded as a surrogate measure of medial knee compression. The knee adduction moment is intimately linked with the development and progression of knee OA and is, therefore, a target for conservative biomechanical intervention strategies, which are the focus of this Review. We examine the evidence for walking barefoot and the use of lateral wedge insoles and thin-soled, flexible shoes to reduce the knee adduction moment in patients with OA. We review strategies that directly affect the gait, such as walking with the foot externally rotated ('toe-out gait'), using a cane, lateral trunk sway and gait retraining. Valgus knee braces and muscle strengthening are also discussed for their effect upon reducing the knee adduction moment. PMID:21289615

  13. Is symptomatic knee osteoarthritis a risk factor for a fast decline in gait speed? Results from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel K.; Niu, Jingbo; Zhang, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Gait speed is an important marker of health in adults and slows with aging. While knee osteoarthritis (OA) can result in difficulty walking, it is not known if radiographic knee OA (ROA) and/or knee pain are associated with a fast decline trajectory of gait speed over time. Methods Gait speed trajectories were constructed using a multinomial modeling strategy from repeated 20-meter walk tests measured annually over four years among participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a prospective cohort study of adults with or at high risk of knee OA aged 45 to 79 at baseline. We grouped participants into four knee OA categories (having neither ROA nor knee pain, ROA only, knee pain only, or symptomatic knee OA (ROA and pain)) and examined their association with trajectories of gait speed using a multivariable polytomous regression model adjusting for age and other potential confounders. Results Of the 4179 participants (mean age (sd) = 61.1 (9.1), women =57.6%, mean BMI =28.5 (4.8) kg/m2), 5% (n=205) were in a fast decline trajectory slowing 2.75%/year. People with symptomatic knee OA had almost a 9-fold risk (OR = 8.9, 95% CI [3.1, 25.5]) of being in a fast decline trajectory compared with those with neither pain nor ROA. Participants with knee pain had 4.5 times the odds of fast decline (95% CI [1.4, 14.6]) and those with ROA only had a slight but non-statistically significant increased risk. Conclusions People with symptomatic knee OA have the highest risk of fast decline trajectory of gait speed compared with people with ROA or pain alone. PMID:22899342

  14. [Is knee osteotomy still indicated in knee osteoarthritis?].

    PubMed

    Antonescu, D N

    2000-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether high tibial osteotomy (HTO) still had a role in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint. The author has performed photoelasticity studies which confirmed abnormal stress distribution over the joint, as soon as its mechanical axis was deviated and the joint line had an obliquity over 10 degrees. High tibial osteotomy to correct varus or valgus deformity restores a symmetrical stress distribution and represents the only etiological treatment of secondary osteoarthritis of the knee. Two hundred and fifty HTO's were performed between 1971 and 1985 for osteoarthritis of the knee. The short-term result was good or very good in 75%, fair in 20% and poor in 5%. Fair and poor results were related to insufficient correction, to infection or mostly to incorrect indications. In 152 cases with a good or very good short term result, a further evaluation was made between 8 years and 15 years after operation. It was noted that osteoarthritis had been arrested in 105 cases (69%) whereas it had deteriorated in 47 cases. The main factors associated with further deterioration were insufficient correction and persistence of joint line obliquity. Provided on optimal correction is achieved (3 degrees to 6 degrees hypercorrection in valgus osteotomy, 0 degree in varus osteotomy) and provided a horizontal joint line is restored, HTO performed in good indications (Ahlback grade I or II) may provide good results for at least 10 to 15 years. PMID:11196365

  15. Average symptom trajectories following incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Rebecca; Jordan, Kelvin P; Thomas, Elaine; Peat, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has identified the existence of a prodromal phase of symptom worsening beginning on average 2–3 years prior to the first appearance of radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). The current study extends these observations to investigate the trajectory of self-reported pain, stiffness, function and other symptoms following the incidence of radiographic OA. Methods Data were from the incidence cohort of the Osteoarthritis Initiative public use data sets. Cases were defined as knees without symptoms at enrolment, which developed incident radiographic OA (Kellgren and Lawrence grade ≥2) at any of the first 4 annual follow-up visits. Symptoms investigated were knee-specific Western Ontario & McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale scores and individual items, available up to 3 years before and 5 years after the incidence of radiographic OA. Trajectories of having at least one of the symptoms from a subscale, and for each individual symptom over time, were fitted using multilevel logistic regression models. Results The probability of symptoms following the initial prodromal phase generally stabilised, whereas the probability of moderate, severe or extreme symptoms was consistently low. Two exceptions were pain frequency, which increased greatly in the lead up to incidence, then decreased slightly, and audible joint sounds, which had a much higher overall probability, and after increasing prior to incident radiographic OA, stabilised then started to increase again at 5 years. Conclusions Following an increase in the risk of symptoms during the prodromal phase, this risk does not continue to increase in the period up to 5 years after the incidence of radiographic OA. PMID:27486528

  16. Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Exhibit Widespread Hyperalgesia to Pressure and Cold.

    PubMed

    Moss, Penny; Knight, Emma; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli are characteristics of a range of disorders such as tennis elbow, whiplash and fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the presence of local and widespread mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, compared to healthy control subjects. Twenty-three subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. Volunteers with any additional chronic pain conditions were excluded. Pain thresholds to pressure, cold and heat were tested at the knee, ipsilateral heel and ipsilateral elbow, in randomized order, using standardised methodology. Significant between-groups differences for pressure pain and cold pain thresholds were found with osteoarthritic subjects demonstrating significantly increased sensitivity to both pressure (p = .018) and cold (p = .003) stimuli, compared with controls. A similar pattern of results extended to the pain-free ipsilateral ankle and elbow indicating widespread pressure and cold hyperalgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for heat pain threshold, although correlations showed that subjects with greater sensitivity to pressure pain were also likely to be more sensitive to both cold pain and heat pain. This study found widespread elevated pain thresholds in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that altered nociceptive system processing may play a role in ongoing arthritic pain for some patients. PMID:26809009

  17. Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis Exhibit Widespread Hyperalgesia to Pressure and Cold

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Penny; Knight, Emma; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Hyperalgesia to mechanical and thermal stimuli are characteristics of a range of disorders such as tennis elbow, whiplash and fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the presence of local and widespread mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in individuals with knee osteoarthritis, compared to healthy control subjects. Twenty-three subjects with knee osteoarthritis and 23 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. Volunteers with any additional chronic pain conditions were excluded. Pain thresholds to pressure, cold and heat were tested at the knee, ipsilateral heel and ipsilateral elbow, in randomized order, using standardised methodology. Significant between-groups differences for pressure pain and cold pain thresholds were found with osteoarthritic subjects demonstrating significantly increased sensitivity to both pressure (p = .018) and cold (p = .003) stimuli, compared with controls. A similar pattern of results extended to the pain-free ipsilateral ankle and elbow indicating widespread pressure and cold hyperalgesia. No significant differences were found between groups for heat pain threshold, although correlations showed that subjects with greater sensitivity to pressure pain were also likely to be more sensitive to both cold pain and heat pain. This study found widespread elevated pain thresholds in subjects with painful knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that altered nociceptive system processing may play a role in ongoing arthritic pain for some patients. PMID:26809009

  18. Analgesic effect of high intensity laser therapy in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Stiglić-Rogoznica, Nives; Stamenković, Doris; Frlan-Vrgoc, Ljubinka; Avancini-Dobrović, Viviana; Vrbanić, Tea Schnurrer-Luke

    2011-09-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA), the most common type of osteoarthritis (OA), is associated with pain and inflammation of the joint capsule, impaired muscular stabilization, reduced range of motion and functional disability. High-intensity laser therapy (HILT) involves higher-intensity laser radiation and causes minor and slow light absorption by chromophores. Light stimulation of the deep structures, due to high intensity laser therapy, activates cell metabolism through photochemical effect. The transmissions of pain stimulus are slowed down and result in a quick achievement of pain relief. The aim of our research was to investigate the prompt analgesic effect of HILT on patients with KOA. Knee radiographs were performed on all patients and consequently graded using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale (K/L). A group of 96 patients (75 female, 21 male, mean age 59.2) with K/L 2 and 3 were submitted to HILT therapy. Pain intensity was evaluated with visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the treatment. HILT consisted in one daily application, over a period of ten days, using protocol wavelength, frequency and duration. The results showed statistically significant decrease in VAS after the treatment (p < 0.001). Considering these results, HILT enables prompt analgesic effects in KOA treatment. Therefore HILT is a reliable option in KOA physical therapy. PMID:22220431

  19. Duloxetine in OsteoArthritis (DOA) study: study protocol of a pragmatic open-label randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of preoperative pain treatment on postoperative outcome after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Blikman, T; Rienstra, W; van Raaij, T M; ten Hagen, A J; Dijkstra, B; Zijlstra, W P; Bulstra, S K; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Stevens, M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Residual pain is a major factor in patient dissatisfaction following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The proportion of patients with unfavourable long-term residual pain is high, ranging from 7% to 34%. There are studies indicating that a preoperative degree of central sensitisation (CS) is associated with poorer postoperative outcomes and residual pain. It is thus hypothesised that preoperative treatment of CS could enhance postoperative outcomes. Duloxetine has been shown to be effective for several chronic pain syndromes, including knee osteoarthritis (OA), in which CS is most likely one of the underlying pain mechanisms. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative effects of preoperative screening and targeted duloxetine treatment of CS on residual pain compared with care-as-usual. Methods and analysis This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (METc 2014/087) and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and the Good Clinical Practice standard (GCP), and in compliance with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). Trial registration number 2013-004313-41; Pre

  20. Knee stabilization in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lewek, Michael D.; Ramsey, Dan K.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (MKOA) experience knee laxity and instability. Muscle stabilization strategies may influence the long term integrity of the joint. In this study we determined how individuals with medial knee OA respond to a rapid valgus knee movement to investigate the relationship between muscle stabilization strategies and knee instability. METHODS Twenty one subjects with MKOA and genu varum, and 19 control subjects were tested. Subjects stood with the test limb on a moveable platform that translated laterally to rapidly stress the knee’s medial periarticular structures and create a potentially destabilizing feeling at the knee joint. Knee motion and muscle responses were recorded. Subjects rated their knee instability with a self-report questionnaire about knee instability during daily activities. RESULTS Prior to plate movement the OA subjects demonstrated more medial muscle co-contraction (p=0.014). Following plate movement the OA subjects shifted less weight off the test limb (p = 0.013) and had more medial co-contraction (p=0.037). Those without instability had higher VMMH co-contraction than those who reported more instability (p=0.038). Knee stability correlated positively with VMMH co-contraction prior to plate movement (r = 0.459; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that individuals with MKOA attempt to stabilize the knee with greater medial muscle co-contraction in response to laxity that appears on only the medial side of the joint. This strategy presumably contributes to higher joint compression and could exacerbate joint destruction and needs to be altered to slow or stop the progression of the OA disease process. PMID:16142714

  1. Stem cell application for osteoarthritis in the knee joint: A minireview.

    PubMed

    Uth, Kristin; Trifonov, Dimitar

    2014-11-26

    Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic, indolent disease that will affect an ever increasing number of patients, especially the elderly and the obese. It is characterized by degeneration of the cartilage substance inside the knee which leads to pain, stiffness and tenderness. By some estimations in 2030, only in the United States, this medical condition will burden 67 million people. While conventional treatments like physiotherapy or drugs offer temporary relief of clinical symptoms, restoration of normal cartilage function has been difficult to achieve. Moreover, in severe cases of knee osteoarthritis total knee replacement may be required. Total knee replacements come together with high effort and costs and are not always successful. The aim of this review is to outline the latest advances in stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis as well as highlight some of the advantages of stem cell therapy over traditional approaches aimed at restoration of cartilage function in the knee. In addition to the latest advances in the field, challenges associated with stem cell therapy regarding knee cartilage regeneration and chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo are also outlined and analyzed. Furthermore, based on their critical assessment of the present academic literature the authors of this review share their vision about the future of stem cell applications in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25426260

  2. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  3. Vitamin K deficiency is associated with incident knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, with knee osteoarthritis being the leading cause of lower extremity disability among older adults in the US. There are no treatments available to prevent the structural pathology of osteoarthritis. Because of vitamin K’s role in regulating skeleta...

  4. [Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seizo

    2014-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of arthritis, and is associated with significant pain and disability. Epidemiological study showed a large number of the eldery in Japan suffered OA, especially OA of the knee. Rapid diagnosis and conservative treatments those includes patient education, weight loss, exercise, physical and occupational therapy are effective at early stage. Pharmacologic treatment are acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective agents. Surgery of the joint arthroplasty significantly reduces knee and hip pain, and restores the functions of the patient at the end stage. PMID:25509795

  5. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  6. Knee osteoarthritis affects the distribution of joint moments during gait.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Joseph A; Higginson, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in lower extremity kinetics have been shown to exist in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA), however few investigations have examined how the intersegmental coordination of the lower extremity kinetic chain varies in the presence of knee joint pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate how knee OA and walking speed affect total support moment and individual joint contributions to the total support moment. Fifteen healthy subjects and 30 persons with knee OA participated in 3D walking analysis at constrained (1.0 m/s), self-selected and fastest tolerable walking speeds. Individual joint contributions to total support moment were analyzed using separate ANOVAs with one repeated measure (walking speed). Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution. Persons with knee OA reduced the contribution of the knee joint when walking at constrained (p = 0.04) and self-selected walking speeds (p = 0.009). There was a significant increase in the ankle contribution and a significant decrease in the hip contribution when walking speed was increased (p < 0.004), however individual walking speeds were not significantly related to joint contributions. This suggests that the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution is dependent on the individual's control strategy and we cannot estimate the joint contribution solely based on walking speed. The slower gait speed observed in persons with knee OA is not responsible for the reduction in knee joint moments, rather this change is likely due to alterations in the neuromuscular strategy of the lower extremity kinetic chain in response to joint pain or muscle weakness. PMID:20510618

  7. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in Persian Speaking Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Birjandinejad, Ali; Keshtan, Farideh Golhasani; Hoseini, Hosein A; Mazloumi, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is the most common chronic joint disease that involves middle aged and elderly persons. There are different clinical instruments to quantify the health status of patients with knee osteoarthritis and one example is the WOMAC score that has been translated and adapted into different languages. The purpose of this study was cultural adaptation, validation and reliability testing of the Persian version of the WOMAC index in Iranians with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: We translated the original WOMAC questionnaire into Persian by the forward and backward technique, and then its psychometric study was done on 169 native Persian speaking patients with knee degenerative joint disease. Mean age of patients was 53.9 years. The SF-36 and KOOS were used to assess construct validity. Results: Reliability testing resulted in a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.917, showing the internal consistency of the questionnaire to be a reliable tool. Inter-correlation matrix among different scales of the Persian WOMAC index yielded a highly significant correlation between all subscales including stiffness, pain, and physical function. In terms of validity, Pearson`s correlation coefficient was significant between three domains of the WOMAC with PF, RP, BP, GH, VT, and PCS dimensions of the SF-36 health survey (P<0.005) and KOOS (P<0.0001) . Conclusions: The Persian WOMAC index is a valid and reliable patient- reported clinical instrument for knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25207315

  8. Mechanical Symptoms of Osteoarthritis in the Knee and Arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buldu, Metin Tolga; Marsh, Jennifer L; Arbuthnot, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    The potential benefit of arthroscopy as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis is contentious, with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence stating that, "There is uncertainty regarding the efficacy of the procedure." This is a study of a consecutive series of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, suffering from mechanical symptoms, such as giving way, catching, and locking, and undergoing arthroscopic debridement, including chondroplasty and meniscectomy where appropriate. A total of 33 patients were reviewed at a mean period of 24 months (standard deviation 3 months) and follow-up data were obtained for 28 of these patients. Primary outcomes measured were: number of mechanical symptom episodes per week and visual analog scores for pain. Secondary outcomes measured were: Oxford, Lysholm, and Tegner knee scores together with arc of motion of the joint. Seven patients went on to have a knee replacement within 2 years. In the patient subgroup who did not require further surgery, there was statistically significant improvement in giving way (p = 0.0184) and marginally significant improvement in catching and locking (p = 0.1105 and p = 0.087, respectively). There were statistically significant improvements found in the Oxford and Lysholm scores (p < 0.0001). An average decrease of 1.9 in the VAS pain score was observed that was also statistically significant (p < 0.0007) and an average improvement of 10 degrees in the arc of motion was noted, which was marginally significant (p = 0.0687). To our knowledge, this is the first study with a primary outcome measure of mechanical symptoms experienced by patients. The results overall suggest that patient symptoms improved following arthroscopic treatment. As a result, episodes of mechanical symptoms should be important criteria for clinicians in determining the patient suitability for arthroscopic debridement. PMID:26408991

  9. Effectiveness and safety of tapentadol prolonged release with tapentadol immediate release on-demand for the management of severe, chronic osteoarthritis-related knee pain: results of an open-label, phase 3b study

    PubMed Central

    Steigerwald, Ilona; Müller, Matthias; Kujawa, Jolanta; Balblanc, Jean-Charles; Calvo-Alén, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    This open-label, phase 3b study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00983073) evaluated the effectiveness, and tolerability of tapentadol for severe, chronic osteoarthritis knee pain that was inadequately managed with World Health Organization (WHO) Step I or II analgesics or co-analgesics, or that was not treated with regular analgesics. Prior to starting study treatment, patients discontinued any WHO Step II analgesics, while Step I analgesics and/or co-analgesics were continued at the same dose. Patients received tapentadol prolonged release (50–250 mg bid) during a 5-week titration period and a 7-week maintenance period. Doses of tapentadol immediate release 50 mg (≤twice/day; ≥4 hours apart) were permitted throughout the study (total daily dose of tapentadol prolonged and immediate release, ≤250 mg bid). The primary endpoint was the change in pain intensity on an 11-point numerical rating scale-3 (NRS-3; recalled average pain intensity [11-point NRS] during the last 3 days) from baseline to Week 6, using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) to impute missing pain intensity scores. The mean (standard deviation) change from baseline to Week 6 (LOCF) in pain intensity was −3.4 (2.10; P < 0.0001) for all patients evaluated for effectiveness (n = 195). Significant decreases in pain intensity were also observed at Weeks 6, 8, and 12 (all P < 0.0001) using observed-case analysis. Corresponding significant improvements from baseline to Weeks 6 and 12 were observed in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, the EuroQol-5 Dimension health status questionnaire, the Short Form-36 health survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (all P ≤ 0.0103). Treatment-emergent adverse events were in line with those observed in previous studies of tapentadol prolonged release. Overall, the results of this study indicate that tapentadol treatment results in significant improvements in pain intensity, health-related quality of

  10. Investigation the efficacy of intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin and dextrose and intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency on pain level reduction and range of motion improvement in primary osteoarthritis of knee

    PubMed Central

    Rahimzadeh, Poupak; Imani, Farnad; Faiz, Seyed Hamid Reza; Entezary, Saeed Reza; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Ziaeefard, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases and the knee is the most commonly affected joint. Intra-articular prolotherapy is being utilized in acute and chronic pain management setting. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of three methods of intra-articular knee joint therapies with erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency. Materials and Methods: After approval by the Ethics Committee and explaining the therapeutic method to volunteers, 70 patients who were suffering from primary knee osteoarthrosis went through one of the treatment methods (erythropoietin, dextrose, and pulsed radiofrequency). The study was double-blind randomized clinical trial performed from December 2012 to July 2013. Patients’ pain level was assessed through the visual analog pain scale (VAS), and range of motion (ROM) was measured by goniometric method. Furthermore, patients’ satisfaction was assessed before and after different treatment methods in weeks 2, 4, and 12. For analysis, Chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and repeated measured ANOVA were utilized. Results: The demographic results among the three groups did not indicate any statistical difference. The mean VAS in erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 3.15 ± 1.08, 3.15 ± 1.08, and 3.5 ± 1.23, respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Knee joint ROM in the erythropoietin group in the 2nd, 4th, and 12th weeks was 124 ± 1.50, 124 ± 1.4, and 123 ± 1.53 respectively (P ≤ 0.005). Satisfaction score in the 12th week in erythropoietin group was extremely satisfied 15%, satisfied 55%, and moderately satisfied 30%, (P = 0.005). No specific side-effects were observed. Conclusion: Intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin was more effective in terms of pain level reduction and ROM improvement compared with dextrose and pulsed radiofrequency. PMID:25422652

  11. Pain Coping Strategies in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…

  12. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

  13. Knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: the effect of self-reported instability

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott; Farrokhi, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis has been previously associated with a stereotypical knee-stiffening gait pattern and reduced knee joint motion variability due to increased antagonist muscle co-contractions and smaller utilized arc of motion during gait. However, episodic self-reported instability may be a sign of excessive motion variability for a large subgroup of patients with knee osteoarthritis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in knee joint motion variability during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis with and without self-reported instability compared to a control group of older adults with asymptomatic knees. Methods Forty-three subjects, 8 with knee osteoarthritis but no reports of instability (stable), 11 with knee osteoarthritis and self-reported instability (unstable), and 24 without knee osteoarthritis or instability (control) underwent Dynamic Stereo X-ray analysis during a decline gait task on a treadmill. Knee motion variability was assessed using parametric phase plots during the loading response phase of decline gait. Findings The stable group demonstrated decreased sagittal-plane motion variability compared to the control group (p=0.04), while the unstable group demonstrated increased sagittal-plane motion variability compared to the control (p=0.003) and stable groups (p<0.001). The unstable group also demonstrated increased anterior-posterior joint contact point motion variability for the medial tibiofemoral compartment compared to the control (p=0.03) and stable groups (p=0.03). Interpretation The finding of decreased knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis without self-reported instability supports previous research. However, presence of self-reported instability is associated with increased knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis and warrants further investigation. PMID:25796536

  14. Role of Agnikarma in Sandhigata Vata (osteoarthritis of knee joint)

    PubMed Central

    Jethava, Nilesh G.; Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sandhigata Vata is one of Vata Vyadhi characterized by the symptoms such as Sandhishoola (joint pain) and Sandhishopha (swelling of joint). Osteoarthritis (OA) is degenerative joint disorder, represents failure of the diarthrodial (movable, synovial-lined) joint. OA of knee joint comes under the inflammatory group which is almost identical to Sandhigata Vata described in Ayurveda with respect to etiology, pathology, and clinical features. Agnikarma (therapeutic heat burn) is one which gives instant relief from pain by balancing local Vata and Kapha Dosha without any untoward effects. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Agnikarma with Rajata and Loha Dhatu Shalaka in the management of Janugata Sandhivata (OA of knee joint). Materials and Methods: A total of 28 diagnosed patients of Janugata Sandhivata were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A, Agnikarma was done with Rajata Shalaka while in Group-B Agnikarma was performed by Loha Shalaka in four sittings. Assessment in relief of signs and symptoms was done by weekly interval, and Student's t-test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Group-A provided 76.31% relief in pain while Group-B provided 83.77% relief. Relief from crepitus was observed in 57.13% of patients of Group-A, while 57.92% of patients of Group-B. There was statistically insignificant difference between both the groups. Loha Shalaka provided better result in pain relief than Rajata Shalaka. Conclusion: Agnikarma is effective nonpharmacological, parasurgical procedure for pain management in Sandhigata Vata (OA of knee joint). PMID:26730134

  15. The Hip and Knee Book: developing an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nefyn H; Amoakwa, Elvis; Burton, Kim; Hendry, Maggie; Lewis, Ruth; Jones, Jeremy; Bennett, Paul; Neal, Richard D; Andrew, Glynne; Wilkinson, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Background The pain and disability of hip and knee osteoarthritis can be improved by exercise, but the best method of encouraging this is not known. Aim To develop an evidence-based booklet for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis, offering information and advice on maintaining activity. Design of study Systematic review of reviews and guidelines, then focus groups. Setting Four general practices in North East Wales. Method Evidence-based messages were developed from a systematic review, synthesised into patient-centred messages, and then incorporated into a narrative. A draft booklet was examined by three focus groups to improve the phrasing of its messages and discuss its usefulness. The final draft was examined in a fourth focus group. Results Six evidence-based guidelines and 54 systematic reviews were identified. The focus groups found the draft booklet to be informative and easy to read. They reported a lack of clarity about the cause of osteoarthritis and were surprised that the pain could improve. The value of exercise and weight loss beliefs was accepted and reinforced, but there was a perceived contradiction about heavy physical work being causative, while moderate exercise was beneficial. There was a fear of dependency on analgesia and misinterpretation of the message on hyaluranon injections. The information on joint replacement empowered patients to discuss referral with their GP. The text was revised to accommodate these issues. Conclusion The booklet was readable, credible, and useful to end-users. A randomised controlled trial is planned, to test whether the booklet influences beliefs about osteoarthritis and exercise. PMID:20132695

  16. Pain assessment in animal models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Piel, Margaret J; Kroin, Jeffrey S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Kc, Ranjan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2014-03-10

    Assessment of pain in animal models of osteoarthritis is integral to interpretation of a model's utility in representing the clinical condition, and enabling accurate translational medicine. Here we describe behavioral pain assessments available for small and large experimental osteoarthritic pain animal models. PMID:24333346

  17. Patient preference and willingness to pay for knee osteoarthritis treatments

    PubMed Central

    Posnett, John; Dixit, Sanjeev; Oppenheimer, Brooks; Kili, Sven; Mehin, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) received by patients across five European countries, and to obtain patients’ perceptions and willingness to pay for current treatments. Patients and methods A prospective, internet-based, double-blind survey of adults with OAK was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The questionnaire included questions about diagnosis, treatment history, and perceptions of OAK treatments, followed by a discrete choice-based conjoint exercise to identify preferred attributes of OAK treatments, evaluating 14 sets of four unbranded products. Results Two thousand and seventy-three patients with self-reported OAK completed the survey; 17.4% of patients rated their knee pain as drastically affecting their ability to perform normal daily activities, and 39.3% of employed patients reported that they had lost work time because of OAK. The most common treatments were exercise (69.7%), physical therapy (68.2%), and nonprescription oral pain medication (73.9%). Treatments perceived as most effective were: viscosupplement injections (74.1%), narcotics (67.8%), and steroid injection (67.6%). Patient co-pay, duration of pain relief, and type of therapy exhibited the largest impact on patient preference for OAK treatments. The average patient was willing to pay €35 and €64 more in co-pay for steroid and viscosupplement injections, respectively, over the cost of oral over-the-counter painkillers (per treatment course, per knee) (each P<0.05). Conclusion OAK is a debilitating condition that affects normal daily activities. In general, treatments most commonly offered to patients are not those perceived as being the most effective. Patients are willing to pay a premium for treatments that they perceive as being more effective and result in longer-lasting pain relief, and those that can be administered with fewer visits to a physician. PMID:26089650

  18. Attitudes to knee osteoarthritis and total knee replacement in Arab women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is offered to patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the oil-rich countries in the Gulf region without adequate understanding of their perceptions, preferences or pain experiences. This study aimed to explore the pain experience and mobility limitation as well as the patient’s decision making process to undertake TKA among women with knee pain in the waiting list for surgery. Methods Five focus group discussions were conducted comprised of 39 women with severe knee OA from the waiting list for TKA in the only orthopaedic hospital in Kuwait. Discussions were recorded, transcribed and coded for themes to identify the factors considered to be important in decision-making for TKA. Results Experiencing knee pain was central to daily living and affected patients and their families. Mobility limitation was shaped by a strong sense of expected obligation to take care of the family. Two major sources of TKA delay were identified; one was due to late clinical advice to undergo TKA which was the result of receiving several consultations from different clinicians each of whom tried the medical management for OA. The second delay occurred after the clinical advice for TKA and was mainly due to ambivalence of patients because of fear of the operation and the lack of information about TKA that resulted in unclear expectations of the surgery. Conclusions Both verbal and written information about TKA should be provided as part of preoperative rehabilitation. This is critical to improve doctor-patient interactions and facilitate informed decision about the procedure and thus achieve patient-centered healthcare. PMID:24107658

  19. Analyzing the History of Falls in Patients with Severe Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tsonga, Theano; Michalopoulou, Maria; Malliou, Paraskevi; Godolias, George; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Soucacos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Background One out of three adults over the age of 65 years and one out of two over the age of 80 falls annually. Fall risk increases for older adults with severe knee osteoarthritis, a matter that should be further researched. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the history of falls including frequency, mechanism and location of falls, activity during falling and injuries sustained from falls examining at the same time their physical status. The secondary purpose was to determine the effect of age, gender, chronic diseases, social environment, pain elsewhere in the body and components of health related quality of life such as pain, stiffness, physical function, and dynamic stability on falls frequency in older adults aged 65 years and older with severe knee osteoarthritis. Methods An observational longitudinal study was conducted on 68 patients (11 males and 57 females) scheduled for total knee replacement due to severe knee osteoarthritis (grade 3 or 4) and knee pain lasting at least one year or more. Patients were personally interviewed for fall history and asked to complete self-administered questionnaires, such as the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and physical performance test was performed. Results The frequency of falls was 63.2% for the past year. The majority of falls took place during walking (89.23%). The main cause of falling was stumbling (41.54%). There was a high rate of injurious falling (29.3%). The time patients needed to complete the physical performance test implied the presence of disability and frailty. The high rates of fall risk, the high disability levels, and the low quality of life were confirmed by questionnaires and the mobility test. Conclusions Patients with severe knee osteoarthritis were at greater risk of falling, as compared to healthy older adults. Pain, stiffness, limited physical ability, reduced muscle strength, all consequences

  20. Inhalation Therapy of Calcitonin Relieves Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Dilek Kaya; Calisir, Cüneyt; Dokumacioglu, Ali; Ozgen, Merih; Oner, Setenay; Alatas, Ozkan

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if nasal salmon calcitonin has additional beneficial effects on clinical symptoms, serum NO, IL-1β, matrix metalloproteinase 3, urinary C-terminal telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II) levels and MRI findings in knee osteoarthritis (OA) when used concomitantly with exercise therapy. Fifty female patients with knee OA were randomized into two groups. The first group (n = 30) received 200 IU/day nasal salmon calcitonin and a home exercise program; the second group (n = 20) received a home exercise program for 6 months. Compared with baseline,while significant improvements were observed in visual analogue scale (VAS), WOMAC pain, physical function scores, 20-m walking time (P < 0.001) and WOMAC stiffness score (P = 0.041) in the first group, walking and resting VAS, and WOMAC physical function scores were improved (P = 0.029) in the second group after treatment. Significantly increased levels of serum NO and urinary CTX-II (P < 0.001) and significant improvements in the area of medial femoral condyle (P < 0.05) were noted only in the first group. There were significant differences in VAS activation values (P = 0.032) and NO levels (P < 0.001) in the favor of the first group. In conclusion, nasal salmon calcitonin may have possible chondroprotective effects besides its known effects on symptoms in patients with knee OA. PMID:23166425

  1. Corticospinal and Intracortical Excitability of the Quadriceps in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelson, Andrew J.; Thomas, Abbey C.; Kluger, Benzi M.; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle are characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (OA), contributing to the quadriceps weakness that is also a hallmark of the disease. The mechanisms underlying this central activation deficit (CAD) are unknown, although cortical mechanisms may be involved. Here, we utilize transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess corticospinal and intracortical excitability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and in a comparably aged group of healthy older adults, to quantify group differences and to examine associations between TMS measures and pain, quadriceps strength, and CAD. Seventeen patients with knee OA and 20 healthy controls completed testing. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured at the quadriceps by superficial electromyographic (EMG) recordings. Corticospinal excitability was assessed by measuring resting motor threshold (RMT) to TMS stimulation of the quadriceps representation at primary motor cortex, and intracortical excitability was assessed via paired pulse paradigms for short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). No statistically significant differences between patients with knee OA and healthy controls were found for RMT, SICI or ICF measures (p>0.05). For patients with knee OA, there were significant associations observed between pain and RMT, as well as between pain and ICF. No associations were observed between CAD and measures of corticospinal or intracortical excitability. These data suggest against direct involvement of corticospinal or intracortical pathways within primary motor cortex in the mechanisms of CAD. However, pain is implicated in the neural mechanisms of quadriceps motor control in patients with knee OA. PMID:25183161

  2. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  3. A comparison of radiographic anatomic axis knee alignment measurements and cross-sectional associations with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Goulston, L.M.; Sanchez-Santos, M.T.; D'Angelo, S.; Leyland, K.M.; Hart, D.J.; Spector, T.D.; Cooper, C.; Dennison, E.M.; Hunter, D.; Arden, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Malalignment is associated with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), however, the optimal anatomic axis (AA) knee alignment measurement on a standard limb radiograph (SLR) is unknown. This study compares one-point (1P) and two-point (2P) AA methods using three knee joint centre locations and examines cross-sectional associations with symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis (SRKOA), radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) and knee pain. Methods AA alignment was measured six different ways using the KneeMorf software on 1058 SLRs from 584 women in the Chingford Study. Cross-sectional associations with principal outcome SRKOA combined with greatest reproducibility determined the optimal 1P and 2P AA method. Appropriate varus/neutral/valgus alignment categories were established using logistic regression with generalised estimating equation models fitted with restricted cubic spline function. Results The tibial plateau centre displayed greatest reproducibility and associations with SRKOA. As mean 1P and 2P values differed by >2°, new alignment categories were generated for 1P: varus <178°, neutral 178–182°, valgus >182° and for 2P methods: varus <180°, neutral 180–185°, valgus >185°. Varus vs neutral alignment was associated with a near 2-fold increase in SRKOA and RKOA, and valgus vs neutral for RKOA using 2P method. Nonsignificant associations were seen for 1P method for SRKOA, RKOA and knee pain. Conclusions AA alignment was associated with SRKOA and the tibial plateau centre had the strongest association. Differences in AA alignment when 1P vs 2P methods were compared indicated bespoke alignment categories were necessary. Further replication and validation with mechanical axis alignment comparison is required. PMID:26700504

  4. A Review of Translational Animal Models for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Martin H.; Capito, Nicholas; Kuroki, Keiichi; Stoker, Aaron M.; Cook, James L.; Sherman, Seth L.

    2012-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis remains a tremendous public health concern, both in terms of health-related quality of life and financial burden of disease. Translational research is a critical step towards understanding and mitigating the long-term effects of this disease process. Animal models provide practical and clinically relevant ways to study both the natural history and response to treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Many factors including size, cost, and method of inducing osteoarthritis are important considerations for choosing an appropriate animal model. Smaller animals are useful because of their ease of use and cost, while larger animals are advantageous because of their anatomical similarity to humans. This evidence-based review will compare and contrast several different animal models for knee osteoarthritis. Our goal is to inform the clinician about current research models, in order to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the “bench” to the “bedside.” PMID:23326663

  5. Treatment of primary and secondary osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, David J; Grant, Mark D; Ratko, Thomas A; Bonnell, Claudia J; Ziegler, Kathleen M; Aronson, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Systematic review of outcomes of three treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee: intra-articular viscosupplementation; oral glucosamine, chondroitin or the combination; and arthroscopic lavage or debridement. DATA SOURCES We abstracted data from: 42 randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) of viscosupplementation, all but one synthesized among six meta-analyses; 21 RCTs of glucosamine/chondroitin, 16 synthesized among 6 meta-analyses; and 23 articles on arthroscopy. The search included foreign-language studies and relevant conference proceedings. REVIEW METHODS The review methods were defined prospectively in a written protocol. We sought systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and RCTs published in full or in abstract. Where randomized trials were few, we sought other study designs. We independently assessed the quality of all primary studies. RESULTS Viscosupplementation trials generally report positive effects on pain and function scores compared to placebo, but the evidence on clinical benefit is uncertain, due to variable trial quality, potential publication bias, and unclear clinical significance of the changes reported. The Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), a large (n=1,583), high-quality, National Institutes of Health-funded, multicenter RCT showed no significant difference compared to placebo. Glucosamine sulfate has been reported to be more effective than glucosamine hydrochloride, which was used in GAIT, but the evidence is not sufficient to draw conclusions. Clinical studies of glucosamine effect on glucose metabolism are short term, or if longer (e.g., 3 years), excluded patients with metabolic disorders. The best available evidence for arthroscopy, a single sham-controlled RCT (n=180), showed that arthroscopic lavage with or without debridement was equivalent to placebo. The main limitations of this trial are the use of a single surgeon and enrollment of patients at a single Veterans Affairs Medical Center. No

  6. Do early life factors affect the development of knee osteoarthritis in later life: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Jones, Graeme; Jin, Xingzhong; Ding, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) mainly affects older populations; however, it is possible that early life factors contribute to the development of OA in later life. The aim of this review is to describe the association between childhood or early adulthood risk factors and knee pain, structural imaging markers and development of knee OA in later life. A narrative overview of the literature synthesising the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerised databases and manual searches was conducted. We found that only a few studies have explored the long-term effect of childhood or early adulthood risk factors on the markers of joint health that predispose people to OA or joint symptoms. High body mass index (BMI) and/or overweight status from childhood to adulthood were independently related to knee pain and OA in later life. The findings regarding the association between strenuous physical activity and knee structures in young adults are still conflicting. However, a favourable effect of moderate physical activity and fitness on knee structures is reported. Childhood physical activity and performance measures had independent beneficial effects on knee structures including knee cartilage in children and young adults. Anterior knee pain syndrome in adolescence could lead to the development of patellofemoral knee OA in the late 40s. Furthermore, weak evidence suggests that childhood malalignment, socioeconomic status and physical abuse are associated with OA in later life. The available evidence suggests that early life intervention may prevent OA in later life. PMID:27623622

  7. Comparative study of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening treatments in the management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohesn; Alanezi, Aqeel M

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50-65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013274

  8. Longitudinal Course of Physical Function in People With Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis: Data From the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study and the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    ØIESTAD, BRITT ELIN; WHITE, DANIEL K.; BOOTON, ROSS; NIU, JINGBO; ZHANG, YUQING; TORNER, JIM; LEWIS, CORA E.; NEVITT, MICHAEL; LaVALLEY, MICHAEL; FELSON, DAVID T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pain and functional decline are hallmarks of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, longitudinal studies unexpectedly reveal stable or improved physical function. The aim of this study was to impute missing and pre–total knee replacement (TKR) values to describe physical function over time among people with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We included participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) with incident symptomatic knee OA, observed during the first 30 months in MOST and 36 months in OAI. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function (WOMAC-PF), the 5-times sit-to-stand test, and the 20-meter-walk test were assessed at 4 and 5 years in MOST and at 6 years in OAI. We used a multiple imputation method for missing visits, and estimated pre-TKR values close to the time of TKR, using a fitted local regression smoothing curve. In mixed-effect models, we investigated the physical function change over time, using data before and after imputation and calculation of pre-TKR values. Results In MOST, 225 (8%) had incident knee OA, with corresponding 577 (12.7%) in OAI. After adjusting for pre-TKR values and imputing missing values, we found that WOMAC-PF values remained stable or slightly declined over time, and the 20-meter-walk test results changed from stable in nonimputed analyses to worsening using imputed data. Conclusion Data from MOST and OAI showed stable to worsening physical function over time in people with incident symptomatic knee OA after imputing missing values and adjusting pre-TKR values. PMID:26236919

  9. CAM use among overweight and obese persons with radiographic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with knee pain and is an independent predictor of incident knee osteoarthritis (OA); increased pain with movement often leads patients to adopt sedentary lifestyles to avoid pain. Detailed descriptions of pain management strategies by body mass index (BMI) level among OA patients are lacking. The objectives were to describe complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medication use by BMI level and identify correlates of CAM use by BMI level. Methods Using Osteoarthritis Initiative baseline data, 2,675 patients with radiographic tibiofemoral OA in at least one knee were identified. Use of CAM therapies and conventional medications was determined by interviewers. Potential correlates included SF-12, CES-D, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score quality of life. Multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors provided estimates of the association between BMI levels and treatment use; binary logistic regression identified correlates of CAM use. Results BMI was inversely associated with CAM use (45% users had BMI ≥35 kg/m2; 54% had BMI <25 kg/m2), but positively associated with conventional medication use (54% users had BMI ≥35 kg/m2; 35.1% had BMI <25 kg/m2). Those with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were less likely to use CAM alone or in combination with conventional medications when compared to patients with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusions CAM use is common among people with knee OA but is inversely associated with BMI. Understanding ways to further symptom management in OA among overweight and obese patients is warranted. PMID:24073985

  10. Vitamin D supplementation in the management of knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health issue worldwide in the aging population who are also commonly deficient in vitamin D. Our previous study suggested that higher serum 25-(OH)D levels were associated with reduced knee cartilage loss, implying that vitamin D supplementation may prevent the progression of knee OA. The aim of the VItamin D Effects on OA (VIDEO) study is to compare, over a 2- year period, the effects of vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on knee structural changes, knee pain, and lower limb muscle strength in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Methods/design Randomised, placebo-controlled, and double-blind clinical trial aiming to recruit 400 subjects (200 from Tasmania and 200 from Victoria) with both symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (serum [25-(OH)D] level of >12.5 nmol/liter and <60 nmol/liter). Participants will be randomly allocated to vitamin D supplementation (50,000 IU compounded vitamin D3 capsule monthly) or identical inert placebo group for 2 years. The primary endpoint is loss of knee cartilage volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of OA (WOMAC) knee pain score. The secondary endpoints will be other knee structural changes, and lower limb muscle strength. Several other outcome measures including core muscle images and central blood pressure will be recorded. Linear and logistic regression will be used to compare changes between groups using univariable and multivariable modeling analyses. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses will be utilized. Discussion The trial is designed to test if vitamin D supplementation will reduce loss of knee cartilage volume, prevent the progression of other knee structural abnormalities, reduce knee pain and strengthen lower limb muscle strength, thus modify disease progression in knee OA. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  11. Antinociceptive effect of clinical analgesics in a nonhuman primate model of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shinya; Awaga, Yuji; Takashima, Miyuki; Hama, Aldric; Matsuda, Akihisa; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    A number of potential analgesic pharmacotherapies developed in preclinical osteoarthritis animal models have failed clinical trials. A possible basis for the lack of translation of preclinical findings to clinical efficacy is the use of a preclinical species that is distinct from that of humans. The current study tested clinical analgesics in a nonhuman primate model of knee osteoarthritis. Following a medial meniscectomy, the animals developed a robust ipsilateral reduction in knee pressure threshold (hyperalgesia) and an ipsilateral reduction in weight bearing (resting pain). The serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor duloxetine and opioid morphine increased ipsilateral pressure threshold and weight bearing. By contrast, the anticonvulsant pregabalin did not affect either pressure hyperalgesia or resting pain. The current findings in the nonhuman primate model of osteoarthritis parallel clinical findings, in that duloxetine and opioids are used in the management of osteoarthritis pain whereas pregabalin is not. The current findings also suggest the possible differentiation of pharmacotherapeutics in a nonhuman primate model, of distinguishing potential clinically useful analgesics for the management of osteoarthritic pain from those that are not. PMID:27266666

  12. The Cost-Effectiveness of Surgical Treatment of Medial Unicompartmental Knee Osteoarthritis in Younger Patients

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Joseph F.; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical options for the management of medial compartment osteoarthritis of the varus knee include high tibial osteotomy, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, and total knee arthroplasty. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of high tibial osteotomy and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty as alternatives to total knee arthroplasty for patients fifty to sixty years of age. Methods: We built a probabilistic state-transition computer model with health states defined by pain, postoperative complications, and subsequent surgical procedures. We estimated transition probabilities from published literature. Costs were determined from Medicare reimbursement schedules. Health outcomes were measured in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We conducted analyses over patients’ lifetimes from the societal perspective, with health and cost outcomes discounted by 3% annually. We used probabilistic sensitivity analyses to account for uncertainty in data inputs. Results: The estimated discounted QALYs were 14.62, 14.63, and 14.64 for high tibial osteotomy, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, and total knee arthroplasty, respectively. Discounted total direct medical costs were $20,436 for high tibial osteotomy, $24,637 for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, and $24,761 for total knee arthroplasty (in 2012 U.S. dollars). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $231,900 per QALY for total knee arthroplasty and $420,100 per QALY for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed that, at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per QALY, high tibial osteotomy was cost-effective 57% of the time; total knee arthroplasty, 24%; and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, 19%. At a WTP threshold of $100,000 per QALY, high tibial osteotomy was cost-effective 43% of time; total knee arthroplasty, 31%; and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty, 26%. Conclusions: In fifty to sixty-year-old patients with medial unicompartmental knee

  13. Daily Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' daily activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the daily physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their daily experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater daily moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472

  14. Correlation of Adrenomedullin Concentrations with Knee Osteoarthritis Grade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Linghua; Huang, Ruokun; Ma, Dezhang; Cheng, Wenjun; Feng, Wei; Xing, Danmou; Kan, Wusheng; Xiao, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Background Adrenomedullin, a recently identified myokine, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, we aimed to assess the correlation of adrenomedullin concentrations with the presence and grade of severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Material/Methods We recruited 187 knee OA patients and 109 healthy subjects. The severity of OA was evaluated using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Results Compared with the control group, the knee OA group revealed markedly higher adrenomedullin concentrations. Serum and synovial fluid (SF) adrenomedullin concentrations increased with increased KL grades. Conclusions Serum and SF adrenomedullin concentrations show a correlation with the severity of knee OA. PMID:27495944

  15. Correlation of Adrenomedullin Concentrations with Knee Osteoarthritis Grade.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linghua; Huang, Ruokun; Ma, Dezhang; Cheng, Wenjun; Feng, Wei; Xing, Danmou; Kan, Wusheng; Xiao, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adrenomedullin, a recently identified myokine, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, we aimed to assess the correlation of adrenomedullin concentrations with the presence and grade of severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 187 knee OA patients and 109 healthy subjects. The severity of OA was evaluated using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. RESULTS Compared with the control group, the knee OA group revealed markedly higher adrenomedullin concentrations. Serum and synovial fluid (SF) adrenomedullin concentrations increased with increased KL grades. CONCLUSIONS Serum and SF adrenomedullin concentrations show a correlation with the severity of knee OA. PMID:27495944

  16. Anterior knee pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... places extra stress on the kneecap (such as running, jumping or twisting, skiing, or playing soccer). You ... noticeable with: Deep knee bends Going down stairs Running downhill Standing up after sitting for awhile

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Iversen, Maura D.; Harvey, William F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985) Setting An urban tertiary care academic hospital. Patients 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Intervention Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). Measurements The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. Results At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, −10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Limitation Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Conclusion Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Primary Funding Source National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of

  18. Lower Limbs Function and Pain Relationships after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tali, Maie; Maaroos, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate gait characteristics, lower limbs joint function, and pain relationships associated with knee osteoarthritis of female patients before and 3 months after total knee arthroplasty at an outpatient clinic rehabilitation department. Gait parameters were registered, the active range of lower extremity joints was…

  19. Acupuncture modulates cortical thickness and functional connectivity in knee osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Spaeth, Rosa B; Retzepi, Kallirroi; Ott, Daniel; Kong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated cortical thickness and functional connectivity across longitudinal acupuncture treatments in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Over a period of four weeks (six treatments), we collected resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans from 30 patients before their first, third and sixth treatments. Clinical outcome showed a significantly greater Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain score (improvement) with verum acupuncture compared to the sham acupuncture. Longitudinal cortical thickness analysis showed that the cortical thickness at left posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pMPFC) decreased significantly in the sham group across treatment sessions as compared with verum group. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis using the left pMPFC as a seed showed that after longitudinal treatments, the rsFC between the left pMPFC and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), medial frontal pole (mFP) and periaquiduct grey (PAG) are significantly greater in the verum acupuncture group as compared with the sham group. Our results suggest that acupuncture may achieve its therapeutic effect on knee OA pain by preventing cortical thinning and decreases in functional connectivity in major pain related areas, therefore modulating pain in the descending pain modulatory pathway. PMID:25258037

  20. Efficacy of action potential simulation and interferential therapy in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharsadat, Bina; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Kolahi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of pain, physical impairment and chronic disability in older people. Electrotherapeutic modalities such as interferential therapy (IFT) and action potential simulation (APS) are used for the treatment of knee OA. In this study, we aim to evaluate the therapeutic effects of APS and IFT on knee OA. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 67 patients (94% female and 6% male with mean age of 52.80 ± 8.16 years) with mild and moderate knee OA were randomly assigned to be treated with APS (n = 34) or IFT (n = 33) for 10 sessions in 4 weeks. Baseline and post-treatment Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) subscales, visual analogue scale (VAS) and timed up and go (TUG) test were measured in all patients. Results: VAS and WOMAC subscales were significantly improved after treatment in APS and IFT groups (p < 0.001 for all). TUG was also significantly improved after treatment in APS group (p < 0.001), but TUG changes in IFT was not significant (p = 0.09). There was no significant difference in VAS, TUG and WOMAC subscales values before and after treatment as well as the mean improvement in VAS, TUG and WOMAC subscales during study between groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both APS and IFT could significantly reduce pain and improve physical function in patients with knee OA. PMID:26029268

  1. SYNOVITIS IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A PRECURSOR OF DISEASE?

    PubMed Central

    Atukorala, I.; Kwoh, C. K.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F. W.; Boudreau, R. M.; Hannon, M. J.; Hunter, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown whether joint inflammation precedes other articular tissue damage in osteoarthritis. Therefore, this study aims to determine if synovitis precedes the development of radiographic knee OA (ROA). Methods The participants in this nested case-control study were selected from knees in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) that had a Kellgren Lawrence grading (KLG)=0 baseline (BL). These knees were evaluated annually with radiography and non contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over 4-years. MRIs were assessed for effusion-synovitis and Hoffa-synovitis. Case knees were defined by radiographic knee osteoarthritis (ROA) (KLG >=2) on the postero-anterior knee radiographs at any assessment after baseline. Radiographs were assessed at P0 (time of onset of radiographic knee OA), 1 year prior to P0 (P-1) and at BL. Controls were participants who did not develop incident ROA (iROA) from baseline to 48 months). Results 133 knees of 120 persons with ROA (83 females) were matched to 133 control knees (83 females). Odds ratios (OR) for occurrence of iROA associated with the presence of effusion-synovitis at BL, P-1 and PO were 1.56 (95% CI 0.86–2.81), 3.23 (1.72–6.06) and 4.7(1.10–2.95), respectively. The ORs for the occurrence of iROA associated with the presence of Hoffa-synovitis at BL, P-1 and P0 were 1.80 (1.1–2.95), 2.47 (1.45–4.23) and 2.40 (1.43–4.04), respectively. Conclusions Effusion-synovitis and Hoffa-synovitis strongly predicted the development of incident ROA. PMID:25488799

  2. Greater Step Widths Reduce Internal Knee Abduction Moments in Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis Patients During Stair Ascent.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Max R; Klipple, Gary; Zhang, Songning

    2015-08-01

    Increased step widths have been shown to reduce peak internal knee abduction moments in healthy individuals but not in knee osteoarthritis patients during stair descent. This study aimed to assess effects of increased step widths on peak knee abduction moments and associated variables in adults with medial knee osteoarthritis and healthy older adults during stair ascent. Thirteen healthy older adults and 13 medial knee osteoarthritis patients performed stair ascent using preferred, wide, and wider step widths. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) using an instrumented staircase were collected. Increased step width reduced first and second peak knee abduction moments, and knee abduction moment impulse. In addition, frontal plane GRF at time of first and second peak knee abduction moment and lateral trunk lean at time of first peak knee abduction moment were reduced with increased step width during stair ascent in both groups. Knee abduction moment variables were not different between knee osteoarthritis patients and healthy controls. Our findings suggest that increasing step width may be an effective simple gait alteration to reduce knee abduction moment variables in both knee osteoarthritis and healthy adults during stair ascent. However, long term effects of increasing step width during stair ascent in knee osteoarthritis and healthy adults remain unknown. PMID:25781222

  3. Abnormal loading of the major joints in knee osteoarthritis and the response to knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Andrew; Stewart, Caroline; Postans, Neil; Barlow, David; Dodds, Alexander; Holt, Cathy; Whatling, Gemma; Roberts, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is common and patients frequently complain that they are 'overloading' the joints of the opposite leg when they walk. However, it is unknown whether moments or co-contractions are abnormal in the unaffected joints of patients with single joint knee osteoarthritis, or how they change following treatment of the affected knee. Twenty patients with single joint medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were compared to 20 asymptomatic control subjects. Gait analysis was performed for normal level gait and surface EMG recordings of the medial and lateral quadriceps and hamstrings were used to investigate co-contraction. Patients were followed up 12 months post-operatively and the analysis was repeated. Results are presented for the first 14 patients who have attended follow-up. Pre-operatively, adduction moment impulses were elevated at both knees and the contra-lateral hip compared to controls. Co-contraction of hamstrings and quadriceps was elevated bilaterally. Post-operatively, moment waveforms returned to near-normal levels at the affected knee and co-contraction fell in the majority of patients. However, abnormalities persisted in the contra-lateral limb with partial or no recovery of both moment waveforms and co-contraction in the majority. Patients with knee osteoarthritis do experience abnormal loads of their major weight bearing joints bilaterally, and abnormalities persist despite treatment of the affected limb. Further treatment may be required if we are to protect the other major joints following joint arthroplasty. PMID:22841587

  4. Cryopreserved Amniotic Suspension for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vines, Jeremy B; Aliprantis, Antonios O; Gomoll, Andreas H; Farr, Jack

    2016-08-01

    There are few treatment options for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). Human amniotic suspension allografts (ASA) have anti-inflammatory and chondroregenerative potential and thus represent a promising treatment strategy. In anticipation of a large, placebo-controlled trial of intra-articular ASA for symptomatic knee OA, an open-label prospective feasibility study was performed. Six patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grades 3 and 4 tibiofemoral knee OA were administered a single intra-articular ASA injection containing cryopreserved particulated human amnion and amniotic fluid cells. Patients were followed for 12 months after treatment. No significant injection reactions were noted. Compared with baseline there were (1) no significant effect of the ASA injection on blood cell counts, lymphocyte subsets, or inflammatory markers and (2) a small, but statistically significant increase in serum IgG and IgE levels. Patient-reported outcomes including International Knee Documentation Committee, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores were collected throughout the study and evaluated for up to 12 months. Overall, this study demonstrates the feasibility of a single intra-articular injection of ASA for the treatment of knee OA and provides the foundation for a large placebo-controlled trial of intra-articular ASA for symptomatic knee OA. PMID:26683979

  5. Pain relief and improved physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients receiving ongoing hylan G-F 20, a high-molecular-weight hyaluronan, versus other treatment options: data from a large real-world longitudinal cohort in Canada.

    PubMed

    Petrella, Robert J; Wakeford, Craig

    2015-01-01

    From the Southwestern Ontario database, one of the largest primary-care datasets in Canada, 1,263 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of one or both knees were identified who received two consecutive series of intra-articular (IA) injections of hylan G-F 20 preparation and no other prescribed OA medications, and were evaluated fully between 2006 and 2012. A cohort of 3,318 demographically matched OA patients who had not been treated with IA injection therapy was identified from the same database for comparison. Responses to therapy were assessed by means of a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain at rest and after completion of a 6-minute walk test (6 MWT), while physical capacity was measured by performance in the 6 MWT itself. After two cycles of hylan G-F 20 therapy, the average VAS score for pain at rest declined from 7.82 ± 1.27 at baseline to 4.16 ± 1.51 (average change 3.66 ± 1.78, significantly more than the reduction of 3.12 ± 2.03 seen in the reference group [P < 0.012]) and the average VAS score for pain after the 6 MWT decreased by 5.56 ± 1.74 points (from 9.58 ± 0.4 at baseline to 4.02 ± 1.67 at the final assessment), a significantly larger change than that seen in the reference group (Δ2.99 ± 1.85; P<0.001 for intergroup comparison). Distance walked in the 6 MWT increased on average by 115 m, significantly more than that seen in the reference group (Δ91 m; P < 0.001 for intergroup comparison). These findings from a primary-care database suggest sustained benefits in terms of pain and physical function from repeat cycles of IA injections of hylan G-F 20 and no other prescribed OA medications in adults with OA of the knee. PMID:26508838

  6. Pain relief and improved physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients receiving ongoing hylan G-F 20, a high-molecular-weight hyaluronan, versus other treatment options: data from a large real-world longitudinal cohort in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Robert J; Wakeford, Craig

    2015-01-01

    From the Southwestern Ontario database, one of the largest primary-care datasets in Canada, 1,263 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of one or both knees were identified who received two consecutive series of intra-articular (IA) injections of hylan G-F 20 preparation and no other prescribed OA medications, and were evaluated fully between 2006 and 2012. A cohort of 3,318 demographically matched OA patients who had not been treated with IA injection therapy was identified from the same database for comparison. Responses to therapy were assessed by means of a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain at rest and after completion of a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), while physical capacity was measured by performance in the 6MWT itself. After two cycles of hylan G-F 20 therapy, the average VAS score for pain at rest declined from 7.82±1.27 at baseline to 4.16±1.51 (average change 3.66±1.78, significantly more than the reduction of 3.12±2.03 seen in the reference group [P<0.012]) and the average VAS score for pain after the 6MWT decreased by 5.56±1.74 points (from 9.58±0.4 at baseline to 4.02±1.67 at the final assessment), a significantly larger change than that seen in the reference group (Δ2.99±1.85; P<0.001 for intergroup comparison). Distance walked in the 6MWT increased on average by 115 m, significantly more than that seen in the reference group (Δ91 m; P<0.001 for intergroup comparison). These findings from a primary-care database suggest sustained benefits in terms of pain and physical function from repeat cycles of IA injections of hylan G-F 20 and no other prescribed OA medications in adults with OA of the knee. PMID:26508838

  7. The effect of exercise therapy on knee osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Parisa; Farzinmehr, Azizeh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease among old individuals which affects ability for sitting on the chair, standing, walking and climbing stairs. Our objective was to investigate the short and long-term effects of the most simple and the least expensive exercise protocols in combination to conventional conservative therapy for knee OA. Methods: It was a single blind RCT study with a 12-months follow-up. Totally, 56 patients with knee OA were assigned into 2 random groups. The patients in exercise group received exercise for knee muscles in combination with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 10 sessions acupuncture and physiotherapy modalities. Non-exercise group received similar treatments except exercise program. The changes in patients’ pain and functional status were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), knee and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) questionnaire and functional tests (4 steps, 5 sit up, and 6 min walk test) before and after treatment (1 and 3 months after intervention), and 1 year later at the follow-up. Results: The results showed that the patients with knee OA in exercise group had significant improvement in pain, disability, walking, stair climbing, and sit up speed after treatment at first and second follow-up when compared with their initial status and when compared with non-exercise group. At third follow up (1 year later) there was significant difference between groups in VAS and in three items of KOOS questionnaire in functional status. Conclusion: Non aerobic exercises for muscles around knee can augment the effect of other therapeutic interventions like medical therapy, acupuncture, and modalities for knee OA. PMID:26034739

  8. The Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis: A Mechanical Perspective on the Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kevin R.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Vincent, Heather K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent cause of disability in the United States, with the medial compartment of the knee being the most commonly affected.1 The initiation and progression of knee OA is influenced by many factors including kinematics. In response to loading during weight bearing, cartilage in healthy knees demonstrates spatial adaptations in morphology and mechanical properties. These adaptations allow certain regions of the cartilage to respond to loading while other regions are less well suited to accommodate loading. Alterations in normal knee kinematics shift loading from those cartilage regions adapted for loading to regions less well suited. This leads to the initiation and progression of degenerative processes consistent with knee OA. Kinematic variables associated with the development, progression and severity of knee OA are the adduction moment (Madd) and tibiofemoral rotation. Due to its strong correlation with disease progression and pain, the peak Madd during gait has been identified as a target for treatment design. Gait modification offers a non-invasive option for seeking significant reductions. Gait modification has the potential to reduce pain and slow the progression of medial compartment knee OA. PMID:22632700

  9. Effect of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda on Sandhigata Vata (osteoarthritis of knee joint).

    PubMed

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Perera, Manaram; Kumarasinghe, Nishantha

    2014-01-01

    Reported case was a 63-year-old female with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) (Sandhigata Vata) of the left knee joint accompanied by exostoses. Radiology (X-ray) report confirmed it as a Kellgren-Lawrence grade III or less with exostoses. At the beginning, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were poor, and function score was fair. Srilankan traditional and Ayurveda medicine treatment was given in three regimens for 70 days. After 70 days, external treatment of oleation and 2 capsules of Shallaki (Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch) and two tablets of Jeewya (comprised of Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Millers. and Terminalia chebula Retz.), twice daily were continued over 5 months. Visual analogue scale for pain, knee scores in the Knee Society online rating system and a Ayurveda clinical assessment criteria was used to evaluate the effects of treatments in weekly basis. After treatment for 70 days, the Knee Society Rating System scores of pain, movement and stability were also improved up to good level and function score was improved up to excellent level. During the follow-up period, joint symptoms and signs and the knee scores were unchanged. In conclusion, this OA patient's quality of life was improved by the combined treatment of Sri Lankan traditional medicine and Ayurveda. PMID:26195904

  10. Myofascial pain in patients waitlisted for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Richard; Cahill, Catherine M; Wood, Gavin; Hroch, Jennifer; Wilson, Rosemary; Cupido, Tracy; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knee pain is one of the major sources of pain and disability in developed countries, particularly in aging populations, and is the primary indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of myofascial pain in OA patients waitlisted for TKA and to determine whether their knee pain may be alleviated by trigger point injections. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 25 participants were recruited from the wait list for elective unilateral primary TKA at the study centre. After providing informed consent, all participants were examined for the presence of active trigger points in the muscles surrounding the knee and received trigger point injections of bupivacaine. Assessments and trigger point injections were implemented on the first visit and at subsequent visits on weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. Outcome measures included the Timed Up and Go test, Brief Pain Inventory, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. RESULTS: Myofascial trigger points were identified in all participants. Trigger point injections significantly reduced pain intensity and pain interference, and improved mobility. All participants had trigger points identified in medial muscles, most commonly in the head of the gastrocnemius muscle. An acute reduction in pain and improved functionality was observed immediately following intervention, and persisted over the eight-week course of the investigation. CONCLUSION: All patients had trigger points in the vastus and gastrocnemius muscles, and 92% of patients experienced significant pain relief with trigger point injections at the first visit, indicating that a significant proportion of the OA knee pain was myofascial in origin. Further investigation is warranted to determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and whether treatment delays or prevents TKA. PMID:23061082

  11. The Monoiodoacetate Model of Osteoarthritis Pain in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Thomas; Sousa-Valente, João; Malcangio, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    A major symptom of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) is pain that is triggered by peripheral as well as central changes within the pain pathways. The current treatments for OA pain such as NSAIDS or opiates are neither sufficiently effective nor devoid of detrimental side effects. Animal models of OA are being developed to improve our understanding of OA-related pain mechanisms and define novel pharmacological targets for therapy. Currently available models of OA in rodents include surgical and chemical interventions into one knee joint. The monoiodoacetate (MIA) model has become a standard for modelling joint disruption in OA in both rats and mice. The model, which is easier to perform in the rat, involves injection of MIA into a knee joint that induces rapid pain-like responses in the ipsilateral limb, the level of which can be controlled by injection of different doses. Intra-articular injection of MIA disrupts chondrocyte glycolysis by inhibiting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphatase dehydrogenase and results in chondrocyte death, neovascularization, subchondral bone necrosis and collapse, as well as inflammation. The morphological changes of the articular cartilage and bone disruption are reflective of some aspects of patient pathology. Along with joint damage, MIA injection induces referred mechanical sensitivity in the ipsilateral hind paw and weight bearing deficits that are measurable and quantifiable. These behavioral changes resemble some of the symptoms reported by the patient population, thereby validating the MIA injection in the knee as a useful and relevant pre-clinical model of OA pain. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of intra-articular injections of MIA and the behavioral recordings of the associated development of hypersensitivity with a mind to highlight the necessary steps to give consistent and reliable recordings. PMID:27214709

  12. Use of the KineSpring system in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    MADONNA, VINCENZO; CONDELLO, VINCENZO; PIOVAN, GIANLUCA; SCREPIS, DANIELE; ZORZI, CLAUDIO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the purpose of this study was to analyze our preliminary results obtained with the KineSpring system in patients suffering from medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods between September 2012 and May 2014, 53 patients underwent treatment with the KineSpring system. Patient self-assessment was performed pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, and included the KOOS, Tegner activity score, Lysholm functional knee score, VAS knee pain score, and IKDC score. Device- and procedure-related adverse events were recorded. Results mean KOOS subscales, except for the Sport/Recreation subscale at six months, improved over time. Mean WOMAC Pain and Function domains, Lysholm score, IKDC score and VAS knee pain score improved over the follow-up period and were significantly improved at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively compared to baseline. Mean Tegner score improved slightly over time. In 5 of the 53 (9.4%) patients re-operation was necessary. In 3 patients the device was removed due to infection (one case) or persistent knee pain (two cases). Surgical arthrolysis was performed in two patients. Conclusions in our preliminary experience, the KineSpring system gave good short-term clinical results. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:26889469

  13. Current Surgical Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rönn, Karolin; Reischl, Nikolaus; Gautier, Emanuel; Jacobi, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Osteoathritis (OA) of the knee is common, and the chances of suffering from OA increase with age. Its treatment should be initially nonoperative—and requires both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment modalities. If conservative therapy fails, surgery should be considered. Surgical treatments for knee OA include arthroscopy, cartilage repair, osteotomy, and knee arthroplasty. Determining which of these procedures is most appropriate depends on several factors, including the location, stage of OA, comorbidities on the one side and patients suffering on the other side. Arthroscopic lavage and débridement is often carried out, but does not alter disease progression. If OA is limited to one compartment, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty or unloading osteotomy can be considered. They are recommended in young and active patients in regard to the risks and limited durability of total knee replacement. Total arthroplasty of the knee is a common and safe method in the elderly patients with advanced knee OA. This paper summarizes current surgical treatment strategies for knee OA, with a focus on the latest developments, indications and level of evidence. PMID:22046517

  14. A systematic review investigating the efficacy of laterally wedged insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Penny, P; Geere, J; Smith, Toby O

    2013-10-01

    A conservative management strategy for knee osteoarthritis is the lateral wedge insole (LWI). The theoretical basis for this intervention is to correct tibiofemoral malalignment, thereby reducing pain and optimising function. This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the effectiveness and safety of LWI for the treatment for knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review was performed, searching published (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library) and unpublished literature from their inception to August 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included that compared the use of LWI with a neutral insole or control intervention for people with medial compartment osteoarthritis. Risk of bias and clinical relevance were assessed, and outcomes were analysed through meta-analysis. From a total of 3,105 citations, 10 studies adhered to the a priori eligibility criteria. These included 1,095 people; 535 participants were allocated to receive LWI insoles compared to 509 in control groups. Eight per cent of papers were of high quality with low risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference between LWI and neutral insoles for pain, function, analgesic requirement, compliance or complications (p ≥ 0.07). Those who received LWI demonstrated lower non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirements (p < 0.001). To conclude, there is limited evidence to support the prescription of LWI to people with medial compartment osteoarthritis to reduce pain and increase function. However, there remains a paucity of evidence to determine whether LWI outcomes differ in subgroups of the patients, such as severe compared to mild osteoarthritis, obese patients, or whether the angle of LWI is of clinical importance. PMID:23612781

  15. The Complexity of Human Walking: A Knee Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Kotti, Margarita; Duffell, Lynsey D.; Faisal, Aldo A.; McGregor, Alison H.

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a framework for deconstructing complex walking patterns to create a simple principal component space before checking whether the projection to this space is suitable for identifying changes from the normality. We focus on knee osteoarthritis, the most common knee joint disease and the second leading cause of disability. Knee osteoarthritis affects over 250 million people worldwide. The motivation for projecting the highly dimensional movements to a lower dimensional and simpler space is our belief that motor behaviour can be understood by identifying a simplicity via projection to a low principal component space, which may reflect upon the underlying mechanism. To study this, we recruited 180 subjects, 47 of which reported that they had knee osteoarthritis. They were asked to walk several times along a walkway equipped with two force plates that capture their ground reaction forces along 3 axes, namely vertical, anterior-posterior, and medio-lateral, at 1000 Hz. Data when the subject does not clearly strike the force plate were excluded, leaving 1–3 gait cycles per subject. To examine the complexity of human walking, we applied dimensionality reduction via Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis. The first principal component explains 34% of the variance in the data, whereas over 80% of the variance is explained by 8 principal components or more. This proves the complexity of the underlying structure of the ground reaction forces. To examine if our musculoskeletal system generates movements that are distinguishable between normal and pathological subjects in a low dimensional principal component space, we applied a Bayes classifier. For the tested cross-validated, subject-independent experimental protocol, the classification accuracy equals 82.62%. Also, a novel complexity measure is proposed, which can be used as an objective index to facilitate clinical decision making. This measure proves that knee osteoarthritis subjects exhibit more

  16. Symptomatic Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee Treated With Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Dnyanesh; Petrera, Massimo; Karnatzikos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In vitro and in vivo studies have proven a pro-anabolic and anti-catabolic activity within cartilage with the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). This has piqued interest of sports physicians for its use in the treatment of early osteoarthritis (OA). The aim was to determine if the use of PEMFs in patients with early OA of the knee would lead to an improved clinical outcome. Study design: Prospective case series. Methods: Twenty-two patients aged between 30 and 60 years who underwent treatment with PEMFs (4-hour treatment per day, duration 45 days) were included. All patients presented with symptomatic early OA with grade 0-2 changes (Kellgren-Lawrence classification) at the pretreatment evaluation. Patients were evaluated before treatment, at 1- and 2-year follow-up using visual analogue scale for pain, International Knee Documentation Committee objective, Tegner, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores. Results: A significant improvement in all scores was observed at 1-year follow-up (P = 0.008). At 2-year follow-up, results deteriorated but were still superior to pretreatment levels (P = 0.02). No adverse reactions or side effects were seen. Conclusions: This study showed that the use of PEMFs in patients with symptomatic early OA of the knee led to significant improvement in symptoms, knee function, and activity at 1-year follow-up. There was a significant decline in all the scores at 2-year follow-up. PMID:26069687

  17. A natural mineral supplement provides relief from knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Frestedt, Joy L; Walsh, Melanie; Kuskowski, Michael A; Zenk, John L

    2008-01-01

    Background This small, pilot study evaluated the impact of treatment with a natural multi-mineral supplement from seaweed (Aquamin) on walking distance, pain and joint mobility in subjects with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Subjects (n = 70) with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to four double-blinded treatments for 12 weeks: (a) Glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/d); (b) Aquamin (2400 mg/d); (c) Combined treatment composed of Glucosamine sulfate (1500 mg/d) plus Aquamin (2400 mg/d) and (d) Placebo. Primary outcome measures were WOMAC scores and 6 Minute Walking Distances (6 MWD). Laboratory based blood tests were used as safety measures. Results Fifty subjects completed the study and analysis of the data showed significant differences between the groups for changes in WOMAC pain scores over time (p = 0.009 ANCOVA); however, these data must be reviewed with caution since significant differences were found between the groups at baseline for WOMAC pain and stiffness scores (p = 0.0039 and p = 0.013, respectively, ANOVA). Only the Aquamin and Glucosamine groups demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms over the course of the study. The combination group (like the placebo group) did not show any significant improvements in OA symptoms in this trial. Within group analysis demonstrated significant improvements over time on treatment for the WOMAC pain, activity, composite and stiffness (Aquamin only) scores as well as the 6 minute walking distances for subjects in the Aquamin and Glucosamine treatment groups. The Aquamin and Glucosamine groups walked 101 feet (+7%) and 56 feet (+3.5%) extra respectively. All treatments were well tolerated and the adverse events profiles were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion This small preliminary study suggested that a multi mineral supplement (Aquamin) may reduce the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis of the knee over 12 weeks of treatment and warrants

  18. Strontium ranelate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: new insights and emerging clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Reginster, Jean-Yves; Beaudart, Charlotte; Neuprez, Audrey; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a primary cause of disability and functional incapacity. Pharmacological treatment is currently limited to symptomatic management, and in advanced stages, surgery remains the only solution. The therapeutic armamentarium for osteoarthritis remains poor in treatments with an effect on joint structure, that is, disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are the only medications for which some conclusive evidence for a disease-modifying effect is available. Strontium ranelate is currently indicated for the prevention of fracture in severe osteoporosis. Its efficacy and safety as a DMOAD in knee osteoarthritis has recently been explored in the SEKOIA trial, a 3-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatients with knee osteoarthritis, Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or 3, and joint space width (JSW) of 2.5-5 mm received strontium ranelate 1 g/day (n = 558) or 2 g/day (n = 566), or placebo (n = 559). This sizable population was aged 62.9 years and had a JSW of 3.50 ± 0.84 mm. Treatment with strontium ranelate led to significantly less progression of knee osteoarthritis: estimates for annual difference in joint space narrowing versus placebo were 0.14 mm [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.23 mm; p < 0.001] for 1 g/day and 0.10 mm (95% CI 0.02-0.19 mm; p = 0.018) for 2 g/day, with no difference between strontium ranelate groups. Radiological progression was less frequent with strontium ranelate (22% with 1 g/day and 26% with 2 g/day versus 33% with placebo, both p < 0.05), as was radioclinical progression (8% and 7% versus 12%, both p < 0.05). Symptoms also improved with strontium ranelate 2 g/day only in terms of total WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) score (p = 0.045), and its components for pain (p = 0.028) and physical function (p = 0.099). Responder analyses using a range of criteria for symptoms indicated that the effect of strontium ranelate

  19. Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Viscosupplementation on Synovial Fluid Inflammation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Heather K; Percival, Susan S; Conrad, Bryan P; Seay, Amanda N; Montero, Cindy; Vincent, Kevin R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the changes in synovial fluid levels of cytokines, oxidative stress and viscosity six months after intraarticular hyaluronic acid (HA) treatment in adults and elderly adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: This was a prospective, repeated-measures study design in which patients with knee OA were administered 1% sodium hyaluronate. Patients (N=28) were stratified by age (adults, 50-64 years and elderly adults, ≥65 years). Ambulatory knee pain values and self-reported physical activity were collected at baseline and month six. Materials and Methods: Knee synovial fluid aspirates were collected at baseline and at six months. Fluid samples were analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1β, 6,8,12, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 4, 10 13), oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal) and viscosity at two different physiological shear speeds 2.5Hz and 5Hz. Results: HA improved ambulatory knee pain in adults and elderly groups by month six, but adults reported less knee pain-related interference with participation in exercise than elderly adults. A greater reduction in TNF-α occurred in adults compared to elderly adults (-95.8% ± 7.1% vs 19.2% ± 83.8%, respectively; p=.044). Fluid tended to improve at both shear speeds in adults compared to the elderly adults. The reduction in pain severity correlated with the change in IL-1β levels by month six (r= -.566; p=.044). Conclusion: Reduction of knee pain might be due to improvements in synovial fluid viscosity and inflammation. Cartilage preservation may be dependent on how cytokine, oxidative stress profiles and viscosity change over time. PMID:24093052

  20. Altered Frontal and Transverse Plane Tibiofemoral Kinematics and Patellofemoral Malalignments During Downhill Gait in Patients with Mixed Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Meholic, Brad; Chuang, Wei-Neng; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Patients with knee osteoarthritis often present with signs of mixed tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint disease. It has been suggested that altered frontal and transverse plane knee joint mechanics play a key role in compartment-specific patterns of knee osteoarthritis, but invivo evidence in support of this premise remains limited. Using Dynamic Stereo X-ray techniques, the aim of this study was to compare the frontal and transverse plane tibiofemoral kinematics and patellofemoral malalignments during the loading response phase of downhill gait in three groups of older adults: patients with medial tibiofemoral compartment and coexisting patellofemoral osteoarthritis (n=11); patients with lateral tibiofemoral compartment and coexisting patellofemoral osteoarthritis (n=10); and an osteoarthritis-free control group (n=22). Patients with lateral compartment osteoarthritis walked with greater and increasing degrees of tibiofemoral abduction compared to the medial compartment osteoarthritis and the control groups who walked with increasing degrees of tibiofemoral adduction. Additionally, the medial and lateral compartment osteoarthritis groups demonstrated reduced degrees of tibiofemoral internal rotation compared to the control group. Both medial and lateral compartment osteoarthritis groups also walked with increasing degrees of lateral patella tilt and medial patella translation during the loading response phase of downhill gait. Our findings suggest that despite the differences in frontal and transverse plane tibiofemoral kinematics between patients with medial and lateral compartment osteoarthritis, the malalignments of their arthritic patellofemoral joint appears to be similar. Further research is needed to determine if these kinematic variations are relevant targets for interventions to reduce pain and disease progression in patients with mixed disease. PMID:26087880

  1. Moxibustion is an Alternative in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guo-Min; Tian, Xu; Jin, Ying-Hui; Deng, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Hui; Pang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disorder in elderly. There is no known cure for KOA, and thus therapeutic strategies of alleviating symptoms are increasingly emphasized. Moxibustion has been widely used to treat KOA; however, results are inconclusive. The aim of our study is to critically reassess the effects of moxibustion on KOA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) through 25 November 2015. Two independent reviewers selected studies and abstracted information, as well as assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane risk of bias tool. The random-effects meta-analyses were performed based on abstracted data. We initially captured 163 citations and added 4 records through checking review. After critical appraisal, 13 RCTs were included. Meta-analyses indicated that moxibustion is not statistically different from oral drug in improving the response rate (MD = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.20; P = 0.05), alleviating pain and improving physical function. Our meta-analysis also found that moxibustion is superior to usual care and sham moxibustion in reducing WOMAC score (MD = 7.56; 95% CI = 4.11, 11.00; P = 0.00), pain and function, as well as increasing QoL. Moreover, most AEs caused by moxibustion can heal without medical care. We concluded that moxibustion treatment is equal to the oral drugs and intra-articular injections and may be an alternative in treating patients with KOA. PMID:26871839

  2. Managing Osteoarthritis Pain with Medicines: A Review of the Research for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... a> Consumer Summary – Feb. 15, 2012 Managing Osteoarthritis Pain With Medicines: A Review of the Research for ... or have injured a joint. Why manage the pain of osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis can be very painful and ...

  3. Biomechanical Analysis of Stair Descent in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Igawa, Tatsuya; Katsuhira, Junji

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics of patients with the knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) during stair descent and clarify the biomechanical factors related to their difficulty in stair descent. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy elderly persons and four knee OA patients participated in this study. A 3-D motion analysis system and force plates were employed to measure lower extremity joint angles, ranges of motion, joint moments, joint powers, and ratios of contribution for the joint powers while descending stairs. [Results] Knee joint flexion angle, extension moment, and negative power during the early stance phase in the knee OA group were smaller than those in the healthy subjects group. However, no significant changes in these parameters in the ankle joint were observed between the two subject groups. [Conclusion] Knee OA patients could not use the knee joint to absorb impact during the early stance phase of stair descent. Hence, they might compensate for the roles played by the intact knee joint by mainly using ipsilateral ankle kinematics and kinetics. PMID:24926119

  4. Anterolateral Portal Is Less Painful than Superolateral Portal in Knee Intra-Articular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Yup; GN, Kiran Kumar; Chung, Byung June; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intra-articular knee injections are commonly performed in clinical practice for treating various knee joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. When selecting the portal for injection, not only intra-articular needle accuracy but also procedural pain should be taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether injection through anterolateral portal provokes less pain and provides better pain relief compared to superolateral portal. Materials and Methods A total of 60 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee receiving intra-articular injections were randomized into 2 groups according to the type of portal approach; anterolateral or superolateral. All patients received hyaluronic acid (20 mg) and triamcinolone (40 mg) as the first injection followed by second and third injections of hyaluronic acid on a weekly basis. Underlying knee pain, procedural pain, and knee pain at 4 weeks were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Injection through anterolateral portal provoked less pain (VAS, 1.5±1.3) than the superolateral portal (VAS, 1.5 vs. 2.7; p=0.004). No differences were found in the degree of pain relief at weeks between the two groups (p=0.517). Conclusions We recommend the use of anterolateral portal for intra-articular knee injection as it provokes less pain and comparably short-term pain relief than the superolateral portal. PMID:26676089

  5. Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Cottino, Umberto; Governale, Giorgio; Cherubini, Valeria; Dettoni, Federico; Bruzzone, Matteo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term radiological and clinical outcomes of tibial tubercle osteotomy in patients affected by anterior knee pain. In addition, prognostic factors correlated with the outcomes were evaluated. Methods: The patients treated with tibial tubercle osteotomy (anteromedialization) for anterior knee pain between 2002 and 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria: 1) previous knee surgeries; 2) different procedures to treat anterior knee pain; 3) history of patellar dislocation, 4) Rheumatic conditions. Different variables were collected, as shown in. The patients were prospectively evaluated using the WOMAC short form and Kujala scores. An objective evaluation was performed looking for different potential risk factors and using part of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Radiological evaluation was performed, including the congruence angle, the grade of osteoarthritis (Kellegren-Lawrence) and the patellar tilt angle. Three main outcomes were identified. The multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the variables and a worse outcome. Results: 72 cases were included in the study (9 bilateral). 72.2% of the cases were female, and the average age was 42,2 years (SD15,9). The average BMI was 24.4 kg/m2 (SD5,2). In 70.8% of patients a lateral release was associated to the tibial tubercle osteotomy. 77.8% of patients were evaluated clinically, the remaining, who were unable to come for the visits, were interviewed and the subjective scores were administered by phone. The average follow-up was 68.4 months (SD35.5).In 62.5% of cases a valgus lower limb alignment was detected, with 25% and 39.3% of patients having respectively an increased femoral antiversion and foot pronation. Post-operatively there was a statistical significant improvement in all the scores. No differences in the pre-operative and post-operative congruence angle or patellar tilt were detected (p>0.05). All

  6. Disease-modifying drugs for knee osteoarthritis: can they be cost-effective?

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Daigle, Meghan E.; Reichmann, William M.; Suter, Lisa G.; Hunter, David J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Burbine, Sara A.; Paltiel, A. David; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) are under development. Our goal was to determine efficacy, toxicity, and cost thresholds under which DMOADs would be a cost-effective knee OA treatment. Design We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model, a validated computer simulation of knee OA, to compare guideline-concordant care to strategies that insert DMOADs into the care sequence. The guideline-concordant care sequence included conservative pain management, corticosteroid injections, total knee replacement (TKR), and revision TKR. Base case DMOAD characteristics included: 50% chance of suspending progression in the first year (resumption rate of 10% thereafter) and 30% pain relief among those with suspended progression; 0.5%/year risk of major toxicity; and costs of $1,000/year. In sensitivity analyses, we varied suspended progression (20–100%), pain relief (10–100%), major toxicity (0.1–2%), and cost ($1,000–$7,000). Outcomes included costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and TKR utilization. Results Base case DMOADs added 4.00 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and $230,000 per 100 persons, with an ICER of $57,500/QALY. DMOADs reduced need for TKR by 15%. Cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to likelihoods of suspended progression and pain relief. DMOADs costing $3,000/year achieved ICERs below $100,000/QALY if the likelihoods of suspended progression and pain relief were 20% and 70%. At a cost of $5,000, these ICERs were attained if the likelihoods of suspended progression and pain relief were both 60%. Conclusions Cost, suspended progression, and pain relief are key drivers of value for DMOADs. Plausible combinations of these factors could reduce need for TKR and satisfy commonly cited cost-effectiveness criteria. PMID:23380251

  7. Spa therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a large randomised multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Forestier, R; Desfour, H; Tessier, J-M; Françon, A; Foote, A M; Genty, C; Rolland, C; Roques, C-F; Bosson, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether spa therapy, plus home exercises and usual medical treatment provides any benefit over exercises and usual treatment, in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Methods Large multicentre randomised prospective clinical trial of patients with knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, attending French spa resorts as outpatients between June 2006 and April 2007. Zelen randomisation was used so patients were ignorant of the other group and spa personnel were not told which patients were participating. The main endpoint criteria were patient self-assessed. All patients continued usual treatments and performed daily standardised home exercises. The spa therapy group also received 18 days of spa therapy (massages, showers, mud and pool sessions). Main Endpoint The number of patients achieving minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) at 6 months, defined as ≥19.9 mm on the visual analogue pain scale and/or ≥9.1 points in a normalised Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index function score and no knee surgery. Results The intention to treat analysis included 187 controls and 195 spa therapy patients. At 6 months, 99/195 (50.8%) spa group patients had MCII and 68/187 (36.4%) controls (χ2=8.05; df=1; p=0.005). However, no improvement in quality of life (Short Form 36) or patient acceptable symptom state was observed at 6 months. Conclusion For patients with knee osteoarthritis a 3-week course of spa therapy together with home exercises and usual pharmacological treatments offers benefit after 6 months compared with exercises and usual treatment alone, and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT00348777. PMID:19734131

  8. [Platelet-rich plasma in knee osteoarthritis treatment].

    PubMed

    Simental-Mendía, Mario Alberto; Vílchez-Cavazos, José Félix; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The biological changes that commonly cause degenerative articular cartilage injuries in the knee are primarily associated to misalignment of the joint and metabolic changes related to age, as occurs in osteoarthritis. Furthermore, the capacity for cartilage self-regeneration is quite limited due to the lack of vascularity of the tissue. To date there is no ideal treatment capable to stimulate cartilage regeneration; thus there is a need to seek alternative therapies for the treatment of such conditions. The number of publications demonstrating the therapeutic and regenerative benefits of using platelet-rich plasma as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis has been increasing in recent years. In spite of encouraging results, there are still only a few randomised control studies with strong clinical evidence, lacking clarity on points such as the optimum formulation or the mechanism of action of platelet-rich plasma. Up to this point and based on the results of clinical studies, not all patients can benefit from this therapy. It is important to consider aspects such as the age and grade of cartilage degeneration. The aim of the present paper is to review the recent scientific literature on the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma, and the biological bases of this therapy, as well as presenting the current opinion on this subject. PMID:26116039

  9. Effect of chronic knee osteoarthritis on flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly females

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yeon-Gyu; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the flexion-relaxation phenomenon of the erector spinae in elderly women with chronic knee osteoarthritis and determined whether the flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in such cases. [Subjects and Methods] Seventeen elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis and 13 healthy young females voluntarily participated in this study. They performed three postural positions in 15 s: trunk flexion, complete trunk flexion, and trunk extension, each for 5 s. While these positions were held, muscle activation of the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae were measured using surface electromyography. The flexion-relaxation rate was determined by dividing the values for trunk extension by those of complete trunk flexion and by dividing the values for trunk flexion by those of complete trunk flexion. [Results] According to our results, the flexion-relaxation phenomenon was different between healthy young and elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. Specifically, there was a difference in the left thoracic erector spinae muscle, but not in the left and right lumbar erector spinae or right thoracic spinae muscle. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrated that the erector spinae muscle flexion-relaxation phenomenon can be used as a pain evaluation tool in elderly females with chronic knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27512244

  10. One-year results of voluntary-based supervised exercise or treatment at orthopedic clinic for radiographic severe knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Hirofumi; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Honjo, Hiroshi; Akao, Machiko; Tsujimoto, Toshiya; Ushida, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we investigated the efficacy of supervised physical exercise or conventional treatment on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis with severe morphological degeneration. [Subjects] Sixty-six patients with severe radiographic knee osteoarthritis were enrolled. [Methods] Participants were separated into two groups: in one group patients conducted physical exercise under supervision; while in the other group they were treated by conventional clinical methods for one year. Participants filled out two types of questionnaires; the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure and the Pain Disability Assessment Scale at baseline and one year following enrollment in the study. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine the effects over time and by group for a total of 43 participants; consisting of an exercise group (n=20) and a clinical group (n=23) excluding 23 dropouts. [Results] Analysis did not show a significant time-course effect or interaction between time-course and the groups in both questionnaires. On the other hand, there were significant group effects in both questionnaires with an advantage in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that patients with knee osteoarthritis under supervised exercise conditions are more likely to maintain a better clinical outcome at one-year follow-up, despite the severe morphological degeneration in their knees. PMID:27134382

  11. Effects of exercise on knee joints with osteoarthritis: a pilot study of biologic markers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautch, J. C.; Malone, D. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low intensity weight-bearing exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS: Synovial fluid keratan sulfate (KS) and hydroxyproline were measured as markers of cartilage degradation. The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) were used to measure health status, and a visual analog scale for pain assessment was used before and after intervention. An exercise (EX) group (n = 15) received a thrice-weekly 12-week low intensity exercise program and a weekly educational program, and a minimal treatment (Min RX) group (n = 15) received only the education program. RESULTS: Pain levels declined in the EX group, and the Min RX group showed improvement on the AIMS. Synovial fluid was obtained in 11 subjects before and after the intervention. Levels of KS and hydroxyproline did not change. CONCLUSION: Further study of exercise effects should include both clinical and biologic parameters to examine the outcome of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in OA of the knee.

  12. Reliability of a Proposed Ultrasonographic Grading Scale for Severity of Primary Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mortada, Mohamed; Zeid, Ayman; Al-Toukhy, Mirvat Abd El-hamid; Ezzeldin, Nillie; Elgawish, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of a grading scale (0–4) of medial femoral osteophytes in knee joint detected by ultrasound (US) compared with the corresponding grades (0–4) of Kellgren–Lawrence (K&L) scale of conventional radiography and clinical joint examination. PATIENTS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study included 160 patients with knee pain who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and 20 patients with knee pain who have not fulfilled the ACR criteria for KOA. All patients were subjected to clinical assessment (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis and global visual analog scale) and radiological assessment in the form of X-ray grading according to K&L grading scale and ultrasonographic assessment of medial femoral osteophytes according to a scale that was proposed by the first author and consisted of five grades (0–4), where grade 0 denoted no osteoarthritis and grade 4 denoted the most advanced grade of KOA. Grade 2 was divided into two subgrades A and B with grade 2B considered as a more advanced stage than grade 2A. RESULTS The proposed US grading scale had high sensitivity and specificity in detecting the different grades of KOA compared with K&L grading scale (a total sensitivity of 94.6% and a total specificity of 93.3%). Intra- and interreader reliability of US was excellent (kappa >0.93 and >0.85, respectively). CONCLUSIONS US can reliably detect the severity of KOA. Good agreement was found between the proposed US grading scale and K&L grading scale. The proposed US grading scale is simple and reliable. PMID:27478389

  13. The Painful Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Mitchell; Park, Andrew; Gerlinger, Tad L

    2016-04-01

    There are many causes of residual pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Evaluation and management begins with a comprehensive history and physical examination, followed by radiographic evaluation of the replaced and adjacent joints, as well as previous films of the replaced joint. Further workup includes laboratory analysis, along with a synovial fluid aspirate to evaluate the white blood cell count with differential as well as culture. Advanced imaging modalities may be beneficial when the diagnosis remains unclear. Revision surgery is not advisable without a clear diagnosis, as it may be associated with poor results. PMID:26772940

  14. Osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: which coexisting disorders are disabling?

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; de Rooij, Mariëtte; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Veenhof, Cindy; Steultjens, Martijn P; Dekker, Joost

    2010-07-01

    Exercise therapy is generally recommended in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip or knee. However, coexisting disorders may bring additional impairments, which may necessitate adaptations to exercise for OA of the hip or knee. For the purpose of developing an adapted protocol for exercise therapy in OA patients with coexisting disorders, information is needed on which specific coexisting disorders in OA are associated with activity limitations and pain. To describe the relationship between specific coexisting disorders, activity limitations, and pain in patients with OA of the hip or knee, a cross-sectional cohort study among 288 older adults (50-85 years of age) with OA of hip or knee was conducted. Subjects were recruited from three rehabilitation centers and two hospitals. Demographic data, clinical data, information about coexisting disorders (i.e., comorbidity and other disorders), activity limitations (WOMAC: physical functioning domain), and pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)) were collected by questionnaire. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis. Coexisting disorders associated with activity limitations were chronic back pain or hernia, arthritis of the hand or feet, and other chronic rheumatic diseases (all musculoskeletal disorders); diabetes and chronic cystitis (non-musculoskeletal disorders); hearing impairments in a face-to-face conversation, vision impairments in long distances, and dizziness in combination with falling (all sensory impairments); and overweight and obesity. Coexistent disorders associated with pain were arthritis of the hand or feet, other chronic rheumatic diseases (musculoskeletal disorders), and diabetes (non-musculoskeletal disorder). Specific disorders coexisting next to OA and associated with additional activity limitations and pain were identified. These coexisting disorders need to be addressed in exercise therapy and rehabilitation for patients with OA of the hip or knee. PMID

  15. Varus Thrust and Knee Frontal Plane Dynamic Motion in Persons with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alison H.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Moisio, Kirsten C.; Almagor, Orit; Zhang, Yunhui; Cahue, September; Sharma, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Objective Varus thrust visualized during walking is associated with a greater medial knee and an increased risk of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Little is known about varus thrust presence determined by visual observation relates to quantitative gait kinematic We hypothesized that varus thrust presence is associated with greater knee frontal plane dynamic movement during the stance phase of gait. Methods Participants had knee OA in at least one knee. Trained examiners assessed participants for varus thrust presence during ambulation. Frontal plane knee motion during ambulation captured using external passive reflective markers and an 8-camera motion analysis system. To examine the cross-sectional relationship between varus thrust and frontal plane knee motion, used multivariable regression models with the quantitative motion measures as dependent variables and varus thrust (present/absent) as predictor; models were adjusted for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment. Results 236 persons [mean BMI: 28.5 kg/m2 (SD 5.5), mean age: 64.9 years (SD 10.4), 75.8% women] contributing 440 knees comprised the study sample. 82 knees (18.6%) had definite varus thrust. Knees with varus thrust had greater peak varus angle and greater peak varus angular velocity during stance than knees without varus thrust (mean differences 0.90° and 6.65°/sec, respectively). These patterns remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment. Conclusion Visualized varus thrust during walking was associated with a greater peak knee varus angular velocity and a greater peak knee varus angle during stance phase of gait. PMID:23948980

  16. Effectiveness of diclofenac versus acetaminophen in primary care patients with knee osteoarthritis: [NTR1485], DIPA-Trial: design of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is the most frequent chronic joint disease which causes pain and disability of especially hip and knee. According to international guidelines and the Dutch general practitioners guidelines for non-traumatic knee symptoms, acetaminophen should be the pain medication of first choice for osteoarthritis. However, of all prescribed pain medication in general practice, 90% consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs compared to 10% of acetaminophen. Because general practitioners may lack evidence showing a similar efficacy of acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, we present the design of a randomized open-label trial to investigate the efficacy of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac) compared with acetaminophen in new consulters with knee osteoarthritis in general practice. Methods/Design Patients aged 45 years or older consulting their general practitioner with non-traumatic knee pain, meeting the clinical American College of Rheumatology criteria, and with a pain severity score of 2 or higher (on a 0-10 scale), will be randomly allocated to either diclofenac (maximum daily dose of 150 mg) or acetaminophen (maximum daily dose of 3000 mg) for 2 weeks and, if required, an additional 1-2 weeks, with a total follow-up period of 12 weeks. The primary outcomes are knee pain measured with a daily diary, and pain and function measured with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) at baseline, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12-weeks follow-up. Secondary outcomes are patients' perceived recovery, quality of life, medical, patient, and productivity costs, compliance to therapy, co-interventions, and adverse reactions. Discussion The successful completion of this trial would lead to a better understanding of which medication should be used in the treatment of primary care patients with mild knee osteoarthritis. Trial registration Dutch trial registry NTR1485. PMID:20067607

  17. Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... osteoarthritis include loss of flexibility, limited movement, and pain and swelling within the joint. The condition results ... the margins of the joint. Part of the pain results from these bone spurs, which can restrict ...

  18. Real-Time Tracking of Knee Adduction Moment in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Song Joo; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Background The external knee adduction moment (EKAM) is closely associated with the presence, progression, and severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is a lack of convenient and practical method to estimate and track in real-time the EKAM of patients with knee OA for clinical evaluation and gait training, especially outside of gait laboratories. New Method A real-time EKAM estimation method was developed and applied to track and investigate the EKAM and other knee moments during stepping on an elliptical trainer in both healthy subjects and a patient with knee OA. Results Substantial changes were observed in the EKAM and other knee moments during stepping in the patient with knee OA. Comparison with Existing Method(s) This is the first study to develop and test feasibility of real-time tracking method of the EKAM on patients with knee OA using 3-D inverse dynamics. Conclusions The study provides us an accurate and practical method to evaluate in real-time the critical EKAM associated with knee OA, which is expected to help us to diagnose and evaluate patients with knee OA and provide the patients with real-time EKAM feedback rehabilitation training. PMID:24361759

  19. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (p< 0.006), and knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (p = 0.01) and knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  20. Persistent post-surgical pain and neuropathic pain after total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Drosos, Georgios I; Triantafilidou, Triantafilia; Ververidis, Athanasios; Agelopoulou, Cristina; Vogiatzaki, Theodosia; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence of persistent post-surgical pain (PPSP) and neuropathic pain (NP) after total knee replacement (TKR). METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for articles published until December 2014 in English language. Published articles were included if they referred to pain that lasts at least 3 mo after primary TKR for knee osteoarthritis, and measured pain with pain specific instruments. Studies that referred to pain caused by septic reasons and implant malalignment were excluded. Both prospective and retrospective studies were included and only 14 studies that match the inclusion criteria were selected for this review. RESULTS: The included studies were characterized by the heterogeneity on the scales used to measure pain and pre-operative factors related to PPSP and NP. The reported prevalence of PPSP and NP seems to be relatively high, but it varies among different studies. There is also evidence that the prevalence of post-surgical pain is related to the scale used for pain measurement. The prevalence of PPSP is ranging at 6 mo from 16% to 39% and at 12 mo from 13.1% to 23% and even 38% of the patients. The prevalence of NP at 6 mo post-operatively is ranging from 5.2% to 13%. Pre-operative factors related to the development of PPSP also differ, including emotional functioning, such as depression and pain catastrophizing, number of comorbidities, pain problems elsewhere and operations in knees with early grade of osteoarthritis. CONCLUSION: No firm conclusions can be reached regarding the prevalence of PPSP and NP and the related factors due to the heterogeneity of the studies. PMID:26301182

  1. Moving to Maintain Function in Knee Osteoarthritis: Evidence from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Semanik, Pamela; Song, Jing; Sharma, Leena; Nevitt, Michael; Mysiw, Jerry; Chang, Rowland W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the association between baseline physical activity and 1-year functional performance in adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Prospective cohort study of knee OA development and progression with 1-year follow-up. Setting Community Participants: Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) public data on 2274 adults with knee osteoarthritis (age 45–79 years) who participated in functional performance assessments (timed 20 meter walk and chair stand test) at baseline and 1-year followup. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure A good 1-year performance outcome (separately defined for walk time and chair stand measures) was improvement from baseline quintile or maintenance in the best quintile. Results Almost two in five persons with radiographic knee OA improved or maintained high performance at 1-year. Physical activity measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was significantly associated with good walk rate and chair stand outcomes (odds ratio per 40 units PASE [95% confidence interval]= 1.13, [1.13,1.17]and 1.10, [1.05,1.15], respectively), as were participation in sports/recreational activities (1.45, [1.23, 1.71] and 1.291.09,1.51], respectively), and lifestyle activities (1.11, [1.06, 1.16] and 1.09 [1.04,1.14], respectively). An independent protective relationship for these physical activity measures approached significance after adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors. Older adults reported the least baseline physical activity and least frequent good 1-year outcomes. Conclusions These findings support public health recommendations to be physically active in order to preserve function for persons with knee OA. Physical activity messages should specifically target older adults whose low activity levels may jeopardize their ability to maintain functional performance. PMID:20434608

  2. Effects of kinesiotherapy, ultrasound and electrotherapy in management of bilateral knee osteoarthritis: prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although recent advances in knee osteoarthritis (OA) treatment and evaluation were achieved, to the best of our knowledge, few studies have evaluated the longitudinal effect of therapeutic modalities on the functional exercise capacity of patients with knee OA. The purpose was to investigate the effects of kinesiotherapy and electrotherapy on functional exercise capacity, evaluated using the six-minute walk test (6-MWT) in patients with bilateral knee OA. Secondary measurements included range of motion (ROM), severity of knee pain (VAS), and a measure of perceived health and physical function, evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index. Methods A total of 40 women with bilateral knee OA were assigned to three groups: kinesiotherapy (KIN, n = 16), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, n = 12), or ultrasound (US, n = 10). The groups underwent 12 weeks of intervention twice per week. The participants were subjected to the 6-MWT, ROM, VAS and WOMAC index. These tests were performed before and after the intervention. The study was focused on outpatients and was carried out at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil. Results At follow-up, the KIN and US groups had significantly higher 6-MWT distances (19.8 ± 21.7 and 14.1 ± 22.5%, respectively) compared with their respective pre-intervention values. All treatments were effective for reducing pain and improving the WOMAC index. Conclusions We demonstrated that the 6-MWT is a tool that can be used to evaluate improvements in the functional exercise capacity of patients submitted to a clinical intervention. PMID:22999098

  3. Dual Release Paracetamol in Osteoarthritis of Knee: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raj, D. Gokul; Sharma, Ateet B.; Swami B., Mallikarjun; Batra, Sumit; Acharya, Apurv; Maroo, Sanjaykumar H.; Patel, Ketan R.; Prajapati, Vipul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol is recommended as first line agent for pain management in osteoarthritis (OA) by various guidelines. The main problem associated with management of osteoarthritis is long term patient compliance to paracetamol due to its frequent dosing. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Paracetamol 650 mg dual release tablet twice daily (PCM 650 dual release) compared to paracetamol 500mg immediate release tablet thrice daily (PCM 500 IR) in the treatment of Knee OA. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, open label, parallel, active controlled clinical study, 250 patients of OA knee meeting inclusion criteria were randomized to receive either PCM 650 dual release two times daily or PCM 500 IR three times daily for 6 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were severity of pain (Visual Analogue Scale) and Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) subscale for pain at week 2, 4 and 6. Other KOOS subscales (symptoms other than pain, function in daily living, function in sport and recreation, quality of life) and patient’s and physicians global assessment of therapy were included as secondary endpoints. Results: Both treatment groups showed improvement in primary endpoints at each evaluation visit. Patients receiving PCM 650 dual release showed significant improvement of pain in both primary endpoints at each study visit compared to patients receiving PCM 500 IR (p<0.001). PCM 650 dual release was significantly superior to PCM 500 IR for improvement in all KOOS subscales at each study visit (p<0.01). Less number of patients required additional rescue analgesics in PCM 650 dual release group (16% patients vs 26%, PCM 500 IR; p>0.05). Adverse effects were significantly less in PCM 650 dual release group (6% vs. 14% in PCM 500 IR; p<0.05). Patient’s and physician’s global assessment of therapy favoured PCM 650 dual release than PCM 500 IR (p<0.001). Conclusion: Patients with

  4. [Effectiveness and safety of intra-articular use of hyaluronic acid (Suplasyn I-Shot) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krzysztof, Miśkowiec; Artur, Gadek; Alicja, Jurecka; Justyna, Sówka; Jakub, Slusarski; Henryk, Liszka; Jerzy, Wordliczek

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of disability in the elderly. The changes in the lubricating properties of synovial fluid lead to significant pain and loss of function. Viscosupplementation, in which hyaluronic acid (HA) is injected into the knee joint, has evolved into an important part of our current therapeutic regimen in addressing the patient with knee pain due to OA. Intra-articular HA has proven to be an effective, safe, and tolerable treatment for symptomatic knee OA. In an effort to limit cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and renal safety concerns with COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs and maximize HA efficacy, it is even proposed using HA earlier in the treatment paradigm for knee OA and also as part of a comprehensive treatment strategy. Our study reconfirmed effectiveness and safety of intra-articular use of hyaluronic acid (Suplasyn) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27526423

  5. Associations between dietary antioxidants intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 4685 participants were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade 2 in at least one leg. A multivariable logistic analysis model was established to test the relationship between dietary antioxidants (carotenoid, vitamin C, E, and selenium) intake and radiographic knee OA with adjustment of a number of potential confounding factors. A significant positive association between dietary vitamin C intake (P value for trend was 0.04 in multivariable adjusted analysis) and radiographic knee OA was observed. The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were increased by 0.39 times in the third quintile (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.11-1.73), 0.42 times in the fourth quintile (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.13-1.79), and 0.33 times in the fifth quintile (OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.03-1.71). However, radiographic knee OA was not significantly associated with dietary carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium. Among dietary antioxidants, dietary vitamin C intake was positively correlated with the prevalence of radiographic knee OA, while no significant association was found between dietary intake of carotenoid, vitamin E, and selenium and the prevalence of radiographic knee OA. PMID:26781781

  6. Physical Exercise and Weight Loss for Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis in Very Old Patients: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quintrec, Jean-Laurent Le; Verlhac, Bernard; Cadet, Christian; Bréville, Philippe; Vetel, Jean M; Gauvain, Jean B; Jeandel, Claude; Maheu, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background : Rheumatologic and geriatric scholarly organisations recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, which emphasise the usefulness of non-pharmacological therapies, are not scaled according to patient’s age and physical condition. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on exercise and weight loss in hip and knee osteoarthritis in very old patients. Methods : Electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PASCAL database, systematic search of the Cochrane Reviews, manual search in guidelines, meta-analyses and identified relevant articles. Results : We identified 83 trials, with only 2 on patients aged ≥ 75 years; we therefore lowered the mean age threshold to 70 years and found 15 trials, mainly performed in knee osteoarthritis and outpatients. Physical exercise (8 trials): was effective on pain and function (4 controlled trials), with a persistent effect only in case of self-rehabilitation. Aquatic exercise (5 trials): was as effective as land-based exercise. Weight loss (2 trials): only patients under diet + exercise had significant improvement on symptoms. Conclusion : Our systematic review confirms that international recommendations on exercise for knee osteoarthritis also apply to subjects aged 70-80 years. Long-term effectiveness requires a maintenance strategy. Specific trials on very old patients with various comorbidities are mandatory, given that these subjects are more exposed to drug-related iatrogenesis. PMID:25489352

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Mudpack Therapy in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jie; Wu, Dongying; Li, Jian’an

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of mudpack therapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis and identify the likely factors associated with the high heterogeneity of combined studies. Design The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials in which mudpack therapy was used to treat knee osteoarthritis. Results Ten publications that reported the results from a total of 1010 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of improvement in joint function at the final follow-up visit suggested, given that the follow-up time was less than 4 mos, that the combined effect size of four studies was −0.30 (−0.62 to 0.02) and the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. When the follow-up time reached 4 mos, the combined effect size was −1.10 (−2.07 to −0.14) and the difference was significant. The I2 values of the two groups were 21.4% and 93.8%. Conclusion Functional improvement of the knee joint in patients treated with mudpack therapy was not significantly different from that of control subjects at the end of the 4-mo follow-up. The quality of current publications was a factor causing heterogeneity. PMID:26203645

  8. Effects of Native Type II Collagen Treatment on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bakilan, Fulya; Armagan, Onur; Ozgen, Merih; Tascioglu, Funda; Bolluk, Ozge; Alatas, Ozkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral native type II collagen treatment on the symptoms and biological markers of cartilage degradation, when given concomitantly with acetaminophen in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were included and randomly distributed into two groups: one treated with 1500 mg/day of acetaminophen (group AC; n=19) and the other treated with 1500 mg/day of acetaminophen plus 10 mg/day of native type II collagen (group AC+CII; n=20) for 3 months. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at rest and during walking, Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) pain, WOMAC function, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores, were recorded. Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2 and Fibulin-3 levels were quantified in urine as biomarkers of disease progression. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02237989. Results: After 3 months of treatment, significant improvements compared to baseline were reported in joint pain (VAS walking), function (WOMAC) and quality of life (SF-36) in the AC+CII group, while only improvements in some subscales of the SF-36 survey and VAS walking were detected in the AC group. Comparisons between the groups revealed a significant difference in VAS walking score in favour of the AC+CII group as compared to AC group. Biochemical markers of cartilage degradation in urine did not significantly improve in any of the groups. Conclusion: All in all, these results suggest that native type II collagen treatment combined with acetaminophen is superior to only acetaminophen for symptomatic treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27551171

  9. An open label, prospective, clinical study on a polyherbal formulation in osteoarthritis of knee

    PubMed Central

    Nipanikar, Sanjay U.; Saluja, Manjit; Kuber, Vinod V.; Kadbhane, Kalyan P.; Chopra, Arvind; Khade, Namdev R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Currently, though pharmacological, mechanical, and surgical interventions are used, there is no known cure for osteoarthritis (OA). Objectives: The main aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of “TLPL/AY/03/2008”, a polyherbal formulation on knee joint pain assessed on visual analogue scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Materials and Methods: It was an open label, single center, prospective, clinical study conducted in 36 patients of OA Knee. Two capsules of ‘TLPL/AY/03/2008’ were given to all patients twice daily orally after meals for 180 days. Results: Data describing quantitative measures are expressed as mean ± SD. Comparison of variables representing categorical data was performed using Chi-square test. The mean joint pain (as assessed on VAS) reduced significantly (59.85%; P < 0.05) and the mean WOMAC combined score, WOMAC pain sub-score, WOMAC stiffness sub-score, and WOMAC difficulty sub-score also reduced significantly at the end of the study. The mean time taken by the patients to walk 50 feet too, was reduced significantly (25.26%) at the end of the study. At the end of 4 months of the treatment, no patient needed paracetamol as rescue medicine to control pain. Most of the patients had shown good overall improvement assessed by the physician and by the patients. Majority of the patients showed excellent tolerability to the study drug. No significant change in most of the safety laboratory parameters was observed at the end of the study. Conclusion: The study provides good evidence in support of the efficacy and safety of the ‘TLPL/AY/03/2008’ in OA of knee. PMID:23741160

  10. Wearable Sensor-Based Rehabilitation Exercise Assessment for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun-Hui; Chen, Po-Chao; Liu, Kai-Chun; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Since the knee joint bears the full weight load of the human body and the highest pressure loads while providing flexible movement, it is the body part most vulnerable and susceptible to osteoarthritis. In exercise therapy, the early rehabilitation stages last for approximately six weeks, during which the patient works with the physical therapist several times each week. The patient is afterwards given instructions for continuing rehabilitation exercise by him/herself at home. This study develops a rehabilitation exercise assessment mechanism using three wearable sensors mounted on the chest, thigh and shank of the working leg in order to enable the patients with knee osteoarthritis to manage their own rehabilitation progress. In this work, time-domain, frequency-domain features and angle information of the motion sensor signals are used to classify the exercise type and identify whether their postures are proper or not. Three types of rehabilitation exercise commonly prescribed to knee osteoarthritis patients are: Short-Arc Exercise, Straight Leg Raise, and Quadriceps Strengthening Mini-squats. After ten subjects performed the three kinds of rehabilitation activities, three validation techniques including 10-fold cross-validation, within subject cross validation, and leave-one-subject cross validation are utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism. The overall recognition accuracy for exercise type classification is 97.29% and for exercise posture identification it is 88.26%. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed mechanism which can help patients perform rehabilitation movements and progress effectively. Moreover, the proposed mechanism is able to detect multiple errors at once, fulfilling the requirements for rehabilitation assessment. PMID:25686308

  11. High-Rosmarinic Acid Spearmint Tea in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, A. Erin; Tucker, Amy J.; Tulk, Hilary; Catapang, Marisa; Chapman, Lindsey; Sheikh, Natasha; Yurchenko, Svitlana; Fletcher, Ron; Kott, Laima S.; Duncan, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Individuals with medically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis (OA) participated in a randomized, double-blind study to investigate the effects of a high-rosmarinic acid (rosA) spearmint tea. Sixty-two participants were randomized by sex and screening pain score to consume tea brewed from a high-rosA spearmint variety or a commercially available spearmint twice daily for 16 weeks. Pain, quality of life (QoL), and physical function at baseline and week 16 were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and stair climb test (SCT). Data from 46 participants (mean age=60.7; BMI=32.9 kg/m2) were analyzed. Pain score significantly decreased from week 0 to 16 for the high-rosA group but not for the control group and scores for stiffness and physical disability significantly decreased from week 0 to 16 for both groups. Increased QoL score on the bodily pain index in the SF-36 was observed at week 16 within the high-rosA group only, although no significant differences were observed between the groups. A nonsignificant improvement was observed in the 6MWT at week 16 in the high-rosA group only. There were no changes in the SCT for either group. Therefore, 16-week daily consumption of the high-rosA and commercial spearmint teas significantly improved stiffness and physical disability scores in adults with knee OA, but only the high-rosA tea significantly decreased pain. Consumption of high-rosA tea warrants further consideration as a potential complementary therapy to reduce pain in OA. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01380015. PMID:25058311

  12. Development of a decision support system to predict physicians' rehabilitation protocols for patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Alshraideh, Mohammad A; Al-Ajlouni, Jihad M; Salah, Imad K; Holm, Margo B; Otom, Ali H

    2012-09-01

    To design a medical decision support system (MDSS) that would accurately predict the rehabilitation protocols prescribed by the physicians for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using only their demographic and clinical characteristics. The demographic and clinical variables for 170 patients receiving one of three treatment protocols for knee OA were entered into the MDSS. Demographic variables in the model were age and sex. Clinical variables entered into the model were height, weight, BMI, affected side, severity of knee OA, and severity of pain. All patients in the study received one of three treatment protocols for patients with knee OA: (a) hot packs, followed by electrotherapy and exercise, (b) ice packs, followed by ultrasound and exercise and (c) exercise alone. The resilient back propagation artificial neural network algorithm was used, with a ten-fold cross-validation. It was estimated that the MDSS is able to accurately predict the treatment prescribed by the physician for 87% of the patients. We developed an artificial neural network-based decision support system that can viably aid physicians in determining which treatment protocol would best match the anthropometric and clinical characteristics of patients with knee OA. PMID:22508428

  13. Validating Efficacy of Shea Nut Oil Extract in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sui-Foon; Wang, Yu-Chia; Chou, Tzu-Yi; Chang, Kang-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine and investigate the efficacy of shea nut oil extract (SheaFlex75) in relation to knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Thirty-three patients (age 63.6 ± 5.8 years) with knee OA were recruited. Real-time ultrasound imaging and surface electromyography were used to objectively assess the morphological changes and the activity of vastus medialis oblique (VMO) muscles during a 16-week intervention of SheaFlex75. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to examine the reliability of the interscans. A paired-sample t-test was used to compare the findings in different stages. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between the relevant variables of OA and percentage of thickness change of VMO at different contraction levels. Results. The baseline findings showed strong correlation, suggesting that the reliability of interscans at pretest was high. The ability to contract the muscles of the knee to a 30% contraction level showed significant change between the baseline and after 16-week testing, both in terms of morphological changes and muscle activity. Pain scale reported a significant decrease at the 16th week. Conclusion. The results suggest that SheaFlex75 can relieve the symptoms of knee OA and can result in improvement of muscle control of the knee. PMID:24454485

  14. How does surgery compare with advanced intra-articular therapies in knee osteoarthritis: current thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Wehling, Peter; Moser, Carsten; Maixner, William

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of osteoarthritis (OA) management are to reduce pain and inflammation, slow cartilage degradation, improve function and reduce disability. Current strategies for managing knee OA include nonpharmacological interventions, oral pharmacological treatments, localized intra-articular injections, and surgery. It has become evident that the inflammatory response is a key contributor to the development and progression of knee OA. Signaling pathways involving growth factors and cytokines are being investigated for the development of new therapies that target the underlying biological processes causing the disease. This concept of ‘molecular orthopedics’ enables more patient-centered diagnostic and treatment strategies. In contrast to other conservative therapies, which ultimately only address OA symptoms, intra-articular injections, in particular autologous conditioned serum (ACS), provide benefits that have the potential to outweigh those of established pharmacological treatments and surgery. Surgery has historically been considered the final solution for treatment of knee OA, both by treating physicians and by patients; however, there are increasing concerns regarding the lack of randomized clinical trials providing evidence to support this opinion. Intra-articular injection of ACS has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for knee OA in a number of studies, with a very low rate of adverse events and side effects, compared with surgery. Treatment with ACS utilizes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and regenerative growth factors to support the natural healing processes in the knee, and has the potential to provide a valuable alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:27247634

  15. State-of-the-Art management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fibel, Kenton H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Halpern, Brian C

    2015-02-16

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis found in the United States' population and is also the most common disease of joints in adults throughout the world with the knee being the most frequently affected of all joints. As the United States' population ages along with the increasing trends in obesity prevalence in other parts of the world, it is expected that the burden of OA on the population, healthcare system, and overall economy will continue to increase in the future without making major improvements in managing knee OA. Numerous therapies aim to reduce symptoms of knee OA and continued research has helped to further understand the complex pathophysiology of its disease mechanism attempting to uncover new potential targets for the treatment of OA. This review article seeks to evaluate the current practices for managing knee OA and discusses emerging therapies on the horizon. These practices include non-pharmacological treatments such as providing patient education and self-management strategies, advising weight loss, strengthening programs, and addressing biomechanical issues with bracing or foot orthoses. Oral analgesics and anti-inflammatories are pharmacologicals that are commonly used and the literature overall supports that some of these medications can be helpful for managing knee OA in the short-term but are less effective for long-term management. Additionally, more prolonged use significantly increases the risk of serious associated side effects that are not too uncommon. Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs are being researched as a treatment modality to potentially halt or slow disease progression but data at this time is limited and continued studies are being conducted to further investigate their effectiveness. Intra-articular injectables are also implemented to manage knee OA ranging from corticosteroids to hyaluronans to more recently platelet-rich plasma and even stem cells while several other injection therapies are

  16. State-of-the-Art management of knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fibel, Kenton H; Hillstrom, Howard J; Halpern, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis found in the United States’ population and is also the most common disease of joints in adults throughout the world with the knee being the most frequently affected of all joints. As the United States’ population ages along with the increasing trends in obesity prevalence in other parts of the world, it is expected that the burden of OA on the population, healthcare system, and overall economy will continue to increase in the future without making major improvements in managing knee OA. Numerous therapies aim to reduce symptoms of knee OA and continued research has helped to further understand the complex pathophysiology of its disease mechanism attempting to uncover new potential targets for the treatment of OA. This review article seeks to evaluate the current practices for managing knee OA and discusses emerging therapies on the horizon. These practices include non-pharmacological treatments such as providing patient education and self-management strategies, advising weight loss, strengthening programs, and addressing biomechanical issues with bracing or foot orthoses. Oral analgesics and anti-inflammatories are pharmacologicals that are commonly used and the literature overall supports that some of these medications can be helpful for managing knee OA in the short-term but are less effective for long-term management. Additionally, more prolonged use significantly increases the risk of serious associated side effects that are not too uncommon. Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs are being researched as a treatment modality to potentially halt or slow disease progression but data at this time is limited and continued studies are being conducted to further investigate their effectiveness. Intra-articular injectables are also implemented to manage knee OA ranging from corticosteroids to hyaluronans to more recently platelet-rich plasma and even stem cells while several other injection therapies are

  17. Rehabilitation Strategies for the Athletic Individual with Early Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Ihm, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a major cause of disability in the United States. The condition has most commonly been associated with elderly sedentary individuals; however, it also can affect those who participate in regular athletic activities. The diagnosis and management of these individuals can be challenging because of both their higher level of physical activity and their overall athletic goals. Treatment requires an appropriate exercise regimen, rehabilitation program, and education of both the athlete and the coach. The focus of our article is to provide an up-to-date overview of the evaluation and management of the athletic individual who presents with symptomatic early knee OA, in particular, the nonsurgical rehabilitation treatment options available to the practitioner and the evidence to support these recommendations. PMID:27172082

  18. Painful prosthesis: approaching the patient with persistent pain following total hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, Prisco; Iolascon, Giovanni; Innocenti, Massimo; Civinini, Roberto; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Muratore, Maurizio; D’Arienzo, Michele; Leali, Paolo Tranquilli; Carossino, Anna Maria; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Symptomatic severe osteoarthritis and hip osteoporotic fractures are the main conditions requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA), whereas total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is mainly performed for pain, disability or deformity due to osteoarthritis. After surgery, some patients suffer from “painful prosthesis”, which currently represents a clinical problem. Methods A systematic review of scientific literature has been performed. A panel of experts has examined the issue of persistent pain following total hip or knee arthroplasty, in order to characterize etiopathological mechanisms and define how to cope with this condition. Results Four major categories (non infective, septic, other and idiopathic causes) have been identified as possible origin of persistent pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Time to surgery, pain level and function impairment before surgical intervention, mechanical stress following prosthesis implant, osseointegration deficiency, and post-traumatic or allergic inflammatory response are all factors playing an important role in causing persistent pain after joint arthroplasty. Diagnosis of persistent pain should be made in case of post-operative pain (self-reported as VAS ≥3) persisting for at least 4 months after surgery, or new onset of pain (VAS ≥3) after the first 4 months, lasting ≥2 months. Acute pain reported as VAS score ≥7 in patients who underwent TJA should be always immediately investigated. Conclusions The cause of pain needs always to be indentified and removed whenever possible. Implant revision is indicated only when septic or aseptic loosening is diagnosed. Current evidence has shown that peri-and/or post-operative administration of bisphosphonates may have a role in pain management and periprosthetic bone loss prevention. PMID:24133526

  19. Efficacy of Home-Based Kinesthesia, Balance & Agility Exercise Training Among Persons with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Matthew W.; Tamulevicius, Nauris; Semple, Stuart J.; Krkeljas, Zarko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a home-based kinesthesia, balance and agility (KBA) exercise program to improve symptoms among persons age ≥ 50 years with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-four persons were randomly assigned to 8-weeks, 3 times per week KBA, resistance training (RT), KBA + RT, or Control. KBA utilized walking agility exercises and single-leg static and dynamic balancing. RT used elastic resistance bands for open chain lower extremity exercises. KBA + RT performed selected exercises from each technique. Control applied inert lotion daily. Outcomes included the OA specific WOMAC Index of Pain, Stiffness, and Physical Function (PF), community activity level, exercise self-efficacy, self-report knee stability, and 15m get up & go walk (GUG). Thirty-three participants [70.7 (SD 8.5) years] completed the trial. Analysis of variance comparing baseline, mid-point, and follow-up measures revealed significant (p < 0.05) improvements in WOMAC scores among KBA, RT, KBA + RT, and Control, with no differences between groups. However, Control WOMAC improvements peaked at mid-point, whereas improvement in the exercise conditions continued at 8-weeks. There were no significant changes in community activity level. Only Control improved exercise self-efficacy. Knee stability was improved in RT and Control. GUG improved in RT and KBA+RT. These results indicate that KBA, RT, or a combination of the two administered as home exercise programs are effective in improving symptoms and quality of life among persons with knee OA. Control results indicate a strong placebo effect in the short term. A combination of KBA and RT should be considered as part of the rehabilitation program, but KBA or RT alone may be appropriate for some patients. Studies with more statistical power are needed to confirm or refute these results. Patient presentation, preferences, costs, and convenience should be considered when choosing an exercise rehabilitation approach

  20. Simple Scoring System and Artificial Neural Network for Knee Osteoarthritis Risk Prediction: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Deok Won; Choi, Soo Beom; Oh, Ein; Park, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease of adults worldwide. Since the treatments for advanced radiographic knee OA are limited, clinicians face a significant challenge of identifying patients who are at high risk of OA in a timely and appropriate way. Therefore, we developed a simple self-assessment scoring system and an improved artificial neural network (ANN) model for knee OA. Methods The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES V-1) data were used to develop a scoring system and ANN for radiographic knee OA. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the scoring system. The ANN was constructed using 1777 participants and validated internally on 888 participants in the KNHANES V-1. The predictors of the scoring system were selected as the inputs of the ANN. External validation was performed using 4731 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic was calculated to compare the prediction models. Results The scoring system and ANN were built using the independent predictors including sex, age, body mass index, educational status, hypertension, moderate physical activity, and knee pain. In the internal validation, both scoring system and ANN predicted radiographic knee OA (AUC 0.73 versus 0.81, p<0.001) and symptomatic knee OA (AUC 0.88 versus 0.94, p<0.001) with good discriminative ability. In the external validation, both scoring system and ANN showed lower discriminative ability in predicting radiographic knee OA (AUC 0.62 versus 0.67, p<0.001) and symptomatic knee OA (AUC 0.70 versus 0.76, p<0.001). Conclusions The self-assessment scoring system may be useful for identifying the adults at high risk for knee OA. The performance of the scoring system is improved significantly by the ANN. We provided an ANN calculator to simply predict the knee OA risk. PMID:26859664

  1. A New Approach Yields High Rates of Radiographic Progression in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Felson, David T.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Yang, Mei; Clancy, Margaret; Niu, Jingbo; Torner, James C.; Lewis, C. Elizabeth; Aliabadi, Piran; Sack, Burton; McCulloch, Charles; Zhang, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    Objective Progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA) has typically been assessed in the medial tibiofemoral (TF) compartment on the anteroposterior (AP) or posteroanterior (PA) view. We propose a new approach using multiple views and compartments that is likely to be more sensitive to change and reveals progression throughout the knee. Methods We tested our approach in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a study of persons with OA or at high risk of disease. At baseline and 30 months, subjects provided PA (fixed flexion without fluoro) and lateral weight-bearing knee radiographs. Paired radiographs were read by 2 readers who scored joint space (JS) using a 0–3 atlas-based scale. When JS narrowed but narrowing did not reach a full grade on the scale, readers used half-grades. Change was scored in medial and lateral TF compartments on both PA and lateral views and in the patellofemoral (PF) joint on lateral view. A knee showed progression when there was at least a half-grade worsening in JS width in any compartment at followup. Disagreements were adjudicated by a panel of 3 readers. To validate progression, we tested definitions for TF progression to see if malalignment on long-limb radiographs at baseline (≥ 3° malaligned in any direction with nonmalaligned knees being reference) increased risk of progression. A valid definition of progression would show that malalignment strongly predicted progression. Results We studied 842 knees with either Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≥ 2 or PF OA at baseline in 606 subjects (age range 50–79 yrs, mean 63.9 yrs; 66.6% women). Mean body mass index was 31.9, and 32.8% of knees had frequent knee pain at baseline. Of these, 500 knees (59.4%) showed progression. Of the 500, 75 (15%) had progression only in the PF joint, while the remainder had progression in the TF joint. Malalignment increased the risk of overall progression in TF joint and increased the risk of half-grade progression, suggesting that half-grade progression had

  2. Use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Device in Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Jeffrey J; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Bhave, Anil; McElroy, Mark J; Cherian, Christopher; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Some have proposed the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as an adjunct to the current standard of care in treatment of osteoarthritis knee pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS on the following issues in patients who have early-stage osteoarthritis of the knee: (1) pain reduction; (2) subjective and (3) objective functional improvements; (4) quality-of-life (QOL) measure improvements; and (5) isokinetic strength. A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded trial was performed on 23 patients who were randomized to either novel TENS device or standard of care. Metrics analyzed included stair-climb test; timed-up-and-go test (TUGT); 2-minute walk test; 20 times, single leg 6-inch step test; five-repetition chair-rise test; active and passive range-of-motion (ROM) score; short form health survey-36 scores (SF-36) score; Knee Society Score (KSS); lower extremity functional scale (LEFS); visual analog scale (VAS); and isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength. In objective functional scores, TENS had significant improvements in TUGT and objective KSS when compared with the matching cohort. Subjective functional and QOL outcomes patients had a significant improvement of their LEFS and SF-36 physical component with the use of TENS brace. The TENS device significantly improved the quadriceps strength when compared with standard therapy. In evaluation for improvement within the TENS cohort, patients had a significant improvement at 3-month follow-up in the TUG test, timed stair-climb test, 20-times single leg, KSS, LEFS, and SF-36 physical component compared to their initial visit. In addition, within the TENS cohort, patients had a significant reduction in pain via VAS at their 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, the use of TENS for 3 months has shown encouraging results to improve pain, function, and QOL in patients with painful osteoarthritic knees, and could positively contribute as an adjunct to current

  3. Pain after total knee arthroplasty: a narrative review focusing on the stratification of patients at risk for persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Lavand'homme, P; Thienpont, E

    2015-10-01

    The patient with a painful arthritic knee awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA) requires a multidisciplinary approach. Optimal control of acute post-operative pain and the prevention of chronic persistent pain remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether stratification of patients can help identify those who are at particular risk for severe acute or chronic pain. Intense acute post-operative pain, which is itself a risk factor for chronic pain, is more common in younger, obese female patients and those suffering from central pain sensitisation. Pre-operative pain, in the knee or elsewhere in the body, predisposes to central sensitisation. Pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee may also trigger neuropathic pain and may be associated with chronic medication like opioids, leading to a state of nociceptive sensitisation called 'opioid-induced hyperalgesia'. Finally, genetic and personality related risk factors may also put patients at a higher risk for the development of chronic pain. Those identified as at risk for chronic pain would benefit from specific peri-operative management including reduction in opioid intake pre-operatively, the peri-operative use of antihyperalgesic drugs such as ketamine and gabapentinoids, and a close post-operative follow-up in a dedicated chronic pain clinic. PMID:26430086

  4. Role of the endocannabinoid system in the emotional manifestations of osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    La Porta, Carmen; Bura, S. Andreea; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Pastor, Antoni; Navarrete, Francisco; García-Gutiérrez, María Salud; De la Torre, Rafael; Manzanares, Jorge; Monfort, Jordi; Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we investigated the role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the emotional and cognitive alterations associated with osteoarthritis pain. The monosodium iodoacetate model was used to evaluate the affective and cognitive manifestations of osteoarthritis pain in type 1 (CB1R) and type 2 (CB2R) cannabinoid receptor knockout and wild-type mice and the ability of CB1R (ACEA) and CB2R (JWH133) selective agonists to improve these manifestations during a 3-week time period. The levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were measured in plasma and brain areas involved in the control of these manifestations. Patients with knee osteoarthritis and healthy controls were recruited to evaluate pain, affective, and cognitive symptoms, as well as plasma endocannabinoid levels and cannabinoid receptor gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The affective manifestations of osteoarthritis were enhanced in CB1R knockout mice and absent in CB2R knockouts. Interestingly, both ACEA and JWH133 ameliorated the nociceptive and affective alterations, whereas ACEA also improved the associated memory impairment. An increase of 2-AG levels in prefrontal cortex and plasma was observed in this mouse model of osteoarthritis. In agreement, an increase of 2-AG plasmatic levels and an upregulation of CB1R and CB2R gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in patients with osteoarthritis compared with healthy subjects. Changes found in these biomarkers of the ECS correlated with pain, affective, and cognitive symptoms in these patients. The ECS plays a crucial role in osteoarthritis and represents an interesting pharmacological target and biomarker of this disease. PMID:26067584

  5. SHORT-TERM EFFICACY OF LOW-LEVEL LASER THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Vanessa Ovanessian; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Guimarães, Márcio; Shiwa, Silvia; de Lima, Bianca Del Cor; Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão Lopes; Casarotto, Raquel Aparecida; Alfredo, Patrícia Pereira; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Fucs, Patrícia Maria Moraes Barros

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for improving pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Forty-seven patients with knee osteoarthritis (79 knees), of both genders, participated in this randomized controlled double-blind clinical trial. They were randomly allocated to two groups: laser group with 25 patients (41 knees) and placebo group with 22 patients (38 knees). LLLT was performed three times a week, totaling nine sessions, using a AsGa 904 nm laser with mean power of 60 mW and beam area of 0.5 cm2. Nine points were irradiated on the knee, with energy of 3.0 J/point. The placebo group was treated with the same laser device, but with a sealed probe. Evaluations using Lequesne, visual numerical scale (VNS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), goniometry and dynamometry were conducted before the treatment started and after the nine sessions of LLLT. Results: A significant improvement in pain and function was found in all the assessments applied to the laser group. On comparing the laser group with the placebo group, significant differences were found in the VNS-resting and Lequesne evaluations. Conclusion: Treatment with LLLT improves pain and function over the short term in patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:27027049

  6. Management of knee osteoarthritis by combined stromal vascular fraction cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma, and musculoskeletal exercises: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Nathan; Diamond, Rod; Sekyere, Eric O; Thomas, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis is associated with persistent joint pain, stiffness, joint deformities, ligament damage, and surrounding muscle atrophy. The complexity of the disease makes treatment difficult. There are no therapeutic drugs available to halt the disease progression, leaving patients dependent on pain medication, anti-inflammatory drugs, or invasive joint replacement surgery. Case presentations Four patients with a history of unresolved symptomatic knee osteoarthritis were investigated for the therapeutic outcome of combining an exercise rehabilitation program with intra-articular injections of autologous StroMed (ie, stromal vascular fraction cells concentrated by ultrasonic cavitation from lipoaspirate) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire (KOOS) was administered along with physical function tests over a 12-month period. The first patient achieved a maximum therapeutic outcome of 100 in all five KOOS subscales (left knee), and 100 for four subscales (right knee). The second patient scored 100 in all five KOOS subscales (left knee), and greater than 84 in all subscales (right knee). Treatment of the third patient resulted in improved outcomes in both knees of >93 for four KOOS subscales, and 60 for the Function in Sport and Recreation subscale. The fourth patient improved to 100 in all five KOOS subscales. In all patients, the physical function “Get-up and Go” test and “Stair Climbing Test” returned to normal (a value of zero). Conclusion This case series indicates that improved outcomes may be obtained when autologous stromal vascular fraction (StroMed) cell therapy is combined with traditional exercise practices and PRP for osteoarthritis. Of the seven joints treated: all patients’ scores of pain improved to >96; and quality of life scores to >93. Functional performance measures of mobility returned to normal. This simple treatment appears to be extremely effective for

  7. Medial Compartment Decompression by Fibular Osteotomy to Treat Medial Compartment Knee Osteoarthritis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-You; Chen, Wei; Li, Cun-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Shao, De-Cheng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Shi-Jun; Wang, Fei; Li, Ji-Dong; Hao, Jian-Dong; Chen, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-12-01

    Compared with high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty, the authors found a simpler surgical procedure, partial fibular osteotomy, could effectively relieve knee pain and also correct the varus deformity for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). From January 1996 to April 2012, a total of 156 patients with medial compartment OA were treated by proximal fibular osteotomy in the authors' hospital. A 2-cm-long section of fibula was resected 6 to 10 cm below the fibular head. A total of 110 patients with follow-up of more than 2 years were included in the study, including 34 males and 76 females with an average age of 59.2 years. Anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing radiographs, the femorotibial angle (FTA) and lateral joint space, and the American Knee Society Score (KSS) and the visual analog scale (VAS) score of the knee joint were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively. At final follow-up, mean FTA and lateral joint space were 179.4°±1.8° and 6.9±0.7 mm, respectively, which were significantly smaller than those measured preoperatively (182.7°±2.0° and 12.2±1.1 mm, respectively; both P<.001). Mean KSS at final follow-up was 92.3±31.7, significantly higher than the mean preoperative score of 45.0±21.3 (P<.001). Mean VAS score and interquartile range were 2.0 and 2.0, significantly lower than the preoperative data (7 and 1.0, respectively; P<.001). The authors found that proximal fibular osteotomy can significantly improve both the radiographic appearance and function of the affected knee joint and also achieve long-term pain relief. This procedure may be an alternative treatment option for medial compartment OA. PMID:26652332

  8. Comparison of therapeutic duration of therapeutic ultrasound in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yıldırıım, Mustafa Aziz; Uçar, Demet; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to compare different durations of ultrasound in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred patients diagnosed with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group (G1) received 4 minutes of ultrasound. The second group (G2) received the exact same treatment, but the duration of ultrasound was longer at 8 minutes. Patients in both groups underwent a total of 10 ultrasound over 2 weeks. Following treatment, all patients provided self-evaluations of pain via the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), overall physical function with WOMAC, disability via the Lequesne index (Leq), and depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Index (BDI). [Results] There were no significant differences in VAS, WOMAC Leq, and BDI values between groups 1 and 2. After treatment, VAS, WOMAC, Leq, and BDI values improved for both treatment groups. However, following treatment, G2 had significantly greater values for WOMAC functional and total scores than G1. No statistically significant differences were observed for VAS scores while inactive, WOMAC pain and stiffness scores, and BDI values after treatment between both groups. VAS pain scores while active and Leq index values were significantly lower in G1 than G2. [Conclusion] Patients in both groups demonstrated improved functionality, pain and psychological status following a consistent, 2-week regimen of 4-minute or 8-minute treatments with ultrasound. Yet, patients that experienced longer treatment durations of 8 minutes demonstrated better outcomes in pain and the ability to carry out activities of daily living. PMID:26834328

  9. Comparison of therapeutic duration of therapeutic ultrasound in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırıım, Mustafa Aziz; Uçar, Demet; Öneş, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of study was to compare different durations of ultrasound in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred patients diagnosed with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group (G1) received 4 minutes of ultrasound. The second group (G2) received the exact same treatment, but the duration of ultrasound was longer at 8 minutes. Patients in both groups underwent a total of 10 ultrasound over 2 weeks. Following treatment, all patients provided self-evaluations of pain via the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), overall physical function with WOMAC, disability via the Lequesne index (Leq), and depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Index (BDI). [Results] There were no significant differences in VAS, WOMAC Leq, and BDI values between groups 1 and 2. After treatment, VAS, WOMAC, Leq, and BDI values improved for both treatment groups. However, following treatment, G2 had significantly greater values for WOMAC functional and total scores than G1. No statistically significant differences were observed for VAS scores while inactive, WOMAC pain and stiffness scores, and BDI values after treatment between both groups. VAS pain scores while active and Leq index values were significantly lower in G1 than G2. [Conclusion] Patients in both groups demonstrated improved functionality, pain and psychological status following a consistent, 2-week regimen of 4-minute or 8-minute treatments with ultrasound. Yet, patients that experienced longer treatment durations of 8 minutes demonstrated better outcomes in pain and the ability to carry out activities of daily living. PMID:26834328

  10. Muscle force modification strategies are not consistent for gait retraining to reduce the knee adduction moment in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Shull, Peter B; Huang, Yangjian; Schlotman, Taylor; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2015-09-18

    While gait retraining paradigms that alter knee loads typically focus on modifying kinematics, the underlying muscle force modifications responsible for these kinematic changes remain largely unknown. As humans are generally thought to select uniform gait muscle patterns such as strategies based on fatigue cost functions or energy minimization, we hypothesized that a kinematic gait change known to reduce the knee adduction moment (i.e. toe-in gait) would be accompanied by a uniform muscle force modification strategy for individuals with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Ten subjects with self-reported knee pain and radiographic evidence of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis performed normal gait and toe-in gait modification walking trials. Two hundred muscle-actuated dynamic simulations (10 steps for normal gait and 10 steps from toe-in gait for each subject) were performed to determine muscle forces for each gait. Results showed that subjects internally rotated their feet during toe-in gait, which decreased the foot progression angle by 7° (p<0.01) and reduced the first peak knee adduction moment by 20% (p<0.01). While significant muscle force modifications were evidenced within individuals, there were no consistent muscle force modifications across all subjects. It may be that self-selected muscle pattern changes are not uniform for gait modification particularly for individuals with knee pain. Future studies focused on altering knee loads should not assume consistent muscle force modifications for a given kinematic gait change across subjects and should consider muscle forces in addition to kinematics in gait retraining paradigms. PMID:26209875

  11. Unraveling the confusion behind hyaluronic acid efficacy in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Altman, Roy D; McIntyre, Louis F

    2016-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a commonly prescribed treatment for knee pain resulting from osteoarthritis (OA). Although numerous HA products have been approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration, the efficacy of HA injections for knee OA remains disputed with meta-analyses and societal clinical guidelines drawing disparate conclusions. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) recently published a best-evidence systematic review and concluded that available data did not support the routine use of HA for knee OA. The purpose of the current article is to highlight issues that confound interpretation of meta-analyses on HA for knee OA, to provide realistic estimates of the true efficacy of HA injections in knee OA, and to provide commentary on the methods and conclusions from the AAOS systematic review. In general, the clinical benefit of HA is underestimated using conventional meta-analytic techniques. When accounting for differential control group effects in HA studies, it can be reasonably concluded that HA injections may be beneficial to an appreciable number of patients with knee OA. In addition, the systematic review methodology used by AAOS was questionable due to exclusion of numerous relevant studies and inclusion of studies that used HAs not approved for use in the US, both of which underestimated the true efficacy of HA injections. Overall, the efficacy of HA injections for knee OA is likely better than previously reported. Future clinical trials and meta-analyses should account for differential control group effects in order to avoid the continued confusion surrounding HA injection efficacy.

  12. Quality of Life and Functional Independence in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Ivan Luis Andrade; Castro, Martha Cavalcante; Daltro, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To verify the association between functional independence (FI) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study composed of 93 patients with knee osteoarthritis was performed. Osteoarthritis was stratified according the classification of Ahlbach. For evaluation of the patient's overall FI, the Barthel index was used. The patient's QOL was measured by means of the Medical Outcomes Study 36–Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Results The mean age of the patients was 60 years (range, 54.0 to 69.5 years) and only 32 patients (34.3%) were found to be independent. Dependent or independent individuals presented difference in all domains of the QOL including physical function (p=0.001), role-physical (p=0.005), bodily pain (p=0.001), general health (p=0.004), vitality (p=0.009), social function (p=0.010), role-emotional (p=0.002) and mental health (p=0.001). Correlation between FI and QOL was different for all domains of the SF-36. Correlation with FI was strongest for physical function (r=0.609, p<0.001), followed by the domains of bodily pain (r=0.410, p<0.001) and mental health (r=0.402, p<0.001). Conclusions Our data demonstrated a strong association of FI with QOL and positive correlations with all QOL domains, indicating the greater the FI is, the higher the QOL is. PMID:27595076

  13. Effect of Home Exercise Program Performance in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee or the Spine on the Visual Analog Scale after Discharge from Physical Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hamilton; Onishi, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of the frequency of home exercise program (HEP) performance on pain [10-point visual analog scale (VAS)] in patients with osteoarthritis of the spine or knee after more than 6 months discharge from physical therapy (PT). We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 adult patients with a clinical…

  14. Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy versus Low Level Laser Therapy in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Tarek Abdel Rahman Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis (KO) is the most common joint disease for which there is no optimal treatment. Monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIPE) is a relatively new light modality used to reduce pain and increase circulation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is another light modality used to reduce pain in KO. Methods: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the MIPE and LLLT in improving pain and function in KO. Sixty participants with KO completed the program and were randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 (experimental, n=30) received MIPE and exercises. Group 2 (control, n=30) received LLLT and exercises. Both groups received two visits per week for six weeks. Outcome included pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale and physical function measured with the lower extremity functional scale, before and after the 12 therapy sessions (6 weeks after the start of the intervention). Results: There were statistically significant improvements in pain intensity and lower extremity functional scale scores (p<0.05) in each group. However, no significant differences were recorded between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, MIPE and LLLT reduce pain and improve function in KO; however, there are no differences between the two modalities in reducing pain and increasing physical function in KO. PMID:25653818

  15. The effectiveness of hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Anand, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and progressive joint disease. Treatment options for knee OA vary from simple analgesia in mild cases to knee replacement for advanced disease. Knee pain due to moderate OA can be targeted with intra-articular injections. Steroid injections have been used widely in managing acute flare-ups of the disease. In recent years, viscosupplementation has been used as a therapeutic modality for the management of knee OA. The principle of viscosupplementation is based on the physiological properties of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint. Despite a sound principle and promising in vitro studies, clinical studies have been less conclusive on the effectiveness of HA in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE®, Embase™ and CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The databases were searched for randomised controlled trials available on the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. Results The search yielded 188 studies. Of these, 14 met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed in chronological order. Conclusions HA intra-articular injections have a modest effect on early to moderate knee OA. The effect peaks at around 6–8 weeks following administration, with a doubtful effect at 6 months. PMID:24165334

  16. Baseline Articular Contact Stress Levels Predict Incident Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Development in the MOST Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Anderson, Donald D.; Iyer, Krishna S.; Baker, Jennifer; Torner, James C.; Lynch, John A.; Felson, David T.; Lewis, Cora E.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied whether contact stress estimates from knee magnetic resonance images (MRI) predict the development of incident symptomatic tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) 15 months later in an at-risk cohort. This nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 3026 adults, age 50 to 79 years. Thirty cases with incident symptomatic tibiofemoral OA by their 15-month follow-up visit were randomly selected and matched with 30 control subjects. Symptomatic tibiofemoral OA was defined as daily knee pain/stiffness and Kellgren-Lawrence Grade ≥2 on weight bearing, fixed-flexion radiographs. Tibiofemoral geometry was segmented on baseline knee MRI, and contact stresses were estimated using discrete element analysis. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to examine the association between articular contact stress and case/control status. No significant inter-group differences were found for age, sex, BMI, weight, height, or limb alignment. However, the maximum articular contact stress was 0.54 ± 0.77 MPa (mean ± SD) higher in incident OA cases compared to that in control knees (p=0.0007). The interaction between case-control status and contact stress was significant above 3.2 MPa (p<0.0001). The presence of differences in estimated contact stress 15 months prior to incidence suggests a biomechanical mechanism for symptomatic tibiofemoral OA and supports the ability to identify risk by subject-specific biomechanical modeling. PMID:19533741

  17. The Healing Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Mojtahed Jaberi, Fereidoon; Zakerinia, Maryam; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad; Jalli, Reza; Tanideh, Nader; Zare, Shahrokh

    2016-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic disease impacting on quality of life and has societal and economical burden increasing with age. Yet, no confirmed pharmacological, biological or surgical therapy could prevent the progressive destruction of OA joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with immunosuppressive activities emerged a potential therapy. We describe a magnetic resonance images (MRI) approved 47 years old nomad female suffering from a severe right knee OA. After intra-articular injection of 36×10(6) passage 2 of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), the patient's functional status of the knee, the number of stairs she could climb, the pain on visual analog scale (VAS) and walking distance improved after two months post-transplantation. MRI revealed an extension of the repaired tissue over subchondral bone. So as MSC transplantation is a simple technique, resulted into pain relief, minimized donor-site morbidity, provided a better quality of life, significantly improved cartilage quality with no need to hospitalization or surgery, cell transplantation can be considered as a reliable alternative treatment for chronic knee OA. Therefore these findings can be added to the literature on using BMSCs for treatment of OA. PMID:27579273

  18. The Healing Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Mojtahed Jaberi, Fereidoon; Zakerinia, Maryam; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad; Jalli, Reza; Tanideh, Nader; Zare, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic disease impacting on quality of life and has societal and economical burden increasing with age. Yet, no confirmed pharmacological, biological or surgical therapy could prevent the progressive destruction of OA joint. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with immunosuppressive activities emerged a potential therapy. We describe a magnetic resonance images (MRI) approved 47 years old nomad female suffering from a severe right knee OA. After intra-articular injection of 36×106 passage 2 of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), the patient’s functional status of the knee, the number of stairs she could climb, the pain on visual analog scale (VAS) and walking distance improved after two months post-transplantation. MRI revealed an extension of the repaired tissue over subchondral bone. So as MSC transplantation is a simple technique, resulted into pain relief, minimized donor-site morbidity, provided a better quality of life, significantly improved cartilage quality with no need to hospitalization or surgery, cell transplantation can be considered as a reliable alternative treatment for chronic knee OA. Therefore these findings can be added to the literature on using BMSCs for treatment of OA. PMID:27579273

  19. Capitalizing on the Teachable Moment: Osteoarthritis Physical Activity and Exercise Net for Improving Physical Activity in Early Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lineker, Sydney; Cibere, Jolanda; Crooks, Valorie A; Jones, Catherine A; Kopec, Jacek A; Lear, Scott A; Pencharz, James; Rhodes, Ryan E; Esdaile, John M

    2013-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines emphasize the use of exercise and weight reduction as the first line of management for knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, less than half of the people with mild OA participate in moderate intensity physical activity. Given that physical activities have been shown to reduce pain, improve quality of life, and have the potential to reduce the progression of joint damage, many people with OA are missing the benefits of this inexpensive intervention. Objective The objectives of this study are (1) to develop a behavioral theory-informed Internet intervention called Osteoarthritis Physical Activity & Exercise Net (OPEN) for people with previously undiagnosed knee OA, and (2) to assess the efficacy of the OPEN website for improving physical activity participation through a proof-of-concept study. Methods OPEN was developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Efficacy of this online intervention is being assessed by an ongoing proof-of-concept, single-blind randomized controlled trial in British Columbia, Canada. We are currently recruiting participants and plan to recruit a total of 252 sedentary people with previously undiagnosed knee OA using a set of validated criteria. Half of the participants will be randomized to use OPEN and receive an OA education pamphlet. The other half only will receive the pamphlet. Participants will complete an online questionnaire at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months about their participation in physical activities, health-related quality of life, and motivational outcomes. In addition, we will perform an aerobic fitness test in a sub-sample of participants (n=20 per study arm). In the primary analysis, we will use logistic regression to compare the proportion of participants reporting being physically active at or above the recommended level in the 2 groups, adjusting for baseline measurement, age, and sex. Results This study evaluates a theory-informed behavioral intervention at a time when people affected

  20. Body Composition in Individuals with Asymptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Knee.

    PubMed

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2016-02-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with a greater risk of osteoarthritis (OA). This study sought to investigate whether the association is mediated by fat mass or lean mass. The study involved 170 men and 488 women aged between 20 and 90 (average age: 55) who were randomly recruited from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The presence of knee OA was radiographically diagnosed based on the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were obtained from the DXA whole body scan (Hologic QDR-4500). The relationship between OA, LM, and FM was analyzed by a series of multiple linear regression models which take into account the effects of gender and age. As expected, men and women with knee OA were older than those without OA (65 vs 51 year in men, and 64 vs 52 year in women). After adjusting for age, OA was associated with greater FM and percent body fat (PBF), but the association was only observed in women, not in men. There was no statistically significant difference in LM between OA and non-OA individuals. Moreover, after adjusting for age and BMI or PBF, bone density in OA patients was not significantly different from non-OA individuals. Women with OA of the knee have greater fat mass than non-OA individuals, and that there is no significant difference in bone density between OA and non-OA individuals. Thus, the association between body mass index and OA is mainly mediated by fat mass. PMID:26590808

  1. Descending Control of Nociceptive Processing in Knee Osteoarthritis Is Associated With Intracortical Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Tarragó, Maria da Graca L.; Deitos, Alícia; Brietzke, Aline Patrícia; Vercelino, Rafael; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Fregni, Felipe; Caumo, Wolnei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on the hypothesis that an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory input is a central mechanism of knee osteoarthritis chronic pain (KOACP), this exploratory study had the following aims: to compare whether the function of the descending inhibitory pain pathway is associated with the state of inhibition in the corticospinal system indexed by the motor-evoked potential (MEP) and the cortical salient period (CSP) in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy controls; and to determine if there is correlation between the measures of intracortical inhibition (CSP, MEP) with changes on the numerical pain scale (NPS [0–10]) in KOACP during a conditioned pain modulation (CPM)-task considering the effect of self-reported function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and analgesic use. In a cross-sectional study, we included females (n = 21), with disability by pain or stiffness due to KOACP and healthy controls (n = 10), aged 19 to 75 years. The motor cortex excitability parameters (MEP and CSP) were assessed using the transcranial magnetic stimulation. We assessed the pain and disability by the WOMAC, and change on NPS (0–10) during CPM-task. A Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that the adjusted mean (SD) on the MEP amplitude was 13.53% higher in the OA than in healthy subjects (1.33 [0.49] vs 1.15 [0.13]), respectively (P = 0.16). The adjusted mean (SD) on the CSP observed in OA patients was 23.43% lower than in healthy subjects (54.54 [16.10] vs 70.94 [22.87]), respectively (P = 0.01). The function of the descending pain modulatory system assessed by change on NPS (0–10) during a CPM-task was negatively correlated with the cortical excitability parameter indexed by the CSP (P = 0.001). Also, the CSP was negatively correlated with the pain and disability assessed by the WOMAC index. These findings support the hypothesis that the change in cortical plasticity in

  2. Decreased Knee Joint Loading Associated With Early Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wellsandt, Elizabeth; Gardinier, Emily S.; Manal, Kurt; Axe, Michael J.; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury predisposes individuals to early-onset knee joint osteoarthritis (OA). Abnormal joint loading is apparent after ACL injury and reconstruction. The relationship between altered joint biomechanics and the development of knee OA is unknown. Hypothesis Altered knee joint kinetics and medial compartment contact forces initially after injury and reconstruction are associated with radiographic knee OA 5 years after reconstruction. Study Design Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Individuals with acute, unilateral ACL injury completed gait analysis before (baseline) and after (posttraining) preoperative rehabilitation and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after reconstruction. Surface electromyographic and knee biomechanical data served as inputs to an electromyographically driven musculoskeletal model to estimate knee joint contact forces. Patients completed radiographic testing 5 years after reconstruction. Differences in knee joint kinetics and contact forces were compared between patients with and those without radiographic knee OA. Results Patients with OA walked with greater frontal plane interlimb differences than those without OA (nonOA) at baseline (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.00 ± 0.08 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs −0.15 ± 0.09 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .014; peak knee adduction moment impulse difference: −0.001 ± 0.032 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs −0.048 ± 0.031 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .042). The involved limb knee adduction moment impulse of the group with osteoarthritis was also lower than that of the group without osteoarthritis at baseline (0.087 ± 0.023 N·m·s/kg·m [nonOA] vs 0.049 ± 0.018 N·m·s/kg·m [OA], P = .023). Significant group differences were absent at posttraining but reemerged 6 months after reconstruction (peak knee adduction moment difference: 0.02 ± 0.04 N·m/kg·m [nonOA] vs −0.06 ± 0.11 N·m/kg·m [OA], P = .043). In addition, the OA group walked with lower peak

  3. Evaluation of the Degree of Knee Joint Osteoarthritis in Patients with Early Gray Hair

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Behrooz; Ashraf, Alireza; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Zarei, Fariba; Foruzi, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the causes of pain and disability. The hair graying characteristic correlates strictly with chronological aging and take places to varying degrees in all individuals, disregarding gender or race. Aims: Comparison of the degrees of clinical and radiologic severity of the knee OA in individuals with early hair graying compared to ordinary individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with knee OA and similar demographic characteristics were enrolled in this study. All patients were classified in to 3 age subgroups in each of the case and control groups (30-40 year, 41-50 year, 51-60 year). In the case group, the patients must had early hair graying, too. Knee OA were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading scale. Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) was applied to assess clinical severity of the knee OA. Results: The mean ± SD of WOMAC index in the case group was 60.7 ± 15.9 and in the control group was 55.3 ± 15.3 (P = 0.1). The mean rank of KL scale in case group was 35.3 and in the control group was 25.6 (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Even at the same age of OA onset, the rate of progression of radiological findings and the grade of joint destruction in individuals with early hair graying are greater than normal individuals. However, clinical and functional relevant remain unclear. PMID:24403769

  4. Use of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Survey (KOOS) in a Normal US Population

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Robby Singh; Williamson, Tyler; Tompkins, Marc; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Patient-reported outcome instruments are frequently used for assessing clinical outcomes after injury and surgery. Previously reported normative data for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Survey (KOOS) instrument is limited to a narrow subset of ages and has not accounted for a history of knee injury. Methods: The KOOS was administered to 1000 patients or accompanying family members who presented to an outpatient orthopaedic clinic in a suburban metropolitan city for an orthopaedic issue unrelated to their knee in July 2014. Participants were eligible if they self-reported a medical history negative for ankle, knee, or hip surgery. KOOS scale means, standard deviations, medians, ranges, interquartile ranges, and percentiles were calculated by sex, age range, laterality, and history of knee injury in the past year. Non-parametric statistical analysis was used to evaluate differences in KOOS scale scores between five age ranges and between those with or without a history of knee injury. Results: There were 402 males and 598 females in the final study cohort. Males scored lower on the Symptoms scale compared to other scales (median score = 96.4 for Symptoms; median score = 100 for all other scales) in all age cohorts except ages 56-64. Females also reported lower scores in the Symptoms scale. Median Symptoms score for females in each of the age groups from 18-55 years old was 96.4, and median score for the 56-64 year old cohort was 92.9. Median scores for Pain and Knee-related Quality of Life scales were lower in the 56-64 year old female cohort (97.2 and 93.8 respectively). Conclusion: Normative values for KOOS scale scores at all age ranges suggest a high level of functioning among participants with no history of knee injury in the past year. Symptoms, Pain, and Knee-related Quality of Life scales showed the greatest variability in KOOS scores for patients, particularly in the youngest and oldest cohorts. This study can aid surgeons in

  5. Comparison of hip and knee muscle moments in subjects with and without knee pain.

    PubMed

    Manetta, Jennifer; Franz, Laura Hayden; Moon, Chris; Perell, Karen L; Fang, Meika

    2002-12-01

    Elderly subjects with and without knee pain walked at a comfortable pace during gait analysis. Comparison of peak hip and knee internal extensor generalized muscle moments (GMMs) during loading response was made between groups. Walking velocity, peak hip internal extensor GMM, and knee range of motion (ROM) were significantly less for the group with knee pain than for the group without pain. Peak hip internal extensor GMM was strongly correlated with velocity, but peak knee internal extensor GMM was not. Knee ROM limitations may account for the increased peak knee internal extensor GMM in the knee pain group. PMID:12443949

  6. Longitudinal Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Older Adults with Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shibing; Dubé, Catherine E.; Eaton, Charles B.; McAlindon, Timothy E.; Lapane, Kate L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) accounts for more mobility issues in older adults than any other disease. OA is a chronic and often painful disease for which there is no cure. Cross-sectional studies have shown that older adults frequently use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and arthritis is the most common reason for CAM use. While previous research has profiled the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of CAM users, few have provided information on variation in CAM use over time and most only considered use of any CAM, which was often a mixture of heterogeneous therapies. Objectives This study sought to describe the longitudinal patterns of CAM use among older adults with knee OA, and to identify correlates/predictors of different commonly-used CAM therapies. Methods The Osteoarthritis Initiative included 1,121 adults aged 65 years and above with radiographic tibiofemoral OA in one or both knees at baseline. Annual surveys captured current use of conventional therapies and 25 CAM modalities (grouped into 6 categories) for joint pain or arthritis at baseline and during the 4-year follow-up. We assessed longitudinal use of CAM modalities by summing the number of visits with participants reporting use of each modality. Correlates of CAM use under consideration included sociodemographic indicators, body mass index, overall measures of mental and physical wellbeing, and clinical indices of knee OA. Generalized estimation equations provided adjusted odds ratio estimates and 95% confidence intervals. Results Nearly one third of older adults reported using ≥ one CAM modality for treating OA at all assessments. With the exception of glucosamine and chondroitin (18%), few were persistent users of other CAM modalities. One in five of those using NSAIDs or glucosamine/chondroitin were using them concurrently. Adjusted models showed: 1) adults aged ≥75 years were less likely to use dietary supplements than those aged between 65 and 75 years; 2) persons

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Pu-Wei; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; 中醫 zhōng yī) influences symptoms or functional outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee (膝關節炎 xī guān jié yán). A systematic review of randomized control trials was conducted. Searches for studies in PubMed that were performed between 1965 and August 2013, and retrieved studies were subjected to reference screening. The types of studies included in our review were 1) placebo-based or comparative studies; 2) open label, single-blinded or double-blinded studies; 3) studies evaluating the efficacy of TCM for treating OA of the knee; and 4) studies evaluating only TCM or combination preparations. Trials were conducted with participants over 18 years of age with knee pain and at least three of the following characteristics: 1) an age greater than 50 years; 2) morning stiffness lasting for fewer than 30 min; 3) a crackling or grating sensation; 4) bony tenderness of the knee; 5) bony enlargement of the knee; or 6) no detectable warmth of the joint to the touch. Studies were rated for risk of bias and graded for quality. After screening, 104 studies that satisfied the eligibility requirements were identified, and only 18 randomized control trials were included in the quantitative and qualitative synthesis. Upon review, we found “moderate-quality” evidence of effects from acupuncture (針灸 zhēn jiǔ) on pain, which was measured using a visual analogue scale, and physical function, which was measured using qigong (氣功 qì gōng) with motion. “Low-quality” evidence was found regarding the effects of acupuncture on physical function, and no evidence was found regarding the effects of herbal medicine on pain or physical function. Herbal patches (藥布 yào bù) appeared to affect pain and physical and function, but these effects were not found to be significant. The initial findings included in this review suggest that acupuncture is a promising intervention

  8. Traditional Chinese medicine in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Hou, Pu-Wei; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; zhōng yī) influences symptoms or functional outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee ( xī guān jié yán). A systematic review of randomized control trials was conducted. Searches for studies in PubMed that were performed between 1965 and August 2013, and retrieved studies were subjected to reference screening. The types of studies included in our review were 1) placebo-based or comparative studies; 2) open label, single-blinded or double-blinded studies; 3) studies evaluating the efficacy of TCM for treating OA of the knee; and 4) studies evaluating only TCM or combination preparations. Trials were conducted with participants over 18 years of age with knee pain and at least three of the following characteristics: 1) an age greater than 50 years; 2) morning stiffness lasting for fewer than 30 min; 3) a crackling or grating sensation; 4) bony tenderness of the knee; 5) bony enlargement of the knee; or 6) no detectable warmth of the joint to the touch. Studies were rated for risk of bias and graded for quality. After screening, 104 studies that satisfied the eligibility requirements were identified, and only 18 randomized control trials were included in the quantitative and qualitative synthesis. Upon review, we found "moderate-quality" evidence of effects from acupuncture ( zhēn jiǔ) on pain, which was measured using a visual analogue scale, and physical function, which was measured using qigong ( qì gōng) with motion. "Low-quality" evidence was found regarding the effects of acupuncture on physical function, and no evidence was found regarding the effects of herbal medicine on pain or physical function. Herbal patches ( yào bù) appeared to affect pain and physical and function, but these effects were not found to be significant. The initial findings included in this review suggest that acupuncture is a promising intervention according to the primary outcome measure, pain

  9. Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Evidence-based Guideline.

    PubMed

    McGrory, Brian J; Weber, Kristy L; Jevsevar, David S; Sevarino, Kaitlyn

    2016-08-01

    Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Evidence-based Guideline is based on a systematic review of the current scientific and clinical research. The guideline contains 38 recommendations pertaining to the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee who are considering surgical treatment. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to help improve surgical management of patients with OA of the knee based on current best evidence. In addition to guideline recommendations, the work group highlighted the need for better research on the surgical management of OA of the knee. PMID:27355286

  10. Spa therapy: can be a valid option for treating knee osteoarthritis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenti, Sara; Cheleschi, Sara; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2015-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) continues to be one of the leading causes of `years lived with disability' worldwide. Symptomatic knee OA is highly prevalent among people aged 50 years and over and is destined to become an ever more important healthcare problem. Current management of knee OA includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments. Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA in many European countries, as well as in Japan and Israel. Despite its long history and popularity, spa treatment is still the subject of debate and its role in modern medicine continues to be unclear. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently available information on clinical effects and mechanisms of action of spa therapy in knee OA. Various randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of balneotherapy and mud-pack therapy in patients with knee OA. Data from these clinical trials support a beneficial effect of spa therapy on pain, function and quality of life in knee OA that lasts over time, until 6-9 months after the treatment. The mechanisms by which immersion in mineral or thermal water or the application of mud alleviate suffering in OA are not fully understood. The net benefit is probably the result of a combination of factors, among which the mechanical, thermal and chemical effects are most prominent. In conclusion, spa therapy seems to have a role in the treatment of knee OA. Additional RCTs and further studies of mechanisms of action with high methodological quality are necessary to prove the effects of spa therapy.

  11. A Yoga Strengthening Program Designed to Minimize the Knee Adduction Moment for Women with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Proof-Of-Principle Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    People with knee osteoarthritis may benefit from exercise prescriptions that minimize knee loads in the frontal plane. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a novel 12-week strengthening program designed to minimize exposure to the knee adduction moment (KAM) could improve symptoms and knee strength in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether the program could improve mobility and fitness, and decrease peak KAM during gait. The tertiary objective was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of this yoga program. In particular, we compared the peak KAM during gait with that during yoga postures at baseline. We also compared lower limb normalized mean electromyography (EMG) amplitudes during yoga postures between baseline and follow-up. Primary measures included self-reported pain and physical function (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) and knee strength (extensor and flexor torques). Secondary measures included mobility (six-minute walk, 30-second chair stand, stair climbing), fitness (submaximal cycle ergometer test), and clinical gait analysis using motion capture synchronized with electromyography and force measurement. Also, KAM and normalized mean EMG amplitudes were collected during yoga postures. Forty-five women over age 50 with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, consistent with the American College of Rheumatology criteria, enrolled in our 12-week (3 sessions per week) program. Data from 38 were analyzed (six drop-outs; one lost to co-intervention). Participants experienced reduced pain (mean improvement 10.1–20.1 normalized to 100; p<0.001), increased knee extensor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.004), and increased flexor strength (mean improvement 0.01 Nm/kg; p = 0.001) at follow-up compared to baseline. Participants improved mobility on the six-minute walk (mean improvement 37.7 m; p<0.001) and 30-second chair stand (mean improvement 1.3; p = 0.006) at

  12. Pulsatile dry cupping in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee – a randomized controlled exploratory trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cupping is used in various traditional medicine forms to relieve pain in musculoskeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cupping in relieving the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In a two-group, randomized controlled exploratory pilot study patients with a clinically and radiological confirmed knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale: 2-4) and a pain intensity > 40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) were included. 40 Patients were randomized to either 8 sessions of pulsatile dry cupping within 4 weeks or no intervention (control). Paracetamol was allowed on demand for both groups. Outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score, the pain intensity on a VAS (0 mm = no pain to 100 mm = maximum intensity) and Quality of Life (SF-36) 4 and 12 weeks after randomization. Use of Paracetamol was documented within the 4-week treatment period. Analyses were performed by analysis of covariance adjusting for the baseline value for each outcome. Results 21 patients were allocated to the cupping group (5 male; mean age 68 ± SD 7.2) and 19 to the control group (8 male; 69 ± 6.8). After 4 weeks the WOMAC global score improved significantly more in the cupping group with a mean of 27.7 (95% confidence interval 22.1; 33.3) compared to 42.2 (36.3; 48.1) in the control group (p = 0.001). After 12 weeks the WOMAC global score were still significantly different in favor for cupping (31.0 (24.9; 37.2) vs. 40.8 (34.4; 47.3) p = 0.032), however the WOMAC subscores for pain and stiffness were not significant anymore. Significantly better outcomes in the cupping group were also observed for pain intensity on VAS and for the SF-36 Physical Component Scale compared to the control group after 4 and 12 weeks. No significant difference was observed for the SF-36 Mental Component Scale and the total number of consumed Paracetamol tablets

  13. Changes in Aβ non-nociceptive primary sensory neurons in a rat model of osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pain is a major debilitating factor in osteoarthritis (OA), yet few mechanism-based therapies are available. To address the need to understand underlying mechanisms the aim of the present study was to determine changes in sensory neurons in an animal model of OA pain. Results The model displayed typical osteoarthritis pathology characterized by cartilage degeneration in the knee joint and also manifested knee pathophysiology (edema and increased vasculature permeability of the joint) and altered nociception of the affected limb (hind paw tenderness and knee articulation-evoked reduction in the tail flick latency). Neurons included in this report innervated regions throughout the entire hind limb. Aβ-fiber low threshold mechanoreceptors exhibited a slowing of the dynamics of action potential (AP) genesis, including wider AP duration and slower maximum rising rate, and muscle spindle neurons were the most affected subgroup. Only minor AP configuration changes were observed in either C- or Aδ-fiber nociceptors. Conclusion Thus, at one month after induction of the OA model Aβ-fiber low threshold mechanoreceptors but not C- or Aδ-fiber nociceptors had undergone changes in electrophysiological properties. If these changes reflect a change in functional role of these neurons in primary afferent sensory processing, then Aβ-fiber non-nociceptive primary sensory neurons may be involved in the pathogenesis of OA pain. Further, it is important to point out that the patterns of the changes we observed are consistent with observations in models of peripheral neuropathy but not models of peripheral inflammation. PMID:20594346

  14. Anterior knee pain following primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shervin, David; Pratt, Katelyn; Healey, Travis; Nguyen, Samantha; Mihalko, William M; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in technique and technology for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), anterior knee pain impacts patient outcomes and satisfaction. Addressing the prosthetic and surgical technique related causes of pain after TKA, specifically as it relates to anterior knee pain, can aid surgeons in addressing these issues with their patients. Design features of the femoral and patellar components which have been reported as pain generators include: Improper femoral as well as patellar component sizing or designs that result in patellofemoral stuffing; a shortened trochlear groove distance from the flange to the intercondylar box; and then surgical technique related issues resulting in: Lateral patellar facet syndrome; overstuffed patella/flange combination; asymmetric patellar resurfacing, improper transverse plane component rotation resulting in patellar subluxation/tilt. Any design consideration that allows impingement of extensor mechanism anatomical elements has the possibility of impacting outcome by becoming a pain generator. As the number of TKA procedures continues to increase, it is increasingly critical to develop improved, evidence based prostheses that maximize function and patient satisfaction while minimizing pain and other complications. PMID:26601061

  15. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for management of osteoarthritis-related pain, stiffness and physical function: clinical experience in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Fistetto, Gregorio; Esposito, Anna; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy has shown promising therapeutic effectiveness on bone- and cartilage-related pathologies, being also safe for management of knee osteoarthritis. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of a PEMF device for management of knee osteoarthritis in elderly patients. Materials and methods A total of 33 patients were screened, and 28 patients, aged between 60 and 83 and affected by bilateral knee osteoarthritis, were enrolled in this study. They received PEMF therapy on the right leg for a total of three 30-minute sessions per week for a period of 6 weeks, while the left leg did not receive any treatment and served as control. An intravenous drip containing ketoprofen, sodium clodronate, glucosamine sulfate, calcitonin, and ascorbic acid, for a total volume of 500 mL, was administered during PEMF therapy. At baseline and 3 months post-PEMF therapy, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to assess knee pain and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was used to measure knee pain, stiffness and physical function. Results Changes in VAS and WOMAC scores were calculated for both knees as baseline minus post-treatment. A two sample Student’s t-test, comparing change in knee-related VAS pain for PEMF-treated leg (49.8 ± 2.03) vs control leg (11 ± 1.1), showed a significant difference in favor of PEMF therapy (P < 0.001). A two sample Student’s t-test comparing change in knee-related WOMAC pain, stiffness, and physical function for PEMF-treated leg (8.5 ± 0.4, 3.5 ± 0.2, 38.5 ± 2.08, respectively) vs control leg (2.6 ± 0.2; 1.6 ± 0.1; 4.5 ± 0.5 respectively), also showed a significant difference in favor of PEMF therapy (P < 0.001). No adverse reactions to therapy were observed. Conclusion The present study shows that PEMF therapy improves pain, stiffness and physical function in elderly patients affected by knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24106421

  16. [Cross cultural adaptation of the lequesne algofunctional indices for german speaking patients with osteoarthritis of the hip and the knee].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, F J; Melzer, Ch; Grimmig, H; Daalmann, H H

    2002-08-01

    The Lequesne Algofunctional Index is a widespread international instrument and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for outcome measurement in hip and knee diseases. Up to now there has been no German version of the questionnaire fulfilling the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation and providing satisfactory metric quality. Based on these guidelines, we developed the German version of the Lequesne Algofunctional Index regarding osteoarthritis of the hip and knee joints presented in this article. All of the questions it contains have been worded as whole sentences, questions concerning walking performance have been substantiated by examples. In testing of the metric outcome (hip: n = 112; knee: n = 83), both questionnaires showed an excellent reliability (IKK > 0,88). As a validity criterion, the correlation with the WOMAC score was tested. We received a Spearman coefficient between 0,63 and 0,81, indicating a high correlation. Time needed to fill in the Lequesne score was 2 min. in patients, physicians took 1,2 min. to evaluate the questionnaire. Regarding the questionnaires handed back, the Lequesne score showed better results than the WOMAC index. Sensitivity, measured by the "standardized response mean", was good in both regions for the total score. Comparing the data received on pain-related questions, the WOMAC score however showed a better sensitivity. The German version of the Lequesne Algofunctional Index is a suitable outcome instrument to measure the intensity of pain, walking capacity and activity of daily life in patients with osteoarthritis of hip and knee joints. PMID:12168149

  17. Intraosseous infiltration of platelet-rich plasma for severe knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Mikel; Fiz, Nicolás; Guadilla, Jorge; Padilla, Sabino; Anitua, Eduardo; Sánchez, Pello; Delgado, Diego

    2014-12-01

    We describe a new technique of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration for the treatment of severe knee osteoarthritis. PRP intra-articular infiltration is a promising treatment for knee osteoarthritis, but it still has some limitations in high-degree osteoarthritis. Diagnosis of osteoarthritis is based on clinical and radiographic findings, and patients with grade III or IV knee tibiofemoral osteoarthritis based on the Ahlbäck scale are considered candidates for this technique. The technique consists of performing intraosseous infiltration of PRP into the subchondral bone, which acts on this tissue and consequently on cartilage-bone communication. Although the intraosseous injection hinders the conventional knee intra-articular infiltration, it allows an extension of the range of action of the PRP, which acts directly on the subchondral bone, which is involved in the progression of osteoarthritis. Thus this technique involves a new administration of PRP that can delay knee arthroplasty; moreover, it can be applied for not only severe osteoarthritis but also other pathologies in which the subchondral bone is critical in the etiology, such as necrosis and osteochondral lesions. PMID:25685680

  18. Tolerability and Efficacy of 3 Approaches to Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injections of the Knee for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Bradford S.; Howe, Allyson S.; Dexter, William W.; Hatzenbuehler, John R.; Holt, Christina; Haskins, Amy E.; Lucas, F. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have been performed suggesting that a superolateral approach to cortisone injections for symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee is more accurate than anteromedial or anterolateral approaches, but there are little data to correlate clinical outcomes with these results. Additionally, there are minimal data to evaluate the pain of such procedures, and this consideration may impact physician preferences for a preferred approach to knee injection. Purpose: To determine the comparative efficacy and tolerability (patient comfort) of landmark-guided cortisone injections at 3 commonly used portals into the arthritic knee without effusion. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: Adult, English-speaking patients presenting to a sports medicine clinic with knee pain attributed to radiographically proven grades I through III knee osteoarthritis were randomized to receive a cortisone injection via superolateral, anteromedial, or anterolateral approaches. Patients used a visual analog scale (VAS) to self-report comfort with the procedure. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) 3.1 VAS scores were used to establish baseline pain and dysfunction prior to the injection and at 1 and 4 weeks follow-up via mail. Results: A total of 55 knees from 53 patients were randomized for injection using a superolateral approach (17 knees), an anteromedial approach (20 knees), and an anterolateral approach (18 knees). The mean VAS scores for procedural discomfort showed no significant differences between groups (superolateral, 39.1 ± 28.5; anteromedial, 32.9 ± 31.5; anterolateral, 33.1 ± 26.6; P = .78). WOMAC scores at baseline were similar between groups as well (superolateral, 1051 ± 686; anteromedial, 1450 ± 573; anterolateral, 1378 ± 673; P = .18). The WOMAC scores decreased at 1 and 4 weeks for all groups, with no significant differences in reduction between the 3 groups. Conclusion: Other studies

  19. An 8-Week Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment Program of Hyaluronic Acid Injection, Deliberate Physical Rehabilitation, and Patient Education is Cost Effective at 2 Years Follow-up: The OsteoArthritis Centers of AmericaSM Experience

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nonsurgical interventions have been reported to improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA) over the short term. However, longer follow-up is required to accurately characterize outcomes such as cost effectiveness and delayed arthroplasty. A total of 553 patients with symptomatic knee OA who previously underwent a single 8-week multimodal treatment program were contacted at 1 year (n = 336) or 2 years (n = 217) follow-up. The percentage of patients who underwent knee arthroplasty was 10% at 1 year and 18% at 2 years following program completion. The treatment program was highly cost effective at $12,800 per quality-adjusted life year at 2 years. Cost effectiveness was maintained under a variety of plausible assumptions and regardless of gender, age, body mass index, disease severity, or knee pain severity. In summary, a single 8-week multimodal knee OA treatment program is cost effective and may lower knee arthroplasty utilization through 2 years follow-up. PMID:25574144

  20. Comparison of pain perception between open and minimally invasive surgery in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Biagio; Vitale, Elsa; Esposito, Antonio; Colella, Antonio; Cassano, Maria; Notarnicola, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was a well-established procedure that had shown excellent long-term results in terms of reduced pain and increased mobility. Pain was one of the most important outcome measures that contributed to patient dissatisfaction after TKA. After a computerized search of the Medline and Embase databases, we considered articles from January 1st, 1997 to October 31st, 2009 that underlined the impact on patient pain perception of either standard open total knee arthroplasty or minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty. We included articles that used the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS) as postoperative pain indicators, and we included studies with a minimum follow-up period of two months. We excluded studies that monitored only functional postoperative knee activities. It was shown that TKA with the open technique was a better treatment for knees with a positive effect on pain and function than the minimally invasive technique. PMID:21042568

  1. Effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of moderate knee osteoarthritis: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kavadar, Gulis; Demircioglu, Demet Tekdos; Celik, Memet Yusuf; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effects of different numbers of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) applications on pain and physical function in grade 3 knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 102 patients with grade 3 knee OA were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 received a single injection of PRP, Group 2 received two injections of PRP two weeks apart, Group 3 received three injections of PRP at 2-weeks intervals. All patients were evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and the Timed-Up and Go test (TUG) before the treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 months after the treatment. [Results] Ninety-eight patients (15 males, 83 females) completed the study. The mean ages of the patients were 53.5±6.6, 54.9±5.3, and 55.1±5.6 years in Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were noted in all of the evaluated measures in all of the groups. The mean differences of Group 1-Group 2 and Group 1-Group 3 WOMAC total, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC function scores were statistically significant. [Conclusion] PRP is an effective treatment for functional status and pain in moderate knee osteoarthritis and a minimum of two injections is appropriate. PMID:26834369

  2. Preoperative pain mechanisms assessed by cuff algometry are associated with chronic postoperative pain relief after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Simonsen, Ole; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Chronic postoperative pain after total knee replacement (TKR) in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) implies clinical challenges. Widespread hyperalgesia, facilitated temporal summation of pain (TSP), and impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) have been found in painful KOA. This exploratory study investigated postoperative pain relief 12 months after TKR in 4 subgroups of patients preoperatively profiled by mechanistic quantitative sensory testing. In 103 patients with KOA, pressure pain detection threshold (PDT) and tolerance thresholds (PTT) were assessed at the lower leg using cuff algometry. Temporal summation of pain was measured as an increase in pain intensity scores during 10 repeated (2 seconds intervals) painful cuff stimuli. Conditioned pain modulation was calculated as the relative increase in PDT during painful conditioning stimulation. The grand averages of TSP and CPM were calculated and values below or above were used for subgrouping: facilitated TSP/impaired CPM (group A, N = 16), facilitated TSP/normal CPM (group B, N = 15), normal TSP/impaired CPM (group C, N = 44), and normal TSP/normal CPM (group D, N = 28). Clinical VAS pain intensity scores were collected before and 12 months after TKR surgery and the pain relief calculated. Less pain relief was found in group A (52.0% ± 14.0% pain relief) than in group B (81.1% ± 3.5%, P = 0.023) and group C (79.6% ± 4.4%, P = 0.007), but not group D (69.4% ± 7.9%, P = 0.087). Low preoperative PDT was associated with a less postoperative pain relief (R = -0.222, P = 0.034), whereas TSP or CPM alone showed no associations with postoperative pain relief. This explorative study indicated that patients with osteoarthritis with facilitated TSP together with impaired CPM are more vulnerable to experience less pain relief after TKR. PMID:27331347

  3. Pharmacologic treatment of hand-, knee- and hip-osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bobacz, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease of high prevalence and affects > 90 % of the population, depending on several risk factors. Symptomatic OA is less frequent, but requires an individually tailored therapeutic regimen consisting of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment modalities. Pharmacologic therapy, however, is mainly limited to analgetic and anti-inflammatory agents; structure modifying remedies do not exist. The therapeutic approach to hand-, knee- and hip-OA is basically similar and differs only at some minor points. Generally, topical agents or paracetamol are recommended as first-line agents. If unsuccessful oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selctive inhibitors should be introduced. Tramadol is an option in the case patients will not respond satisfactorily to NSAIDs. Glucosamine and chondroitine sulphate are no longer recommended in knee and hip OA, but chondroitine might be efficient in treating hand OA. Oral NSAIDs should be prescribed with caution due to potential side effects. Opioids are not recommended as their benefits are outweighed by an increased risk for serious adverse events. PMID:23715933

  4. Inflammatory Pathways in Knee Osteoarthritis: Potential Targets for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Or, David; Rael, Leonard T.; Thomas, Gregory W.; Brody, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a wide-spread, debilitating disease that is prominent in Western countries. It is associated with old age, obesity, and mechanical stress on the knee joint. By examining the recent literature on the effect of the anti-inflammatory prostaglandins 15d-PGJ2 and Δ12-PGJ2, we propose that new therapeutic agents for this disease could facilitate the transition from the COX-2-dependent pro-inflammatory synthesis of the prostaglandin PGE2 (catalyzed by mPGES-1), to the equally COX-2-dependent synthesis of the aforementioned anti-inflammatory prostaglandins. This transition could be instrumental in halting the breakdown of cartilage via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases, as well as promoting the matrix regeneration and synthesis of cartilage by chondrocytes. Another desirable property of new OA therapeutics could involve the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the damaged cartilage and bone, possibly resulting in the generation of chondrocytes, synoviocytes, and, in the case of bone, osteoblasts. Moreover, we propose that research promoting this transition from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory prostaglandins could aid in the identification of new OA therapeutics.

  5. Ultrasonographic Findings in a Large Series of Patients with Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Artul, Suheil; Khazin, Fadi; Hakim, Jeries; Habib, George

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) is becoming more and more popular in the evaluation of different musculoskeletal abnormalities. The aim of this retrospective study was to document the prevalence and spectrum of MSKUS findings at the painful knee. Materials and Methods: All the studies of MSKUS that were performed for the evaluation of knee pain during the previous 2 years at the Department of Radiology in Nazareth hospital were reviewed. Demographic and clinical parameters including age, gender, side, and MSKUS findings were documented. Results: Two hundred and seventy-six patients were included in the review. In 21 of them, both knees were evaluated at the same setting (total number of knees evaluated was 297). One hundred and forty-four knees were of the left side. Thirty-three pathologies were identified. 34% of the studies were negative. The most common MSKUS findings were medial meniscal tear (MMT) (20%), Baker's cyst (BC) (16%), and osteoarthritis (OA) (11%). Only one knee of all the knees evaluated in our study showed synovitis. Fifty-three knees (18% of all the knees evaluated) had more than one imaging finding, mosty two and while some had three findings. The most common combination of findings was MMT and BC (8 knees), MMT with OA (8 knees), and MMT with fluid (6 knee). In 67% of the patients who had simultaneous bilateral knee evaluation, at least one knee had no abnormal findings and in 43%, both knees were negative. Conclusions: MSKUS has the potential for revealing huge spectrum of abnormalities. In nearly 90% of the positive studies, degenerative/mechanical abnormalities were reported, with MMT, BC, and osteoarthritic changes being the most common. PMID:25250194

  6. Tanezumab for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-Fang; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Bi, Ming-Chao; Sun, Jing-Cheng; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objective Tanezumab is a new therapeutic intervention for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. We performed the present meta-analysis to appraise the efficacy and safety of tanezumab for patients with knee OA. Methods We systematically searched randomized controlled trials from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). The primary outcomes were mean change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, the WOMAC physical function and patient's global assessment (PGA). Outcomes were reported as the standard mean difference (SMD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We assessed the pooled data using a random-effects model. Results Of the identified studies, four were eligible and were included in this meta-analysis (N = 1839 participants). Compared with the placebo groups, tanezumab yielded a significant reduction in mean change in the WOMAC pain (SMD = 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.69, P<0.00001), the WOMAC physical function (SMD = 0.56, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.74, P<0.00001) and PGA (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.47, P<0.00001). There was no significant difference in serious adverse events (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.92, P = 0.84) between the tanezumab and placebo groups. Tanezumab significantly increased discontinuations due to adverse events (RR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.59 to 5.26, P = 0.0005), abnormal peripheral sensations (RR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.12 to 4.66, P<0.00001), and peripheral neuropathy (RR = 6.05, 95% CI 2.32 to 15.81, P = 0.0002). Conclusion Tanezumab can alleviate pain and improve function for patients with OA of the knee. However, considering the limited number of studies, this conclusion should be interpreted cautiously and more clinical randomized controlled trials are needed to verify the efficacy and safety of tanezumab for OA of the knee. PMID:27294371

  7. Knee Pain in Children: Part I: Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    • On the basis of primarily consensus, due to lack of relevant clinical studies, the information obtained from the history and physical examination is the key to establishing a diagnosis and directing initial management of knee pain. • By applying history and physical examination findings to a diagnosis and management algorithm, clinicians can efficiently and effectively determine the potential cause of the knee pain. • On the basis of primarily consensus, due to lack of relevant clinical studies, the most important step of the evaluation of knee pain is to identify emergent conditions, including limb- and life-threatening conditions (eg, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and malignancy), hip pathology, or conditions associated with effusions. PMID:26729778

  8. Analgesia and Improved Performance in a Patient Treated by Cooled Radiofrequency for Pain and Dysfunction Postbilateral Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert D; Hawkins, Jeffery K

    2015-07-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a terminal therapy for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. While TKR results are generally satisfactory, a significant proportion of patients experience persistent pain lasting > 3 months following surgery, even after a technically acceptable operation. Knee pain of any kind post-TKR has been reported in up to 53% of patients, while 15% of patients have reported severe pain. Pain post-TKR is worse than preoperative pain in 7%, often resulting in surgical revision. The clinical experience of a patient that originally presented to an orthopedic surgeon with OA of both knees demonstrates an alternative relatively noninvasive pain management strategy: cooled radiofrequency (CRF) ablation of sensory nerves. PMID:25857719

  9. Neural correlates of hyperalgesia in the monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    Abaei, Maryam; Sagar, Devi R; Stockley, Elizabeth G; Spicer, Clare H; Prior, Malcolm; Auer, Dorothee P

    2016-01-01

    Background The mechanisms driving osteoarthritic pain remain poorly understood, but there is increasing evidence for a role of the central nervous system in the chronification of pain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the influence of a model of unilateral knee osteoarthritis on nociceptive processing. Results Four to five weeks post intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 1 mg) into the left knee, Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized for functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to characterize the neural response to a noxious stimulus (intra-articular capsaicin injection). In a two-arm cross-over design, 5 µM/50 µl capsaicin was injected into either the left knee (n = 8, CAPS-MIA) or right control knee (n = 8, CAPS-CON), preceded by contralateral vehicle (SAL) injection. To assess neural correlates of mechanical hyperalgesia, hindpaws were stimulated with von Frey hairs (8 g: MIA; 15 g: control knee, based on behavioral withdrawal responses). The CAPS-MIA group exhibited significant activation of the periaqueductal gray, unilateral thalamus and bilateral mensencephalon, superior-colliculus, and hippocampus, with no significant activation in the other groups/conditions. Capsaicin injection increased functional connectivity in the mid-brain network and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, hippocampus, and globus pallidus, which was significantly stronger in CAPS-MIA compared to CAPS-CON groups. Mechanical stimulation of the hyperalgesic (ipsilateral to MIA knee) and normalgesic (contralateral) hindpaws evoked qualitatively different brain activation with more widespread brainstem and anterior cingulate (ACC) activation when stimulating the hyperalgesic paw, and clearer frontal sensory activation from the normalgesic paw. Conclusions We provide evidence for modulation of nociceptive processing in a chronic knee osteoarthritis pain model with stronger brain activation and alteration of brain networks

  10. What is the current status of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Henrotin, Yves; Marty, Marc; Mobasheri, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate exert beneficial effects on the metabolism of in vitro models of cells derived from synovial joints: chondrocytes, synoviocytes and cells from subchondral bone, all of which are involved in osteoarthritis (OA). They increase type II collagen and proteoglycan synthesis in human articular chondrocytes and are able to reduce the production of some pro-inflammatory mediators and proteases, to reduce the cellular death process, and improve the anabolic/catabolic balance of the extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM). Clinical trials have reported a beneficial effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate on pain and function. The structure-modifying effects of these compounds have been reported and analyzed in recent meta-analyses. The results for knee OA demonstrate a small but significant reduction in the rate of joint space narrowing. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulphate are recommended by several guidelines from international societies for the management of knee and hip OA, while others do not recommend these products or recommend only under condition. This comprehensive review clarifies the role of these compounds in the therapeutic arsenal for patients with knee OA. PMID:24861964