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Sample records for kodiak island alaska

  1. First Regional Super ESPC: Success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-05-16

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the Coast Guard at Kodiak Island, Alaska, established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities.

  2. First regional super ESPC a success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, K.

    2000-12-23

    The Coast Guard military base on Kodiak Island, Alaska, is the largest Coast Guard base in the world. By taking a leadership role in a pilot program to streamline Federal financing and procurement for energy saving projects, the Coast Guard is saving more than $220,000 a year in energy costs at this base. Using the Super ESPC (Energy Savings Performance Contracting) program, the Coast Guard was able to quickly contract with an experienced contractor with energy savings expertise. Working with ERI, one of FEMP's (Federal Energy Management Program) approved energy services contractors, the Coast Guard determined areas of potential energy savings and designed a retrofit to upgrade inefficient equipment and infrastructure. When energy-efficient modifications are complete, the base will be 30% more cost effective.

  3. Cub adoption by brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V., Jr.; Smith, R.

    1993-01-01

    We report three cases where female Brown Bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) with new (1 winter season. The adoptions occurred in a sampling of 104 litters produced by 89 different females on Kodiak Island, Alaska during 1982-1990. A maximum of six cubs were reared from litters that probably would have produced 3-4 subadults if the adoptions had not taken place.

  4. Crustal Deformation and the Seismic Cycle Across the Kodiak Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Carver, Gary; Cohen, Steven; King, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Kodiak Islands are located approximately 120 to 250 km from the Alaska-Aleutian Trench - and are within the southern extent of the 1964 Prince William Sound (M(sub w) = 9.2) earthquake rupture zone. Here we report new campaign GPS results (1993-2001) from northern Kodiak Island. The rate and orientation of the horizontal velocities, relative to a fixed North America, range from 25.3 plus or minus 1.4 mm/yr at N32.9 deg. W plus or minus 2.5 to 8.5 plus or minus 1.0 mm/yr at N59.7 deg. W plus or minus 6.5 deg. In addition to the northern Kodiak data, we analyzed data from three southern Kodiak Island stations. The inland stations from both the northern and southern networks indicate a counterclockwise rotation of the velocity vectors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the difference between the Pacific-North American plate motion and the orientation of the down going slab would lead to 4-8 mm/yr of left-lateral slip above the unlocked, down-dip portion of the main thrust zone. The northern and southern Kodiak geodetic data are consistent with a model that includes the viscoelastic response to (1) a downgoing Pacific plate interface that is locked at shallow depths, (2) local coseismic slip in the 1964 earthquake, and (3) interseismic creep down dip from the seismogenic zone. Based on the pre-1964 and post-1944 earthquake history, as well as the pattern of interseismic earthquakes across the plate boundary zone, we hypothesize that in southern Kodiak some strain is released in moderate to large earthquakes between the occurrences of great earthquakes like the 1964 event.

  5. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  6. Crustal Deformation and the Seismic Cycle across the Kodiak Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Carver, G.; Cohen, Steven C.; King, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The Kodiak Islands are located approximately 130 to 250 km from the Alaska-Aleutian Trench where the Pacific plate is underthrusting the North American plate at a rate of about 57 mm/yr. The southern extent of the 1964 Prince William Sound (${M-w}$ = 9.2) earthquake rupture occurred offshore and beneath the eastern portion of the Kodiak Islands. Here we report GPS results (1993-2001) from northern Kodiak Island that span the transition between the 1964 uplift region along the eastern coast and the region of coseismic subsidence further inland. The horizontal velocity vectors range from 22.9 $\\pm$ 2.2 mm/yr at N26.3$\\deg$W $\\pm$ 2.5$\\deg$, about 150 km from the trench, to 5.9 $\\pm$ 1.3 mm/yr at N65.9$\\deg$W $\\pm$ 6.6$\\deg$, about 190 km from the trench. Near the northeastern coast of Kodiak the velocity vector above the shallow, locked main thrust zone is between the orientation of PCFC-NOAM plate motion (N22$/deg$W) and the trench-normal (N3O$\\deg$W). Further west, our geodetic results suggest the accumulation of shear strain that will be released eventually as left-lateral motion on upper plate faults such as the Kodiak Island fault. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the difference between the Pacific-North American plate motion and the orientation of the down going slab would lead to 4-8 mm/yr of left-lateral slip. Short-term geodetic uplift rates range from 2 - 14 mm/yr, with the maximum uplift located near the axis of maximum subsidence during the 1964 earthquake. We evaluated alternate interseismic models for Kodiak to test the importance of various mechanisms responsible for crustal deformation rates. These models are based on the plate interface slip history inferred from earlier modeling of coseismic and post-seismic geodetic results. The horizontal (trench perpendicular) and vertical deformation rates across Kodiak are consistent with a model that includes the viscoelastic response to : (1) a downgoing Pacific plate interface

  7. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified

  8. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. . Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  9. Hybrid granodiorites intruding the accretionary prism, Kodiak, Shumagin, and Sanak Islands, southwest Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Malcolm; Morris, Julie; Whelan, Joseph

    1981-11-01

    A narrow belt of tonalite-granodiorite-granite plutons and batholiths intruded the accretionary prism in southwestern Alaska about 60 m.y. ago, simultaneously with plutonism over 100 km north along the main arc axis. The presence of metasedimentary xenoliths, kyanite, and garnet within the intrusions exposed on the Kodiak, Shumagin and Sanak islands establishes the presence of a crustal component. Extremely high values of δ18O, from +10.9 to +13.2 o/oo, require a crustal origin for much of the oxygen in the intrusions. Open-system alteration has disrupted whole-rock Rb-Sr systematics in some samples from the Sanak pluton and Shumagin batholith. Mineral isochrons using unaltered minerals yield an age of 58.7 ± 1.2 m.y. and 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70534 ± 10 for the Shumagin batholith, and ages of 62.7 ± 1.2 m.y. and 87Sr/86Sri = 0.70523 ± 14 for the Sanak pluton. Comparison of the isotopic data for the intrusions with those of sedimentary rocks in the Kodiak and Shumagin formations requires that a low-δ18O, low-87Sr/86Sr component be present as well. Mixing models combining 87Sr/87Sr and Sr contents of various kinds of mafic magmas with partial melts of metasedimentary wall rocks suggest that three types of mafic magmas can satisfactorily duplicate the oxygen isotope signature of the intrusions: (1) a mid ocean ridge (MORB)-like magma, (2) a magma derived by partial fusion of altered MORB, or (3) an arc basalt. The MORB model predicts abundances of Rb, Sr, Ba, and rare earth elements which are similar to those in the intrusions, while the altered MORB model does not. The arc magma model provides a better trace element match than the remelted MORB model, but is not as successful as the MORB model. These intrusions were preceded by a pulse of mafic to intermediate volcanism near or within the accretionary prism, recorded in the Paleocene Ghost Rocks Formation. This volcanism is probably the heat and mass source of the mafic component within the intrusions, and may be

  10. Cold Reversal on Kodiak Island, Alaska, Correlated with the European Younger Dryas by Using Variations of Atmospheric C-14 Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Bonani, Georges; Boden, Per; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Mann, Daniel H.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution AMS (accelerator-mass-spectrometer) radiocarbon dating was performed on late-glacial macrofossils in lake sediments from Kodiak Island, Alaska, and on shells in marine sediments from southwest Sweden. In both records, a dramatic drop in radiocarbon ages equivalent to a rise in the atmospheric C-14 by approximately 70%. coincides with the beginning of the cold period at 11000 yr B.P. (C-14 age). Thus our results show that a close correlation between climatic records around the globe is possible by using a global signature of changes in atmospheric C-14 content.

  11. Life on the Edge: Holocene Tephra Stratigraphy of Tanginak Anchorage, Sitkalidak Island, Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, E.; Bourgeois, J.; Fitzhugh, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Geologic hazards associated with volcanism in the North Pacific have profound if usually temporary effects on the environment and human populations. Ash falls associated with these events are often preserved across large areas providing time specific markers. In the past century, volcanic activity and its effects in the North Pacific have been recorded, but much of the Holocene volcanic record in the Alaskan region is still being investigated. The Kodiak Archipelago, while not volcanic itself, is located near both Aleutian and Alaskan peninsula volcanoes. However, little has been published about the Holocene tephrochronology of the Kodiak region. This study focuses on the area around Tanginak Spring Site (KOD481). Located on Sitkalidak Island it is the earliest known human occupation in the Kodiak archipelago. We are documenting Holocene environmental changes on Sitkalidak Island and relating these changes to the archaeological record. As part of this work, we will establish a local tephrochronology using stratigraphy and geochemistry which will allow us to better correlate sedimentary changes across large areas as well as study human interaction with ashfall events. Herein we report a preliminary tephrochronology in peat excavations on Sitkalidak Island dating back to the earliest Holocene. Dates are radiocarbon years BP on peat directly below tephra. Marker tephra present in our reference sections are Katmai 1912, light gray (historic?), medium gray (3370), medium gray (3720), beige 1 (4340), apricot (5390), beige 3 (6790), black (9280), and white (11,520). Geochemical and petrographic analysis will help to determine with which volcanic events these tephra are associated. Establishing a local tephrochronology is important not only for local correlation but also to ascertain the tephra stratigraphy of the Kodiak Archipelago and beyond. The frequency of tephra in Tanginak Anchorage sections suggests that tephra will be a very useful stratigraphic tool in this

  12. A Characterization of the Terrestrial Environment of Kodiak Island, Alaska for the Design, Development and Operation of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, Michael A.; Johnson, Dale L.; Batts, Glen W.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the terrestrial environment is an important component in the success of a launch vehicle program. Environmental factors such as winds, atmospheric thermodynamics, precipitation, fog, and cloud characteristics are among many parameters that must be accurately defined for flight success. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently coordinating weather support and performing analysis for the launch of a NASA payload from a new facility located at Kodiak Island, Alaska in late 2001 (NASA, 1999). Following the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Complex, an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile on November 5, 1999, the site's developer, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation (AADC), is hoping to acquire a sizable share of the many launches that will occur over the next decade. One such customer is NASA, which is planning to launch the Vegetation Canopy Lidar satellite aboard an Athena I rocket, the first planned mission to low earth orbit from the new facility. To support this launch, a statistical model of the atmospheric and surface environment for Kodiak Island, AK has been produced from rawinsonde and surface-based meteorological observations for use as an input to future launch vehicle design and/or operations. In this study, the creation of a "reference atmosphere" from rawinsonde observations is described along with comparisons between the reference atmosphere and existing model representations for Kodiak. Meteorological conditions that might result in a delay on launch day (cloud cover, visibility, precipitation, etc.) are also explored and described through probabilities of launch by month and hour of day. This atmospheric "mission analysis" is also useful during the early stages of a vehicle program, when consideration of the climatic characteristics of a location can be factored into vehicle designs. To be most beneficial, terrestrial environment definitions should a) be available at

  13. Mechanisms of population genetic heterogeneity among molting common mergansers on Kodiak Island, Alaska: implications for assessments of migratory connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Maryanski, Nate

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying population genetic heterogeneity within nonbreeding aggregations can inform our understanding of patterns of site fidelity, migratory connectivity, and gene flow between breeding and nonbreeding areas. However, characterizing mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneity, such as migration and dispersal, is required before site fidelity and migratory connectivity can be assessed accurately. We studied nonbreeding groups of Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser) molting on Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 2005 to 2007, using banding data to assess rates of recapture, mitochondrial (mt) DNA to determine natal area, and nuclear microsatellite genotypes to assess dispersal. Using baseline information from differentiated mtDNA haplogroups across North America, we were able to assign individuals to natal regions and document population genetic heterogeneity within and among molting groups. Band-recovery and DNA data suggest that both migration from and dispersal among natal areas contribute to admixed groups of males molting on Kodiak Island. A lack of differentiation in the Common Merganser's nuclear, bi-parentally inherited DNA, observed across North America, implies that dispersal can mislead genetic assessments of migratory connectivity and assignments of nonbreeding individuals to breeding areas. Thus multiple and independent data types are required to account for such behaviors before accurate assessments of migratory connectivity can be made.

  14. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, N.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Vining, I.

    1999-01-01

    Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20-25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5-11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22-31.5 items km-2, 7.8-18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary. Copyright (C) 1999.

  15. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  16. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  17. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  18. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  19. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  20. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  1. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  3. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  4. Gulf of Alaska, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image shows the Gulf of Alaska and Kodiak Island, the partially snow-covered island in roughly the center of the image. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  5. SEAFOOD PROCESSING PERMITTING, ALASKA - KODIAK & ST, PAUL HARBORS - CHART #16595

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kodiak & St, Paul Harbors was digitized from NOAA Marine Chart #16595. Map details include water depth and land. This map was created for EPA Region 10 Water Division to evaluate NPDES permit sites and environmental quality. Visual illustration facilitates the evaluation of the e...

  6. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule....

  7. Overview of surface-water resources at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak, Alaska, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solin, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic data at a U.S. Coast Guard Support Center on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were collected from 1987 though 1989 to determine hydrologic conditions and if contamination of soils, ground water, or surface water has occurred. This report summarizes the surface-water-discharge data collected during the study and estimates peak, average, and low-flow values for Buskin River near its mouth. Water-discharge measurements were made at least once at 48 sites on streams in or near the Center. Discharges were measured in the Buskin River near its mouth five times during 1987-89 and ranged from 27 to 367 cubic feet per second. Tributaries of Buskin River below Buskin Lake that had discharges greater than 1 cubic foot per second include Bear Creek, Alder Creek, Magazine Creek, Devils Creek and an outlet from Lake Louise. Streams having flows generally greater than 0.1 cubic foot per second but less than 1 cubic foot per second include an unnamed tributary to Buskin River, an unnamed tributary to Lake Catherine and a drainage channel at Kodiak airport. Most other streams flowing into Buskin River, and all streams on Nyman Peninsula, usually had little or no flow except during periods of rainfall or snowmelt. During a low-flow period in February 1989, discharge measurements in Buskin River and its tributaries indicate that three reaches of Buskin River below Buskin Lake lost water to the ground-water system, whereas two reaches gained water; the net gain in streamflow attributed to ground-water inflow at a location near the mouth was estimated to be 2.2 cubic feet per second. The 100-year peak flow for Buskin River near its mouth was estimated to be 4,460 cubic feet per second. Average discharge was estimated to be 125 cubic feet per second and the 7-day 10-year low flow was estimated to be 5.8 cubic feet per second.

  8. Hydrologic and water-quality data for U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak, Alaska, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak on Kodiak Island, Alaska, to determine regional ground-water conditions and if contamination of soils, ground water, or surface water has occurred. Eighteen areas of possible contamination were identified. Ground-water levels, surface- water stages, surface-water discharges, and results of field and laboratory analyses of soil and water samples are presented in tabular form. Many quality-assurance samples had detectable concentrations of methylene chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, which may be due to sampling or laboratory contamination. Concentrations were as great as 5.9 micrograms per liter for methylene chloride and 2.6 micrograms per liter for 1,2-dichloroethane. Excluding 1,2-dichloroethane, most soil, ground-water, and surface-water samples contained no detectable concentrations of the organic constituents that were analyzed. Chemical analyses were performed on two lake-bed-material samples and more than 100 soil samples. The median lead concentration was 9.8 milligrams per kilogram. Concentrations of tetrachloroethene were as great as 1.1 milligram per kilogram in soils near a laundry. Water samples were collected from 101 wells. The maximum benzene concentration detected in ground water was 78 micrograms per liter from a well at the air station near a site where aviation fuel was spilled. Wells near a laundry yielded water having concentrations of tetrachloroethene as great as 3,000 micrograms per liter, and vinyl chloride as great as 440 micrograms per liter. A well in a former aviation gasoline storage area yielded water with a concentration of trichloroethene as great as 66 micrograms per liter. Water samples were collected from 59 sites on streams, lakes, or ponds. Surface-water samples had much lower concen- trations of organic compounds; the highest concentration of benzene was 2.2 micrograms per liter in a stream near a former aviation-fuel storage area and

  9. Geological and operational summary, Kodiak Shelf stratigraphic test wells, western Gulf of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.F.; Lynch, M.B.; Conner, T.A.; Hallin, P.J.; Hoose, P.J.

    1987-10-01

    Contents include: regional petroleum exploration history; operational summary of the Kodiak Shelf stratigraphic drilling program; lithologic summary; velocity analysis; seismic stratigraphy and tectonic evolution of the Kodiak Shelf; well-log interpretation; biostratigraphy; organic geochemistry; geothermal gradient; abnormal formation pressure; shallow geology and geologic hazards; and environmental considerations.

  10. Kodiak seamount not flat-topped.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E L; von Huene, R E

    1966-12-01

    Earlier surveys in the Aleutian Trench southeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, indicated that Kodiak Seamount had a flat top and was a tablemount or guyot. This seamount is of special significance because it has been supposed that its surface was eroded at the same time as those of a line of guyots to the southeast. If so, its present position in the axis of the Aleutian Trench indicates that the line of guyots was formed before the trench. A two-part survey in 1965 showed that Kodiak Seamount is not flat-topped, and should be eliminated from the category of guyots. Reflection profiling records indicate that the seamount was formed before the adjacent sediments were deposited, and that the small trough, or moat, on the south side is a depositional feature probably formed by a scouring effect or by the acceleration of turbidity currents around the base of the mount. PMID:17770303

  11. Clay mineralogy, fine-grained sediment dispersal, and inferred current patterns, lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Bouma, A.H.; Hampton, M.A.; Robin, Ross C.

    1979-01-01

    Because lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak shelf are being explored and developed for their petroleum resources, it is essential for environmental reasons to understand the sediment dispersal routes and current patterns. The Susitna River flows into upper Cook Inlet and is the source of clay minerals in Holocene deposits found in western lower Cook Inlet. The Copper River, in the northern Gulf of Alaska, provides clay minerals to the Kodiak shelf and southeastern lower Cook Inlet. In addition, crosion of local bedrock outcrops on the shelf produces some clays that are deposited on the Kodiak shelf. Current patterns can be inferred from the clay-mineral distribution pattern. This is true even if the clay-size fraction is a minor sediment component, and in areas where coarse-grained relict deposits occur. Some potential dangers from offshore petroleum development include: (1) rapid and complete mixing of Cook Inlet waters, (2) adsorption of pollutants by clay deposited in quiet bays, and (3) ion-exchange and adsorption of chemical pollutants on clays that are part of the suspended sediment load in lower Cook Inlet. ?? 1979.

  12. 20. DETAIL WITH FIRE HYDRANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST Kodiak Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL WITH FIRE HYDRANT, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Aircraft Storehouse, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Albatross Avenue near Cape Spencer Street, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  13. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  14. Expanding the Kachemak: surplus production and the development of multi-season storage in Alaska's Kodiak Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Steffian, Amy F; Saltonstall, Patrick G; Kopperl, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    Surplus production is a hallmark of Alaska's prehistoric coastal societies. Over the millennia, foragers procured greater quantities of resources with increasing efficiency, developing economies dependent upon storage and institutionalized exchange. In the central Gulf of Alaska, notable evidence of surplus production comes from the late phase of the Kachemak tradition. Since de Laguna's pioneering studies, archaeologists have noted that intensified fishing, storage, and exchange typify this tradition. However, few have investigated the roots of these behaviors. When, how, and why did foragers begin producing well beyond immediate needs? This paper explores archaeological evidence for surplus production in the Kodiak Archipelago, focusing on patterns in land use, technology, and exchange preserved in Ocean Bay II and Early Kachemak assemblages from the Chiniak Bay region. It suggests that surplus production for the purposes of seasonal food storage began in the Early Kachemak, and accelerated in the Late Kachemak as population levels climbed. PMID:21847834

  15. Dredged trachyte and basalt from kodiak seamount and the adjacent aleutian trench, alaska.

    PubMed

    Forbes, R B; Hoskin, C M

    1969-10-24

    Blocky fragments of aegirine-augite trachyte (with accompanying icerafted gravels.) were recovered from the upper slopes of Kodiak Seamount in several dredge hauls. An alkali basalt pillow segment was also dredged from a moatlike depression, at a depth of 5000 meters, near the west base of the seamount. These retrievals confirm the volcanic origin of Kodiak Seamount and further support the view of Engel, Engel, and Havens that the higher elevations of seamounts are composed of alkali basalts or related variants. PMID:17731907

  16. Description of wells drilled at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak, Alaska, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S Coast Guard, in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, is conducting environmental studies at its Support Center in Kodiak, Alaska, to determine if hazardous materials have been spilled or disposed of at the facility. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic evaluation of the Support Center to assess the extent of possible ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination resulting from the handling of hazardous materials. This report describes the borehole and monitoring-well drilling program conducted on the Support Center by the U.S. Geological Survey. It contains maps and diagrams depicting well locations, logs, and construction details, as well as soil-sampling information for 121 boreholes, of which 102 were completed as water-quality monitoring wells.

  17. Geology of a cretaceous subduction complex, Western Chicagoof Island, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, J. E., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The geology of the Chugach terrane on Chichagof and Baranof Islands in southeastern Alaska is described and mapped in detail. The Goon Dip Greenstone and the Whitestripe Marble are pre-Late Jurassic in age and possibly correlate with Triassic rocks in the Wrangell Mountains. The Kelp Bay Group is a chaotic metasedimentary and metavolcanic terrane correlative with Lower Cretaceous complexes in the Chugach Mountains and adjacent islands. The Ford Arm Formation consists mainly of flyschoid rocks continuous with Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Valdez Group in the Chugach Mountains and correlative with the Kodiak and Shumagin Formations in southwest Alaska. The Sitka Graywacke consists mainly of massive sandstone petrographically similar to the Ford Arm Formation. The occurrence, geochemistry, and petrology of metavolcanic rocks from Chichagof Island indicate that basaltic ocean floor volcanism was contemporaneous with deposition of continental sediment.

  18. 77 FR 6555 - Alaska Village Electric Cooperative; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Creek (a Lagoon Creek tributary), near the town of Old Harbor, Kodiak Island Borough, Alaska. The... of the Lagoon Creek tributary. Access Road and Trail An approximately 11,200-foot-long intake...

  19. 77 FR 24196 - Alaska Village Electric Cooperative; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Creek (a Lagoon Creek tributary), near the town of Old Harbor, Kodiak Island Borough, Alaska. The... of the Lagoon Creek tributary. Access Road and Trail An approximately 11,200-foot-long intake...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner Crab...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner Crab Protection Area 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF...

  1. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Uplift and subsidence reveal a nonpersistent megathrust rupture boundary (Sitkinak Island, Alaska)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Dura, Tina; Kemp, Andrew C.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide; Angster, Stephen J.; Bradley, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    We report stratigraphic evidence of land-level change and tsunami inundation along the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust during prehistoric and historical earthquakes west of Kodiak Island. On Sitkinak Island, cores and tidal outcrops fringing a lagoon reveal five sharp lithologic contacts that record coseismic land-level change. Radiocarbon dates, 137Cs profiles, CT scans, and microfossil assemblages are consistent with rapid uplift ca. 290-0, 520-300, and 1050-790 cal yr BP, and subsidence in AD 1964 and ca. 640-510 cal yr BP. Radiocarbon, 137Cs, and 210Pb ages bracketing a sand bed traced 1.5 km inland and evidence for sudden uplift are consistent with Russian accounts of an earthquake and tsunami in AD 1788. The mixed uplift and subsidence record suggests that Sitkinak Island sits above a non-persistent boundary near the southwestern limit of the AD 1964 Mw 9.2 megathrust rupture.

  3. The development of folds and cleavages in slate belts by underplating in accretionary complexes: A comparison of the Kodiak Formation, Alaska and the Calaveras Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Scott R.; Sample, James C.

    1988-08-01

    The development of folds and cleavages in slate and graywacke belts is commonly attributed to arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. However, the Kodiak Formation of southern Alaska and the Calaveras Complex of the western Sierra Nevada, California, are two slate and graywacke belts in which folds and slaty cleavages developed during simple underthrusting and underplating within accretionary wedges. The Maastrichtian Kodiak Formation is composed dominantly of coherent turbidites but includes lesser pebbly mudstone, minor conglomerate, and rare chert. The Kodiak Formation is part of a large accretionary complex that youngs in age seaward, but bedding tops generally show landward younging. A progression of structures has been determined by crosscutting relationships and includes (1) syndeformational depositional features; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; (4) crenulations and crenulation cleavage; (5) late brittle thrust faults; and (6) right-lateral strike-slip faults. Broken formation, slaty cleavage, thrust faults, and folds developed during underthrusting and underplating within an accretionary wedge. Crenulations and brittle thrust faults are related to subsequent intrawedge shortening. Based on peak metamorphism in the uppermost zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies, underplating occurred at a minimum depth of 10 km. The Calaveras Complex is composed of argillite, chert, graywacke, pebbly mudstone, limestone, and volcanic rocks. Its age of deposition has a maximum range from Permian to Early Jurassic. Overall, the unit appears to young westward, but local facing indicators show eastward younging of individual blocks. The sequence of structures developed in the Calaveras Complex is (1) syn-depositional olistostromes; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; and (4) younger Jura-Triassic folds and crenulation cleavages. Broken formation and slaty cleavage developed during underthrusting and

  4. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  5. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, T.; Gill, V.A.; Tuomi, P.; Monson, D.; Burdin, A.; Conrad, P.A.; Dunn, J.L.; Field, C.; Johnson, Chad; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, J.; Doroff, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (,5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasmagondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in nai{dotless}??ve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virusto otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak,Alaska, USA, since the 1990s. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2011.

  6. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Gill, Verena A; Tuomi, Pam; Monson, Daniel; Burdin, Alexander; Conrad, Patricia A; Dunn, J Lawrence; Field, Cara; Johnson, Christine; Jessup, David A; Bodkin, James; Doroff, Angela M

    2011-07-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (<5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990 s. PMID:21719822

  7. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  8. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  9. Geohydrology and water supply, Shemya Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John; Zenone, Chester; Reed, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    Sheyma Island, Alaska, was occupied as a military base in 1942. Since that time, potable water has been supplied by streams, lakes, wells, and in the late 1950's, a gallery system. The island is a low-lying, wave-cut platform composed of pyroclastic and volcanic rocks with some intrusives. Bedrock is overlain by thin glacial deposits. Most of the island 's present surface is relatively thick peat deposits. On the southern and western sides of the island active sand dunes are present. Ground-water supplies are limited by the dense bedrock; only a small amount of water penetrates into fracture systems. Most ground-water movement is in the overlying glacial and peat deposits. Ground water moves generally from north to south across the island. Currently water supplies are drawn from the gallery system which is capable of providing about 200,000 gallons per day. An emergency water supply is available from two wells. Additional supplies could be developed by either adding to the existing gallery or constructing an additional gallery near the present gallery system. The chemical quality of water analyzed from the gallery well generally approximates that of surface water on the island. None of the constituents in samples from streams, lakes, or ground water, except the August 27, 1970, analysis for Lower Lake, exceed the recommended limits for drinking water (Environmental Protection Agency, 1973). (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Radiometric ages of Kodiak Seamount and Giacomini Guyot, Gulf of Alaska: Implications for circum-pacific tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, D.L.; Forbes, R.B.; Naeser, C.W.

    1973-01-01

    Kodiak Seamount and Giacomini Guyot have been dated at 22.6 ??1.1 and 19.9 ??1.0 [2?? (standard deviation)] X 106 years, respectively. Concordant whole-rock and plagioclase potassium-argon dates and fission-track apatite ages demonstrate that significant quantities of excess radiogenic 40Ar are not present in the dated samples. These seamounts are the northwesternmost edifices of the Pratt-Welker chain, which cuts obliquely across magnetic anomaly patterns in an older northeastern Pacific sea floor. The older of the two dated seamounts is in the Aleutian Trench, apparently about to be subducted. If one assumes that seamounts are generated by plate motion over a fixed hot spot in the mantle, a Pacific-plate motion of 6.6 centimeters per year during early Miocene time may be calculated.

  11. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  16. STUDY OF THE SUBARCTIC HEAT ISLAND AT FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The heat island associated with the City of Fairbanks, Alaska was studied as a means of isolating the effects of self-heating modified radiative transfer from other causes of heat islands. Minimal winter insolation virtually eliminated the effects of variable albedo and the daily...

  17. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: Nunivak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1967-01-01

    New paleomagnetic and potassium-argon dating measurements have been made of basalt flows from Nunivak Island, Alaska, with the following results. (1) The best estimate of the age of the Brunhes/Matuyama polarity epoch boundary is found to be 0.694 m.y. (2) The best estimate of the age of the Gauss/Gilbert boundary is 3.32 m.y. (3) Three normally magnetized flows with ages from 0.93 to 0.88 m.y. are in accord with previous estimates of the age and duration of the Jaramillo normal event. (4) One normally magnetized flow with an age of 1.65 ?? 0.09 m.y. supplies additional evidence for the Gilsa?? normal event. (5) Two new normal events are identified within the Gilbert reversed epoch, the "Cochiti normal event" with an age of 3.7 m.y. and the "Nunivak normal event" with an age of 4.1 m.y. ?? 1967.

  18. Cultural remains in local and regional context on the central Alaska Peninsula: housepits, language, and cultural affinities at Marraatuq after 1000 B.P.

    PubMed

    McClenahan, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Professor Dumond's research on the Alaska Peninsula provided information that prior to 1,000 years ago people of both sides of the Alaska Peninsula shared material culture and exhibited subsistence interests that persisted into historic times, During the Late Precontact Era (ca. 1100 A.D. to mid-1700s) these Alutiiq societies shared cultural traits including language, house styles, and material culture with their relatives and neighbors on Kodiak Island. Until recently, few data were available regarding potential variability in house construction techniques, or styles and functions of Alutiiq semi-subterranean houses of this era found on the Alaska Peninsula, This paper provides examples of a few known prehistoric and historic Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Alutiiq houses and presents previously unreported data from archaeological tests at Marraatuq on the Central Alaska Peninsula, Taken together with Dumond's 1998-1999 field work at Leader Creek and archaeological research on Kodiak Island, the work provides further evidence that interregional interaction was strong during the Late Precontact Era. However, large population centers and ranked political hierarchies probably were not hallmarks of central Alaska Peninsula communities during the Late Precontact Era and historic times as they were on the Kodiak and Aleutian islands. PMID:21495284

  19. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  20. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  1. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  2. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  3. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  4. 78 FR 36150 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Tanner Crab Area Closure in the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...NMFS proposes regulations that would implement Amendment 89 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) and that would revise current regulations governing the configuration of modified nonpelagic trawl gear. First, this proposed rule would establish a protection area in Marmot Bay, northeast of Kodiak Island, and close that area to fishing with trawl gear except......

  5. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  6. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  7. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

  8. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  9. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  10. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  11. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  12. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  13. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  14. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  15. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... listed: a 57°00′0″ 153°18′0″ Black Point. b 56°56′0″ 153°09′0″ c 57°22′0″ 152°18′5″ South Tip of Ugak... reference area North latitude/West longitude Reference point Alitak Flats and Towers Areas All waters of... 56°33′5″ 153°52′0″ Cape Sitkinak. f 56°54′5″ 153°32′5″ East point of Twoheaded Island. g 56°56′0″...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... listed: a 57°00′0″ 153°18′0″ Black Point. b 56°56′0″ 153°09′0″ c 57°22′0″ 152°18′5″ South Tip of Ugak... reference area North latitude/West longitude Reference point Alitak Flats and Towers Areas All waters of... 56°33′5″ 153°52′0″ Cape Sitkinak. f 56°54′5″ 153°32′5″ East point of Twoheaded Island. g 56°56′0″...

  17. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  18. Risk assessment Barter Island radar installation, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIS) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Barter Island Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) United States Air Force 1994a. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessment. The primary contaminants of concern at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks. The general location of the Barter Island radar installation is shown in Figure 1-1. The 14 sites investigated and the types of samples collected at each site are presented in Table 1-1. The purpose of the risk assessment is to evaluate the human and ecological health risks that may be associated with chemicals released to the environment at the 14 sites investigated during the RIs. The risk assessment characterizes the probability that measured concentrations of hazardous chemical substances will cause adverse effects in humans or the environment in the absence of remediation. The risk assessment will be used to determine if remediation (site cleanup) is necessary and also to rank sites for remedial action. Additionally, it will be used as a model for the risk assessment to be performed at the other DEW Line installations (Bullen Point, Oliktok Point, Point Lonely, Barrow Point, Wainwright, and Point Lay) and the Cape Lisburne radar installation. pg18. JMD.

  19. Ordovician "sphinctozoan" sponges from Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Karl, S.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    A faunule of silicified hypercalcified "sphinctozoan" sponges has been recovered from a clast of Upper Ordovician limestone out of the Early Devonian Karheen Formation on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Included in the faunule are abundant examples of the new genus Girtyocoeliana, represented by Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby and Potter), and Corymbospongia adnata Rigby and Potter, along with rare Corymbospongia amplia n. sp., and Girtyocoelia(?) sp., plus common Amblysiphonella sp. 1 and rare Amblysiphonella(?) sp. 2. The assemblage is similar to that from Ordovician clasts from the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California. This indicates that the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska is related paleogeographically to the lithologically and paleontologically similar terrane of the eastern Klamath Mountains. This lithology and fossil assemblage of the clast cannot be tied to any currently known local rock units on Prince of Wales Island. Other clasts in the conglomerate appear to have been locally derived, so it is inferred that the limestone clasts were also locally derived, indicating the presence of a previously undocumented Ordovician limestone unit on northern Prince of Wales Island

  20. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  1. Evolution of a North Slope barrier island (Narwhal Island, North Arctic Alaska) 1955- 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Narwhal island was a 4 km long and 30 to 200 m wide barrier island, located at 145 30' W; 70 24' N, about 20 km offshore of the North Slope coast by Foggy Island Bay and near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. According to available aerial photography, by 1979, the island had been breached in 4 locations creating a five island chain. By 1984, the chain consisted of 3 pieces indicating a reformation process. In subsequent years, the chain appears to have gone through a couple more cycles of breakup and reformation. The island is subject to wind waves, sea-ice impacts, and storm surges. Preliminary GIS analysis and recent GPS surveys indicate that, in the past 50 years, the western end of the island had migrated about 200 m to the west consistent with the direction of sea-ice movement and consistent with the frequent east winds during the summer (open water) period. The rate of migration is consistent with the findings of earlier studies. In addition to the island's westward migration, the northern (seaward) side of the island has retreated landward by about 5 m/year during the past decade. Here, the details of the GIS and GPS work are described. In addition, a preliminary wave (SWAN) and sediment transport model is presented that explains the morphodynamic changes. Considering continued sea ice retreat consequent to global warming, we speculate about future morphodynamic changes.

  2. Social indicators study of Alaskan Coastal Villages I. Key informant summaries. Volume 2. Schedule B regions (Bristol Bay, Kodiak, Bering Straits). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, T.; Fienup-Riordan, A.; Jorgensen, J.; McNabb, S.; Petrivelli, P.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this report is on Alaska Natives--Inupiaq and Yupik Eskimos, Athabascans, and Aleuts--for two important reasons: (1) Alaska Natives are numerically dominant populations in rural areas closest to potential offshore oil development sites and (2) their economic adjustments are most vulnerable to potential impacts from such development. This report is divided into Schedules A, B, and C. Comprising Schedules A and B are the study areas originally identified by Minerals Management Service for this study (North Slope, NANA, Bering Straits, Calista, Bristol Bay, Aleutian-Pribilof Islands, and Kodiak regions). Schedule C is comprised of communities that were added subsequent to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 in the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet regions. One aim of this study was to document the attitudes and belief systems or ideologies about quality of life and well-being in the coastal, rural portions of Alaska.

  3. Water-resources reconnaissance of the southeastern part of St Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John

    1980-01-01

    A hydrologic reconnaissance of the southeastern part of St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, was made in August 1979 to determine if sufficient freshwater is available for a proposed harbor and fish-processing facility. Only three wells were being used in 1979, two by the community of St. Paul and one by the Coast Guard Loran facility. All wells are in the southeastern part of the island. The island has no established surface drainage, and no springs were found on the eastern part of the island during the survey. Drainage of ground-water from the island is assumed to be by seepage through the sandy deposits along the east coast and possibly by undersea discharge elsewhere on the island. On the basis of present well yields, amount of freshwater inferred to be present below the water table, and potential recharge from precipitation, it is concluded that it should be possible to design a well field in the southeastern part of the island that could yield more than a million gallons per day without danger of inducing saline water into the well field. The water is of good chemical quality. (USGS)

  4. Microscopic analysis of feather and hair fragments associated with human mummified remains from Kagamil Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Human mummified remains of 34 different infant and adult individuals from Kagamil Island, Alaska, are accessioned in the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Kagamil Island is one of the small islands in the Island of Four Mountains group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and is well known for the mummy caves located on the southwest coast of the island. The Kagamil mummy holdings at the Smithsonian represent one of the largest, best documented and preserved collections of this type. Although these specimens are stored in ideal conditions, many small feather and hair fragments have become loose or disassociated from the actual mummies over the years. This preliminary investigation of fragmentary fiber material retrieved from these artifacts is the first attempt to identify bird and mammal species associated with the mummified remains of the Kagamil Island, Alaska collection and is part of the ongoing research connected with these artifacts.

  5. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., or the Virgin Islands. (a) When is an increased mortgage limit permitted for these areas? For Alaska, Guam, Hawaii or the Virgin Islands, the Commissioner may increase the maximum mortgage amount...

  6. 2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  7. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for Gulf of Alaska groundfish fisheries, arbitration system, monitoring, economic data collection, and cost recovery fee collection. The Crab Rationalization Program Arbitration System is established by...

  8. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

  9. Cyclicity in Silurian island-arc carbonates, Alexander terrane, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kittredge, L.E.; Soja, C.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Silurian carbonates from Alaska (Alexander terrane) record the evolution of a submarine platform during waning volcanism in an island arc. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of a 47 meter-thick sequence revealed the existence of cyclically repeated limestones: coral-stromatoporoid wackestones alternate with oncoid packstones and bioturbated, silty lime mudstones. The coral-stromatoporoid deposits are characterized by a low-diversity assemblage of dendroid corals, massive stromatoporoids, Atrypoidea brachiopods, and rare occurrences of biostromes associated with Solenopora, high-spired gastropods, and crinoids. Oncoids typically are 2-6 mm in diameter and form massive, meter-thick units. Coated grains are symmetrically developed, have a shell or algal nucleus, and are also a minor component of coral-stromatoporoid beds. These lithologic units form seven, shallowing-upwards cycles (parasequences) that range in thickness from 3-9 meters. Coral-stomatoporoid wackestones form the base of each cycle and grade upwards into oncoid packstones with silty, lime mudstones at the top. This succession of lithofacies within each cycle reflects an increase in energy levels from relatively deeper water environments to relatively shallower ones. The lack of abrasion in the corals and stromatoporoids suggests predominantly quiet-water conditions in shallow subtidal areas affected by periodic turbulence. Comparison with correlative sections in Alaska and lack of correspondence with global sea level curves suggest that the primary cause of cyclicity was tectonic perturbations with secondary eustatic effects. Cyclic deposition in peri/subtidal sites was terminated by rapid drowning of the carbonate platform during late Silurian orogenesis.

  10. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, C.J. . Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  11. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar work.

  12. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the crab fisheries in the waters off the coast of Alaska under the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab. The Magnuson-Stevens...

  13. Griddlestones from Adak Island, Alaska: Their provenance and the biological origins of organic residues from cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burned stone slabs, historically called griddlestones, were recovered from Components 1 (2390-2590 RCYPB) and 2 (170-415 RCYBP) at archaeological site ADK-011 on Adak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The griddlestones show evidence of fire exposure and have a dark, often greasy, matrix of decompose...

  14. Locally acquired disseminated histoplasmosis in a northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) in Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Burek-Huntington, Kathy A; Gill, Verena; Bradway, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Histoplasmosis of local origin has not been reported in humans or wildlife in Alaska, and the disease has never been reported in a free-ranging marine mammal. In 2005 a northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) was found on Kodiak Island, Alaska, at 57° latitude north, far outside the known distribution of Histoplasma capsulatum. The animal died of disseminated histoplasmosis. Microorganisms consistent with Histoplasma sp. were observed on histopathology, and H. capsulatum was identified by PCR and sequencing. We suggest migratory seabirds or aerosol transmission through prevailing winds may have resulted in transmission to the sea otter. PMID:24484503

  15. Mississippian conodonts, Lisburne Group, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, H.R.; Ressmeyer, P.F.

    1985-04-01

    Late Mississippian conodonts recovered from two sections of the Lisburne Group exposed along the Ongoveyuk River, western St. Lawrence Island, are few, poorly preserved, yet relatively diverse. At the West Fork and East Fork Ongoveyuk sections, the lower, dark-colored, cherty beds yield conodonts that belong in the upper part of Lane Faunal Unit 8. They are correlatives of the upper St. Louis Formation in the Mississippi River Valley and, in northwest Alaska, are equivalent to the upper Nasorak and Kogruk Formations (Lisburne Group) along Nasorak Creek near Point Hope, and the Kogruk Formation at the Trail Creek, De Long Mountains, Misheguk Mountain quadrangle. The upper, light-colored, thicker-bedded interval at the West Fork exposure yields conodonts assignable to Lane Faunal unit 9 of latest Meramecian and earliest Chesterian age. This fauna occurs widely over North America in beds that correlate with the St. Genevieve Limestone in the Mississippi River Valley. On the Lisburne Peninsula, this interval correlates with at least a portion of the Kogruk Formation exposed at Niak Creek and Cape Lewis north of Point Hope. Conodont alteration indices (CAI) are very high and variable, ranging from 5.5 to 8.0, suggesting they resulted from contact rather than regional metamorphism.

  16. Modern salt-marsh and tidal-flat foraminifera from Sitkinak and Simeonof Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemp, Andrew C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Culver, Stephen J.; Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard W.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the modern distribution of salt-marsh and tidal-flat foraminifera from Sitkinak Island (Trinity Islands) and Simeonof Island (Shumagin Islands), Alaska, to begin development of a dataset for later use in reconstructing relative sea-level changes caused by great earthquakes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Dead foraminifera were enumerated from a total of 58 surface-sediment samples collected along three intertidal transects around a coastal lagoon on Sitkinak Island and two intertidal transects on Simeonof Island. Two distinctive assemblages of salt-marsh foraminifera were recognized on Sitkinak Island. Miliammina fusca dominated low-marsh settings and Balticammina pseudomacrescens dominated the high marsh. These two species make up >98% of individuals. On Simeonof Island, 93% of individuals in high-marsh settings above mean high water were B. pseudomacrescens. The tidal flat on Simeonof Island was dominated by Cibicides lobatulus (60% of individuals), but the lower limit of this species is subtidal and was not sampled. These results indicate that uplift or subsidence caused by repeated earthquakes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone could be reconstructed in coastal sediments using alternating assemblages of near monospecific B. pseudomacrescens and low-marsh or tidal-flat foraminifera.

  17. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  18. Observations of Permafrost Bluff Failure Processes, Barter Island, NE Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, L. H.; Richmond, B. M.; Gibbs, A.; Jones, B.

    2011-12-01

    Arctic coast permafrost bluffs are extremely vulnerable to increased thaw, erosion, and landward retreat in a warming climate. Here, we report on permafrost bluff retreat processes based on field observations of bluff geology and morphology during the summers of 2010 and 2011 combined with historical analyses of bluff retreat rates from the mid 1940s to the present for Barter Island, NE Alaska. Field data collected included GPS surveys of bluff position and morphology, geologic mapping including stratigraphy, sediment size and composition, ice content, nearshore bathymetry, and temperature gradients recorded by thermistor arrays. Failure mechanisms are the direct causes of failures and include wave action, water flow (both surface and groundwater), freeze/thaw impacts, and surficial weathering. Failure modes are the processes by which the failures occur such as undercutting (notching) and oversteepening of the bluff face, retrogressive thaw slumping, rotational failures, block falls, and gullying. Processes of failure observed along the Barter Island bluffs vary both temporally with seasonal changes in temperature and sea-ice conditions, and spatially associated with variations in bluff height and composition. In the spring and early summer, sediment-entrained land-fast ice recedes, removing and reworking sediment from the bluff and foreshore. Snow melt induces surface runoff and gullying, and is accompanied by thawing of the bluff face which begins to produce debris avalanches and small alluvial fans at the base of the bluffs where a backbeach is present. During the summer months, when sea-ice has retreated from the coast, thermo-erosional niching and mechanical notch formation occurs due to small storm waves and elevated water levels in response to winds and pressure differences. As bluff-face thawing continues large thaw slump failures and block falls begin to develop. In late summer and fall, before the sea ice returns, extra-tropical storms lead to increased

  19. Palaeomagnetism of lower cretaceous tuffs from Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Globerman, B.R.; Coe, R.S.; Hoare, J.M.; Decker, J.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the prescient arguments1-3 for the allochthoneity of large portions of southern Alaska have been corroborated by detailed geological and palaeomagnetic studies in south-central Alaska 4-9 the Alaska Peninsula10, Kodiak Island11,12 and the Prince William Sound area13 (Fig. 1). These investigations have demonstrated sizeable northward displacements for rocks of late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and early Tertiary age in those regions, with northward motion at times culminating in collision of the allochthonous terranes against the backstop of 'nuclear' Alaska14,15. A fundamental question is which parts of Alaska underwent significantly less latitudinal translation relative to the 'stable' North American continent, thereby serving as the 'accretionary nucleus' into which the displaced 'microplates'16 were eventually incorporated17,18? Here we present new palaeomagnetic results from tuffs and associated volcaniclastic rocks of early Cretaceous age from the Yukon-Kuskokwin delta region in western Alaska. These rocks were probably overprinted during the Cretaceous long normal polarity interval, although a remagnetization event as recent as Palaeocene cannot be ruled out. This overprint direction is not appreciably discordant from the expected late Cretaceous direction for cratonal North America. The implied absence of appreciable northward displacement for this region is consistent with the general late Mesozoic-early Tertiary tectonic pattern for Alaska, based on more definitive studies: little to no poleward displacement for central Alaska, though substantially more northward drift for the 'southern Alaska terranes' (comprising Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound area, and Matunuska Valley) since late Cretaceous to Palaeocene time. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  20. Emplacement of the Kodiak batholith and slab-window migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, David W.; Haeussler, P.; Friedman, R.; Paterson, S.R.; Saltus, R.W.; Ayuso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Kodiak batholith is one of the largest, most elongate intrusive bodies in the forearc Sanak-Baranof plutonic belt located in southern Alaska. This belt is interpreted to have formed during the subduction of an oceanic spreading center and the associated migration of a slab window. Individual plutons of the Kodiak batholith track the location and evolution of the underlying slab window. Six U/Pb zircon ages from the axis of the batholith exhibit a northeastward-decreasing age progression of 59.2 ?? 0.2 Ma at the southwest end to 58.4 ?? 0.2 Ma at the northeast tip. The trench-parallel rate of age progression is within error of the average slab-window migration rate for the entire Sanak-Baranof belt (???19 cm/yr). Structural relationships, U/Pb ages, and a model of new gravity data indicate that magma from the Kodiak batholith ascended 5-10 km as a northeastward-younging series of 1-8-km-diameter viscoelastic diapirs. Individual plutons ascended by multiple emplacement mechanisms including downward flow, collapse of wall rock, stoping, and diking. Stokes flow xenolith calculations suggest ascent rates of 5-100 m/yr and an effective magmatic viscosity of ???107-108 Pa s. Pre-existing structural or lithologic heterogeneities did not dominantly control the location of the main batholith. Instead, its location was determined by migration of the slab window at depth. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  1. Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

    2009-05-01

    Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Alaska, are assessed on the basis of the recent volcanic history of the island. The long-term frequency of volcanic eruptions is estimated using a count of 40 identifiable vents considered to represent separate eruptions. Assuming regular temporal spacing of these events during the period 360,000 to 3230 y.b.p., the estimated mean recurrence time is 0.11 × 10 - 3 eruption/year and the eruptive interval is approximately 8900 years. Volcano hazards on St. Paul are associated exclusively with the eruption of low viscosity alkali basaltic magma. The most important are lava flows, tephra fallout, and base surges. Other hazards include volcanic gases, seismicity and ground deformation associated with dike intrusion beneath rift zones, and explosive lava-water interactions along coastal regions and water-saturated ground. The general characteristics of past volcanism on St. Paul indicate that the most likely styles of future eruptions will be (1) Hawaiian-style eruptions with fire fountains and pahoehoe lava flows issuing from one of two polygenetic shield volcanoes on the island; (2) Strombolian-style, scoria cone-building eruptions with associated tephra fallout and eruption of short pahoehoe lava flows; and (3) explosive Surtseyan-style, phreatomagmatic eruptions initiating at some point along St. Paul's insular shelf. Given the relatively restricted range in volcanic phenomena on St. Paul, the most significant question regarding volcano hazard and risk assessment is whether future eruptions will be confined to the same region on the island as the most recent activity. If future activity follows the recent past, resulting volcano hazards will most likely be located at inland areas sufficiently far from habitation that they will pose little threat to life or property. An important caveat, however, is that St. Paul is constructed almost entirely from the products of volcanic eruptions with vents located all over

  2. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  3. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  4. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  5. Magmatic and tectonic modification of convergent margins: An example from southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, David W.

    Southern Alaska is an excellent natural laboratory to study forearc/arc subduction zone magmatism and tectonics. Understanding these processes are important to understanding the evolution and modification of continental crust. This thesis focuses on the Kodiak Islands, but also examines larger-scale features throughout southern Alaska and cordilleran tectonics. Kodiak Island intrusive rocks differ in character across the Border Ranges fault system (BRF). North of the BRF is the tilted Triassic-Jurassic Talkeetna island arc. This arc section exposes ultramafic mantle through mid to upper crustal plutonic and volcanic rocks all of which are geochemically related, despite being fault-bounded blocks. South of the BRF lie Paleocene intrusive rocks related to eastward spreadingridge subduction migration. These rocks are distributed in two belts: the Kodiak batholith and the trenchward belt. The Kodiak batholith is composed of granitic plutons emplaced as a series of intermingled, 1-8 km wide, viscoelastic diapirs that ascended by downward transport of aureole rocks through and around the magmatic column, and range in age from 59.2-58.4+/-0.2 Ma (SW-NE). These plutons formed from equilibrium crystallization of an argillite/graywacke derived magma, and contain fractally fragmented meta-sedimentary xenoliths. Trenchward belt rocks lie south of the Contact fault and are composed of small gabbroic to granitic plutons, dikes and pillows that range in age from 62.6+/-0.6-60.15+/-0.86 Ma (SW-NE). They formed by assimilation fractional crystallization of MORB with an argillite assimilant. Trenchward belt rocks intruded when a spreading ridge first entered the accretionary prism, whereas the Kodiak batholith formed when a slab window opened at 15-20 km depth. Age differences between the two Paleocene magmatic belts are explained by oblique ridge subduction and Contact fault displacement. The Kodiak batholith is part of the 2100 km Sanak-Baranof belt of forearc magmatism. Along

  6. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  7. Reconnaissance of intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Young, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Southeast Alaska, was performed May 20-22, 1986. The specific objectives were to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and plant resources, and to identify potential herring spawning sites. This effort was designed to supplement the existing ecological data base for Back Island that would be used during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation process. A NEPA document will be prepared that describes the site environment and assesses impacts from the proposed construction and operation of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). Nine diver transects were established around Back Island. Particular attention was devoted to proposed locations for the pier and float facilities and range-operations and shore-power cable run-ups.

  8. Adak Island, Alaska, Microearthquake survey: Preliminary Hypocenter Determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Arthur L.; Avramenko, Walter

    1982-11-05

    Microearthquakes, defined as shocks having magnitudes less than 4, are commonly recorded in the vicinity of geothermal manifestations and volcanism. They have been mapped from producing geothermal fields as well as those not yet developed, in such places as Iceland, El Salvador, Japan, Kenya and the US. Microearthquakes have been recorded at several geothermal sites in the Imperial Valley and Coso Hot Springs, California; Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and The Geysers, California, where there is debate over whether or not the seismicity is induced by steam production. Seismicity occurs around active volcanoes, but appears reduced directly over zones of high temperature or magma, where the depth of the brittle fracture zone is shallow, as over Yellowstone caldera. In areas of active hydrothermalism, regional stress is likely to be relieved by low-level seismicity rather than occasional large ruptures, owing to the high temperatures, presence of fluids, and crustal weakening due to alteration and fracturing. Active faulting maintains the permeability of the system, which in its absence, might otherwise seal. on the microscopic scale, pore-fluid pressures rise as a result of heating, resulting in the decrease of effective pressure at the pore-mineral boundary. When this effective pressure becomes less than the rock's tensile strength, the pore ruptures; and if it intersects a through-going fracture under hydrostatic pressure can result in a shock detectable on seismographs at the surface. Such a mechanism might also account for the swarms of very small events seen in a number of geothermal areas. A microearthquake survey was conducted on Adak Island, Alaska for the purpose of identifying seismicity associated with a possible geothermal reservoir. During 30 days of recording in September and October 1982, 190 seismic events were recorded on two or more stations of a nine-station network. Of the total, 33 were of local origin, and of

  9. Origins of cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, elucidated from genome-wide SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Kantanen, J; Millbrooke, A; Schnabel, R D; Alexander, L J; MacNeil, M D

    2016-06-01

    Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut cattle from Russia arrived first on Chirikof Island, then ~120 years ago the first European taurine cattle were introduced to the island, and finally a large wave of Hereford cattle were introduced on average 40 years ago. In addition, this mixture of European and East-Asian cattle is unique compared with other North American breeds and we find evidence that natural selection in the relatively harsh environment of Chirikof Island has further impacted their genetic architecture. These results provide an objective basis for decisions regarding conservation of the Chirikof Island cattle. PMID:26860198

  10. Origins of cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, elucidated from genome-wide SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Kantanen, J; Millbrooke, A; Schnabel, R D; Alexander, L J; MacNeil, M D

    2016-01-01

    Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut cattle from Russia arrived first on Chirikof Island, then ~120 years ago the first European taurine cattle were introduced to the island, and finally a large wave of Hereford cattle were introduced on average 40 years ago. In addition, this mixture of European and East-Asian cattle is unique compared with other North American breeds and we find evidence that natural selection in the relatively harsh environment of Chirikof Island has further impacted their genetic architecture. These results provide an objective basis for decisions regarding conservation of the Chirikof Island cattle. PMID:26860198

  11. Specification of Tectonic Tsunami Sources Along the Eastern Aleutian Island Arc and Alaska Peninsula for Inundation Mapping and Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Freymueller, J. T.; Koehler, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska along several segments of the Aleutian Megathrust, each having a unique seismic history and tsunami generation potential. Accurate identification and characterization of potential tsunami sources is a critical component of our project. As demonstrated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, correct estimation of the maximum size event for a given segment of the subduction zone is particularly important. In that event, unexpectedly large slip occurred approximately updip of the epicenter of the main shock, based on seafloor GPS and seafloor pressure gage observations, generating a much larger tsunami than anticipated. This emphasizes the importance of the detailed knowledge of the region-specific subduction processes, and using the most up-to-date geophysical data and research models that define the magnitude range of possible future tsunami events. Our study area extends from the eastern half of the 1957 rupture zone to Kodiak Island, covering the 1946 and 1938 rupture areas, the Shumagin gap, and the western part of the 1964 rupture area. We propose a strategy for generating worst-case credible tsunami scenarios for locations that have a short or nonexistent paleoseismic/paleotsunami record, and in some cases lack modern seismic and GPS data. The potential tsunami scenarios are built based on a discretized plate interface model fit to the Slab 1.0 model geometry. We employ estimates of slip deficit along the Aleutian Megathrust from GPS campaign surveys, the Slab 1.0 interface surface, empirical magnitude-slip relationships, and a numerical code that distributes slip among the subfault elements, calculates coseismic deformations and solves the shallow water equations of tsunami propagation and runup. We define hypothetical asperities along the megathrust and in down-dip direction, and perform a set of sensitivity model runs to identify coseismic deformation

  12. Elemental and organochlorine residues in bald eagles from Adak Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jordan H; Trust, Kimberly A

    2002-07-01

    Adak Island is a remote island in the Aleutian Island archipelago of Alaska (USA) and home to various military activities since World War II. To assess the contaminant burden of one of Adak Island's top predators, livers and kidneys were collected from 26 bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) carcasses between 1993 and 1998 for elemental and organochlorine analyses. Mean cadmium, chromium, mercury, and selenium concentrations were consistent with levels observed in other avian studies and were below toxic thresholds. However, elevated concentrations of chromium and mercury in some individuals may warrant concern. Furthermore, although mean polychlorinated biphenyl and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations were below acute toxic thresholds, they were surprisingly high given Adak Island's remote location. PMID:12238368

  13. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  14. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Talbot, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

  15. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas. PMID:26106744

  16. Kodiak shoreline oiling assessment of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, 1995. Restoration project. Final report. Restoration project 95027

    SciTech Connect

    Gibeaut, J.C.; Piper, E.; Munson, D.

    1996-04-01

    A shoreline survey team visited 24 sites in the Kodiak archipelago that had shoreline oiling in 1990 and 1991 to determine the persistence of that oiling through the summer of 1995. The survey team concentrated on Shuyak and northwest Afognak Island, selected areas between Sturgeon Head and Chief Cove (Spiridon Bay) on the Shelikof Straight coast of Kodiak Island, and seven sites of community concern near the village of Larson Bay inside Uyak Bay. Surveyors found no oil at sites south of Chief Cove, trace amounts at Chief Cove, and only widely spaced trace amounts at the sites on Shuyak Island. The area of shoreline affected with any amount of oil decreased by 75% within specific locations that were surveyed in 1990 or 1991 and resurveyed in 1995. Shoreline oil in Kodiak is not persisting as in PWS largely due to the lack of recalcitrant subsurface oil. Kodiak shorelines were initially affected by oil that had been floating for at least seven days. Other important reasons for the lack of shoreline oil in the Kodiak region include the patchy distribution of initial oiling and the overall high-wave energy settings of shorelines in the spill`s path.

  17. SEAFOOD PROCESSING PERMITTING, ALASKA - ST. GEORGE ISLAND - CHART #16381

    EPA Science Inventory

    St. George Island was digitized from NOAA Marine Chart #16381. Map details include ledge nesting seabirds, fur seal rookeries, fur seal and Steller sea lion haul out grounds, water depth and land. This map was created for EPA Region 10 Water Division to evaluate NPDES permit site...

  18. SEAFOOD PROCESSING PERMITTING, ALASKA - ST. PAUL ISLAND - CHART #16382

    EPA Science Inventory

    St. Paul Island was digitized from NOAA Marine Chart #16382. Map details include ledge nesting seabirds, rookeries, haul out grounds, water depth and land. This map was created for the Water Permits division to establish new permit sites. Visual illustration shows how future site...

  19. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  20. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources.... SUMMARY: The Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. Amendment 30 would amend...

  1. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  2. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  3. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  4. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  5. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Program. Regulations implementing these amendments were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are... blue king crab, and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab. The North Region is north of 54 20' N... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery...

  6. The Geyser Bight geothermal area, Umnak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J. ); Nye, C.J. Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK . Geophysical Inst.); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs in Alaska, and is the only site in the state with geysers. Heat for the geothermal system is derived from crustal magma associated with Mt. Recheshnoi volcano. Successive injections of magma have probably heated the crust to near its minimum melting point and produced the only high-SiO[sub 2] rhyolites in the oceanic part of the Aleutian arc. At least two hydrothermal reservoirs are postulated to underlie the geothermal area and have temperatures of 165 and 200 C, respectively, as estimated by geothermometry. Sulfate-water isotope geothermometers suggest a deeper reservoir with a temperature of 265 C. The thermal spring waters have relatively low concentrations of Cl (600 ppm) but are rich in B (60 ppm) and As (6 ppm). The As/Cl ratio is among the highest reported for geothermal waters. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  8. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Russell W.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J.; Davies, Lauren J.; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D.; Newsom, Lee A.; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence. PMID:27482085

  9. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Graham, Russell W; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J; Davies, Lauren J; Froese, Duane; Heintzman, Peter D; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D; Newsom, Lee A; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-16

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence. PMID:27482085

  10. Basaltic volcanism in the Bering Sea: geochronology and volcanic evolution of St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winer, G. S.; Feeley, T. C.; Cosca, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    The evolution of a Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic volcanic field in the back-arc region of the Aleutian subduction system is investigated at St. Paul Island, Alaska, one of the youngest eruptive centers in the Bering Sea basalt province. New 40Ar/ 39Ar and 14C age determinations indicate that subaerial volcanic activity forming the island began as early as 540 ka and has continued nearly to the present; the youngest eruption occurred approximately 3230 years BP. Magmas erupted on St. Paul are basaltic with MgO contents ranging from 14 to 4 wt.% and phenocryst assemblages of olivine+clinopyroxene±plagioclase; all are alkalic. The surface of St. Paul is composed mainly of numerous tephra cones surrounded by coalescing, low-viscosity pahoehoe lava flows. A central highland spans the island from east to west and is constructed of relatively young eruptive centers where rocks show a minimum of weathering and little deformation by faulting. In contrast, older lava flows forming the wave-eroded base of the island are gently to moderately tilted and faulted. Geochronologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical data indicate that eruptive styles on St. Paul evolved from early, mostly effusive eruptions of chemically little evolved lavas that form the base of the island, to more explosive monogenetic scoria cones, to polygenetic centers forming shields by repeated effusive eruptions of evolved low-viscosity lavas. Localization of the monogenetic and polygenetic centers appears to be related to east-west and northeast-southwest trending fault and fissure systems, with polygenetic centers located at intersections of major structures. The combined volcanic and compositional changes on St. Paul Island suggest that the magmatic system as a whole may be trending toward eruption of more evolved magmas related to the progressive development of crustal magma chambers in which crystal fractionation and magmatic differentiation are occurring.

  11. Striated boulder pavements within glaciomarine diamicts of the Yakataga Formation, Middleton Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eyles, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of striated boulder pavements in glacial sequences is often cited as evidence of transport and deposition by grounded glacier ice. However, recent reports show that striated pavements also form in non-glacial environments by the abrasion of boulder lag surfaces by floating glacier and seasonal ice. Several striated boulder pavements are identified within Early Pleistocene upper Yakataga Formation sediments exposed on Middleton Island close to the southern edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. The sequence is dominated by thick stratiform units of massive and stratified diamict formed by the settling of fine-grained sands and muds from suspension together with ice-rafted debris. Boulder pavements outcrop as extensive planar horizons within the diamicts, can be traced for several kilometers along strike and consist of single lines of clasts with faceted upper surfaces showing consistently oriented striation directions. Clasts are not preferentially aligned, however, and do not have the characteristic bullet shape of boulders transported at a glacier base and deposited by lodgement processes. Striated boulder pavements on Middleton Island appear to have formed as boulder lag surfaces generated by wave and tidal current reworking of diamict on relatively shallow banks. Lags were then overridden and abraded by a grounding ice shelf. The glacially-abraded boulder pavements on Middleton Island record the repeated expansion of a continuous ice shelf to the edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf during the Early Pleistocene.

  12. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, J.F.; Friesen, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  13. Preliminary results of microearthquake survey, Northern Adak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mackelprang, Claron E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine MEQ-800 portable seismic systems were emplaced and recordings taken during the 30 day period between September 5 to October 4, 1982. During this interval 190 events were correlated on two or more stations by Mincomp. Twenty four of these, seen on four or more stations and considered to be local in origin, yielded, according to Mincomp, reasonable hypocenters and origin times using a homogeneous earth model having a velocity of 5 km/sec. A plot of these hypocenters showed much of the microearthquake activity recorded during the survey to be located beneath Mt. Adagdak. This is different from the events located by the Butler and Keller (1974) microearthquake survey which placed hypocenters beneath the sea in Andrew Bay north and northwest of Mt. Adagdak. Butler and Keller did project a fault plane to the surface which would project southwest through Mt. Adagdak and Andrew Bay Volcano. ESL hypocenter locations using the layered earth model show many of the identified events to occur on the northeast corner of the island at focal depths of 8-10 km. It is not obvious that the observed events are related to a single active fault. If so, the fault must be at a low dip angle as shown by the least-squares-fit to the data on Figure 3. Alternatively, the majority of the events occurring within a fairly restrictive range of focal depths may be more indicative of a magma chamber and the movement of magma. Further interpretation of the microearthquake data obtained during 1982 is, however, outside the scope of this report. The relatively small error ellipses for hypocenter locations, compared to the distribution of hypocenters shown on Plates V and VI lead us to question the validity of the projection of all hypocenters to define a single fault location and orientation. It is apparent that two or more structures could be indicated by the present data and that these structures intersect near the north end of Adak island. The occurrence of most events in a narrow depth range

  14. Hair methylmercury levels of mummies of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Egeland, G.M. Ponce, Rafael Bloom, Nicolas S. Knecht, Rick Loring, Stephen Middaugh, John P.

    2009-04-15

    Ancient human hair specimens can shed light on the extent of pre-historic exposures to methylmercury and provide valuable comparison data with current-day exposures, particularly for Indigenous Peoples who continue to rely upon local traditional food resources. Human hair from ancient Aleutian Island Native remains were tested for total and methylmercury (Hg, MeHg) and were radiocarbon dated. The remains were approximately 500 years old (1450 A.D.). For four adults, the mean and median total hair mercury concentration was 5.8 ppm (SD=0.9). In contrast, MeHg concentrations were lower with a mean of 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and a median of 0.54 ppm (0.12-3.86). For the five infants, the mean and median MeHg level was 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and 0.20 ppm (0.007-4.61), respectively. Segmental analyses showed variations in MeHg concentrations in 1-cm segments, consistent with fluctuations in naturally occurring exposure to mercury through dietary sources. The levels are comparable to or lower than those found in fish and marine mammal-eating populations today who rely far less on subsistence food than pre-historic humans. The findings are, therefore, compatible with increased anthropogenic release of trace metals during the past several centuries.

  15. Insights into Magma Evolution in the Islands of the Four Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, A. A.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Islands of the Four Mountains (IFM) is a group of small volcanoes in the central region of Alaska's Aleutian island arc. There are few studies of this remote group of islands despite their rich archeological history and diverse eruptive histories. This study focuses on silicic deposits from the IFM to shed light on the area's history of large explosive eruptions and the IFM's chemical relationship to the rest of the central Aleutian Islands. This study applies whole rock geochemistry, detailed petrographic analysis, and electron microprobe analysis to samples of volcanic deposits from Tana, Cleveland, Carlisle, and Herbert volcanoes, including the first documented ignimbrite deposit in the IFM, found on northern Tana. The IFM lavas range from basaltic to dacitic and follow typical island arc and calc-alkaline chemical trends, providing evidence of high aqueous fluid input to the mantle wedge, as well as varying levels of influence from subducted sediments. Tana, the largest (~12 km2) and most siliceous of the IFM volcanoes, expresses anomalies in K and Rb concentrations that may aid in the refinement of the continental-oceanic crust boundary location along the Aleutian arc. Plagioclase phenocryst disequilibrium textures and compositions provide evidence of mixing and recharge in the IFM magma chambers. Multiple plagioclase phenocryst populations, euhedral pyroxene crystals in disequilibrium with the melt, and angular xenolithic clasts in the Tana ignimbrite suggest a rapid mixing and heating event that triggered its large explosive eruption during the Pleistocene.

  16. Shoreline impacts in the Gulf of Alaska region following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Suchanek, T.H.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.; Sloan, N.A.

    1995-12-31

    Forty-eight sites in the Gulf of Alaska region (GOA-Kodiak Island, Kenai Peninsula, and Alaska Peninsula) were sampled in July/August 1989 to assess the impact of the March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill on shoreline chemistry and biological communities hundreds of miles from the spill origin. In a 1990 companion study, 5 of the Kensai sites and 13 of the Kodiak and Alaska Peninsula sites were sampled 16 months after the spill. Oiling levels at each site were estimated visually and/or quantified by chemical analysis. The chemical analyses were performed on sediment and/or rock wipe samples collected with the biological samples. Additional sediment samples were collected for laboratory amphipod toxicity tests. Mussels were also collected and analyzed for hydrocarbon content to assess hydrocarbon bioavailability. Biological investigations at these GOA sites focused on intertidal infauna, epifauna, and macroalgae by means of a variety of common ecological techniques. For rock sites the percentage of hard substratum covered by biota was quantified. At each site, up to 5 biological samples (scrapes of rock surfaces or sediment cores) were collected intertidally along each of 3 transects, spanning tide levels from the high intertidal to mean-lowest-low-water (zero tidal datum). Organisms (down to 1.0 mm in size) from these samples were sorted and identified. Community parameters including organism abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity were calculated for each sample. 43 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Reconnaissance for uranium and thorium in Alaska, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1957-01-01

    During 1954 reconnaissance investigations to locate minable deposits of uranium and thorium in Alaska were unsuccessful. Areas examined, from which prospectors had submitted radioactive samples, include Cap Yakataga, Kodiak Island, and Shirley Lake. Unconcentrated gravels from the beach at Cape Yakataga average about 0.001 percent equivalent uranium. Uranothorianite has been identified by X-ray diffraction data and is the principal source of radioactivity in the Cape Yakataga beach sands studied; but the zircon, monazite, and uranothorite are also radioactive. The black, opaque uranothorianite generally occurs as minute euhedral cubs, the majority of which will pass through a 100-mesh screen. The bedrock source of the radioactive samples from Kodiak Island was not found; the maximum radioactivity of samples from the Shirley Lake area was equivalent to about 0.02 percent uranium. Radiometric traverses of the 460-foot level of the Garnet shaft of the Nixon Fork mine in the Nixon Fork mining district indicated a maximum of 0.15 mr/hr. In the Hot Springs district, drill hole concentrates of gravels examined contained a maximum of 0.03 percent equivalent uranium. A radioactivity anomaly noted during the Survey's airborne reconnaissance of portions of the Territory during 1954 is located in the Fairhaven district. A ground check disclosed that the radioactivity was due to accessory minerals in the granitic rock.

  18. Stock structure of sea otters (Enhydra Lutris Kenyoni) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorbics, C.S.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Sea otters in Alaska are recognized as a single subspecies (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and currently managed as a single, interbreeding population. However, geographic and behavioral mechanisms undoubtably constrain sea otter movements on much smaller scales. This paper applies the phylogeographic method (Dizon et al. 1992) and considers distribution, population response, phenotype and genotype data to identify stocks of sea otters within Alaska. The evidence for separate stock identity is genotypic (all stocks), phenotypic (Southcentral and Southwest stocks), and geographic distribution (Southeast stock), whereas population response data are equivocal (all stocks). Differences in genotype frequencies and the presence of unique genotypes among areas indicate restricted gene flow. Genetic exchange may be limited by little or no movement across proposed stock boundaries and discontinuities in distribution at proposed stock boundaries. Skull size differences (phenotypic) between Southwest and Southcentral Alaska populations further support stock separation. Population response information was equivocal in either supporting or refuting stock identity. On the basis of this review, we suggest the following: (1) a Southeast stock extending from Dixon Entrance to Cape Yakataga; (2) a Southcentral stock extending from Cape Yakataga to Cape Douglas including Prince William Sound and Kenai peninsula coast; and (3) a Southwest stock including Alaska Peninsula coast, the Aleutians to Attu Island, Barren, Kodiak, Pribilof Islands, and Bristol Bay.

  19. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  20. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Plafker, George; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973–1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting (~1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993–2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ < 0 and 1 otherwise. The current uplift on Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip on a fault splaying off from the megathrust, and the long-term uplift is the superposition of the effects of past earthquakes, each earthquake being similar to the 1964 event. Then, the predicted uplift at time t due to a sequence of earthquakes at times tiwould be . From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  1. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part...

  5. 78 FR 16195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-XC311 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and 2014 Harvest Specifications...

  6. Phytosociological study of the dwarf shrub heath of Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, F.J.A.; Talbot, S. S.; Looman, Talbot S.; Schofield, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    The maritime dwarf shrub heath vegetation of the Northern Pacific, Simeonof Island, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska, was studied according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. Based on 30 releve??s of 16 m2 that include vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, two new associations could be described belonging to the class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea (order Rhododendro-Vaccinietalia): Rubo-Empetretum nigri and Carici-Empetretum nigri. The wind-sheltered Rubo-Empetretum nigri (alliance Phyllodoco-Vaccinion) mainly occurs in the lowlands on level terrain or sloping sites at lower foot slopes of mountains on deeper, mesic soil; this association is the zonal vegetation of the lowlands. Boreal, widespread and amphi-Beringian species are prominent in the distribution-type spectrum of the vascular plants. Two variants of Rubo-Empetretum nigri are described. A Geranium erianthum variant occurs on south-facing slopes and is rich in vascular plants species. A Plagiothecium undulatum variant is restricted to northern exposures and is rich in bryophytes and lichens. A Carici-Empetretum nigri (alliance Loiseleurio-Diapension) occurs on shallow soil on wind exposed sites at higher elevations in the mountains. It is very rich in lichen species of arctic-alpine distribution. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggests that altitude, nutrient content of the soil and exposition are the most important differential ecological factors. Soil depth, total carbon and nitrogen content, plant available phosphorus and all other measured cation contents are higher in Rubo-Empetretum than in Carici-Empetretum. Literature comparisons confirm the occurrence of both associations in other areas on the Southwest Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. Presumably both associations have an amphi-Beringian distribution. The syntaxonomy of boreal-montane dwarf shrub heaths and synecological aspects are briefly discussed. ?? 2004 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  7. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this spectacular MODIS image from November 7, 2001, the skies are clear over Alaska, revealing winter's advance. Perhaps the most interesting feature of the image is in its center; in blue against the rugged white backdrop of the Alaska Range, Denali, or Mt. McKinley, casts its massive shadow in the fading daylight. At 20,322 ft (6,194m), Denali is the highest point in North America. South of Denali, Cook Inlet appears flooded with sediment, turning the waters a muddy brown. To the east, where the Chugach Mountains meet the Gulf of Alaska, and to the west, across the Aleutian Range of the Alaska Peninsula, the bright blue and green swirls indicate populations of microscopic marine plants called phytoplankton.

  9. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Bruce Albert

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  10. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    cannot estimate source earthquake locations or magnitudes for most tsunami-deposited beds. We infer that no more than 3 of the 23 possible tsunamis beds at both sites were deposited following upper plate faulting or submarine landslides independent of megathrust earthquakes. If so, the Semidi segment of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust near Chirikof Island probably sent high tsunamis southward every 180–270 yr for at least the past 3500 yr.                   

  11. The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Schneider, D. J.; Prejean, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 15 to 20 km were observed in satellite data and were preceded by some of the most intense seismicity yet recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) seismic network. Eruptive products on Kasatochi Island observed on August 22 and 23 consist of pumice-bearing, lithic-rich pyroclastic-flow deposits overlain by a 1-2 m thick sequence of fine- grained pyroclastic-surge, and -fall deposits all exposed at the coastline. These deposits completely blanket Kasatochi Island to a depth of many meters. Pyroclastic flows entered the sea and extended the coastline 300-400 m beyond prominent wave cut cliffs and sea stacks. Tide gauge data from Adak Island, 80 km to the west, indicate a small tsunami with maximum water amplitude of 20 cm, was initiated during the eruption. Kasatochi volcano lacks a real-time seismic monitoring network. Seismic activity was detected by AVO instruments on Great Sitkin Island 40 km to the west, and thus the timing of eruptive events is approximate. The eruption began explosively at 2201 UTC on August 7, and was followed by at least two additional strong eruptive bursts at 0150 UTC and 0435 UTC, August 8. Satellite data show a significant ash cloud associated with the 0435 UTC event followed by at least 14 hours of continuous ash emission. The lack of a strong ash signature in satellite data suggest that the first two plumes were ash poor. Satellite data also show a large emission of SO2 that entered the stratosphere. Correlation of eruptive periods with deposits on the island is not yet possible, but it appears that pyroclastic flows were emplaced during

  12. Preliminary results of a high-resolution seismic imaging investigation on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S.; Catchings, R. D.; Goldman, M. R.; Gandhok, G.; Kiger, L.; Nelson, G. L.; Moran, E.

    2001-12-01

    St. Paul Island, one of the Alaskan Pribilof Islands, is located in the Bering Sea about 1100 km WSW of Anchorage, Alaska. Geologically, St. Paul's nearsurface lithology consists of basaltic lava flows and sills, with minor amounts of glacial sediments. To better understand the subsurface structure of St. Paul island, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired a series of high-resolution seismic imaging profiles across the island in June, 2000. The longest seismic profile is approximately 1.8-km-long and trends ENE. Shot and geophone spacing was 5 m, recorded with 162 channels. Seismic sources were generated using a Betsy Seisgun in { ~}0.3 m-deep holes. Approximately 2 s of data were recorded at a 0.5-ms sampling rate. Our study was designed to investigate the relationship between ground-water flow, basement rocks, and faults on St. Paul Island in an attempt to mitigate the effects of subsurface chemical contaminants. Seismic velocities range from about 500 m/s in the near surface to about 5000 m/s at varying depths, some of the high velocity layers appear as shallow as 40 m below the surface. The reflection data show a thin vaneer of sediments overlying layered basalts. Layered basalts vary in thickness from about 5 to 40 m near the surface, and these layers are faulted in places. The groundwater supply for St. Paul is derived from a shallow-depth water table that is, in places, a mixture of seawater and freshwater (Anderson, 1976). Vertical and lateral flow of ground-water is affected by the depth to basement rocks, which are believed to be largely impermeable and thus restrict the flow of ground-water. In addition, a series of observed faults that have vertically displaced basement rocks may act as barriers or as conduits to the flow of ground-water. In unconsolidated sediments, the ground-water table typically has velocities of { ~}1500 m/s. Using this velocity criteria, our data suggest that the ground-water table varies between 0 and 25 m depth along the profile

  13. August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  14. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Gareloi Volcano, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2008-01-01

    Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.

  15. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Potential U.S. Department of Energy Site Responsibilities

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-22

    This historical records review report concerns the activities of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) at Amchitka Island, Alaska, over a period extending from 1942 to 1993. The report focuses on AEC activities resulting in known or suspected contamination of the island environment by nonradiological hazardous or toxic materials as discerned through historical records. In addition, the information from historical records was augmented by an August 1998 sampling event. Both the records review and sampling were conducted by IT Corporation on behalf of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the predecessor agency to the AEC. The intent of this investigation was to identify all potentially contaminated sites for which DOE may be responsible, wholly or partially, including all official sites of concern as recognized by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Additionally, potential data gaps that the DOE will need to fill to support the ecological and human health risk assessments performed were identified. A review of the available historical information regarding AEC's activities on Amchitka Island indicates that the DOE is potentially responsible for 11 sites identified by USFWS and an additional 10 sites that are not included in the USFWS database of sites of potential concern.

  16. Silurian sponges and some associated fossils from the Heceta Limestone, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Britt, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    A small faunule of hypercalcified agelasiid demosponges has been recovered from outcrops of the Silurian Heceta Formation on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Included are abundant Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby and Potter, 1986), of the Girtyocoeliidae Finks and Rigby, 2004; fragments of Alaskaspongiella laminosa n. gen. and sp., Polyplacospongia nodosa n. gen. and sp., and Monolaminospongia gigantia n. gen. and sp., of the Auriculospongiidae Termier and Termier, 1977, and Cladospongia alaskensis n. gen. and sp., Virgulaspongia uniforma n. gen. and sp., and Stipespongia laminata n. gen. and sp. of the Preperonidellidae Finks and Rigby, 2004. Also included are a few fossils of uncertain taxonomic placement, including Turbospongia biperforata n. gen. and sp., along with a small, chambered, tubular fragment and several porous tubular stems that may be additional poriferans. Some isolated octactine-based heteractinid spicules were also recovered from the etched residues. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  17. Persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider carcasses on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Flint, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Following an oil spill off St Paul Island, Alaska in February 1996, persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider (Somateria spectabilis) carcasses were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Carcass persistence rates varied by day, beach type and sex, while detection probabilities varied by day and beach type. Scavenging, wave action and weather influenced carcass persistence. The patterns of persistence differed on rock and sand beaches and female carcasses had a different persistence function than males. Weather, primarily snow storms, and degree of carcass scavenging, diminished carcass detectability. Detection probabilities on rock beaches were lower and more variable than on sand beaches. The combination of persistence rates and detection probabilities can be used to improve techniques of estimating total mortality.

  18. Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

  19. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Darr, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  20. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  1. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for the Tanaga Volcanic Cluster, Tanaga Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Volcano Hazards at Tanaga Volcanic Cluster The Tanaga volcanic cluster lies on the northwest part of Tanaga Island, about 100 kilometers west of Adak, Alaska, and 2,025 kilometers southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The cluster consists of three volcanoes-from west to east, they are Sajaka, Tanaga, and Takawangha. All three volcanoes have erupted in the last 1,000 years, producing lava flows and tephra (ash) deposits. A much less frequent, but potentially more hazardous phenomenon, is volcanic edifice collapse into the sea, which likely happens only on a timescale of every few thousands of years, at most. Parts of the volcanic bedrock near Takawangha have been altered by hydrothermal activity and are prone to slope failure, but such events only present a local hazard. Given the volcanic cluster's remote location, the primary hazard from the Tanaga volcanoes is airborne ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize the major volcanic hazards associated with the Tanaga volcanic cluster.

  2. Maps showing aeromagnetic survey and geologic interpretation of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey over part of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, on the southern Alaska Peninsula, was flown in 1977 as part of the Alaska mineral resource assessment program (AMRAP). Maps at scales 1:250,000 and 1:63,360 have been released on open-file (U.s. Geological Survey, 1978a, 1978b). This report includes the aeromagnetic map superimposed on the topographic base (sheet 1) and an interpretation map superimposed on the topographic and simplified geologic base (sheet 2). This discussion provides an interpretation of the aeromagnetic data with respect to regional geology, occurrence of ore deposits and prospects, and potential oil and gas resources. The survey was flown along northwest-southeast lines, spaced about 1.6 km apart, at a nominal elevation of about 300 m above the land surface. A proton-precession magnetometer was used for the survey, and the resulting digital data were computer contoured at intervals of 10 and 50 gammas (sheet 1). The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 1965, updated to 1977, was removed from the total field data.

  3. Vegetation History of Pleasant Island, Southeastern Alaska, since 13,000 yr B.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Engstrom, Daniel R.

    1996-09-01

    A 13,000-year history of late-Quaternary vegetational and climatic change has been derived from lacustrine sediments from Pleasant Island in the Glacier Bay region of southeastern Alaska. Early arrival of lodgepole pine and mountain hemlock, indicated by the presence of pollen and conifer stomata, suggests expansion from refugia in the Alexander Archipelago. A short-term climatic reversal, possibly correlated with the European Younger Dryas, is inferred from the expansion of tundra elements and deposition of inorganic sediments between 10,600 and 9900 14C yr B.P. Two peat cores from the lake catchment verify Holocene vegetation changes and aid in the separation of biogenic from climatic forces affecting vegetation history. Differences in pollen representation among the three cores illustrate the variation among pollen-collecting substrates, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of peatland development and its dependence on local hydrology. Initial peat accumulation and soil paludification, occasioned by increases in temperature and precipitation in the early Holocene, allowed western and mountain hemlock to replace sitka spruce 8500-8000 yr B. P. Open muskeg became widespread about 7000 yr B. P. and allowed lodgepole pine to reinvade the region after a 2000-yr absence. The extensive replacement of fen elements by bog taxa at 3400 yr B. P. suggests increased paludification due to changing hydrologic conditions; its correlation with the upland expansion of Tsuga heterophyllasuggests the onset of a cooler/wetter Neoglacial climate in southeastern Alaska.

  4. Analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP from the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Van Trump, G. Jr.; Motooka, J.M.; Erlich, O.; Tompkins, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological report is presented detailing analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP from the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska.

  5. Gulf of Alaska Holocene paleoceanography and paleoclimatology from diatom proxies in core EW0408-22JC, Crawfish Inlet, Baranof Island, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loofbourrow, C.; Addison, J. A.; Hemphill-Haley, E.

    2014-12-01

    Diatom ecology is used in this study as a paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic proxy for the Eastern Gulf of Alaska. Core EW0408-22JC, an 11.84 m long piston core, was retrieved in 2004 from 188 m water depth in Crawfish Inlet, a deglaciated fjord of Baranof Island, Southeast Alaska, which opens to the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The core contains a nearly complete Holocene record constrained by 14C and tephrochronology with relatively high sedimentation rates of ~100-200 cm/ky, favorable to high-resolution climate investigations. High-resolution geochemical measurements indicate increasing opal and total organic concentrations and decreasing lithic and CaCO3 concentrations from early to late Holocene. Diatom ecology is quantified by counting of diatom taxa at approximately 170-year stratigraphic intervals, and evaluated for climatic and oceanographic significance using the modern analog technique (MAT) and factor analysis. Diatom proxy variability from this site is inferred to result from changes within the GOA climatic and oceanographic regime. Within this region, the strength and positioning of the Aleutian Low and the Alaska Current influence oceanographic parameters including sea surface temperature, downwelling, and nutrient availability, all of which are reflected in diatom ecology fluctuations. The adjacent North American terrestrial hydroclimate is largely controlled by these factors, and its past conditions are inferred by this reconstruction of GOA paleoceanography and paleoclimatology.

  6. 2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  7. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended. PMID:24803576

  8. Transient volcano deformation sources imaged with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Application to Seguam Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterlark, Timothy; Lu, Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Thirty interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, spanning various intervals during 1992–2000, document coeruptive and posteruptive deformation of the 1992–1993 eruption on Seguam Island, Alaska. A procedure that combines standard damped least squares inverse methods and collective surfaces, identifies three dominant amorphous clusters of deformation point sources. Predictions generated from these three point source clusters account for both the spatial and temporal complexity of the deformation patterns of the InSAR data. Regularized time series of source strength attribute a distinctive transient behavior to each of the three source clusters. A model that combines magma influx, thermoelastic relaxation, poroelastic effects, and petrologic data accounts for the transient, interrelated behavior of the source clusters and the observed deformation. Basaltic magma pulses, which flow into a storage chamber residing in the lower crust, drive this deformational system. A portion of a magma pulse is injected into the upper crust and remains in storage during both coeruption and posteruption intervals. This injected magma degasses and the volatile products accumulate in a shallow poroelastic storage chamber. During the eruption, another portion of the magma pulse is transported directly to the surface via a conduit roughly centered beneath Pyre Peak on the west side of the island. A small amount of this magma remains in storage during the eruption, and posteruption thermoelastic contraction ensues. This model, made possible by the excellent spatial and temporal coverage of the InSAR data, reveals a relatively simple system of interrelated predictable processes driven by magma dynamics.

  9. Organochlorine and metal contaminants in traditional foods from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Minholz, Judith L; Byrne, Sam; Waghiyi, Vi; Gologergen, Jesse; Kava, Jane; Apatiki, Morgan; Ungott, Eddie; Miller, Pamela K; Arnason, John G; Carpenter, David O

    2011-01-01

    Marine mammals (bowhead whale, walrus, and various seals) constitute the major component of the diet of the Yupik people of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. St. Lawrence Island residents have higher serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) than in the general U.S. population. In order to determine potential sources, traditional food samples were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed for PCBs, three chlorinated pesticides, and seven heavy metals (mercury, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and lead). Concentrations of PCB in rendered oils (193-421 ppb) and blubber (73-317 ppb) from all marine mammal samples were at levels that trigger advisories for severely restricted consumption, using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fish consumption advisories. Concentrations of pesticides were lower, but were still elevated. The highest PCB concentrations were found in polar bear (445 ppb) and the lowest in reindeer adipose tissue (2 ppb). Marine mammal and polar bear meat in general have PCB concentrations that were 1-5% of those in rendered oils or adipose tissue. PCB concentrations in organs were higher than meat. Concentrations of metals in oils and meats from all species were relatively low, but increased levels of mercury, cadmium, copper, and zinc were present in some liver and kidney samples. Mercury and arsenic were found in lipid-rich samples, indicating organometals. These results show that the source of the elevated concentrations of these contaminants in the Yupik population is primarily from consumption of marine mammal blubber and rendered oils. PMID:21797772

  10. Multiple strains of Coxiella burnetii are present in the environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C; Savage, K; Williams, M; Dickerson, B; Kondas, A V; Fitzpatrick, K A; Guerrero, J L; Spraker, T; Kersh, G J

    2013-08-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified at a high prevalence in the placentas of Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected at a single rookery on St. Paul Island Alaska; an area of the United States where the agent was not known to be present. As contamination was hypothesized as a potential cause of false positives, but nothing was known about environmental C. burnetii in the region, an environmental survey was conducted to look for the prevalence and distribution of the organism on the island. While environmental prevalence was low, two strains of the organism were identified using PCR targeting the COM1 and IS1111 genes. The two strains are consistent with the organism that has been increasingly identified in marine mammals as well as a strain type more commonly found in terrestrial environments and associated with disease in humans and terrestrial animals. Further work is needed to elucidate information regarding the ecology of this organism in this region, particularly in association with the coastal environment. PMID:22747976

  11. Multiple strains of Coxiella burnetii are present in the environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Colleen; Savage, Kate; Williams, Michael; Dickerson, Bobette; Kondas, Ashley V.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Guerrero, Juan Leon; Spraker, Terry; Kersh, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified at a high prevalence in the placentas of Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected at a single rookery on St. Paul Island Alaska; an area of the United States where the agent was not known to be present. As contamination was hypothesized as a potential cause of false positives, but nothing was known about environmental C. burnetii in the region, an environmental survey was conducted to look for the prevalence and distribution of the organism on the island. While environmental prevalence was low, two strains of the organism were identified using PCR targeting the COM1 and IS1111 genes. The two strains are consistent with the organism that has been increasingly identified in marine mammals as well as a strain type more commonly found in terrestrial environments and associated with disease in humans and terrestrial animals. Further work is needed to elucidate information regarding the ecology of this organism in this region, particularly in association with the coastal environment. PMID:22747976

  12. The 23 June 2014 Mw 7.9 Rat Islands archipelago, Alaska, intermediate depth earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2014-09-01

    On 23 June 2014, the largest intermediate depth earthquake (Mw 7.9) of the last 100 years ruptured within the subducting Pacific plate about 100 km below the Rat Islands archipelago of the Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The unusual faulting orientation, strike = 206°, dip = 24°, and rake = -14°, is possibly related to curvature of the underthrust slab and high obliquity of the relative plate motions. The first ~15 s of the rupture generated relatively weak seismic waves, followed by strong energy release for the next 25 s. The seismic moment is 1.0 × 1021 Nm, and slip of up to ~10 m is concentrated within a 50 km × 50 km region. The radiated energy is 1.1 to 2.7 × 1016 J, assuming attenuation t* of 0.4 to 0.7 s. This type of intraplate faulting can be very damaging for populated regions above subduction zones such as Japan, Taiwan, Chile, and Indonesia.

  13. Kodiak Star: A Success in Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett L.

    2008-01-01

    The Kodiak Star Mission was very challenging and offers significant lesson for future missions. A multinational fully integrated team had the opportunity to perform a truly first of a kind mission from a new launch complex with a unique manifest of experimental spacecraft. The integration goal of 10-months was met utilizing quick identification of the issues, and determining innovative ways to solve the problems

  14. Scientific research, stakeholders, and policy: continuing dialogue during research on radionuclides on Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Powers, Charles W; Kosson, David S; Halverson, John; Siekaniec, Gregory; Morkill, Anne; Patrick, Robert; Duffy, Lawrence K; Barnes, David

    2007-10-01

    It is increasingly clear that a wide range of stakeholders should be included in the problem formulation phase of research aimed at solving environmental problems; indeed the inclusion of stakeholders at this stage has been formalized as an integral part of ecological risk assessment. In this paper, we advocate the additional inclusion of stakeholders in the refinement of research methods and protocols and in the execution of the research, rather than just at the final communication and reporting phase. We use a large study of potential radionuclide levels in marine biota around Amchitka Island as a case study. Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Island Chain of Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests (1965-1971). The overall objective of the biological component of the study was to collect a range of marine biota for radionuclide analysis that could provide data for assessing current food safety and provide a baseline for developing a plan to monitor human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Stakeholders, including regulators (State of Alaska), resource trustees (US Fish and Wildlife Service, State of Alaska), representatives of the Aleut and Pribilof Island communities, the Department of Energy (DOE), and others, were essential for plan development. While these stakeholders were included in the initial problem formulation and approved science plan, we also included them in the refinement of protocols, selection of bioindicators, selection of a reference site, choice of methods of collection, and in the execution of the study itself. Meetings with stakeholders resulted in adding (or deleting) bioindicator species and tissues, prioritizing target species, refining sampling methods, and recruiting collection personnel. Some species were added because they were important subsistence foods for the Aleuts, and others were added because they were ecological equivalents to replace species deleted because of low population numbers. Two major refinements that

  15. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Sigma) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordane cyclodienes, Sigmaother cyclodienes, and Sigmachlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by SigmaDDTs and Sigmachlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'DDE) composed 52 to 66% of SigmaDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but SigmaPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with delta15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of SigmaPCBs and p,p'DDE among species and locations. PMID:19374473

  16. Bathymetric gradients within a Paleozoic Island Arc, southeastern Alaska (Alexander Terrane)

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation reflect bathymetric gradients within the ancient island arc exposed in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. These rocks record the earliest occurrence of widespread carbonate deposition in the region and represent the earliest foundation for shallow-water platform development within the arc. The excellent preservation of platform, platform margin, and slope deposits contrasts with the poor preservation of many marine sediments that originated within other island arcs. Hence, these limestones provide important insights into the styles, processes, and bathymetry of carbonate deposition in island arcs. Carbonate depositional sites within the arc extended laterally from nearshore intertidal and relatively shallow subtidal zones of a marine platform, to the seaward margins of a rimmed shelf, and into deeper subtidal areas of a slope environment. Fossiliferous deposits that originated on the platform comprise a diversity of shelly benthos, including corals and stromatoporoids in growth position. Dasycladacean algae, oncoids, and Amphipora also indicate shallow-water conditions. Organic buildups and reefs were constructed by cyanobacteria, massive stromatoporoids, corals, and algae at the platform margin. Deposition beyond the seaward edge of the shelf is evident from the carbonate turbidites that consist of skeletal debris of shallow-water derivation and an absence of coarse siliciclastic detritus. Sedimentation and resedimentation along a bathymetric gradient within the arc is especially well illustrated by the carbonate breccias that are enclosed within these deep subtidal sediments. They comprise detached stromatolites and clasts of shallow-water origin that were derived from the platform and its margin during periodic slumping of the shelf edge.

  17. The influence of wind and ice on spring walrus hunting success on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Henry P.; Noongwook, George; Bond, Nicholas A.; Benter, Bradley; Snyder, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Jinlun

    2013-10-01

    St. Lawrence Island Yupik hunters on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, take hundreds of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) each year. The harvest and associated effort (hunting trips taken), however, are variable from year to year and also from day to day, influenced by physical environmental factors among other variables. We used data from 1996 to 2010 to construct generalized additive models (GAMs) to examine several relationships among the variables. Physical factors explained 18% of the variability in harvest in Savoonga and 25% of the variability in effort; the corresponding figures for Gambell were 24% and 32%. Effort alone explained 63% of the harvest in Savoonga and 59% in Gambell. Physical factors played a relatively smaller role in determining hunting efficiency (walrus taken per hunting trip), explaining 15% of the variability in efficiency in Savoonga and 22% in Gambell, suggesting that physical factors play a larger role in determining whether to hunt than in the outcome of the hunt once undertaken. Combining physical factors with effort explained 70% of the harvest variability in Savoonga and 66% in Gambell. Although these results indicate that other factors (e.g. fuel prices, socioeconomic conditions) collectively cause a greater share of variability in harvest and effort than ice and wind, at least as indicated by the measures used as predictors in the GAMs, they also suggest that environmental change is also likely to influence future harvest levels, and that climate models that yield appropriately scaled data on ice and wind around St. Lawrence Island may be of use in determining the magnitude and direction of those influences.

  18. Cugtun Alngautat: the history and development of a picture text among the Nuniwarmiut Eskimo, Nunivak Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dennis G

    2010-01-01

    Native Americans have long relied on the oral transmission of their ideas rather than developing an alphabet and a reliance on written records. While the use of pictures to communicate basic concepts is found throughout Alaska during the historic contact period, the development of an alphabet or pictorial text among Natives in Alaska is extremely limited with examples found only in the Kuskokwim Delta (ca. 1901) and Seward Peninsula (ca. 1914). The later appearance of a pictorial text on Nunivak Island (ca. 1940) is believed to have derived from the Seward Peninsula style. Each of these texts is believed to have originated from the influence of missionaries. This paper traces the appearance and development of a picture text among the Nuniwarmiut Eskimo on Nunivak Island and its current status in the Mekoryuk community. PMID:21495281

  19. Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Kady B.; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill; O'Shea, Stephen K.

    2011-11-15

    This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

  20. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  1. Preliminary geology of the Tanaga Island volcanic cluster, western Aleutians (Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, M. L.; Browne, B. L.; Larsen, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    During 2003, the northwestern portion of Tanaga Island (178° W) was mapped in detail for the first time during fieldwork by Alaska Volcano Observatory geologists in conjunction with the installation of a volcano monitoring seismic network. The northern half of the island is approximately 20 km across and comprises four discrete volcanic centers, from west to east: Sajaka (area = 22 km2), Tanaga (20 km2), East Tanaga (15 km2), and Takawangha (54 km2). The three western centers are steep-sided cones of Holocene age, and have grown in the scar formed by a catastrophic Pleistocene sector collapse directed to the northwest. To the east, a >300 m-thick sequence of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks (Pre-Tanaga unit) underlies Takawangha, which has been active throughout the Pleistocene and Holocene. Holocene eruptive products from all four centers are predominantly lava flows, with minor explosive activity recorded in tephra sections. Additionally, Sajaka experienced a relatively young (mid-Holocene?) sector collapse of its west flank, accompanied by eruption of laterally-directed pyroclastic flows. A morphologically young cone of scoria and thin basalt flows has grown in the collapse scar. Whole-rock geochemical data on 130 samples of lava and scoria from the four centers and the Pre-Tanaga unit are basalts through low-SiO2 andesites. All but ten lavas have molar Mg# between 0.35 and 0.5 and the remainder are between 0.5 and 0.61; no primitive lavas were discovered on Tanaga Island. Lava flows of Holocene age from Tanaga and East Tanaga follow medium-K trends, all lavas from Takawangha are high-K, and Sajaka and Pre-Tanaga lavas fall along both trends. High-K lavas are enriched in other LILE (Rb, Ba, Pb) as well, and fall near or above the high end of published Aleutian lavas for these elements. The lavas exhibit petrographic as well as compositional diversity: mafic phases in Tanaga lavas are olivine, two pyroxenes, and amphibole, at East Tanaga lavas contain two

  2. 2007 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  3. 2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  4. Six large tsunamis in the past ~1700 years at Stardust Bay, Sedanka Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, R. C.; Carver, G. A.; Bender, A. M.; Briggs, R. W.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Koehler, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Two great earthquakes in 1946 (Unimak Island, Mw 8.1) and 1957 (Andreanof Islands, Mw 8.6) ruptured parts of the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, generating deadly pan-Pacific tsunamis that hit Hawaii. Here, we provide the first estimates of recurrence intervals of such destructive Aleutian-born tsunamis from evidence for tsunami inundation at Stardust Bay on the Pacific coast of Sedanka Island, ~25 km southeast of Dutch Harbor, Alaska. We used soil augers, outcrops and shallow pits to map 6 continuous sand deposits across four depositional environments in a ~500-m-wide, 35-hectare valley. Successive sandy deposits mantled the crests of beach ridges, buried peat formed in freshwater wetlands and upland muskeg, and accumulated to form unusual terrace remnants along the valley's inland margin. Dark, basaltic tephras interbedded in peat underlying two of the sands guided stratigraphic correlation across the study area. Thin, peaty horizons separate the six gray sand beds that can be distinguished from black tephra deposits by their compositions, which consist of subangular volcanic lithics similar to Stardust Bay beach sand. The youngest sand, often the thinnest (<1-13 cm) of the six deposits, underlies drift logs scattered across the landscape at elevations up to 18.5 m and as far as 800 m inland, which provide minimum limits on inundation for the most recent tsunami. The older sands vary in thickness from 6-50 cm and often have rounded gravel at the bases of multiple, normally-graded sand beds, some of which contain ripped-up mud or peat clasts. The sheet-like sand beds blanket topography, thinning over beach ridges and thickening in swales and bogs. Although marine foraminifera are absent in the sandy and peaty deposits in the valley, we infer a tsunami origin for the sand beds, based on their physical properties. The activity of 210Pb and 137Cs in organic-rich sediment above and below the youngest sand bed suggest it predates 1963, consistent with

  5. Alaska High School Students Integrate Forest Ecology, Glacial Landscape Dynamics, and Human Maritime History in a Field Mapping Course at Cape Decision Lighthouse, Kuiu Island, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Carstensen, R.; Domke, L.; Donohoe, S.; Clark, A.; Cordero, D.; Otsea, C.; Hakala, M.; Parks, R.; Lanwermeyer, S.; Discover Design Research (Ddr)

    2010-12-01

    Alaskan 10th and 11th graders earned college credit at Cape Decision Lighthouse as part of a 12-day, summer field research experience. Students and faculty flew to the southern tip of Kuiu Island located 388 km south of Juneau. Kuiu is the largest uninhabited island in southeastern Alaska. This field-based, introduction-to-research course was designed to engage students in the sciences and give them skills in technology, engineering, and mathematics. Two faculty, a forest naturalist and a geologist, introduced the students to the use of hand held GPS receivers, GIS map making, field note-taking and documentary photography, increment borer use, and soil studies techniques. Daily surveys across the region, provided onsite opportunities for the faculty to introduce the high schoolers to the many dimensions of forest ecology and plant succession. Students collected tree cores using increment borers to determine “release dates” providing clues to past wind disturbance. They discovered the influence of landscape change on the forest by digging soil pits and through guided interpretation of bedrock outcrops. The students learned about glacially influenced hydrology in forested wetlands during peat bog hikes. They developed an eye for geomorphic features along coastal traverses, which helped them to understand the influences of uplift through faulting and isostatic rebound in this tectonically active and once glaciated area. They surveyed forest patches to distinguish between regions of declining yellow-cedar from wind-disturbed spruce forests. The students encountered large volumes of primarily plastic marine debris, now stratified by density and wave energy, throughout the southern Kuiu intertidal zone. They traced pre-European Alaska Native subsistence use of the area, 19th and 20th century Alaska Territorial Maritime history, and learned about the 21st century radio tracking of over 10,000 commercial vessels by the Marine Exchange of Alaska from its many stations

  6. Seasonal to Decadal Change of Arctic Coastal Bluffs, Barter Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, B. M.; Gibbs, A.; Erikson, L. H.; Beitch, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Warming air and sea temperatures in the Arctic are leading to elevated levels of permafrost thaw and longer periods of ice-free conditions during the summer months which can lead to increased coastal exposure to storm surge and wave impacts. Using recently collected time-lapse photography, historical maps and imagery, and DEM's derived from airborne lidar and aerial photography using structure from motion (SfM) algorithms, we document coastal bluff change along a 5 km stretch of coast on Barter Island in NE Alaska during a single summer and over several decades. Time-lapse cameras installed during the summers of 2014 and 2015 on the coastal bluffs are used to create an archive of hourly air temperature and pressure, bluff morphology, and sea conditions allowing us to document individual bluff failure events and conditions at the time of failure. The historical rates of bluff retreat are derived from 1947 T-sheet maps, various periods of satellite imagery, aerial orthophoto mosaics, and more recently acquired lidar and SfM DEM data. Coastal change rates at 50 m transect spacing have been calculated over a seven decade time span. We combine these results with elevation models and bluff geology to estimate overall volume change and sediment contribution to the nearshore. These combined datasets are used to better understand the timing and processes of arctic coastal retreat.

  7. Simulation of Beach Hydraulics for Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, B.; Boufadel, M. C.; Bobo, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains Heavy Oil Residue (HOR) in the lower intertidal zone. The slope of the beach decreases in the seaward direction. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using the model SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model). The results indicated that the beach consists of two layers with contrasting hydraulic properties: an upper layer with a high hydraulic conductivity, on the order of a few centimeter per second and a lower layer whose hydraulic conductivity is around three orders of magnitude lower. The lingering of oil in the lower intertidal zone is probably due to the decrease in slope in that region, which resulted in small flow in that region that brings nutrients and oxygen to the oil. Thus, it is likely that the oil has not degraded due to stochiometric limitation rather than kinetic limitation.

  8. Magma mixing and mingling on Deer, Niblack, and Etolin Islands, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lindline, J.; Crawford, W.A.; Crawford, M.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Intimately associated 20 m.a. hornblende-biotite granites and olivine gabbro norites occur on Etolin, Niblack and Deer Islands, southwest of Wrangell, Alaska. The field relationships suggest multiple injections of mafic and felsic phases within this igneous complex. Ellipsoidal to angular mafic magmatic enclaves occur in the granite, ranging in number from sparse to tightly packed swarms. Slightly curved decimeter sized rafts of fine grained mafic enclaves comprise a frozen fountain of mafic magma in the felsic host. Course-grained felsic dikes containing gabbroic zenoliths and ubiquitous fine-grained mafic pillows exhibiting sharp and sutured chilled borders intrude the layered gabbro. Synplutonic northeast trending fine-grained mafic and fine-grained felsic dikes mutually cross-cut the felsic pillow-bearing dikes. The granite consists of green hornblende, dark brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The mafic mineral assemblage changes from olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase in the gabbro through intermediate-grained phases containing altered clinopyroxene, brown hornblende, red-brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The increase in proportion of hydrous mafic minerals from the gabbro to the fine-grained mafic enclaves and changes in pleochroic colors of biotite and hornblende from the intermediate-grained phases to the fine-grained mafic enclaves suggest chemical interaction between the mafic enclaves and their felsic host.

  9. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic study of the Eocene Admiralty Island volcanics, southeast Alaska: evidence for pre-late Eocene accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Panuska, B.C.; Decker, J.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data have shown that many of the terranes in southern and southeastern Alaska originated in equatorial paleolatitudes. The ages(s) of accretion of these terranes is much debated and paleomagnetic studies constraining this age are limited. As part of a larger study, reconnaissance samples of the Admiralty Island Volcanics (Eocene) were collected at Deepwater Point and Little Pybus Bay on the southern coast of Admiralty Island. Thermal or AF cleaning effectively isolated stable magnetic components in most specimens. Homoclinal dip of the flows precludes a fold test and reversals were not observed. However, 3 penecontemporaneous feeder dikes have magnetic directions which are statistically different from the magnetic directions of the flows they intrude (baked contact test). In addition, the flows have not been affected by a regional overprinting observed in most pre-Tertiary rocks. Thus, these magnetic directions are provisionally interpreted as primary. Assuming a reversed geomagnetic polarity during the eruption of the flows, the mean direction is not significantly different than the expected North American direction. Although more data are necessary to prove a primary remanence and to insure that secular variation has been averaged out, the preliminary evidence suggests that the Southern Alaska superterrane had accreted to North American by Eocene time. These results are similar to findings in south central Alaska, which also suggest that the major terrane translation and had been completed by the early Tertiary.

  10. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  11. High Performance Residential Housing Units at U.S. Coast Guard Base Kodiak: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Hickey, J.

    2013-10-01

    The United States Coast Guard (USCG) constructs residential housing throughout the country using a basic template that must meet the minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver criteria or better for the units. In Kodiak, Alaska, USCG is procuring between 24 and 100 residential multi-family housing units. Priorities for the Kodiak project were to reduce overall energyconsumption by at least 20% over existing units, improve envelope construction, and evaluate space heating options. USCG is challenged with maintaining similar existing units that have complicated residential diesel boilers. Additionally, fuel and material costs are high in Kodiak. While USCG has worked to optimize the performance of the housing units with principles of improved buildingenvelope, the engineers realize there are still opportunities for improvement, especially within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and different envelope measures. USCG staff also desires to balance higher upfront project costs for significantly reduced life-cycle costs of the residential units that have an expected lifetime of 50 or more years. To answer thesequestions, this analysis used the residential modeling tool BEoptE+ to examine potential energy- saving opportunities for the climate. The results suggest criteria for achieving optimized housing performance at the lowest cost. USCG will integrate the criteria into their procurement process. To achieve greater than 50% energy savings, USCG will need to specify full 2x 6 wood stud R-21 insulationwith two 2 inches of exterior foam, R-38 ceiling insulation or even wall insulation in the crawl space, and R-49 fiberglass batts in a the vented attic. The air barrier should be improved to ensure a tight envelope with minimal infiltration to the goal of 2.0 ACH50. With the implementation of an air source heat pump for space heating requirements, the combination of HVAC and envelope savings inthe residential unit can save

  12. Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Moss, Wynne E; Manlick, Philip J; Fountain, Emily D; Kirby, Rebecca; Sultaire, Sean M; Perrig, Paula L; Mendoza, Jorge E; Pokallus, John W; Heaton, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten (Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks. PMID:25855043

  13. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species. PMID:25325089

  14. A late quaternary record of eolian silt deposition in a maar lake, St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Been, J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic studies in central Alaska have yielded the unexpected finding that there is little evidence for full-glacial (late Wisconsin) loess deposition. Because the loess record of western Alaska is poorly exposed and not well known, we analyzed a core from Zagoskin Lake, a maar lake on St. Michael Island, to determine if a full-glacial eolian record could be found in that region. Particle size and geochemical data indicate that the mineral fraction of the lake sediments is not derived from the local basalt and is probably eolian. Silt deposition took place from at least the latter part of the mid-Wisconsin interstadial period through the Holocene, based on radiocarbon dating. Based on the locations of likely loess sources, eolian silt in western Alaska was probably deflated by northeasterly winds from glaciofluvial sediments. If last-glacial winds that deposited loess were indeed from the northeast, this reconstruction is in conflict with a model-derived reconstruction of paleowinds in Alaska. Mass accumulation rates in Zagoskin Lake were higher during the Pleistocene than during the Holocene. In addition, more eolian sediment is recorded in the lake sediments than as loess on the adjacent landscape. The thinner loess record on land may be due to the sparse, herb tundra vegetation that dominated the landscape in full-glacial time. Herb tundra would have been an inefficient loess trap compared to forest or even shrub tundra due to its low roughness height. The lack of abundant, full-glacial, eolian silt deposition in the loess stratigraphic record of central Alaska may be due, therefore, to a mimimal ability of the landscape to trap loess, rather than a lack of available eolian sediment. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.

    2003-07-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ≥30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (≥30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows ( Salix) and minor dwarf birch ( Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ≥30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca.11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs ( Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce ( Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island.

  16. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  17. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

  18. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  19. Characterization of geometry, properties and coupling of the Alaska subduction zone by means of reflection images and traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Harold; Nedimović, Mladen; Shillington, Donna; Li, Jiyao; Bécel, Anne; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, the Alaska Langseth Experiment to Understand the megaThrust (ALEUT) program acquired a total length of ~3700 km of deep penetrating multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection lines as well as two coincident 350 km-long profiles of wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) refraction data south west of Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The investigated region of the Alaska Subduction Zone encompasses segments that have ruptured in megathrust earthquakes in the past, and segments, that are suspected to be less coupled, and therefore have a lower probability for great earthquakes to occur. Kodiak asperity ruptured during the Good Friday earthquake of 1964 (M9.2), Semidi Segment ruptured last time in a great earthquake in 1938 (M8.3), and Shumagin Gap has not been ruptured by a major earthquake for at least 150 years and is considered to slip freely. The coupling degree of imaged section of the plate interface appears to at places vary strongly over a remarkably short distance of just tens of kilometers. We present new seismic reflection images that resulted from analyzing profiles crossing the northeastern half of the study area, from the middle of the Semidi Segment to the southwestern tip of the Kodiak Asperity. We also discuss the methodology used to analyze the collected controlled source seismic data and the results obtained. Processing steps for MCS data include amplitude compensation for spherical spreading, noise removal with the LIFT method, surface consistent amplitude balancing, multiple attenuation with both SRME method and radon transformation, predictive deconvolution and Kirchhoff time migration. The formed reflection images complete the picture on the subducting plate geometry in the study area as a whole and allow us to make an attempt to estimate both the downdip limit of the seismogenic zone and the lateral variations in subduction coupling by means of evaluating the seismic reflection signature of the interplate interface. Reflection images

  20. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  1. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  2. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  3. Volcanic ash in surficial sediments of the Kodiak shelf - An indicator of sediment dispersal patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Bouma, A.H.; Frost, T.P.; Colburn, I.P.

    1979-01-01

    Surficial sediments of the Kodiak shelf, Gulf of Alaska, contain various amounts of volcanic ash whose physical properties indicate that it originated from the 1912 Katmai eruption. The distribution of ash is related to the shelf physiography and represents redistribution by oceanic circulation rather than the original depositional pattern from the volcanic event. The ash distribution can be used, in conjunction with the distribution of grain sizes, as an indicator of present-day sediment dispersal patterns on the shelf. No significant modern input of sediment is occurring on the Kodiak shelf, which is mostly covered by Pleistocene glacial deposits. Coarse-grained sediments on flat portions of shallow banks apparently are being winnowed, with the removed ash-rich fine material being deposited in shallow depressions on the banks and in three of the four major troughs that cut transversely across the shelf. The other major trough seems to be experiencing a relatively high-energy current regime, with little deposition of fine material. ?? 1979.

  4. Operation of a telemetered seismic network on the Alaska Peninsula. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    A large aperture network of eleven short period seismic stations is being operated on the Alaska Peninsula and several offshore islands to acquire data for the study of the seismotectonics of a part of the Alaska-Aleutian arc-trench structure. The system operated satisfactorily during the past year and continued to provide seismic coverage at a low magnitude threshold level (M/sub L/ = 2.0). An event detection system, developed under this contract over the past years, has been field installed and is undergoing fine tuning. Focal mechanism studies of intermediate depths Benioff zone earthquakes were continued. Like a previous, smaller set, these mechanisms show predominantly down-dip extension, indicating gravitational sinking of the subducting lithosphere. Analysis of the combined data from our network and a temporary array of Ocean Bottom Seismometers, deployed under a related study, indicate that epicenters of earthquakes in the continental shelf area off Kodiak Island are shifted landward by about 15 km with respect to the epicenters determined from the combined data set. Clusters of shallow seismic activity associated with certain Alaska Peninsula volcanoes, observed over the past years, had previously been interpreted as related to shallow magmatic-geothermal reservoirs. Volcanologic-petrologic field studies conducted last year show that volcanic centers associated with such swarms do indeed have surface manifestations of hydrothermal activity.

  5. The recent marine sedimentary record of Baranof Island, Southeast Alaska - implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Norris, R. D.; Hangsterfer, A.

    2011-12-01

    Modern and paleoclimate studies suggest a correlation between Pacific decadal climate variability and marine ecosystem productivity, but are generally limited by either short periods of observation or low temporal resolution. Long, annually resolved paleoclimate time-series data are thus critical for assessing this correlation and understanding the full range of Pacific climate variability and its impacts. Baranof Island is located in the Alexander Archipelago of Southeast Alaska, and contains many temperate ice-free fjords with shallow sills that enhance organic matter preservation by restricting oxygenation of bottom waters. Multicore samples EW0408-32MC and 43MC were recovered from two fjords on Baranof Island, and analyzed to determine how recent sedimentation patterns relate to the instrument record as a first step towards reconstructing high-latitude Pacific climate at annual timescales. A combination of radiometric 137Cs and excess 210Pb geochronometry, 3D computerized tomography (CT), and high-resolution Avaatech scanning XRF geochemical analyses were used to investigate this relationship. Scanning XRF data were collected every 2 mm on core 32MC, while 43MC was measured at 0.2 mm intervals. Core 32MC is composed of a diffusely laminated to bioturbated clay with a maximum apparent steady-state sedimentation rate of ~5±1 mm/yr, while core 43MC is a strongly laminated diatom ooze with a maximum apparent sedimentation rate of ~6±0.5 mm/yr. Using conservative estimates of accumulation to assess basal ages of the cores yields approximately ~AD 1930 for 32MC, and ~AD 1900 for 43MC. Scanning XRF centered natural log-ratio transformed [clr] element intensities indicate 32MC is controlled by a balance between detrital (Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe, and Ca) and biogenic components (S and Br), and isolated peaks in clr Ca data correspond with CT-visible shell debris. Core 43MC is more complex, with both XRF and CT scans indicating four distinct lithologies: (i) millimeter

  6. Amchitka Mud Pit Sites 2006 Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Report, Amchitka Island, Alaska, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA/NSO) remediated six areas associated with Amchitka mud pit release sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. This included the construction of seven closure caps. To ensure the integrity and effectiveness of remedial action, the mud pit sites are to be inspected every five years as part of DOE's long-term monitoring and surveillance program. In August of 2006, the closure caps were inspected in accordance with the ''Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Plan for Amchitka Island Mud Pit Release Sites'' (Rev. 0, November 2005). This post-closure monitoring report provides the 2006 cap inspection results.

  7. A drift experiment to assess the influence of wind on recovery of oiled seabirds on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We used wooden blocks to estimate the proportion of oiled seabird carcasses that were likely to be recovered on beaches of St Paul Island, Alaska following a near-shore oil spill. We released a total of 302 blocks 6 km north of the island in 1997 at the site of a 17 II 1996 oil spill. We used a paired design and released half the blocks when the winds were onshore and released the second half when the winds were offshore. We systematically searched beaches after the second release to recover blocks. We recovered 93 of 152 (61%) blocks released when winds were onshore but only 1 of 150 (0.7%) blocks released when winds were offshore. Given that winds following the 1996 spill were offshore, we conclude that most birds killed at sea following the 1996 spill were likely not recovered on beaches.

  8. Origin of lithological zoning in Alaskan-type complexes: Studies from the Duke Island and Annette Island Complexes in southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakurta, J.; Ripley, E.; Li, C.; Stifter, E.

    2011-12-01

    Alaskan-type complexes are small, cone-shaped, ultramafic to mafic, alkaline igneous intrusive bodies which commonly occur in linear groups along the trends of major orogenic belts and subduction zones as in southeastern Alaska and the Ural Mountains in Russia. Many of these complexes are characterized by nearly concentric lithological zoning from dunite in the core followed by successive zones of wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite and more silicic rocks towards the rim. The Duke Island and Annette Island Complexes are two Alaskan-type complexes located in the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle. The former is characterized by multiple lithological zones with a distorted concentric arrangement, but the latter is a single intrusion of dunite, without any noticeable development of concentric zonal structures. Both complexes have been modeled to be the products of crystal accumulation from a differentiating parental magma with the composition of picrite or ankaramite. The compositions of the residual liquids are andesitic and this is consistent with the view that the Alaskan-type complexes represent magma reservoirs for andesitic eruptions of subduction zone volcanoes. Structural and petrological relationships between the lithological units at the Duke Island Complex indicate multiple magmatic inputs from an underlying staging magma chamber in a dynamic flow through system. Evidence of magmatic differentiation is observed at the level of the intrusion and also at the level of the staging magma chamber. Conversely, the dunite unit at Annette Island is a product of rapid magmatic uplift and relatively insignificant magmatic differentiation. The spectacular development of grain-size layering and magmatic flow structures at Duke Island and on a limited scale at Annette Island clearly indicate crystallization in a dynamic magma chamber environment.

  9. Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August 28, 2008 Ops was staffed around the clock (24/7). Among other duties, Ops staff engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding federal and state agencies and issued Volcanic Activity Notices (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notifications for Aviation (VONA), recently established and standardized products to announce eruptions, significant activity, and alert level and color code changes. In addition to routine phone communications with local, national and international media, on July 22, AVO held a local press conference in Ops to share observations and distribute video footage collected by AVO staff on board a U.S. Coast Guard flight over Okmok. On July 27, AVO staff gave a public presentation on the Okmok eruption in Unalaska, AK, 65 miles northeast of Okmok volcano and also spoke with local public safety and industry officials, observers and volunteer ash collectors. AVO's activity statements, photographs, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Over the six-week 24/7 period, AVO staff logged and answered approximately 300 phone calls in Ops and approximately 120 emails to the webmaster. Roughly half the logged calls were received from interagency cooperators including NOAA National Weather Service's Alaska Aviation Weather Unit and the Center Weather Service Unit, both in Anchorage. A significant number of the public contacts were from mariners reporting near real-time observations and photos of both eruptions, as well as the eruption of nearby Cleveland Volcano on July 21. As during the 2006 eruption of

  10. Long term volcano monitoring by using advanced Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry technique: A case study at Unimak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Unimak Island, the largest island in the eastern Aleutians of Alaska, is home to three major active volcanoes: Shishaldin, Fisher, and Westdahl. Shishaldin and Westdahl erupted within the past 2 decades and Fisher has shown persistent hydrothermal activity (Mann and Freymueller, 2003). Therefore, Unimak Island is of particular interest to geoscientists. Surface deformation on Unimak Island has been studied in several previous efforts. Lu et al. (2000, 2003) applied conventional InSAR techniques to study surface inflation at Westdahl during 1991 and 2000. Mann and Freymueller (2003) used GPS measurements to analyze inflation at Westdahl and subsidence at Fisher during 1998-2001. Moran et al., ( 2006) reported that Shishaldin, the most active volcano in the island , experienced no significant deformation during the 1993 to 2003 period bracketing two eruptions. In this paper, we present deformation measurements at Unimak Islank during 2003-2010 using advanced persistent scatterer InSAR (PSI). Due to the non-urban setting in a subarctic environment and the limited data acquisition, the number of images usable for PSI processing is limited to about 1-3 acquisitions per year. The relatively smaller image stack and the irregular acquisition distribution in time pose challenges in the PSI time-series processing. Therefore, we have developed a modified PSI technique that integrates external atmospheric information from numerical weather predication models to assist in the removal of atmospheric artifacts [1]. Deformation modeling based on PSI results will be also presented. Our new results will be combined with previous findings to address the magma plumbing system at Unimak Island. 1) W. Gong, F. J. Meyer (2012): Optimized filter design for irregular acquired data stack in Persistent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, Proceeding of Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2012 IEEE International, Munich, Germany.

  11. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  12. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  13. Facies patterns and conodont biogeography in Arctic Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands: Evidence against juxtaposition of these areas during early Paleozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.; Bradley, D.C.; De Freitas, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Differences in lithofacies and biofacies suggest that lower Paleozoic rocks now exposed in Arctic Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands did not form as part of a single depositional system. Lithologic contrasts are noted in shallow- and deep-water strata and are especially marked in Ordovician and Silurian rocks. A widespread intraplatform basin of Early and Middle Ordovician age in northern Alaska has no counterpart in the Canadian Arctic, and the regional drowning and backstepping of the Silurian shelf margin in Canada has no known parallel in northern Alaska. Lower Paleozoic basinal facies in northern Alaska are chiefly siliciclastic, whereas resedimented carbonates are volumetrically important in Canada. Micro- and macrofossil assemblages from northern Alaska contain elements typical of both Siberian and Laurentian biotic provinces; coeval Canadian Arctic assemblages contain Laurentian forms but lack Siberian species. Siberian affinities in northern Alaskan biotas persist from at least Middle Cambrian through Mississippian time and appear to decrease in intensity from present-day west to east. Our lithologic and biogeographic data are most compatible with the hypothesis that northern Alaska-Chukotka formed a discrete tectonic block situated between Siberia and Laurentia in early Paleozoic time. If Arctic Alaska was juxtaposed with the Canadian Arctic prior to opening of the Canada basin, biotic constraints suggest that such juxtaposition took place no earlier than late Paleozoic time.

  14. Common murre restoration monitoring in the Barren Islands, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93049. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Byrd, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of common murre (Uria aalge) restoration monitoring work conducted in the northern Gulf of Alaska for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Information on population numbers, nesting chronology, and productivity of murres were collected by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) biologists at the injured East of Amatuli Island - Light Rock and Nord Island - Northwest Islet colonies in the Barren Islands during the 1993 breeding season. These data are presented and statistically compared with information reported in the 1989-1992 FWS murre damage assessment and restoration studies.

  15. Sedimentary depositional environments in the Gulf of Alaska from GLORIA Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Bruns, T.R.; Stevenson, A.J.; Mann, D.M. ); Huggett, Q. ); Wormly, U.K.; Dobson, M. )

    1990-05-01

    GLORIA side-scan images provide new insight to the morphology and sedimentology of the Gulf of Alaska and show that tectonism strongly influences downslope and abyssal plain sediment transport. Along the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte transform margin south of Cross Sound short, chute-like canyons cross the slope to submarine-fan channels. At least one canyon is offset by strike-slip motion along the fault Fan channels coalesce to form two deep-sea turbidite channels (Mukluk and Horizon) that extend 1,000 km southward to the Tufts Abyssal Plain. From Cross Sound to Pamplona Spur, dendritic gulley systems and short chutes cross the slope into tributary channels that merge into major channels. Tributary channels from Cross Sound to Alsek Valley form the Chirikov channel system which bends westward and ends in turbidite fans south of the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount chain. A probable ancestral Chirikov channel carried sediment westward to the Aleutian Trench, Channels from Alsek Valley to Pamplona Spur coalesce 280 km seaward of the slope to form the Surveyor Channel which meanders across the abyssal plain 500 km to the Aleutian trench. Between Pamplona Spur and Middleton Island, dendritic slope canyons reach the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench sediment moves southwestward along the trench. Southwest of Middleton Island, discontinuous trench-parallel subduction ridges change slope drainage from a dendritic to trellised pattern as sediment is forced to flow around the ridges to the Aleutian Trench. At least two small fans have been constructed on the trench floor. Southwest of Kodiak Island, subduction ridges create mid-slope basins that trap modern sediment.

  16. A Detailed Geochemical Study of Island Arc Crust: The Talkeetna Arc Section, South-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, A. R.; Debari, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Clift, P. D.; Blusztajn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Talkeetna arc section in south-central Alaska is recognized as the exposed upper mantle and crust of an accreted, Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic island arc. Detailed geochemical studies of layered gabbronorite from the middle and lower crust of this arc and a diverse suite of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the middle and upper crust provide crucial data for understanding arc magma evolution. We also present new data on parental magma compositions for the arc. The deepest level of the arc section consists of residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates adjacent to garnet gabbro and basal gabbronorite interlayered with pyroxenite. The middle crust is primarily layered gabbronorite, ranging from anorthosite to pyroxenite in composition, and is the most widespread plutonic lithology. The upper mid crust is a heterogenous assemblage of dioritic to tonalitic rocks mixed with gabbro and intruded by abundant mafic dikes and chilled pillows. The upper crust of the arc is comprised of volcanic rocks of the Talkeetna Formation ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Most of these volcanic rocks have evolved compositions (<5% MgO, Mg# <60) and overlap the composition of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks (<3.5% MgO, Mg# <45). However, several chilled mafic rocks and one basalt have primitive characteristics (>8% MgO, Mg# >60). Ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene in mid-crustal layered gabbronorites have parallel REE patterns with positive-sloping LREE segments (La/Sm(N)=0.05-0.17; mean 0.11) and flat HREE segments (5-25xchondrite; mean 10xchondrite). Liquids in REE equilibrium with the clinopyroxene in these gabbronorite cumulates were calculated in order to constrain parental magmas. These calculated liquids(La/Sm(N)=0.77-1.83; mean 1.26) all fall within the range of dike and volcanic rock(La/Sm(N)=0.78-2.12; mean 1.23) compositions. However, three lavas out of the 44 we have analyzed show strong HREE depletion, which is not observed in any of the liquid compositions

  17. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups. PMID:23307383

  18. High-Precision 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology and Geology of St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska: Implications for Eruption Rates in the Bering Sea Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Cosca, M. A.; Hamblock, J. M.; Underwood, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    New high-precision 40Ar/39Ar ages and geologic mapping establish an eruptive chronology for St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. St. George is part of the Bering Sea basalt province (BSBP), a group of 15 late Cenozoic (mostly < 6 Ma) alkalic to tholeiitic basaltic volcanic fields widely distributed on islands in the Bering Sea, along the west coast of Alaska, and along the coast of northeast Russia. Twelve samples of washed, but otherwise untreated, whole-rock basalts from St. George were cut with a micro-wire saw into chips ~3 mm3 in size and irradiated for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. The chips were incrementally heated with a CO2 laser equipped with an integrator lens, and analyzed using a NU Instruments Noblesse mass spectrometer equipped with a Faraday cup and two ion counting electron multipliers. Detector intercalibration was done using automated air pipettes. A minimum of 20 heating steps were measured per sample, with the data often defining age plateaux. Isochron plots of the data yield ages ranging from 1.57 ± 0.04 to 2.89 ± 0.11 Ma, with trapped 40Ar/36Ar ratios ranging from 312 to 330. The stratigraphic positions of the dated rocks are known directly from field relations and there are no discrepancies between the 40Ar/39Ar ages and this sequence. Geochemical data combined with the age data indicate no progressive petrologic trends during evolution of the magmatic system, except for intermittent eruption of distinctive plagioclase-phyric basalts with low to moderate MgO contents (7 - 5 wt%) beginning at ~2.0 Ma. The new age data combined with volume estimates indicate an average subaerial eruption rate of ~107 m3km-2yr-1, which is adjusted for 3% sedimentary and ultramafic basement rocks beneath the volcanic pile, an average vesicularity of 5%, and an assumed surficial erosion value of 20%. This rate is identical to the estimate (110 m3km-2yr-1) by Mukasa et al. (JGR 112, 2007) for St. George Island. Both estimates, however, do not account for

  19. An overview of paleogene molluscan biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Gulf of Alaska region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L., Jr.; McCoy, S., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Paleogene marine strata in the Gulf of Alaska region occur in three geographic areas and may be characterized by their molluscan faunal composition and paleoecology: a western area consisting of the Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and adjacent islands; a central area encompassing Prince William Sound; and an eastern area extending from the mouth of the Copper River to Icy Point in the Lituya district. Strata in the western area include the Ghost Rocks, Narrow Cape (in part), Sitkalidak, Stepovak, Belkofski, and Tolstoi Formations; in the central area Paleogene strata are assigned entirely to the Orca Group; Paleogene strata in the eastern area include the Kulthieth and Poul Creek Formations and several coeval units. Environments ranging from marginal marine to bathyal and from subtropical to cool-temperate are inferred for the various molluscan faunas. Sediments range from interbedded coal and marine sands to deep-water turbidites. The known Paleogene molluscan faunas of these three southern Alaskan areas permit recognition of biostratigraphic schemes within each area, preliminary correlations between faunas of the three areas, and more general correlations with faunas of the Pacific Northwest, the Far Eastern U.S.S.R., and northern Japan. ?? 1984.

  20. FASTSAT is a Different Kind of Satellite

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite -- FASTSAT -- is a microsatellite in the 200 to 400 pound class range will launch from Kodiak Launch Complex, Kodiak Island, Alaska, on Nov. 1...

  1. A geological and geophysical study of the gold-silver vein system of Unga Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, James R., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    Overview of the CD-ROM Contents: The topic of this CD-ROM is the geologic framework of gold-silver vein deposits on Unga Island, in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska. The core of the publication is a new geologic map at a scale of 1:63,360 and aeromagnetic and electromagnetic survey data acquired by industry over the area of mineralization. Both the geologic map as well as a preliminary interpretation of the geophysical data--which are included by permission of the owner--are aimed towards deciphering the relations among volcanism, tectonism, and mineralization. Data and discussions are organized in seven chapters, titles of which are outlined in the table of contents. The chapters consist of viewable text and figure images; postscript versions of the frontispiece figures and all chapter figures are included on the CD-ROM as well. The geologic map is a large viewable figure (Plate 1) that accompanies chapter 2. The map was constructed in ARC and its component coverages are provided in the folder 'Geology' for users who may wish to modify the geologic data or add their own data.

  2. Petrology and Geochemistry of Plagioclase-Phyric Basaltic Lava Flows on St. George Island, Alaska: Evidence for a Genetic Link Between Magmatic Centers of the Pribilof Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraps, M. R.; Feeley, T. C.; Underwood, S. J.; Winer, G. S.

    2006-12-01

    St. George and St. Paul Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands (Alaska), are located 70 km apart in the Bering Sea 400-450 km north of the Aleutian arc front. The islands are centers of alkaline basaltic volcanism associated with the diffuse Bering Sea basalt province. On St. George an extensive history of volcanism (~2.6-1.4 Ma; Mukasa and Andronikov, JGR, submitted) is exposed in high sea cliffs and several NE-SW and E-W trending fault blocks that define the present topography of the island. In contrast, St. Paul is a potentially active volcanic center (~550-3 ka) with numerous young tephra cones and associated lava flows that show minimal erosion and deformation by faulting. Volcanic rocks erupted on St. George are mainly olivine- + clinopyroxene-phyric basalts and trachy-basalts with high to moderate MgO contents (12-8 wt%). In addition, distinct plagioclase-phyric lavas are present at high stratigraphic levels. The plagioclase-phyric lavas are relatively evolved with 47-51 wt% SiO2 and 6.6-4.9 wt% MgO. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are LREE-enriched with little to no Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.03-1.06), indicating that the evolved compositions and plagioclase-rich nature of the flows are not due to phenocryst accumulation. Instead, production of plagioclase-phyric lavas on St. George likely involved a complex set of differentiation processes, including fractional crystallization and magma mixing. This assertion is supported by major and trace element compositions of the rocks, which define distinct trends on chemical variation diagrams relative to less evolved plagioclase-poor rocks. For example, whereas MgO contents of most St. George lavas as a group decrease with increasing SiO2 contents, these elements show a positive linear correlation for plagioclase-phyric lavas. The linear trends of these samples on chemical variation diagrams are best explained by mixing of at least two distinct evolved endmember magmas. Major element mass balance calculations

  3. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  4. Persistent organochlorine pesticide exposure related to a formerly used defense site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: data from sentinel fish and human sera

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Samuel; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Viola; Buck, C. Loren; von Hippel, Frank A.; Carpenter, David O.

    2015-01-01

    St. Lawrence Island, Alaska is the largest island in the Bering Sea, located 60 km from Siberia. The island is home to approximately 1600 St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents who live a subsistence lifestyle. Two formerly used defense sites (FUDS) exist on the island, one of which, Northeast Cape, has been the subject of a $123 million cleanup effort. Environmental monitoring demonstrates localized soil and watershed contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and arsenic. This study examined whether the Northeast Cape FUDS is a source of exposure to OC pesticides. A total of 71 serum samples were collected during site remediation from volunteers that represented three geographic regions of the island. Additionally, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were collected from Northeast Cape after remediation to assess continuing presence of OC pesticides. Chlordane compounds, DDT compounds, mirex and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the most prevalent and present at the highest concentrations in both fish tissues and human serum samples. After controlling for age and sex, activities near the Northeast Cape FUDS were associated with an increase in serum HCB as compared to residents of the farthest village from the site. Positive but non-significant relationships for sum-chlordane and sum-DDT were also found. Organochlorine concentrations in fish samples did not show clear geographic trends, but appear elevated compared to other sites in Alaska. Taken together, the results suggest that contamination of the local environment at the Northeast Cape FUDS may increase exposure to select persistent OC pesticides. PMID:26262441

  5. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Exposure Related to a Formerly Used Defense Site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: Data from Sentinel Fish and Human Sera.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Samuel; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Viola; Buck, C Loren; von Hippel, Frank A; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, is the largest island in the Bering Sea, located 60 km from Siberia. The island is home to approximately 1600 St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents who live a subsistence way of life. Two formerly used defense sites (FUDS) exist on the island, one of which, Northeast Cape, has been the subject of a $123 million cleanup effort. Environmental monitoring demonstrates localized soil and watershed contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, mercury, and arsenic. This study examined whether the Northeast Cape FUDS is a source of exposure to OC pesticides. In total, 71 serum samples were collected during site remediation from volunteers who represented three geographic regions of the island. In addition, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were collected from Northeast Cape after remediation to assess continuing presence of OC pesticides. Chlordane compounds, DDT compounds, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the most prevalent and present at the highest concentrations in both fish tissues and human serum samples. After controlling for age and gender, activities near the Northeast Cape FUDS were associated with an increase in serum HCB as compared to residents of the farthest village from the site. Positive but nonsignificant relationships for sum-chlordane and sum-DDT were also found. Organochlorine concentrations in fish samples did not show clear geographic trends, but appear elevated compared to other sites in Alaska. Taken together, data suggest that contamination of the local environment at the Northeast Cape FUDS may increase exposure to select persistent OC pesticides. PMID:26262441

  6. Serologic surveillance of pathogens in a declining harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA and a reference site.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Holcomb, Darce; Ballweber, Lora R; Gende, Scott M; Blundell, Gail; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-10-01

    The harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, has declined by over 70% since 1992. The reasons for this decline are not known. We examined serum antibodies and feces for evidence of exposure to multiple pathogens in this population. We also studied harbor seals from a reference site on Kodiak Island. In 2007, we found antibodies against Leptospira spp. in 31% of specimens from harbor seals in Glacier Bay, but no detectable serum antibodies in samples from Kodiak. In 2008, no samples had detectable antibodies against Leptospira spp. No serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, morbilliviruses, or presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal samples were detected. However, Giardia was found in 6% of the fecal samples from Glacier Bay. Our results indicate that the harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park could be immunologically naïve to distemper viruses and therefore vulnerable to these pathogens. Given the relatively low prevalence of antibodies and low titers, pathogens likely are not the reason for the harbor seal decline in Glacier Bay. PMID:22102671

  7. Mercury concentrations of a resident freshwater forage fish at Adak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Leah A; von Hippel, Frank A; Willacker, James J; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-11-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The δ(13)C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg. PMID:22912068

  8. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS OF A RESIDENT FRESHWATER FORAGE FISH AT ADAK ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ARCHIPELAGO, ALASKA

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Leah A.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Willacker, James J.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The δ13C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg. PMID:22912068

  9. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  10. 50 CFR 217.70 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vehicle and Missile Launches at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.70 Specified activity and specified... specified in paragraph (b) of this section by U.S. citizens engaged in space vehicle and missile launch activities at the Kodiak Launch Complex on Kodiak Island, Alaska. (b) The incidental take of marine...

  11. 50 CFR 217.70 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vehicle and Missile Launches at Kodiak Launch Complex, Alaska § 217.70 Specified activity and specified... specified in paragraph (b) of this section by U.S. citizens engaged in space vehicle and missile launch activities at the Kodiak Launch Complex on Kodiak Island, Alaska. (b) The incidental take of marine...

  12. Erosion and deposition on a beach raised by the 1964 earthquake, Montague Island, Alaska: Chapter H in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkby, M.J.; Kirkby, Anne V.

    1969-01-01

    During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, tectonic deformation uplifted the southern end of Montague Island as much as 33 feet or more. The uplifted shoreline is rapidly being modified by subaerial and marine processes. The new raised beach is formed in bedrock, sand, gravel, and deltaic bay-head deposits, and the effect of each erosional process was measured in each material. Fieldwork was concentrated in two areas—MacLeod Harbor on the northwest side and Patton Bay on the southeast side of Montague Island. In the unconsolidated deltaic deposits of MacLeod Harbor, 97 percent of the erosion up to June 1965, 15 months after the earthquake, was fluvial, 2.2 percent was by rainwash, and only 0.8 percent was marine; 52 percent of the total available raised beach material had already been removed. The volume removed by stream erosion was proportional to low-flow discharge raised to the power of 0.75 to 0.95, and this volume increased as the bed material became finer. Stream response to the relative fall in base level was very rapid, most of the downcutting in unconsolidated materials occurring within 48 hours of the uplift for streams with low flows greater than 10 cubic feet per second. Since then, erosion by these streams has been predominantly lateral. Streams with lower discharges, in unconsolidated materials, still had knickpoints after 15 months. No response to uplift could be detected in stream courses above the former preearthquake sea level. Where the raised beach is in bedrock, it is being destroyed principally by marine action but at such a low rate that no appreciable erosion of bedrock was found 15 months after the earthquake. A dated rock platform raised earlier has eroded at a mean rate of 0.49 foot per year. In this area the factor limiting the rate of erosion was rock resistance rather than the transporting capacity of the waves. The break in slope between the top of the raised beach and the former seacliff is being obliterated by debris which is

  13. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  14. The 7-8 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Scott, William E.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Schneider, David J.; Izbekov, Pavel; Nye, Christopher J.

    2010-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano in the central Aleutian Islands erupted unexpectedly on 7-8 August 2008. Kasatochi has received little study by volcanologists and has had no confirmed historical eruptions. The island is an important nesting area for seabirds and a long-term biological study site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. After a notably energetic preeruptive earthquake swarm, the volcano erupted violently in a series of explosive events beginning in the early afternoon of 7 August. Each event produced ash-gas plumes that reached 14-18 km above sea level. The volcanic plume contained large amounts of SO2 and was tracked around the globe by satellite observations. The cumulative volcanic cloud interfered with air travel across the North Pacific, causing many flight cancelations that affected thousands of travelers. Visits to the volcano in 2008-2009 indicated that the eruption generated pyroclastic flows and surges that swept all flanks of the island, accumulated several tens of meters of pyroclastic debris, and increased the diameter of the island by about 800 m. Pyroclastic flow deposits contain abundant accidental lithic debris derived from the inner walls of the Kasatochi crater. Juvenile material is crystal-rich silicic andesite that ranges from slightly pumiceous to frothy pumice. Fine-grained pyroclastic surge and fall deposits with accretionary lapilli cover the lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits and mark a change in eruptive style from episodic explosive activity to more continuous ash emission with smaller intermittent explosions. Pyroclastic deposits completely cover the island, but wave erosion and gully development on the flanks have begun to modify the surface mantle of volcanic deposits.

  15. Teleseismically recorded seismicity before and after the May 7, 1986, Andreanof Islands, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engdahl, E.R.; Billington, S.; Kisslinger, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Andreanof Islands earthquake (Mw 8.0) is the largest event to have occurred in that section of the Aleutian arc since the March 9, 1957, Aleutian Islands earthquake (Mw 8.6). Teleseismically well-recorded earthquakes in the region of the 1986 earthquake are relocated with a plate model and with careful attention to the focal depths. The data set is nearly complete for mb???4.7 between longitudes 172??W and 179??W for the period 1964 through April 1987 and provides a detailed description of the space-time history of moderate-size earthquakes in the region for that period. Additional insight is provided by source parameters which have been systematically determined for Mw???5 earthquakes that occurred in the region since 1977 and by a modeling study of the spatial distribution of moment release on the mainshock fault plane. -from Authors

  16. Biochemical monitoring of water after the Cannikin event, Amchitka Island, Alaska, August 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, Wilbur C.

    1973-01-01

    Radiochemical data from the Amchitka Island study area were obtained from water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during August 1973. Tritium determinations were made on 86 samples collected and gross alpha and gross beta/gamma determinations were made on 38 samples. The range of data for these samples was equal or less than the range of values obtained before the Cannikin event.

  17. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Pamela K.; Waghiyi, Viola; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Byrne, Samuel Carter; Kava, Jane; Gologergen, Jesse; Eckstein, Lorraine; Scrudato, Ronald; Chiarenzelli, Jeff; Carpenter, David O.; Seguinot-Medina, Samarys

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. Results Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure

  18. Splay faults and tsunamigenic sources across the continental shelf from 1964 great Alaska earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Moeller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Using tsunami run up, seismic reflection and bathymetric data, we identify tsunamigenic sea floor ruptures that resulted from the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake. These sea floor lineaments are rooted in megathrust splay faults that appear across the 500-km wide Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. Based on estimated tsunami travel times, we identify two splay faults that produced 5-10 m wave heights in the coastal town of Seward and remote settlements along the Kenai Peninsula. These faults splay from the megathrust along the trailing edge of the subducted Yakutat terrane that is sandwiched between the Pacific and North American plates. Duplexing along the megathrust likely transferred lateral motion along the decollement to vertical splay fault motion that resulted in multi-meter sea floor uplifts. We identify the Cape Cleare fault as the source of the earliest tsunami arrival for Seward, Puget Bay and Whidbey Bay. Sparker seismic data, pre- and post-earthquake bathymetry and crustal seismic data characterize the along-strike Holocene motion on this 70-km long fault that parallels the Patton Bay fault that ruptured on nearby Montague Island. We define a strand of the Middleton Island fault system as the source of the second arrival in Puget and Whidbey Bays and the earliest tsunami source on Middleton Island and other sites in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Sea floor displacements of more than 20 m suggest both of these faults have repeatedly ruptured during Holocene earthquakes. Additionally, we identify a series of active thrust faults along the length of the Gulf of Alaska to Kodiak Island that likely initiated tsunami waves from smaller sea floor displacements. Sea floor offsets and splay faults that are mapped along the length of the continental shelf suggest Holocene coseismic rupture patterns are not reflected in interseismic GPS measurements along the Kenai Peninsula, but are consistent with seismic, tsunami, and geodetic measurements from the 1964 earthquake

  19. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of

  20. Vegetation and Mammuthus primigenius extinction history on St Paul Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Newsom, L.; Belmecheri, S.; Culleton, B.; Williams, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    St. Paul Island, AK, part of the Pribilofs, is an island remnant of the Bering Land Bridge, a possible coastal Picea refugium at the last glacial maximum, and a Holocene refugium for Mammuthus primigenius. A prior pollen record from Lake Hill indicates that St. Paul was predominantly herb tundra during the last glacial maximum followed by a shrub tundra in the early Holocene (Colinvaux, 1980). Subsequently, three radiocarbon dates on bones from Qagnax Cave indicate a last appearance of Mammuthus primigenius of 6.5 ka on St. Paul (Veltre et al. 2008). In March 2013, our team retrieved a 13.5 m composite core from Lake Hill to refine the extinction timing chronology, assess environmental change during the extinction interval, and test hypotheses about vegetation-megafauna feedback. This paper reports the results from modern botanical survey and analyses of fossil pollen, Sporormiella and other coprophilous spores, anchored by a new radiocarbon chronology consisting of seven AMS dates. Presently, bryophytes, Equisetum, Poaceae, Juncaceae, Salix and Viola commonly occur at the lake margin, accompanied increasingly by sedge meadow taxa with greater distance from the water's edge, especially Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lupinus, Rubus and Valeriana. Sporormiella is consistently present in low abundances (2%, ~700 grains/cm3) in the late glacial and early Holocene until a drop to zero at 6,050 yr BP, remaining absent during the middle and late Holocene when it reappears at 1904 AD. The timing of Sporormiella decline and reappearance match well to the youngest mammoth bone date and the historic reintroduction of reindeer (1911 AD) on St. Paul Island. After 11 ka, major pollen types include Apiaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix, with lower abundances of Betula, Alnus and Ericaceae, consistent with herb tundra with some shrubs. Degraded Picea pollen grains are found at 12,240 yr BP in very low concentrations (223 grains/cm3), indicating long

  1. Gabbroic and Peridotitic Enclaves from the 2008 Kasatochi Eruption, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentner, A.; Nadin, E. S.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.; Neill, O. K.

    2012-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano of the Andreanof Islands in the western Aleutian Arc violently erupted over a two day period from August 7-8, 2008. The eruption involved multiple explosive events generating pyroclastic flows, which included abundant mafic and ultramafic enclaves that have since weathered out and accumulated in talus along the coast. These and other mafic enclaves sampled by modern island arc lavas provide insight into subduction magmatism because they emerge from a section of the subduction system that is less likely than shallower zones to be modified by magmatic processes such as mixing, assimilation, or fractionation. We present new whole rock, clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, and melt compositions from Kasatochi enclaves of the 2008 eruption. The highly crystalline (~40 vol. % phenocryst content), medium-K basaltic andesite host rock contains ~52-55 wt. % SiO2 and 0.6-0.9 wt. % K2O, and is composed of plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene, amphibole, and Ti-magnetite in a microlite-rich groundmass. Upon eruption, this magma sampled two distinct enclave populations: gabbro and peridotite. The gabbro has abundant amphibole (mostly magnesio-hastingsite) and plagioclase with minor clinopyroxene, olivine, and magnetite, while the peridotite is composed of olivine with minor amounts of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. There is little textural variation amongst the peridotitic samples collected, but the gabbroic samples vary from layered to massive and cover a range in grain size from fine-grained to pegmatitic. The layered gabbros display centimeter-scale bands of alternating plagioclase- and amphibole-rich layers, with a strong preferential alignment of the amphibole grains. The coarser-grained samples are very friable, with ~10% pore space; disaggregation of these upon host-magma ascent likely formed the amphibole and plagioclase xenocrysts in the andesitic host. Based on the textural and compositional differences, we divide the enclaves into four groups

  2. Ecological, morphological, and molecular studies of Acanthocheilonema odendhali (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Kuzmin, Y I; Tkach, V V; Spraker, T R; Lyons, E T

    2013-09-01

    Studies of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) infection by the filariid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali were carried out in 2011-2012 on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Archipelago, Alaska. Skins of 502 humanely harvested northern fur seals from haul-out areas of five rookeries, Polovina (n = 122), Morjovi (n = 54), Zapadni (n = 72), Lukanin (n = 109), and Gorbatch (n = 145), were examined. A. odendhali was found in 18% of northern fur seals. The prevalence of infection ranged from 12.5% up to 22.9% on different haul-out areas on the island. The mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (range 1-7). Detailed morphological examination of collected specimens was performed using light microscopy. Several characters were added to the morphological description of the species, among them lateral thickening of the body cuticle, especially prominent in males, variations in number and position of genital papillae in males, transverse striation of the cuticle, and terminal dilation on tail end in microfilariae. The adult specimens studied had a shorter esophagus than type specimens from the California sea lion described by Perry (1967). Comparison of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene from specimens collected from five sampling sites on St. Paul Island and a specimen from the type host and territory in California showed no significant differences and strongly supported conspecificity of the material from Alaska with A. odendhali. PMID:23760875

  3. Modeling the impacts of bottom trawling and the subsequent recovery rates of sponges and corals in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooper, Christopher N.; Wilkins, Mark E.; Rose, Craig S.; Coon, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    The abundance of some marine fish species are correlated to the abundance of habitat-forming benthic organisms such as sponges and corals. A concern for fisheries management agencies is the recovery of these benthic invertebrates from removal or mortality from bottom trawling and other commercial fisheries activities. Using a logistic model, observations of available substrate and data from bottom trawl surveys of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, we estimated recovery rates of sponges and corals following removal. The model predicted the observed sponge and coral catch in bottom trawl surveys relatively accurately ( R2=0.38 and 0.46). For sponges, the results show that intrinsic growth rates were slow ( r=0.107 yr -1). Results show that intrinsic growth rates of corals were also slow ( r=0.062 yr -1). The best models for corals and sponges were models that did not include the impacts of commercial fishing removals. Subsequent recovery times for both taxa were also predicted to be slow. Mortality of 67% of the initial sponge biomass would recover to 80% of the original biomass after 20 years, while mortality of 67% of the coral biomass would recover to 80% of the original biomass after 34 years. The modeled recovery times were consistent with previous studies in estimating that recovery times were of the order of decades, however improved data from directed studies would no doubt improve parameter estimates and reduce the uncertainty in the model results. Given their role as a major ecosystem component and potential habitat for marine fish, damage and removal of sponges and corals must be considered when estimating the impacts of commercial bottom trawling on the seafloor.

  4. Effects of silvicultultural modifications of temperate rainforest on breeding and wintering bird communities, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dellasala, Dominick A.; Hagar, Joan C.; Engel, Kathleen A.; McComb, W.C.; Fairbanks, Randal L.; Campbell, Ellen G.

    1996-01-01

    We inventoried breeding and wintering bird communities in four treatments of temperate rainforest on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska during 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The four forest treatments sampled included: (1) young growth (20 years) originating from clearcut logging with no silvicultural modification (non-modified), (2) young growth (20 years) precommercially thinned along uniformly-spaced thinning grids (thinned), (3) young growth (20 years) with gaps in the overstory canopy created by felling trees in 0.05-ha openings (gapped), and (4) virgin old growth (2 150 years). Of 16 common breeding bird species observed, six showed significant responses to young-growth modifications. One species was more abundant and two species were less abundant in thinned sites, while one species was more abundant and two species were less abundant in gapped sites than at least one of the other treatments. None of the three common wintering species of birds observed was influenced by young-growth modification. Breeding bird communities, in general, were less similar between young- and old-growth treatments than among young-growth treatments. Three of the 16 common breeding bird species were more abundant in old growth than each of the young-growth treatments and one uncommon species was detected almost exclusivelyi n old growth duringb oth the breedinga nd wintering seasonsF. our other breeding bird species were more abundant in young-growth treatments than in old growth. Higher use of old growth by wintering birds was related to winter severity. To enhance habitat for wintering and breeding birds we recommend: (1) thinning young growth along variablespaced grids to create additional canopy layers and improve snow-intercept properties of young growth for canopy-foraging birds, (2) retention of old-growth clumps in clearcuts for bird species associated with old-growth structure, and (3) long-term conservation of oldgrowth temperate rainforest for breeding and wintering

  5. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images

  6. Ash Deposition Mechanisms and Plume Scrubbing in the 2008 Okmok Eruption, Umnak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unema, J. A.; Ort, M. H.; Larsen, J. F.; Neal, C. A.; Schaefer, J. R.; Webley, P.

    2010-12-01

    Okmok volcano, Aleutian Arc, Alaska, produced five weeks of explosive eruption in July and August 2008 from vents in a 10-km-wide caldera. Water was available in the caldera in lakes and aquifers, and its interaction with erupting magma (~56% SiO2) is evidenced by observations of white steam clouds throughout the eruption, fine grain size of deposits, and consumption of caldera lakes during eruption. The opening sequence on July 12 produced the eruption’s highest column, 16 km above sea level. Basal deposits from this opening sequence, divided into 3 units, are present in the caldera and on the north-east (NE), east (E), and south-east (SE) flanks and are clast-supported coarse ash to medium lapilli at proximal and medial sites. Unit 1 is made up of vitric coarse ash and lapilli. Fine and medium ash form a matrix in the upper half. Unit 2 is open-framework coarse ash and lapilli, similar in componentry but finer than Unit 1. The uppermost unit of the opening sequence, Unit 3, is poorly sorted ash with scattered lapilli, ash pellets, and cored lapilli. The axes of Units 1 and 2 are oriented NE, while that of Unit 3 has two lobes, one NE and the other east-south-east (ESE), recording a wind shift during Unit 3 deposition. Infrared satellite imagery show a NE-directed plume at 21:45 UTC July 12 and an ESE plume 14:00 UTC July 13, the first visible wind shift during the eruption. A column sufficient to carry the large clasts in Unit 3 was present during July 12-13, not later in the eruption, so this wind shift places the timing of Unit 3 deposition between 21:45 UTC July 12 and 14:00 UTC July 13. Wind direction during the rest of the eruption, as seen in infrared satellite images, varied, sending most plumes NE, E, and SE, with southwest-directed plumes on July 30-August 4. Deposits above Units 1-3 within 7 km of vents are dominated by fine and medium ash with several distinct structures. Facies include layers (cm-dm thick) of 2-6-mm pellets of fine ash, medium ash

  7. Melting and Metasomatism in the Mantle Lithosphere beneath the Pribilof Islands: Petrology and ICP-MS Analyses of Spinel Peridotite Xenoliths from St. George Island, Bering Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Ulianov, A.; Underwood, S. J.

    2006-12-01

    A suite of protogranular spinel lherzolite xenoliths from an alkali basalt lava flow on St. George Island, Alaska, have been analyzed by for their bulk compositions by XRF and ICP-MS and for mineral compositions by electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS. Bulk compositions of the peridotites range from relatively fertile (15-19% modal diopside) to depleted (10-8% modal diopside) and are consistent with variable degrees of melt extraction (7-18%) from a primitive mantle source. No hydrous minerals (e.g., mica or amphibole) were observed in any of the studied xenoliths. However, all xenoliths show melt-reaction textures characterized by glass-bearing, sieved textured rims on clinopyroxene and spinel. In several samples, complete clinopyroxene grains show sieve texture and are associated with melt pockets composed of coexisting silicic glass (Na- ± K-rich) and quench-textured olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene, and feldspar. In general, clinopyroxene and whole-rock chondrite-normalized REE patterns are similar, indicating that the whole-rock compositions reliably record the pre-entrainment REE patterns of the xenoliths. Whole-rock and clinopyroxene REE patterns show a considerable range from LREE-depleted to LREE-enriched, with most samples having flat to MREE-enriched patterns. The REE systematics suggest that most St. George lherzolites experienced little metasomatic overprinting of highly incompatible trace elements following melt extraction. In this regard, only the most refractory sample studied shows clear compositional evidence for metasomatism, as reflected in high whole-rock and clinopyroxene LREE/HREE ratios and abundances of other highly incompatible trace elements (e.g., Th, Ta, Nb, Rb, Sr). Based on the pervasive homogenization of this metasomatic signature, it is likely that it does not reflect a recent event related to the magmatism that brought the xenoliths to the surface. In spite of this evidence, the melt-reaction textures clearly demonstrate

  8. Alaska earthquake source for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter B in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen; Scholl, David; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Tsunami modeling has shown that tsunami sources located along the Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone have the greatest impacts on southern California shorelines by raising the highest tsunami waves for a given source seismic moment. The most probable sector for a Mw ~ 9 source within this subduction segment is between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands in what we call the Semidi subduction sector; these bounds represent the southwestern limit of the 1964 Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake rupture and the northeastern edge of the Shumagin sector that recent Global Positioning System (GPS) observations indicate is currently creeping. Geological and geophysical features in the Semidi sector that are thought to be relevant to the potential for large magnitude, long-rupture-runout interplate thrust earthquakes are remarkably similar to those in northeastern Japan, where the destructive Mw 9.1 tsunamigenic earthquake of 11 March 2011 occurred. In this report we propose and justify the selection of a tsunami source seaward of the Alaska Peninsula for use in the Tsunami Scenario that is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) Project. This tsunami source should have the potential to raise damaging tsunami waves on the California coast, especially at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Accordingly, we have summarized and abstracted slip distribution from the source literature on the 2011 event, the best characterized for any subduction earthquake, and applied this synoptic slip distribution to the similar megathrust geometry of the Semidi sector. The resulting slip model has an average slip of 18.6 m and a moment magnitude of Mw = 9.1. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake was not anticipated, despite Japan having the best seismic and geodetic networks in the world and the best historical record in the world over the past 1,500 years. What was lacking was adequate paleogeologic data on prehistoric earthquakes

  9. Pre-settlement processes of northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) in relation to interannual variability in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedewa, Erin J.; Miller, Jessica A.; Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the effects of climate variability on growth dynamics and timing of early life history events in marine fishes can provide insights into survival, recruitment and productivity. We examined interannual variation in indicators of larval growth rates, size at hatch and metamorphosis, and the timing of metamorphosis of northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) over 5 years in two nurseries at Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA. Variation in early life characteristics was quantified using laboratory-validated otolith structural analysis and related to water temperature and spring bloom dynamics in the Gulf of Alaska. Overall, results indicated that temperature contributed more to interannual variation in northern rock sole growth, size and phenology patterns than phytoplankton dynamics. Size at hatch was positively related to winter-spring spawning temperatures. Larval growth metrics were generally consistent with thermal effects as temperatures above 4 °C appear necessary, but are not sufficient to support rapid growth. Reflecting the cumulative effects of temperature, the timing of metamorphosis was related to both seasonal and interannual variation in temperature with earlier dates of metamorphosis in warmer years. Conversely, fish size at metamorphosis was similar across years, suggesting that the competency to metamorphose is related to attainment of a minimum size. These results demonstrate the important role of temperature in regulating early life history phenology of northern rock sole and suggest that temperature-driven phenological shifts may also influence the time of spawning and hatching.

  10. Surface deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan Island, Alaska, revealed by C-band ERS and L-band JERS radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C., Jr.; Kwoun, O.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.

    2005-01-01

    In March 1996, an intense earthquake swarm beneath Akutan Island, Alaska, was accompanied by extensive ground cracking but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Radar interferograms produced from L-band JERS-1 and C-band ERS-1/2 images show uplift associated with the swarm by as much as 60 cm on the western part of the island. The JERS-1 interferogram has greater coherence, especially in areas with loose surface material or thick vegetation. It also shows subsidence of similar magnitude on the eastern part of the island and displacements along faults reactivated during the swarm. The axis of uplift and subsidence strikes about N70??W, which is roughly parallel to a zone of fresh cracks on the northwest flank of the volcano, to normal faults that cut the island and to the inferred maximum compressive stress direction. A common feature of models that fit the deformation is the emplacement of a shallow dike along this trend beneath the northwest flank of the volcano. Both before and after the swarm, the northwest flank was uplifted 5-20 mm/year relative to the southwest flank, probably by magma intrusion. The zone of fresh cracks subsided about 20 mm during 1996-1997 and at lesser rates thereafter, possibly because of cooling and degassing of the intrusion. ?? 2005 CASI.

  11. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Volume 1 (includes appendices a through c). Revision 1. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-05

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Barter Island radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  12. Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.

  13. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  14. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  15. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... implementing rules were published November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375), and fishing under the IFQ Program began on... of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA FMP)), and NMFS implemented the program in 2004 (69 FR 23681, April 30...). Additional detail on these criteria is available in the final rule implementing Amendment 66 (69 FR...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  17. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  19. 77 FR 64918 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Rockfish” in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... (AA), finds good cause to waive the requirement to provide prior notice and opportunity for public... 18, 2012. The AA also finds good cause to waive the 30-day delay in the effective date of this...

  20. Dynamics of the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation: preliminary results of revegetation experiments of maritime tundra with Elymus mollis on Adak Island, Alaska. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Amundsen, C C; McCord, R A

    1982-08-01

    The vegetation of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska is maritime tundra (Amundsen, 1977). While maritime tundra is not characterized by the presence of permafrost, the soil temperatures remain low (5 to 7/sup 0/C) year-round (Williams, 1980). The low soil temperature, a high level of soil moisture, and a low level of incident solar radiation are thought to delay the development of the vegetation. Natural revegetation of natural or man made open areas is relatively slow. Disturbed areas from World War II military activity are not completely revegetated after almost 40 years. Because of the windy and wet climate of the region, exposed soil is unstable and subject to extensive freeze-thaw action and erosion. Insults to the vegetation, both marine and aeolian, are common. Successful reproduction by seed is uncommon among species of this flora. The primary means of reproduction appears to be by vegetative propagules which are usually fragments of the shoot and rhizome. While the transport of the fragments by wind and water aids in the dispersal of the propagules, the same action often removes these fragments from open areas. This later activity further delays the revegetation of open and disturbed areas. Elymus mollis Trin. is the most successful major native species found to date as it fragments due to wind and water action and transplants easily. Transplanting experiments with sprigs of Elymus mollis Trin. have been conducted on Adak Island, Alaska since 1977. Preliminary results indicate that Elymus mollis may be transplanted for revegetation with a survival rate of at least 90 percent. Experiments were set up in 1979 to determine appropriate planting density, sprig rhizome length, and best time of year for transplanting. Preliminary results for these experiments are reported here.

  1. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (eschichtius robustus) stranded in Alaska, Washington, and California, USA. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E.; Tilbury, K.L.; Meador, J.P.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    The concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethanes (DDTs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethenes (DDEs), and chlordanes, and essential (e.g., zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g., mercury, lead) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991. The stranding sites ranged from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, Alaska, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, Washington, and San Francisco Bay, California, with the majority of the sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. Similar to concentrations in tissues, no significant differences were observed in concentrations of elements in stomach contents between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at the more pristine sites. The lack of data from apparently healthy gray whales limits the assessment of whether the levels of anthropogenic contaminants found in tissues may have deleterious effects on the health of gray whales.

  2. Diel vertical migration of adult Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Nichol, D G; Kotwicki, S; Zimmermann, M

    2013-07-01

    The diel vertical migration (DVM) of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus was examined using depth and temperature data from 250 recaptured archival tags deployed on G. macrocephalus in the eastern Bering Sea and in the Gulf of Alaska near Kodiak Island. DVM of two types, deeper during daytime (type I) and deeper during night-time (type II), occurred frequently (15-40% of all days) in G. macrocephalus released at all sites. Most individuals displayed both diel types, with each type of behaviour lasting up to 58 contiguous days, and day and night depth differences averaging c. 8 m. Despite high among-individual variability, the occurrence of DVM varied significantly with the release site, season (i.e. day-of-year) and bottom depth, with the trend in seasonal occurrence nearly opposite for type I compared to type II DVM. No significance could be attributed to G. macrocephalus fork length, sex or ambient (tag) temperature. Trends in the magnitude of G. macrocephalus depth change were observed, with increased movement often occurring during night-time, dawn and dusk, and at release sites where the bathymetry was more complex. Both type I and type II DVMs were attributed to foraging on prey species that also undergo DVM, and increased vertical movements of G. macrocephalus during crepuscular and night-time periods were attributed to more active foraging during dim-light conditions when G. macrocephalus can potentially exploit a sensory advantage over some of their prey. PMID:23808699

  3. Shipboard surveys of endangered cetaceans in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Tressler, R.W.; Chapman, D.G.

    1988-10-01

    Shipboard surveys were conducted during June-July 1987 along 2,034 nmi of trackline south of the Alaska Peninsula to determine the abundance and distribution of endangered whales and other marine mammals. There were 150 observations of humpback whales, 122 of finback whales, 351 of Dall porpoises, 101 of killer whales, 12 of minke whales, 3 of harbor porpoises, and 170 of pinnipeds and sea otters. Humpbacks were primarily associated with the 50- and 100-fathom isobaths, particularly near the Shelikof Strait submarine canyon and some banks. Humpbacks and finbacks were observed on one occasion feeding together, but their distribution generally did not overlap. The other species were widespread in the study area except for killer whales, which were observed together east of Kodiak Island. Abundance was estimated for humpbacks at 1,247 (+ or - 392 SE) and finbacks at 1,257 (+ or - 563 SE). Sample sizes were too small to estiamte abundance for the other species. These results are similar to those developed for this area in 1985.

  4. Map of Distribution of Bottom Sediments on the Continental Shelf, Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Kevin R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Hampton, Monty A.; Marlow, Michael S.; Barnes, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    floor structures. Sea-floor sediment on shallow banks is eroded by seasonal wave-generated currents. The winnowing action of the large storm waves results in concentrations of gravel over broad segments of the Kodiak shelf. Northeastern Gulf of Alaska -- Tectonic framework studies demonstrate that rocks of distant origin (Yakutat terrane) are currently attached to and moving with the Pacific Plate, as it collides with and is subducted beneath southern Alaska. This collision process has led to pronounced structural deformation of the continental margin and adjacent southern Alaska. Consequences include rapidly rising mountains and high fluvial and glacial sedimentation rates on the adjacent margin and ocean floor. The northeastern Gulf of Alaska shelf also has concentrations of winnowed (lag) gravel on Tarr Bank and on the outer shelf southeast of Yakutat Bay. Between Kayak Island and Yakutat Bay the outer shelf consists of pebbly mud (diamict). This diamict is a product of glacial marine sedimentation during the Pleistocene and is present today as a relict sediment. A prograding wedge of Holocene sediment consisting of nearshore sand grading seaward into clayey silt and silty clay covers the relict pebbly mud to mid-shelf and beyond. Shelf and slope channel systems transport glacially derived sediment across the continental margin into Surveyor Channel, an abyssal fan and channel system that reaches over 1,000 km to the Aleutian Trench.

  5. 76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...NMFS proposes regulations that would implement Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This proposed rule would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Amendment 80 Program to modify the criteria for forming and participating in a harvesting cooperative. This action is necessary to encourage greater......

  6. Rock uplift at the transition from flat-slab to normal subduction: The Kenai Mountains, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Joshua D.; Spotila, James A.; Owen, Lewis A.; Buscher, Jamie T.

    2016-03-01

    The process of flat-slab subduction results in complex deformation of overlying forearcs, yet how this deformation decays with distance away from the zone of underthrusting is not well understood. In south central Alaska, flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate drives shortening and rock uplift in a broad coastal orogenic belt. Defined limits of the zone of underthrusting allow testing how orogenesis responds to the transition from flat-slab to normal subduction. To better understand forearc deformation across this transition, apatite (U-Th)/He low temperature thermochronometry is used to quantify the exhumation history of the Kenai Mountains that are within this transition zone. Measured ages in the northern Kenai Mountains vary from 10-20 Ma and merge with the exhumation pattern in the Chugach Mountains to the northeast, where high exhumation occurs due to flat-slab-related deformation. In the southern Kenai Mountains, however, ages increase to 30-50 Ma across a transition near Seward, Alaska, above the zone from flat-slab to normal subduction. These ages are relatively old in comparison to ages determined in other studies in southern Alaska and suggest minimal exhumation. Furthermore, transitions in topographic expression of the coastal orogen also occur at the margin of Yakutat underthrusting. These observations suggest that either deformation associated with flat-slab subduction requires tens of kilometers to decay with distance away from the zone of underthrusting, or that orogenesis in the Kenai Mountains is driven by a distinct tectonic cause. A potential driver of deformation is underplating of thick sediments, specifically the Surveyor Submarine Fan, along the Aleutian Megathrust, analogous to the tectonic mechanism responsible for the emergence of the Kodiak Island forearc. If correct, this may represent a recent tectonic transition in the region, given the minimal exhumation of the rugged Kenai Mountains despite the presence of an erosion

  7. A Stratigraphic, Granulometric, and Textural Comparison of recent pyroclastic density current deposits exposed at West Island and Burr Point, Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, C. A.; Browne, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano (Alaska) is the most active volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands, with 6 violent eruptions over the past 200 years and at least 12 catastrophic debris-avalanche deposits over the past ~2,000 years. The frequency and destructive nature of these eruptions combined with the proximity of Augustine Volcano to commercial ports and populated areas represents a significant hazard to the Cook Inlet region of Alaska. The focus of this study examines the relationship between debris-avalanche events and the subsequent emplacement of pyroclastic density currents by comparing the stratigraphic, granulometric, and petrographic characteristics of pyroclastic deposits emplaced following the 1883 A.D. Burr Point debris-avalanche and those emplaced following the ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island debris-avalanche. Data from this study combines grain size and componentry analysis of pyroclastic deposits with density, textural, and compositional analysis of juvenile clasts contained in the pyroclastic deposits. The 1883 A.D. Burr Point pyroclastic unit immediately overlies the 1883 debris avalanche deposit and underlies the 1912 Katmai ash. It ranges in thickness from 4 to 48 cm and consists of fine to medium sand-sized particles and coarser fragments of andesite. In places, this unit is normally graded and exhibits cross-bedding. Many of these samples are fines-enriched, with sorting coefficients ranging from -0.1 to 1.9 and median grain size ranging from 0.1 to 2.4 mm. The ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island pyroclastic unit is sandwiched between the underlying West Island debris-avalanche deposit and the overlying 1912 Katmai Ash deposit, and at times a fine-grained gray ash originating from the 1883 eruption. West Island pyroclastic deposit is sand to coarse-sand-sized and either normally graded or massive with sorting coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 and median grain sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.6 mm. Some samples display a bimodal distribution of grain sizes, while

  8. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-05-02

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

  9. Petrogenesis of Mafic Volcanic Rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by Melting of Metasomatically Enriched Depleted Lithosphere, Crystallization Differentiation, and Magma Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Chang, J. M.; Deraps, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of mafic volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0.54 to 0.003 Ma) and St. George (2.9 to 1.4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Together these islands offer an opportunity to simultaneously investigate an active and extinct Bering Sea basaltic volcanic field in a setting where features such as lithospheric thickness and composition, distance from the Aleutian arc front, and other tectonic factors are virtually constant. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups. Group 1 contains high MgO, low SiO2 rocks that are primarily basanites. Group 2 contains high MgO, high SiO2 rocks that predominantly alkali basalts. Group 3 contains intermediate to low MgO rocks that include alkali basalts and trachybasalts with high modal plagioclase contents. Major and trace element compositions indicate that Groups 1 and 2 formed by partial melting (2-4%) of amphibole-bearing, garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest signature of amphibole in their source. Rocks from St. Paul inlcude alkali basalts and basanites with MgO contents from 4.2 to 14.4 wt% at relatively constant SiO2 contents (43.1 to 47.3 wt%). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are interpreted as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to Groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island. These magmas subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved, plagioclase-rich rocks. Plagioclase-rich Group 3 rocks from St. George can be modeled as mixtures between an evolved St. Paul end-member and a fractionated Group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts average 1370°C and are similar to those calculated for mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values for

  10. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...NMFS has requested the Center for Independent Experts (CIE) to conduct a peer review of the agency's economic data collection program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga Ventures, Inc., provides independent peer reviews of NMFS's fisheries stock assessments and other science products. The......

  11. 75 FR 11778 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...NMFS announces final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications and prohibited species catch allowances for the groundfish fishery of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to establish harvest limits for groundfish during the 2010 and 2011 fishing years, and to accomplish the goals and objectives of the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the BSAI......

  12. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  13. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  14. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  15. A potential record of slow slip earthquakes from the Kodiak Accretionary Complex and the role of silica redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Slow slip earthquakes are observed along both accretionary and nonaccretionary subduction zones with continuous GPS networks, so one would expect that deeply exhumed paleo-decollements in ancient accretionary complexes would carry a record of these events in the form of fault fabrics, microstructures, or veins. One potential example is within the Central Belt of the Late Cretaceous Kodiak Formation, a 10's of meters thick, subhorizontal paleo-decollement zone from the Kodiak accretionary complex in southwest Alaska that is exposed for over 100 km along strike in a regional culmination in the Kodiak archipelago. Here, the main criteria that are likely necessary for slow slip earthquakes are satisfied: 1) proximity to the downdip transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening, 2) low effective stresses driven by high fluid pressures related to the onset of dehydration reactions in low permeability rocks, 3) dilation, with hundreds of events of cracking and crack closure, and 4) a regime of simple shear. The central belt is pervasively veined at the scale of mm's, but there are larger veins organized into en echelon sets that lie in seaward dipping arrays regularly spaced at ~0.5 m with small vugs in many cases. There are two types of microstructures in these veins that represent different crack closure mechanisms: crack seal bands and collapse residues. All the early, closely spaced veins close only by sealing (continuous crack seal bands of metamorphic chlorite grown from the seeds on the crack wall), but the center of the larger veins in en echelon sets show a temporal transition from continuous crack seal bands, to discontinuous crack seal bands, to inclusion free growth of euhedral crystals, with bands of collapse residues of dissolved wall rock. Crack seal bands indicate ~10 microns as the median crack aperture, with a large tail in the distribution toward larger values. Fluid inclusion trails that track the crack displacement path systematically

  16. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  17. Post-eruption legacy effects and their implications for long-term recovery of the vegetation on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Walker, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the vegetation of Kasatochi Island, central Aleutian Islands, to provide a general field assessment regarding the survival of plants, lichens, and fungi following a destructive volcanic eruption that occurred in 2008. Plant community data were analyzed using multivariate methods to explore the relationship between pre- and post-eruption plant cover; 5 major vegetation types were identified: Honckenya peploides beach, Festuca rubra cliff shelf, Lupinus nootkatensisFestuca rubra meadow, Leymus mollis bluff ridge (and beach), and Aleuria aurantia lower slope barrens. Our study provided a very unusual glimpse into the early stages of plant primary succession on a remote island where most of the vegetation was destroyed. Plants that apparently survived the eruption dominated early plant communities. Not surprisingly, the most diverse post-eruption community most closely resembled a widespread pre-eruption type. Microhabitats where early plant communities were found were distinct and apparently crucial in determining plant survival. Comparison with volcanic events in related boreal regions indicated some post-eruption pattern similarities. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  18. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  19. Dynamic deformation of Seguam Island, Alaska, 1992--2008, from multi-interferogram InSAR processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Lu, Zhong; Won, Joong-Sun; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We generated a time-series of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images to study ground surface deformation at Seguam Island from 1992 to 2008. We used the small baseline subset (SBAS) technique to reduce artifacts associated with baseline uncertainties and atmospheric delay anomalies, and processed images from two adjacent tracks to validate our results. Seguam Island comprises the remnants of two late Quaternary calderas, one in the western caldera of the island and one in the eastern part of the island. The western caldera subsided at a constant rate of ~ 1.6 cm/yr throughout the study period, while the eastern caldera experienced alternating periods of subsidence and uplift: ~ 5 cm/year uplift during January 1993–October 1993 (stage 1), ~ 1.6 cm/year subsidence during October 1993–November 1998 (stage 2), ~ 2.0 cm/year uplift during November 1998–September 2000 (stage 3), ~ 1.4 cm/year subsidence during September 2000–November 2005 (stage 4), and ~ 0.8 cm/year uplift during November 2005– July 2007 (stage 5). Source modeling indicates a deflationary source less than 2 km below sea level (BSL) beneath the western caldera and two sources beneath the eastern caldera: an inflationary source 2.5–6.0 km BSL and a deflationary source less than 2 km BSL. We suggest that uplift of the eastern caldera is driven by episodic intrusions of basaltic magma into a poroelastic reservoir 2.5–6.0 km BSL beneath the caldera. Cooling and degassing of the reservoir between intrusions results in steady subsidence of the overlying surface. Although we found no evidence of magma intrusion beneath the western caldera during the study period, it is the site (Pyre Peak) of all historical eruptions on the island and therefore cooling and degassing of intrusions presumably contributes to subsidence there as well. Another likely subsidence mechanism in the western caldera is thermoelastic contraction of lava flows emplaced near Pyre Peak during

  20. Characterization of pyroclastic deposits and pre-eruptive soils following the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Michaelson, G.; Ping, C.-L.; Plumlee, G.; Hageman, P.

    2010-01-01

    The 78 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano blanketed the island in newly generated pyroclastic deposits and deposited ash into the ocean and onto nearby islands. Concentrations of water soluble Fe, Cu, and Zn determined from a 1:20 deionized water leachate of the ash were sufficient to provide short-term fertilization of the surface ocean. The 2008 pyroclastic deposits were thicker in concavities at bases of steeper slopes and thinner on steep slopes and ridge crests. By summer 2009, secondary erosion had exposed the pre-eruption soils along gulley walls and in gully bottoms on the southern and eastern slopes, respectively. Topographic and microtopographic position altered the depositional patterns of the pyroclastic flows and resulted in pre-eruption soils being buried by as little as 1 m of ash. The different erosion patterns gave rise to three surfaces on which future ecosystems will likely develop: largely pre-eruptive soils; fresh pyroclastic deposits influenced by shallowly buried, pre-eruptive soil; and thick (>1 m) pyroclastic deposits. As expected, the chemical composition differed between the pyroclastic deposits and the pre-eruptive soils. Pre-eruptive soils hold stocks of C and N important for establishing biota that are lacking in the fresh pyroclastic deposits. The pyroclastic deposits are a source for P and K but have negligible nutrient holding capacity, making these elements vulnerable to leaching loss. Consequently, the pre-eruption soils may also represent an important long-term P and K source. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  1. 75 FR 16635 - Refuge Specific Regulations; Public Use; Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... through September 30 [60 FR 37308, July 19, 1995; 50 CFR 36.39(j)]. The O'Malley River area has remained... structured bear viewing could occur at O'Malley River, with minimal impacts to bears. Our final CCP (72 FR...'Malley River area within Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge to allow operation of a bear-viewing...

  2. Patterns of faunal extinction and paleoclimatic change from mid-Holocene mammoth and polar bear remains, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltre, Douglas W.; Yesner, David R.; Crossen, Kristine J.; Graham, Russell W.; Coltrain, Joan B.

    2008-07-01

    Qagnaxˆ Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, has recently produced a mid-Holocene vertebrate faunal assemblage including woolly mammoth, polar bear, caribou, and Arctic fox. Several dates on the mammoth remains converge on 5700 14C yr BP. These dates, ~ 2300 yr younger than mammoth dates previously published from the Pribilof Islands, make these the youngest remains of proboscideans, and of non-extinct Quaternary megafauna, recovered from North America. Persistence of mammoths on the Pribilofs is most parsimoniously explained by the isolation of the Pribilofs and the lack of human presence in pre-Russian contact times, but an additional factor may have been the local existence of high-quality forage in the form of grasses enriched by nutrients derived from local Holocene tephras. This interpretation is reinforced by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values obtained from the mammoth remains. The endpoint of mammoth survival in the Pribilofs is unknown, but maybe coterminous with the arrival of polar bears whose remains in the cave date to the Neoglacial cold period of ~ 4500 to 3500 14C yr BP. The polar bear record corroborates a widespread cooling of the Bering Sea region at that time.

  3. Coral habitat in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska: depth distribution, fine-scale species associations, and fisheries interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, R. P.

    2006-05-01

    The first in situ exploration of Aleutian Island coral habitat was completed in 2002 to determine the distribution of corals, to examine fine-scale associations between targeted fish species and corals, and to investigate the interaction between the areas’ diverse fisheries and coral habitat. Corals, mostly gorgonians and hydrocorals, were present on all 25 seafloor transects and at depths between 27 and 363 m, but were most abundant between 100 and 200 m depth. Mean coral abundance (1.23 colonies m-2) far exceeded that reported for other high-latitude ecosystems and high-density coral gardens (3.85 colonies m-2) were observed at seven locations. Slope and offshore pinnacle habitats characterized by exposed bedrock, boulders, and cobbles generally supported the highest abundances of coral and fish. Overall, 85% of the economically important fish species observed on transects were associated with corals and other emergent epifauna. Disturbance to the seafloor from bottom-contact fishing gear was evident on 88% of the transects, and approximately 39% of the total area of the seafloor observed had been disturbed. Since cold-water corals appear to be a ubiquitous feature of seafloor habitats in the Aleutian Islands, fisheries managers face clear challenges integrating coral conservation into an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  4. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the northern Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongli; Atkinson, Shannon; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Li, Qing X

    2007-05-01

    Blubber, liver and kidney samples of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from the northern Gulf of Alaska were collected during 2000-2001 for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (CoplPCBs). On the lipid weight (lw) base, the total concentrations of PCNs (Sigma PCNs) ranged from 0.3 to 27 ng/g lw, and the total concentrations of CoplPCBs (Sigma CoplPCBs) were 3.6-546 ng/g lw in all the tissue samples. Di-ortho PCBs and mono-ortho PCBs were dominant followed by non-ortho PCBs and PCNs. Sigma Mono-ortho PCBs and Sigma di-ortho PCBs in nursing seals were apparently lower than those in male adult seals, but Sigma PCNs and Sigma non-ortho PCBs in female adults were not significantly different from those in male adults. Differences in PCNs and CoplPCBs congener profiles in female and male adult seals are apparently related to their chemical structure and properties, animal's developmental stages and physiological conditions. A large quantity of mono-ortho and di-ortho PCBs might be transferred to newborns from the nursing seals during lactation, while non-ortho PCBs and PCNs were relatively accumulative in the mother seals. Sigma PCNs and Sigma CoplPCBs in the harbor seals correlated with ages, gender, body weight and blubber thickness, but the blubber Sigma PCNs and Sigma CoplPCBs in Kodiak Island and Southern Alaska Peninsula (KIAP) did not significantly differ from those in Prince William Sound (PWS). In addition to the new PCB data, this first report on PCN contamination in Alaskan harbor seal tissues is useful for the wildlife and ecosystem management and human health protection. PMID:17223166

  5. The ecology of Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. II. Helminth populations in the definitive host.

    PubMed

    Rausch, R L; Fay, F H; Williamson, F S

    1990-01-01

    The helminths of 1,579 arctic foxes from St. Lawrence Island were investigated by standard methods. The foxes, obtained mainly during the winter from fur trappers, harbored 22 species of helminths. Four of those were trematodes, viz., Maritrema afanassjewi Belopol'skaia, 1952, Orthosplanchnus pygmaeus Iurakhno, 1967, Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802) and Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917), each of which occurred in a single host. Two species of cestodes, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzsch, 1824) and Mesocestoides kirbyi Chandler, 1940, were uncommon (in 2.7 and 1.3% of the foxes, respectively). Taenia polyacantha Leuckart, 1856 and Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 were present in about 80% of the foxes, and Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) in less than 10%. The specimens of Taenia spp. from the autumn-winter sample were usually destrobilate. In about 2% of the foxes, acanthocephalans of six species occurred. Four of those, of the genus Corynosoma Lühe, 1904, were common in marine mammals of the region; a fifth, Corynosoma clavatum Goss, 1940, has been reported previously only from marine birds of the Southern Hemisphere; and the sixth, Polymorphus cf. minutus (Goeze, 1782), has been found widely in waterfowl of the Northern Hemisphere. Of the nematodes, Sobolophyme baturini Petrov, 1930, Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925), and Physaloptera sp. were rare (with each in only one to three foxes). Trichinella nativa Boev et Britov, 1972 and Crenosoma vulpis (Dujardin, 1844) were uncommon (1.5 and 4%, respectively). The nematodes most often present were Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) (89%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) (40%). Several of the rare to uncommon helminths probably were transported to the island by foxes immigrating from the adjacent continents via the pack ice. PMID:2080830

  6. Identifying active structures in the Kayak Island and Pamplona Zones: Implications for offshore tectonics of the Yakutat Microplate, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Pavlis, Terry L.

    Within the northern Gulf of Alaska, the Yakutat (YAK) microplate obliquely collides with and subducts beneath the North American (NA) continent at near-Pacific plate velocities. We investigate the extent that thin-skinned deformation on offshore structures located within the western portion of the unsubducted YAK block accommodates YAK-NA convergence. We compare faulting and folding observed on high-resolution and basin-scale multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data with earthquake locations and surface ruptures observed on high-resolution bathymetric data. Holocene sediments overlying the Kayak Island fault zone (KIZ), previously interpreted as a region of active contraction, are relatively flat-lying, suggesting that active convergence within the KIZ is waning. Seismic reflection profiles east of KIZ show up to ˜200 m of undisturbed sediments overlying older folds in the Bering Trough, indicating that this area has been tectonically inactive since at least the last ˜1.3 Ma. Farther east, MCS profiles image active deformation in surface sediments along the eastern edge of the Pamplona zone (PZ) fold-and-thrust belt, that are collocated with a concentration of earthquake events that continues southwest to Khitrov Ridge and onshore through Icy Bay. These observations suggest that during the late Quaternary offshore shallow deformation style changed from distributed across the western Yakutat block to localized at the eastern edge of the PZ with extrusion of sediments southwest through the Khitrov Ridge area to the Aleutian Trench. This shallow deformation is interpreted as deformation of an accretionary complex above a shallow decollement.

  7. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations. PMID:24043557

  8. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Lydia H; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (< 0.2%C). When normalized by OM levels, post-eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance. PMID:26032670

  9. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeglin, Lydia H.; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (< 0.2%C). When normalized by OM levels, post-eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance.

  10. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Crustal Deformation in Southcentral Alaska: The 1964 Prince William Sound Earthquake Subduction Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2003-01-01

    This article, for Advances in Geophysics, is a summary of crustal deformation studies in southcentral Alaska. In 1964, southcentral Alaska was struck by the largest earthquake (moment magnitude 9.2) occurring in historical times in North America and the second largest earthquake occurring in the world during the past century. Conventional and space-based geodetic measurements have revealed a complex temporal-spatial pattern of crustal movement. Numerical models suggest that ongoing convergence between the North America and Pacific Plates, viscoelastic rebound, aseismic creep along the tectonic plate interface, and variable plate coupling all play important roles in controlling both the surface and subsurface movements. The geodetic data sets include tide-gauge observations that in some cases provide records back to the decades preceding the earthquake, leveling data that span a few decades around the earthquake, VLBI data from the late 1980s, and GPS data since the mid-1990s. Geologic data provide additional estimates of vertical movements and a chronology of large seismic events. Some of the important features that are revealed by the ensemble of studies that are reviewed in this paper include: (1) Crustal uplift in the region that subsided by up 2 m at the time of the earthquake is as much as 1 m since the earthquake. In the Turnagain Arm and Kenai Peninsula regions of southcentral Alaska, uplift rates in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake reached 150 mm/yr , but this rapid uplift decayed rapidly after the first few years following the earthquake. (2) At some other locales, notably those away the middle of the coseismic rupture zone, postseismic uplift rates were initially slower but the rates decay over a longer time interval. At Kodiak Island, for example, the uplift rates have been decreasing at a rate of about 7mm/yr per decade. At yet other locations, the uplift rates have shown little time dependence so far, but are thought not to be sustainable

  12. Diverse Approaches USED to Characterize the Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards Along the Southern Alaska Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeussler, P. J.; Witter, R. C.; Liberty, L. M.; Brothers, D. S.; Briggs, R. W.; Armstrong, P. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Parsons, T.; Ryan, H. F.; Lee, H. J.; Roland, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are the principal geohazards of southern Alaska. The entire margin has ruptured in megathrust earthquakes, including the M9.2 1964 event, and these earthquakes have launched deadly local and trans-Pacific tsunamis. Tsunamis have been by far the largest killer in these earthquakes. Moreover, the subduction zone displays a range in locking behavior from completely locked beneath Prince William Sound, to ­­­­nearly freely slipping beneath the Shumagin Islands. Characterizing earthquake-related tsunami sources requires a diverse set of methods, and we discuss several examples. One important source for tsunamis is from megathrust splay faults. The Patton Bay splay fault system ruptured during the 1964 earthquake and generated a tsunami that impacted coastlines tens of minutes after the earthquake. A combination of multibeam mapping, high-resolution and crustal-scale seismic data, thermochronology, and detrital zircon geochronology show focused exhumation along this splay fault system for the last 2-3 Ma. Moreover, this long term pattern of exhumation mimics the pattern of uplift in 1964. Submarine landslides are another example of a tsunami source. Numerous devastating slides were triggered by the 1964 earthquake. Multibeam bathymetry, bathymetry difference maps, high-resolution seismic data, and records of paleotsunamis in coastal marshes reveal a long history of submarine landsliding in the coastal fjords of Alaska. The Little Ice Age appears to have had a significant influence on the submarine landslides in the 1964 earthquake through increased sediment production, transport to fjord margins, and, locally, compaction by glacier advances. Glacial retreat before 1964 gave rise to over-steepened slopes susceptible to dynamic failure. Numerous blocks in the submarine landslides were particularly effective in generating high tsunami run up. Finally, regional tectonic displacements of the seafloor have launched trans-Pacific tsunamis. Coastal

  13. Geophysical interpretation of U, Th, and rare earth element mineralization of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    A prospectivity map for rare earth element (REE) mineralization at the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, was calculated from high-resolution airborne gamma-ray data. The map displays areas with similar radioelement concentrations as those over the Dotson REE-vein-dike system, which is characterized by moderately high %K, eU, and eTh (%K, percent potassium; eU, equivalent parts per million uranium; and eTh, equivalent parts per million thorium). Gamma-ray concentrations of rocks that share a similar range as those over the Dotson zone are inferred to locate high concentrations of REE-bearing minerals. An approximately 1300-m-long prospective tract corresponds to shallowly exposed locations of the Dotson zone. Prospective areas of REE mineralization also occur in continuous swaths along the outer edge of the pluton, over known but undeveloped REE occurrences, and within discrete regions in the older Paleozoic country rocks. Detailed mineralogical examinations of samples from the Dotson zone provide a means to understand the possible causes of the airborne Th and U anomalies and their relation to REE minerals. Thorium is sited primarily in thorite. Uranium also occurs in thorite and in a complex suite of ±Ti±Nb±Y oxide minerals, which include fergusonite, polycrase, and aeschynite. These oxides, along with Y-silicates, are the chief heavy REE (HREE)-bearing minerals. Hence, the eU anomalies, in particular, may indicate other occurrences of similar HREE-enrichment. Uranium and Th chemistry along the Dotson zone showed elevated U and total REEs east of the Camp Creek fault, which suggested the potential for increased HREEs based on their association with U-oxide minerals. A uranium prospectivity map, based on signatures present over the Ross-Adams mine area, was characterized by extremely high radioelement values. Known uranium deposits were identified in the U-prospectivity map, but the largest tract occurs

  14. 77 FR 10504 - Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Creek (a Lagoon Creek tributary), near the town of Old Harbor, Kodiak Island Borough, Alaska. The... of the Lagoon Creek tributary. Access Road and Trail An approximately 11, 200-foot-long intake...

  15. 50 CFR 100.24 - Customary and traditional use determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... installations located on Cape Newenham, Sparrevohn USAFB, and Tatalina USAFB. Rainbow trout Residents of the... All fish Residents of the Alaska Peninsula Area. CHIGNIK AREA Salmon and fish other than rainbow... Island Borough, except those residing on the Kodiak Coast Guard Base. Kodiak Area Fish other than...

  16. 50 CFR 100.24 - Customary and traditional use determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... installations located on Cape Newenham, Sparrevohn USAFB, and Tatalina USAFB. Rainbow trout Residents of the... All fish Residents of the Alaska Peninsula Area. CHIGNIK AREA Salmon and fish other than rainbow... Island Borough, except those residing on the Kodiak Coast Guard Base. Kodiak Area Fish other than...

  17. Effects of the Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964, on shore processes and beach morphology: Chapter J in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Kirk W.

    1968-01-01

    Some 10,000 miles of shoreline in south-central Alaska was affected by the subsidence or uplift associated with the great Alaska earthquake of March 27, 1964. The changes in shoreline processes and beach morphology that were suddenly initiated by the earthquake were similar to those ordinarily caused by gradual changes in sea level operating over hundreds of years, while other more readily visible changes were similar to some of the effects of great but short-lived storms. Phenomena became available for observation within a few hours which would otherwise not have been available for many years. In the subsided areas—including the shorelines of the Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and Cook Inlet—beaches tended to flatten in gradient and to recede shoreward. Minor beach features were altered or destroyed on submergence but began to reappear and to stabilize in their normal shapes within a few months after the earthquake. Frontal beach ridges migrated shoreward and grew higher and wider than they were before. Along narrow beaches backed by bluffs, the relatively higher sea level led to vigorous erosion of the bluff toes. Stream mouths were drowned and some were altered by seismic sea waves, but they adjusted within a few months to the new conditions. In the uplifted areas, generally around Prince William Sound, virtually all beaches were stranded out of reach of the sea. New beaches are gradually developing to fit new sea levels, but the processes are slow, in part because the material on the lower parts of the old beaches is predominantly fine grained. Streams were lengthened in the emergent areas, and down cutting and bank erosion have increased. Except at Homer and a few small villages, where groins, bulkheads, and cobble-filled baskets were installed, there has been little attempt to protect the postearthquake shorelines. The few structures that were built have been only partially successful because there was too little time to study the habits of the new shore

  18. 2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

  19. Diatoms confirm coseismic uplift and subsidence along the eastern Alaska-Aleutian megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, T.; Briggs, R. W.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nelson, A. R.; Horton, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is the source of a series of Mw 8-9.2 20th century ruptures, including the second largest historical earthquake ever recorded in 1964. Paleoseismic studies, employing coastal stratigraphic sequences, have been successfully applied at sites within the 1964 rupture zone, but geologic records are unstudied west of the 1964 rupture. Understanding the behavior of the megathrust is important because a tsunamigenic rupture could damage the west coast of the United States. Investigations in the tidal marshes of Sitkinak Island, off the southwest coast of Kodiak Island, have uncovered stratigraphic evidence of five apparent coseismic land-level changes. Radiocarbon, 210Pb, and 137Cs dating indicate this record may include the 1964 and 1788 earthquakes and some predecessors. Here, we present new paleoecological evidence that independently confirms the inference that at least four of the abrupt lithologic changes in the stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island record coseismic land-level changes. Sudden and lasting changes in fossil diatom assemblages spanning tidal lithologic contacts reveal both coseismic subsidence (mud over peat) and coseismic uplift (peat over mud) during the last 1000 years. Across the contact that may mark the 1964 earthquake, a shift from a brackish, low-marsh diatom assemblage dominated by Diploneis interrupta and Navicula cincta to a tidal flat assemblage containing Actinocyclus normanii and Synedra tabulata indicates a sudden rise in relative sea-level, which we infer to record coseismic subsidence. In contrast, diatoms show evidence of coseismic uplift across the probable 1788 contact. An abrupt transition from a fully marine assemblage containing coastal planktonic and tychoplanktonic taxa to a freshwater marsh assemblage dominated by the salt-intolerant benthic diatom Eunotia fallax is consistent with a sudden and lasting relative sea-level fall. Abrupt changes in lithology across a contact dated about ~575 cal yr

  20. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska highway system: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1968-01-01

    damaged by seismic shaking. Lateral displacement of sediments toward a free face, which placed the bridges in compression, was the chief cause for the damage. This type of failure was extensive and widespread throughout the highway system. The chief engineering characteristics responsible for the type and intensity of damage include (1) thickness of roadway fills, (2) type of pile bents and masonry piers, (3) the weight ratio between the substructure and superstructure, and (4) the tie between the substructure and superstructure. The thicker the roadway fills, the more severe the damage. Wood piles did not break as extensively as piles constructed of three railroad rails welded together. Bridges that had relatively heavy superstructures, for example those with concrete decks on wood piles, were more severely damaged than those with all-wood or concrete decks or concrete piers. Failure first occurred at the tie between the superstructure and the substructure; the poorer this tie, the sooner the failure. Seismic sea waves destroyed 12 bridges on the Chiniak Highway on Kodiak Island, one bridge on Point Whitshed road near Cordova, and about 14 miles of roadway. The combination of regional tectonic subsidence and local subsidence and compaction of sediments caused inundation of many miles of highway by high tides, especially around Turnagain Arm. Total subsidence in some places amounted to more than 13 feet.

  1. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  2. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  3. Flatfish-habitat associations in Alaska nursery grounds: Use of continuous video records for multi-scale spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, Allan W.; Spencer, Mara L.; Ryer, Clifford H.

    2007-02-01

    Flatfish distributions have traditionally been described in terms of depth, temperature, and sediment characteristics, but other environmental variables may be important depending upon spatial scale. Surveys for age-0 northern rock sole ( Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were conducted in five near-shore nursery sites at Kodiak Island, Alaska, using a towed camera sled integrated with navigational data. The continuous record of fish density and habitat features made possible a spatially comprehensive analysis of fish-habitat associations at several spatial scales, ranging from tens of kilometres to less than 1 m. A combination of multivariate statistical interpretation and geographic information systems (GIS) revealed that the distribution of juvenile rock sole was associated with environmental variables and spatial scales that are not normally detectable with usual flatfish— and habitat—sampling methods (i.e., trawls and grabs). Generalized additive models (GAM) incorporating habitat variables determined from video provided large improvements over models using only the traditional variables such as depth and sediment type. At the broadest (regional) scale of analysis, combinations of sediment composition, surface bedform, temperature, and density of worm tubes provided the best model for rock sole density. Within-nursery variation in fish density was modelled best with depth, habitat structural complexity created by emergent fauna and macroalgae, and worm tube density. At the microhabitat scale (< 1 m), there was little evidence of direct contact between rock sole and structures such as shell or algae. Rather, they were loosely associated on a scale tens of metres. This study showed that spatially comprehensive surveys can be conducted with towed camera systems and without the need for sediment grab samples. This approach yields detailed habitat information for fishes and the opportunity for landscape analysis of spatial patterns that will be important in conserving

  4. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  5. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  6. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-08

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  7. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation.

  8. Natural Science of Alaska Handbook. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie Smith; Sumner, Jim

    This handbook is a collection of printed materials that are available to students about the geology, weather, plants, animals and people of Alaska. Topics included are: (1) "Alaska History Line"; (2) "Geography of Alaska" (including maps, rivers, and islands); (3) "Geologic Time"; (4) "Geology" (including plates, earthquake zones, permafrost, and…

  9. Observations on Gulf of Alaska seamount chains by multi-beam sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, N. Christian

    1985-06-01

    Geomorphic and age data are presented for the Dellwood, Denson, Dickins, Giacomini, and Ely seamounts, the Tsimshian Seachannel, and the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge with Brown Bear, Bear Cub, Grizzly Bear, and Cobb seamounts. Formational speculations extrapolated to a regional scale allow the strikes and outer limits of the seamount chains to be interpreted. Six of these chains are shown in the Gulf of Alaska, none of which conform to the Pratt-Welker or Kodiak-Bowie in the literature. Different strikes show the chains/plate to have rotated 23° about 17 m.y. ago. Morphology also shows that there are four less guyots in the Gulf than previously thought, and that, at least in the Gulf of Alaska, guyot heights do not necessarily reflect sealevel during erosion.

  10. Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

  11. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  12. Tsunami Modeling and Inundation Mapping in Southcentral Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolsky, D.; Suleimani, E.; Koehler, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) participates in the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program by evaluating and mapping potential tsunami inundation of coastal Alaska. We evaluate potential tsunami hazards for several coastal communities near the epicenter of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake and numerically model the extent of their inundation due to tsunamis generated by earthquake and landslide sources. Tsunami scenarios include a repeat of the tsunami triggered by the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, as well as hypothetical tsunamis generated by an extended 1964 rupture, a Cascadia megathrust earthquake, earthquakes from the Prince William Sound and Kodiak asperities of the 1964 rupture, and a hypothetical Tohoku-type rupture in the Gulf of Alaska region. Local underwater landslide events in several communities are also considered as credible tsunamigenic scenarios. We perform simulations for each of the source scenarios using AEIC's recently developed and tested numerical model of tsunami wave propagation and runup. Results of the numerical modeling are verified by simulating the tectonic and landslide-generated tsunamis observed during the 1964 earthquake. The tsunami scenarios are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies in tsunami hazard assessment, evacuation planning, and public education for reducing future casualties and damage from tsunamis. During the 1964 earthquake, locally generated waves of unknown origin were identified at several communities, located in the western part of Prince William Sound. The waves appeared shortly after the shaking began and swept away most of the buildings while the shaking continued. We model the tectonic tsunami assuming different tsunami generation processes and claim the importance of including both vertical and horizontal displacement into the 1964 tsunami generation process.

  13. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  14. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... death was 79.6 years; how- ever, blacks, American Indian/ Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders had younger ... 2011 show that among low-income preschool children, American Indians/Alaskan Natives have an obesity rate of 17. ...

  16. Deep-sea fan deposition of the lower Tertiary Orca Group, eastern Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    The Orca Group is a thick, complexly deformed, sparsely fossiliferous sequence of flysch-like sedimentary and tholeiitic volcanic rocks of middle or late Paleocene age that crops out over an area of. roughly 21,000 km2 in the Prince William Sound region and the adjacent Chugach Mountains. The Orca Group also probably underlies a large part of the Gulf of Alaska Tertiary province and the continental shelf south of the outcrop belt; coextensive rocks to the southwest on Kodiak Island are called the Ghost Rocks and Sitkalidak Formations. The Orca Group was pervasively faulted, tightly folded, and metamorphosed regionally to laumontite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies prior to, and perhaps concurrently with, intrusion of early Eocene granodiorite and quartz monzonite plutons. In eastern Prince William Sound, 95% of the Orca sedimentary rocks are interbedded feldspathic and lithofeldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone turbidites. Lithic components vary widely in abundance and composition, but labile sedimentary and volcanic grains dominate. A widespread yet minor amount of the mudstone is hemipelagic or pelagic, with scattered foraminifers. Pebbly mudstone with rounded clasts of exotic lithologies and locally conglomerate with angular blocks of deformed sandstone identical to the enclosing matrix are interbedded with the turbidites. Thick and thin tabular bodies of altered tholeiitic basalt are locally and regionally conformable with the sedimentary rocks, and constitute 15-20% of Orca outcrops in eastern Prince William Sound. The basalt consists chiefly of pillowed and nonpillowed flows, but also includes minor pillow breccia, tuff, and intrusive rocks. Nonvolcanic turbidites are interbedded with the basalt; lenticular bioclastic limestone, red and green mudstone, chert, and conglomerate locally overlie the basalt, but are supplanted upward by turbidites. From west to east, basalts within the Orca Group become increasingly fragmental and amygdaloidal. Such

  17. Common murre abundance, phenology, and productivity on the Barren Islands, Alaska: The Exxon Valdez oil spill and long-term environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Boersma, P.D.; Parrish, J.K.; Kettle, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Principally because of the paucity of prespill data on the Barren Islands murre population size and reproductive success, it is impossible to quantify any effect on the spill on these populations. Available prespill data (1976--1978) on the East Amatuli murre population size ranges from 19,000 to 61,000 birds. These data are not systematic, replicated counts but rather are estimates indicating a broad range within which the true attendance figure probably resided. The postspill attendance counts range from 31,041 to 37,128 (1990--1992). Comparisons between matched historical and 1990s photographs showed nearly identical attendance patterns, although there were significantly more murres in the 1990s photographs. Postspill attendance data from multiply censused areas suggest a recovery may have been taking place because of greater than expected annual increases (+25% from 1990 to 1991). Prespill data on reproductive activity of the murres nesting in the Barren Islands were collected from a single 5 x 5-m plot located in a dense, flat section of the East Amatuli Light Rock colony. Comparisons with similarly collected postspill data suggest that phenology, egg production, and chick production are extremely variable among years, although chicks were fledged in all years. Egg and chick production were highest in 1977 and 1991 and lowest in 1992. 72 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Nathan L; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-03-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands. PMID:25416538

  19. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  20. Igneous history of the Koyukuk terrane, western Alaska: constraints on the origin, evolution, and ultimate collision of an accreted island arc terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, S.E.; Patton, W.W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The Koyukuk terrane consists of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and plutonic rocks which range from Late Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous in age. The terrane crops out in a U-shaped belt which is roughly paralleled by outer belts of ultramafic rocks, oceanic plate basalts and cherts, and retrograded blueschist facies rocks of continental protolith. These rocks have been interpreted as components of a volcanic arc terrane that collided with the North American continental margin in Early Cretaceous time. The Koyukuk terrane consists of four time-stratigraphic units: (1) pre-Middle Jurassic basalts, (2) Middle and Late Jurassic granitic rocks, (3) lower Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks, and (4) upper Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks. Limited chemical data from the basalts of unit 1 indicate that they were erupted in a nonarc tectonic environment, possibly in an oceanic island or back arc setting. Units, 2, 3, and 4 have the characteristics of subduction-related volcanic rocks. -from Authors

  1. 43 CFR 2653.7 - Sitka-Kenai-Juneau-Kodiak selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS... named cities may select not more than one-half the area withdrawn for selection by that corporation....

  2. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  3. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators. PMID:17765292

  4. Evidence for fractionation of Quaternary basalts on St. Paul Island, Alaska, with implications for the development of shallow magma chambers beneath Bering Sea volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, T. C.; Winer, G. S.

    1999-04-01

    St. Paul Island is the youngest volcanic center in the Bearing Sea basalt province. We have undertaken a field, petrographic, and geochemical study of select St. Paul volcanic rocks in order to better understand their differentiation; specifically, to test the hypothesis that magmas erupted from individual Bering Sea basaltic volcanoes are not related by shallow-level processes such as crystal fractionation. Petrographically, all of the St. Paul volcanic rocks are olivine-, plagioclase-, and clinopyroxene-phyric. Textural features and modal contents of olivine phenocrysts, however, vary widely throughout the spectrum of basalt compositions. Although differing in size and abundance, olivine phenocrysts in all rock compositions are euhedral and commonly skeletal, suggesting rapid growth during ascent or eruptive quenching. None, however, display reaction textures with surrounding groundmass liquid. Compositionally, the St. Paul volcanic rocks are basalts and tephritic basalts and all have high contents of normative nepheline (8% to 16%). Concentrations of many major and incompatible trace elements display no clear correlations with bulk-rock SiO 2 and MgO contents or modal abundances of phenocrysts, suggesting that much of the compositional diversity of these magmas reflects variable mantle sources and degrees of partial melting. Similarly, chondrite-normalized REE patterns show variable degrees of light REE enrichment (La n=70-90) that do not correlate with bulk-rock mg-numbers. In contrast, concentrations of compatible trace elements (Ni, Cr, and Co) are positively correlated with MgO contents and modal percentages of olivine phenocrysts. Maximum forsterite contents of olivine phenocryst cores in most St. Paul rocks decrease with decreasing bulk-rock mg-number and are similar to the calculated equilibrium range. This is evidence that the high mg-numbers are magmatic and do not result from olivine accumulation. Instead, major and compatible trace element mass

  5. 1996 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity, anomalous seismicity, or suspected volcanic activity at 10 of the approximately 40 active volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. As part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also disseminated information about eruptions and other volcanic unrest at six volcanic centers on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Kurile Islands, Russia.

  6. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  7. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses... of said islands, rocks, and islets. (b) Exclusive fishery. The Annette Islands Reserve is declared...

  8. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses... of said islands, rocks, and islets. (b) Exclusive fishery. The Annette Islands Reserve is declared...

  9. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses... of said islands, rocks, and islets. (b) Exclusive fishery. The Annette Islands Reserve is declared...

  10. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses... of said islands, rocks, and islets. (b) Exclusive fishery. The Annette Islands Reserve is declared...

  11. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses... of said islands, rocks, and islets. (b) Exclusive fishery. The Annette Islands Reserve is declared...

  12. USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

  13. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  14. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  15. Outer Continental Shelf environmental assessment program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 54

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Contents include: Distribution, abundance, community structure, and trophic relationships of the benthos of the northeastern Gulf of Alaska from Yakutat Bay to Cross Sound; Habitat requirements and expected distribution of Alaska coral; A survey for spawning forage fish on the east side of the Kodiak Archipelago by air and boat during spring and summer 1979; Seasonal composition and abundance of juvenile and adult marine finfish and crab species in the nearshore zone of Kodiak Island's eastside during April 1978 through March 1979; Ecology and behavior of southern hemisphere shearwaters (Genus Puffinus) when over the outer continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea during the Northern summer (1975-1976).

  16. Zooplankton biomass, advection and production on the northern Gulf of Alaska shelf from simulations and field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, K. O.; Gibson, G. A.; Hedstrom, K.; Hermann, A. J.; Hopcroft, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Interpretation of zooplankton field observations on the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) shelf is complicated by the complex physical environment of currents, eddies and meanders which mix oceanic and coastal water masses to varying degrees. We therefore developed a lower trophic level model embedded in an ocean circulation model to examine the effects of wind, runoff and temperature on transport, biomass and production of microzooplankton and copepods on the northern GOA shelf and adjacent ocean. Mean microzooplankton biomass varied from 10-90 and 10-50 mg C m- 3 in the upper 50 m for field measurements and simulations respectively. Mean simulated and measured copepod biomass in the upper 100 m was about 1-40 g C m- 3. Field data indicated that Neocalanus biomass was negatively correlated with salinity in May. Simulations indicated that the negative correlation was due to elevated primary and secondary production on the shelf relative to the adjacent ocean. Floats programmed to simulate the ontogenetic vertical migrations of Neocalanus indicated that ~ 10 to 50% of Neocalanus originating near the shelf break spend at least some time on the shelf, depending on location. Residence time of floats on the shelf was affected primarily by wind, secondarily by runoff. Primary and secondary production in the simulations were highly correlated (r > 0.9). Simulated secondary production was 10-90 g C m- 2 y- 1, with highest values in Lower Cook Inlet, around Kodiak and west of Kodiak.

  17. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  18. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 67

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The contents of this study include the following: distribution, abundance, and biology of blue king and Korean hair crabs around the Pribilof Islands; distribution, abundance, and diversity of the epifaunal benthic organisms in Alitak and Ugak bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska; distribution and abundance of some epibenthic invertebrates of the northeastern Gulf of Alaska with notes on the feeding biology of selected species; reproductive success in Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) during long-term exposures to oil-contaminated sediments; and distribution and abundance of decapod larvae of the Kodiak shelf.

  20. Range expansion of nonindigenous caribou in the Aleutianarchipelago of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Duarte, Adam; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are nonindigenous to all but the eastern-most island of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. In 1958–1959, caribou were intentionally introduced to Adak Island in the central archipelago, and the population has at least tripled in recent years subsequent to the closure of a naval air facility. Although dispersal of caribou to adjacent islands has been suspected, no historical documentation has occurred to date. Herein, we report consistent detections of caribou sign on the adjacent island of Kagalaska over 2 summer field seasons (2010–2011), and visual detection of caribou on that island during the summer of 2011. Ecological impacts of caribou on Kagalaska are not strongly apparent at the present time and we do not know how many animals permanently occupy the island. However, establishment of a reproductively viable resident population on Kagalaska is worrisome and could set the stage for a step-wise invasion of additional nearby islands.

  1. Attu, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Attu, the westernmost Aleutian island, is nearly 1760 km from the Alaskan mainland and 1200 km northeast of the northernmost of the Japanese Kurile Islands. Attu is about 32 by 56 km in size, and is today the home of a small number of U. S. Coast Guard personnel operating a Loran station. The weather on Attu is typical of Aleutian weather in general...cloudy, rain, fog, and occasional high winds. The weather becomes progressively worse as you travel from the easternmost islands to the west. On Attu, five or six days a week are likely to be rainy, with hardly more than eight or ten clear days a year. The image was acquired July 4, 2000, covers an area of 31.2 by 61.1 km, and is centered near 52.8 degrees north latitude, 173 degrees east longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of

  2. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-03-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  3. 1994 Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these volcanoes, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is located in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of volcanoes. The remaining unmonitored volcanoes are located in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these volcanoes, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.

  4. Constraints on the Aleutian Subduction Zone from the Shumagin Gap to Kodiak Asperity from New MCS and OBS Data of the ALEUT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, D. J.; Nedimović, M. R.; Webb, S. C.; Bécel, A.; Delescluse, M.; Li, J.; Kuehn, H.; Biescas, B.; Wessbecher, A.; Farkas, A.; Eddy, C.; Hostetler, K.; Perls, H.; Zietman, J.; Keranen, K. M.; Louden, K. E.

    2011-12-01

    In July-August 2011, the Alaska Langseth Experiment to Understand the megaThrust (ALEUT) program acquired deep penetration multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data along a part of the Aleutian subduction zone that exhibits the full spectrum of coupling, from locked to freely slipping. The goal of this program is to characterize variations in the geometry and properties of the megathrust, over-riding and downgoing plates and other structures and relate them to downdip and along-strike changes in slip behavior and seismogenesis. Our study encompassed 1) the freely slipping Shumagin Gap; 2) the locked Semidi segment, which last ruptured in 1938, and 3) the locked western Kodiak asperity, the western extent of the 1964 M9.2 rupture. We acquired 3700 km of MCS data with the R/V Langseth along a series of strike and dip profiles that span the entire locked zone on the megathrust (as indicated by GPS data and estimated rupture zones of past earthquakes), its updip and downdip transitions to stable sliding, bending of the downgoing plate, and preexisting structures in the oceanic crust. Data were acquired with a 6600 cu. in. air gun array and two 8-km-long streamers. The source and one of the streamers were towed at a depth of 12 m to maximize low frequencies (and deep imaging) while the second streamer was towed at 9 m for better imaging of the sediments and upper crust. Refraction data were acquired using the same source and short period OBS spaced at ~15 km along two ~400-km profiles coincident with MCS data across the Shumagin Gap and Semidi segment. Eight seismometers were also deployed onshore in the summer of 2011 that recorded the entire offshore experiment plus local and regional seismicity. Here we present initial results from MCS and OBS data regarding the megathrust and the hydration of the downgoing plate. Initial images reveal deep reflections from the megathrust from both the locked region and the estimated downdip

  5. Beach ridges as paleoseismic indicators of abrupt coastal subsidence during subduction zone earthquakes, and implications for Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone paleoseismology, southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Briggs, Richard; Nelson, Alan R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2015-01-01

    The Kenai section of the eastern Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone straddles two areas of high slip in the 1964 great Alaska earthquake and is the least studied of the three megathrust segments (Kodiak, Kenai, Prince William Sound) that ruptured in 1964. Investigation of two coastal sites in the eastern part of the Kenai segment, on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, identified evidence for two subduction zone earthquakes that predate the 1964 earthquake. Both coastal sites provide paleoseismic data through inferred coseismic subsidence of wetlands and associated subsidence-induced erosion of beach ridges. At Verdant Cove, paleo-beach ridges record the paleoseismic history; whereas at Quicksand Cove, buried soils in drowned coastal wetlands are the primary indicators of paleoearthquake occurrence and age. The timing of submergence and death of trees mark the oldest earthquake at Verdant Cove that is consistent with the age of a well documented ∼900-year-ago subduction zone earthquake that ruptured the Prince William Sound segment of the megathrust to the east and the Kodiak segment to the west. Soils buried within the last 400–450 years mark the penultimate earthquake on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula. The penultimate earthquake probably occurred before AD 1840 from its absence in Russian historical accounts. The penultimate subduction zone earthquake on the Kenai segment did not rupture in conjunction with the Prince William Sound to the northeast. Therefore the Kenai segment, which is presently creeping, can rupture independently of the adjacent Prince William Sound segment that is presently locked.

  6. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  7. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  8. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  9. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  10. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  11. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  12. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...This document contains corrections to the interim final rule pertaining to Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Groundfish Fisheries Off Alaska published on December 13, 2010. These corrections amend one error in the preamble to the interim final rule and one typographical error and content within......

  13. Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

  14. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  15. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  16. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  17. South Central Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Glacial silt along the Copper River in Alaska is picked up by the wind and carried out over the Gulf of Alaska. This true-color MODIS image from October 26, 2001, shows a large gray dust plume spreading out over the Gulf. West of the Copper River Delta, Cook Inlet is full of sediment.

  18. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups: "The…

  19. Tectono-stratigraphic terrane map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Brew, D.A.; Grantz, A.; Plafker, G.; Moore, T.E.; Patton, W.W. Jr. ); Mollstalcup, E.J. ); Miller, T.P. )

    1993-04-01

    A new terrane map compelled at a scale of 2.5 million is a comprehensive portrayal of the major tectono-stratigraphic terranes, pre-accretionary plutonic rocks, faults or sutures that bound terranes, and younger overlap sedimentary , volcanic, and plutonic assemblages of Alaska. Terranes are divided by tectonic affinity into cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, sea mount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic environments. Overlap assemblages consist of sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and plutonic rocks that link or weld together adjacent terranes after emplacement, and provide important constraints on the timing of tectonic juxtaposition. Groups of terranes and overlap assemblages, with similar tectonic environments and geologic histories, can be correlated within Alaska and into the adjacent Canadian Cordillera. These groups include: (1) highly deformed and metamorphosed continental margin terranes (Seward, Coldfoot, Ruby, Yukon-Tanana, Kootenay) that are interpreted either as displaced fragments of the North American or other continental margins; (2) ophiolite terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Inoko, Seventymile, Slide Mountain) that are interpreted as remnants of one or more major, long-lived, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic oceanic basins; (3) Jurassic and Early Cretaceous island arc terranes (Koyukuk, Togiak, Nyac) that are interpreted as remnants of a discontinuous, short-lived, Mesoxoic island arc system; and (4) the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Kahiltna and Gravina-Nutzotin overlap assemblages that are interpreted as parts of a major arc and flysch sequence.

  20. Alaska Problem Resource Manual: Alaska Future Problem Solving Program. Alaska Problem 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Marjorie, Ed.

    "Alaska's Image in the Lower 48," is the theme selected by a Blue Ribbon panel of state and national leaders who felt that it was important for students to explore the relationship between Alaska's outside image and the effect of that image on the federal programs/policies that impact Alaska. An overview of Alaska is presented first in this…

  1. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  2. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  3. 75 FR 69063 - Port Bailey Wild Enterprises, LLC; PB Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... joint application for transfer of license for the Dry Spruce Bay Project No. 1432, located on the Dry Spruce Bay on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Applicants seek Commission approval to transfer the license for the Dry Spruce Bay Project from transferor to transferee. Applicants' Contact: Robert S. Shane II,...

  4. Community Relationships: The Key to School Success. (An Interview with Elaine Griffin, National Teacher of the Year.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Brad E.

    The 1995 National Teacher of the Year, Elaine Griffin, teaches on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Her experiences reinforce her belief in the importance of strong school-community ties and close relationships between teachers and families. Shared staffing in this remote rural environment has allowed the teachers time away for travel and other experiences.…

  5. Alaska Resource Data File, Wiseman quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Britton, Joe M.

    2003-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences shown on the accompanying figure follow. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  6. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  7. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  8. 8. STREETSCAPE LOOKING AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STREETSCAPE LOOKING AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING (CLOSER VIEW THAN AK-47-Q-7). HANGER CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  9. Population, reproduction and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, K.L.; Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The post-spill population was 43% less than the pre-spill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in the PWS guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  10. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Aircraft in Alaska: 2009 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Patrick, L.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Oltmans, S. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, C. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to their huge potential impact on the Earth's warming, methane (CH4) emissions in the Arctic are currently widely-studied and debated in the carbon cycle community. Emissions from carbon stored in Arctic soil are projected to increase as the region warms and the permafrost thaws, creating a potent feedback mechanism for climate change. This year, NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) began multi-year aircraft measurements in Alaska, which, coupled with regional modeling of methane fluxes, will evaluate and quantify the effect of regional climate change on ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes. A crucial component of such regional modeling is the choice of background mixing ratio for a given atmospheric sample. A recent addition to the NOAA/GMD aircraft program provides valuable information on background mixing ratios for the Alaskan interior and provides insight into the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability as well as spatial and temporal context for the measurements being made during the CARVE campaigns. The NOAA/GMD aircraft program began new, ongoing greenhouse gas measurements in Alaska in 2009 (complementing existing ground stations at Barrow and Cold Bay, and a flask-only aircraft site outside of Fairbanks), through a collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. Bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness flights on C-130 aircraft generally begin in Kodiak, continue to Barrow, and return back to Kodiak after altitude profiles over Kivalina and Galena. On-board measurements include continuous CO2, CH4, CO, and ozone, as well as 24 flask samples analyzed at NOAA for CO2, CH4, CO, and 50 additional gases. In addition to spanning a large geographic region, the measurements also span the entire growing season, from late March to late November each year. We will present data from 2009 - 2011, with a focus on Arctic CH4. The measurements provide us with additional understanding of the various influences on the seasonal cycles of CH4 and CO2

  11. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  12. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  13. Volcanic ash plume identification using polarization lidar: Augustine eruption, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Webley, Peter W.; Dean, K.; Cobb, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    During mid January to early February 2006, a series of explosive eruptions occurred at the Augustine volcanic island off the southern coast of Alaska. By early February a plume of volcanic ash was transported northward into the interior of Alaska. Satellite imagery and Puff volcanic ash transport model predictions confirm that the aerosol plume passed over a polarization lidar (0.694 mm wavelength) site at the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. For the first time, lidar linear depolarization ratios of 0.10 – 0.15 were measured in a fresh tropospheric volcanic plume, demonstrating that the nonspherical glass and mineral particles typical of volcanic eruptions generate strong laser depolarization. Thus, polarization lidars can identify the volcanic ash plumes that pose a threat to jet air traffic from the ground, aircraft, or potentially from Earth orbit.

  14. 75 FR 4491 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Eastern Aleutian District and the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... necessary to fully use the 2010 A season total allowable catch (TAC) of Atka mackerel in these...

  15. 78 FR 42023 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... under Sec. 679.2(d)(1)(iii) on June 11, 2013 (78 FR 35771, June 14, 2013). As of July 8, 2013, NMFS has... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... mackerel in the Central Aleutian district (CAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

  16. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  17. Crustal Uplift in the Southcentral Alaska Subduction Zones: A New Analysis and Interpretation of Tide Gauge Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1999-01-01

    We have examined the sea level height tide records at seven tide gauge sites in the region of southcentral Alaska that were affected by the 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake to determine the history of crustal uplift subsequent to the earthquake. There is considerable variation in the behavior depending on the location of the site relative to the 1964 rupture. At Seward, on the eastern side of the Kenai Peninsula we find a slow uplift that is consistent with elastic strain accumulation while at Seldovia and Nikiski on the western side of the Kenai we find a persistent rapid uplift of about 1 cm/yr that most likely represents a long term transient response to the earthquake, but which cannot be sustained over the expected recurrence interval for a great earthquake of several hundred years. Further to the southwest, at Kodiak, we find evidence that the rate of uplift, which is still several mm/yr, has slowed significantly over the past three and a half decades. To the east of the Kenai Peninsula we find subsidence at Cordova and an uncertain behavior at Valdez. At both of these sites there is a mathematically significant time-dependence to the uplift behavior, but the data confirming this time dependence are not as convincing as at Kodiak. At Anchorage, to the north there is little evidence of vertical motion since the earthquake. We compare these long term tide gauge records to recent GPS observations. In general there is reasonable consistency except at Anchorage and Cordova where the GPS measurement indicate somewhat more rapid uplift and subsidence, respectively.

  18. Metamorphic facies map of Southeastern Alaska; distribution, facies, and ages of regionally metamorphosed rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Brew, D.A.; Douglass, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all of the bedrock in Southeastern Alaska has been metamorphosed, much of it under medium-grade conditions during metamorphic episodes that were associated with widespread plutonism. The oldest metamorphisms affected probable arc rocks near southern Prince of Wales Island and occurred during early and middle Paleozoic orogenies. The predominant period of metamorphism and associated plutonism occurred during Early Cretaceous to early Tertiary time and resulted in the development of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex that extends along the inboard half of Southeastern Alaska. Middle Tertiary regional thermal metamorphism affected a large part of Baranof Island.

  19. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  20. Record of Decision for Amchitka Surface Closure, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-01

    This Record of Decision has been prepared to document the remedial actions taken on Amchitka Island to stabilize contaminants associated with drilling mud pits generated as a result of nuclear testing operations conducted on the island. This document has been prepared in accordance with the recommended outline in the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation guidance on decision documentation under the Site Cleanup Rules (18 AAC 75.325-18 AAC 75.390) (ADEC 1999). It also describes the decision-making process used to establish the remedial action plans and defines the associated human health and ecological risks for the remediation.

  1. Southeastern Alaska tectonostratigraphic terranes revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    The presence of only three major tectonostratigraphic terranes (TSTs) in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (Chugach, Wrangell, and Alexander) is indicated by critical analysis of available age, stratigraphic, and structural data. A possible fourth TST (Stikine) is probably an equivalent of part or all of the Alexander. The Yakutat block belongs to the Chugach TST, and both are closely linked to the Wrangell and Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs; the Gravina TST is an overlap assemblage. THe Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs is subdivided on the basis of age and facies. The subterranes within it share common substrates and represent large-scale facies changes in a long-lived island-arc environment. The Taku TSTs is the metamorphic equivalent of the upper part (Permian and Upper Triassic) of the Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs with some fossil evidence preserved that indicates the age of protoliths. Similarly, the Tracy Arm TST is the metamorphic equivalent of (1) the lower (Ordovician to Carboniferous) Alexander TST without any such fossil evidence and (2) the upper (Permian to Triassic) Alexander(-Stikine) with some newly discovered fossil evidence. Evidence for the ages of juxtaposition of the TSTs is limited. The Chugach TST deformed against the Wrangell and Alexander TSTs in late Cretaceous. Gravina rocks were deformed at the time and also earlier. The Wrangell TST was stitched to the Alexander(-Stikine) by middle Cretaceous plutons but may have arrived before its Late Jurassic plutons were emplaced. The Alexander(-Stikine) and Cache Creek TSTs were juxtaposed before Late Triassic.

  2. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. 2012 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As set forth in Alaska Statute 14.43.840, Alaska's Departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this first annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship to the public, the Governor,…

  4. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  5. ECOREGIONS OF ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A map of ecoregions of Alaska has been produced as a framework for organizing and interpreting environmental data for state, national, and international inventory, monitoring, and research efforts. he map and descriptions for 20 ecological regions were derived by synthesizing inf...

  6. Customer Service in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogliore, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…

  7. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  8. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  9. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  10. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  11. Alaska and Yukon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Signals from the Alaska and Yukon Fires   ... the Yukon Territory from mid-June to mid-July, 2004. Thick smoke particles filled the air during these fires, prompting Alaskan officials to issue air quality warnings. Some of the smoke from these fires was detected as far away as New Hampshire. These ...

  12. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  13. Exxon Valdez oil spill: State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Effects of pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) escapement level on egg retention, preemergent fry, and adult returns to the kodiak and chignik management areas caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Fish/shellfish study numbers 7b and 8b. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-01

    As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, commercial salmon fishing in and around the Kodiak and Chignik areas was severely restricted throughout the 1989 season. Consequently, pink salmon escapements for these areas greatly exceeded targeted escapement objectives. Investigations were conducted within the Kodiak and Chignik Management Areas during 1989 and 1990 to determine if negative impacts on future odd-year brood line pink salmon production occurred as a result of overescapement in 1989.

  14. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  19. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  20. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  1. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  2. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  3. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  4. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  5. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  6. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  7. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  9. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  10. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  11. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  12. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  13. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  14. 78 FR 6033 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Sitkalidak Island to Kiliuda Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... aground near Ocean Bay, Sitkalidak Island, and for all navigable waters, from surface to seabed, within... establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters, from surface to seabed, around the MODU KULLUK currently located near Ocean Bay, Sitkalidak Island, Alaska with anticipated movement into Kiliuda...

  15. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... purposes other than sale or barter, except as provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2)...

  16. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... purposes other than sale or barter, except as provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2)...

  17. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... purposes other than sale or barter, except as provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2)...

  18. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... purposes other than sale or barter, except as provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2)...

  19. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... purposes other than sale or barter, except as provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2)...

  20. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.

    This book deals with the Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo language as spoken on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, an island near the Bering Strait and on the tip of the Asian mainland opposite Russia. This book has been used with college-level classes composed of a mixture of Yupik speakers and well-prepared non-speakers (people who have studied other,…

  1. Phylogeography of brown bears (Ursus arctos) of Alaska and paraphyly within the Ursidae.

    PubMed

    Talbot, S L; Shields, G F

    1996-06-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b, tRNA(prolime), and tRNA(threonine) genes were described for 166 brown bears (Ursus arctos) from 10 geographic regions of Alaska to describe natural genetic variation, construct a molecular phylogeny, and evaluate classical taxonomies. DNA sequences of brown bears were compared to homologous sequences of the polar bear (maritimus) and of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), which was used as an outgroup. Parsimony and neighbor-joining methods each produced essentially identical phylogenetic trees that suggest two distinct clades of mtDNA for brown bears in Alaska: one composed only of bears that now reside on some of the islands of southeastern Alaska and the other which includes bears from all other regions of Alaska. The very close relationship of the polar bear to brown bears of the islands of southeastern Alaska as previously reported by us and the paraphyletic association of polar bears to brown bears reported by others have been reaffirmed with this much larger data set. A weak correlation is suggested between types of mtDNA and habitat preference by brown bears in Alaska. Our mtDNA data support some, but not all, of the currently designated subspecies of brown bears whose descriptions have been based essentially on morphology. PMID:8744762

  2. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  4. 77 FR 72995 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Flatfish, Other Rockfish, Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Other Flatfish, Other Rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, Sculpin, and Squid in the... initial total allowable catch of Bering Sea Pacific ocean perch, Aleutian Islands other rockfish, Bering.... The 2012 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of Bering Sea (BS) Pacific ocean perch in the BSAI...

  5. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  6. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.

  7. Coal resources of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the late 1800s, whaling ships carried Alaskan coal, and it was used to thaw ground for placer gold mining. Unfortunate and costly political maneuvers in the early 1900s delayed coal removal, but the Alaska Railroad and then World War II provided incentives for opening mines. Today, 33 million acres (about 9% of the state) is classified as prospectively valuable for coal, much of it under federal title. Although the state's geology is poorly known, potential for discovery of new fields exists. The US Geological Survey estimates are outdated, although still officially used. The total Alaska onshore coal resource is estimated to be 216 to 4216 billion tons of which 141 billion tons are identified resources; an additional 1430 billion tons are believed to lie beneath Cook Inlet. Transportation over mountain ranges and wetlands is the biggest hurdle for removal. Known coal sources and types are described and mapped. 1 figure.

  8. Alaska's Children, 2000. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project. Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of the two 2000 issues of "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the Alaska Children's Trust, and…

  9. 78 FR 53137 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... formal complaint against BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., and... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC, BP Pipelines (Alaska) Inc., ConocoPhillips Transportation Alaska, Inc., ExxonMobil Pipeline Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that...

  10. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  11. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  12. Preparing Teachers for Rural Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhardt, Ray

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses preparing teachers to teach in rural Alaska. An anecdote illustrates how outsiders who come to work in rural Alaska get into trouble because they are unprepared for conditions unique to the North. These conditions end up being viewed as impediments rather than opportunities. The same is true for the field of education. Of…

  13. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  14. GeoFORCE Alaska, A Successful Summer Exploring Alaska's Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2012-12-01

    Thirty years old this summer, RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. This summer, in collaboration with the University of Texas Austin, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute launched a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science to entice kids to get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, and includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students were recruited from the Alaska's Arctic North Slope schools, in 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The culmination is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks and Anchorage, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips focus on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska was begun by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska is managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Institute, that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for over 30 years. The program will add a new cohort of 9th graders each year for the next four years. By the summer of 2015, GeoFORCE Alaska is targeting a capacity of 160 students in grades 9th through 12th. Join us to find out more about this exciting new initiative, which is enticing young Alaska Native

  15. 2013 Alaska Performance Scholarship Outcomes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with Alaska statute the departments of Education & Early Development (EED) and Labor and Workforce Development (DOLWD), the University of Alaska (UA), and the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education (ACPE) present this second annual report on the Alaska Performance Scholarship (APS). Among the highlights: (1) In the public…

  16. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  17. Migration and wintering areas of glaucous-winged Gulls from south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucouswinged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  18. Migration And wintering areas Of Glaucous-winged Gulls From south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter.

  19. Geology and tectonic development of the continental margin north of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Eittreim, S.; Dinter, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska, as interpreted from seismic reflection profiles, is of the Atlantic type and consists of three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. The Chukchi sector, on the west, is characterized by the deep late Mesozoic and Tertiary North Chukchi basin and the Chukchi Continental Borderland. The Barrow sector of central northern Alaska is characterized by the Barrow arch and a moderately thick continental terrace build of Albian to Tertiary clastic sediment. The terrace sedimentary prism is underlain by lower Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The Barter Island sector of northeastern Alaska and Yukon Territory is inferred to contain a very thick prism of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary marine and nonmarine clastic sediment. Its structure is dominated by a local deep Tertiary depocenter and two regional structural arches. We postulate that the distinguishing characteristics of the three sectors are inherited from the configuration of the rift that separated arctic Alaska from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago relative to old pre-rift highlands, which were clastic sediment sources. Where the rift lay relatively close to northern Alaska, in the Chukchi and Barter Island sectors, and locally separated Alaska from the old source terranes, thick late Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary prisms extend farther south beneath the continental shelf than in the intervening Barrow sector. The boundary between the Chukchi and Barrow sectors is relatively well defined by geophysical data, but the boundary between the Barrow and Barter Island sectors can only be inferred from the distribution and thickness of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. These boundaries may be extensions of oceanic fracture zones related to the rifting that is postulated to have opened the Canada Basin, probably beginning during the Early Jurassic. ?? 1979.

  20. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region: Highlights from the 2012 Summer Field Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Bierma, R. M.; Boyce, E. S.; Willoughby, H.; Fend, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its fourth year of operation and maintenance of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 data communications relays that comprise the Alaska region of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The successful operation of the autonomous GPS and tiltmeter network in Alaska continues to be a challenge, because of logistics, weather, and other difficulties related to working in Alaska. PBO engineers continue to work on network enhancements to make the stations more robust, while improving overall data quality and station uptime to better serve the EarthScope science community. In the summer of 2012, PBO engineers completed maintenance activities in Alaska, which resulted in a 95% operational status for the Alaska network within PBO. PBO engineers completed a total of 87 maintenance visits in the summer of FY2012, including 62 routine maintenance and 25 unscheduled maintenance visits to GPS and data communications stations. We present a number of highlights and accomplishments from the PBO 2012 summer field season in Alaska, for example the deployment of a newly designed methanol fuel cell at AV35, a critical station that serves as the main repeater for the real time network on Unimak Island. In addition, PBO engineers also completed the installation of three Inmarsat BGAN terminals for data telemetry following successful testing at AC60 Shemya. Lastly, PBO engineers completed scheduled battery replacements at most of the PBO stations on Unimak Island, in collaboration with the USGS/Alaska Volcano Observatory. In addition to routine maintenance and planned station improvements to sites in Alaska, numerous critical repairs were made at stations on Unimak Island and elsewhere to ensure that the PBO network continues to function well and continues to meet the requirements stipulated by the NSF. We also present some of the station failures unique to Alaska, which we encountered during the course of the 2012 field season, as well

  1. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance

  2. A heat-flow reconnaissance of southeastern Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Lawver, L.A.; Munroe, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Heat flow was measured at nine sites in crystalline and sedimentary rocks of SE Alaska. Seven of the sites, located between 115 and 155 km landward of the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform fault, have heat flows significantly higher than the mean in the coastal provinces between Cape Mendocino and the Queen Charlotte Islands, and lower than the mean for 81 values within 100 km of the San Andreas transform fault, even further S. There is no evidence for heat sources that might be associated with late Cainozoic thermal events.-P.Br.

  3. On the climate and climate change of Sitka, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Gerd; Galloway, Kevin; Stuefer, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Sitka, located in southeastern coastal Alaska, is the only meteorological station in Alaska and northern coastal British Columbia, with a long climatological record, going back to the first half of the nineteenth century. Sitka was the capital of Alaska, when it was part of the Russian Empire, to which Alaska belonged until 1867, when the American government purchased it. In 1827, the Russian established an observatory on Baranof Island, Sitka Harbor, which made 17-hourly observations, later extended to 19 and thereafter to all hours of the day. When analyzing the data, the 12-day time difference between the Russian (Julian) calendar, at which the observations were made, and ours (Gregorian) has to be considered. The climate of Sitka is maritime, with relative warm winter temperatures—there is no month with a mean temperature below freezing—and moderately warm summer temperatures with 4 months above the 10 °C level and plentiful precipitation all-year long. It is the warmest zone of Alaska. Even though there is a substantial break in observations in the late nineteenth century, these are the only observation, which started so early in the nineteenth century. Systematic US-based observations commenced much later normally in connection with the gold rush, whaling in Northern Alaska, and the fur trade, predominantly along the Yukon River. During the 186 years of observations from 1827 to 2013, the best linear fit gave a temperature increase of 1.56 °C for the whole period or 0.86 °C per century, somewhat lower than expected for the relatively high latitudes. The increase was nonlinear, with several multi-decadal variations. However, when comparing the first normal (1831-1860) to the last normal (1981-2010) and assuming a linear trend, a higher value of 1.06 °C per century was calculated. The discrepancy might be explained by nonlinearity and the fact that during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, observations were sporadic. Furthermore, the

  4. Conducting a FERC environmental assessment: a case study and recommendations from the Terror Lake Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, S.W.; Lamb, B.L.

    1983-09-01

    This paper is an account of the process that evolved during acquisition of the license to operate the Terror Lake hydro-electric power project under the auspices of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The Terror River is located on Kodiak Island in Alaska. The river is within the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge; it supports excellent runs of several species of Pacific Salmon which are both commercially important and a prime source of nutrition for the Kodiak brown bear. This paper discusses both the fish and wildlife questions, but concentrates on instream uses and how protection of these uses was decided. In this focus the paper explains the FERC process, gives a history of the Terror Lake Project, and, ultimately, makes recommendations for improved management of controversies within the context of FERC licensing procedures. 64 references.

  5. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  6. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  7. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  8. Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shasby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Alaska Interagency Ecosystem Health Work Group is a community of practice that recognizes the interconnections between the health of ecosystems, wildlife, and humans and meets to facilitate the exchange of ideas, data, and research opportunities. Membership includes the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Sea Life Center, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Alaska Department of Fish and Game.

  9. Dynamic ice-wallow relief of northern Alaska's nearshore.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.

    1982-01-01

    Contour maps with 0.5m depth interval were prepared for a small area seaward of Reindeer Island, a barrier island in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska, by repeated surveys with very accurate navigation and very close trackline spacing. The maps reveal numerous closed depressions and mounds, presumably related to grounded ice floes common in the area year round. These bedforms represent erosion and deposition caused by: a) intensified flow around stationary ice floes serving as obstacles and b) pulsating currents generated by vertical oscillations or rocking motions of grounded floes in a seaway. Because sediment transport occurs around the ice, not where it directly touches the sea floor, the depressions are much larger than the base of the acting floes. Ice-wallow bedforms, are characteristic of arctic nearshore regions with non-cohesive sediments. The bedforms studied here are highly active and must be considered in planning nearshore construction activities. -from Authors

  10. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  11. Operation IceBridge Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has flown LiDAR missions for Operation IceBridge in Alaska each year since 2009, expanding upon UAF's airborne laser altimetry program which started in 1994. These observations show that Alaska's regional mass balance is -75+11/-16 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013) (Larsen et al., 2015). A surprising result is that the rate of surface mass loss observed on non-tidewater glaciers in Alaska is extremely high. At these rates, Alaska contributes ~1 mm to global sea level rise every 5 years. Given the present lack of adequate satellite resources, Operation IceBridge airborne surveys by UAF are the most effective and efficient method to monitor this region's impact on global sea level rise. Ice depth measurements using radar sounding have been part of these airborne surveys since 2012. Many of Alaska's tidewater glaciers are bedded significantly below sea level. The depth and extent of glacier beds below sea level are critical factors in the dynamics of tidewater retreat. Improved radar processing tools are being used to predict clutter using forward simulation. This is essential to properly sort out true bed returns, which are often masked or obscured by valley wall returns. This presentation will provide an overview of the program, highlighting recent findings and observations from the most recent campaigns, and focusing on techniques used for the extrapolation of surface elevation changes to regional mass balances.

  12. 75 FR 69597 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of Pacific cod in the Bering...

  13. The Potential of a Culturally Based Supplemental Mathematics Curriculum to Improve the Mathematics Performance of Alaska Native and Other Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Lipka, Jerry; Adams, Barbara L.; Rickard, Anthony; Andrew-Ihrke, Dora; Yanez, Eva Evelyn; Millard, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial conducted in Alaska examined the efficacy of 2 second-grade modules of the reform-oriented and culturally based Math in a Cultural Context (MCC) teacher training and curriculum. The results show that the "Picking Berries" (representing and measuring) and "Going to Egg Island" (grouping and place…

  14. 77 FR 27013 - Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Saddle Lakes Timber Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Forest Service Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Saddle Lakes... timber in the Saddle Lakes ] area of Revillagigedo Island, Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District... 2013. ADDRESSES: Send or hand-deliver written comments to the Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger...

  15. 75 FR 59157 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...

  16. 76 FR 66195 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by pot catcher/processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area...

  17. 75 FR 17315 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... by the final 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the... processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to...

  18. 77 FR 34853 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the.../processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to...

  19. 75 FR 31717 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... 2010 and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher Processors Using Trawl Gear in the... processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary as...

  20. 77 FR 19144 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i) and (d)(1)(ii)(B), the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod for American Fisheries Act Catcher/Processors Using Trawl Gear in the.../processors in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to...

  1. 77 FR 23159 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  2. 75 FR 16359 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Trawl Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Pacific cod by catcher vessels using trawl gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  3. 77 FR 32037 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012), NMFS closed the directed fishery for... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Northern Rockfish in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... RIN 0648-XC052 in the keyword search. Locate the document you wish to comment on from the...

  4. 76 FR 12293 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... FR 11139, March 1, 2011). The Administrator, Alaska Region, NMFS, has determined that jig vessels... the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) are revised as follows: 810 mt to the A season apportionment for... meters) length overall using hook-and-line or pot gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  5. 77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...NMFS and the Alaska Fishery Science Center (AFSC) will hold a public workshop in Seattle, WA, to review draft revisions to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports (EDR) currently required from catcher vessels, catcher/processors, shoreside processors, and stationary floating crab processors participating in the BSAI Crab Rationalization...

  6. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates by State and Race/Ethnicity, 1992-2022. Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 7th edition of this publication provides updated projections of high school graduates for each year and each state (plus the District of Columbia) through 2022. The profile breaks down the projections by major racial and ethnic groups: (1) American Indian/Alaska Native; (2) Asian/Pacific Islander; (3) Black, non-Hispanic; (4) Hispanic; and (5)…

  7. 77 FR 60649 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the Herring Savings Areas of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the Herring Savings Areas of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... for pollock by vessels using trawl gear in the Winter Herring Savings Area of the Bering Sea...

  8. The Potential of a Culturally Based Supplemental Mathematics Curriculum to Improve the Mathematics Performance of Alaska Native and Other Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Lipka, Jerry; Adams, Barbara L.; Rickard, Anthony; Andrew-Ihrke, Dora; Yanez, Eva Evelyn; Millard, Ann

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial conducted in Alaska examined the efficacy of 2 second-grade modules of the reform-oriented and culturally based Math in a Cultural Context (MCC) teacher training and curriculum. The results show that the "Picking Berries" (representing and measuring) and "Going to Egg Island" (grouping and place value) modules…

  9. 78 FR 35771 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional Administrator... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  10. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  11. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  12. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  13. 77 FR 26212 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  14. 76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... by the final 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  15. 77 FR 39441 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... the BSAI (77 FR 10669, February 23, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  16. 75 FR 6129 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... BSAI (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii), the Regional... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. ] SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  17. 76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010) and inseason adjustment (76 FR 1539... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  18. 78 FR 25878 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Atka mackerel in...

  19. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... GOA (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and apportionment of non-specified reserves (76 FR 53840, August 30... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  20. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  1. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... is opening directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and... Pacific ocean perch specified for the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  2. 77 FR 65838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area. This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean...

  3. 78 FR 64891 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  4. 78 FR 42718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  5. Model of inner shelf shoal development, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, P.; Nummedal, D.; Reimnitz, E.

    1985-01-01

    At least two types of inner shelf shoals exist in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. One type is located up to 40 km from the shoreline in an average water depth of 20m and oriented obliquely to the coast. A second type of shoals occur adjacent to existing barrier islands where minimum water depth over the shoal crest may be as little as 30-50cm. The development of shallow water shoals is believed to be a result of barrier island submergence. Dinkum Sands is an example of a shallow water shoal. This linear sand body is located between Cross and Narwhal Islands, 25km northeast of Prudhoe Bay. The shoal complex is 8 km long and less than 2 km wide and has a maximum relief of 5m. Historical data reveal submergence of an island over at least a 25 year period. The proposed initial stage of shoal development occurs when longshore sediment transport between barrier islands is disrupted by numerous events of downdrift tidal inlet breaching. Reduction in the amount of available sediment to each island results in significant coastal erosion (stage 2), manifest as a landward migration of the shoreline and a reduction in barrier elevation. The final stage of the model is barrier submergence. At present the greatest accumulation of sediment on Dinkum Sands occur at the distal extremities of the shoal. These are believed to represent the location of recurved spits at either end of the island prior to submergence. Application of the submergence model to explain deepwater shoal development must await the collection of shallow (10m) whole core data.

  6. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  7. A comprehensive inventory of the Gulf of Alaska sponge fauna with the description of two new species and geographic range extensions.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Hamacantha (Vomerula) cassanoi n. sp. and Prosuberites salgadoi n. sp., are described from the eastern Gulf of Alaska in the North Pacific Ocean. These are the first records of the genera Hamacantha and Prosuberites from Alaska. We also report two geographic range extensions for the region. Geodia japonica Sollas, 1888 was previously known only from Japan and is now recorded from the Gulf of Alaska. We also document the first record of Rhizaxinella cervicornis Thiele, 1898 from the Gulf of Alaska. Our comprehensive inventory of the sponge fauna of the Gulf of Alaska confirms the presence of 52 taxa with an additional 38 taxa suspected of occurring in the region. This is a much lower number of species than that recorded from neighbouring regions like the Aleutian Islands and British Columbia. PMID:27470862

  8. Education and Outreach in NOAA's Ocean Exploration Program: An Example From a Gulf of Alaska Alvin Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C.; Keller, R.; Keener-Chavis, P.; Doenges, S.; Fisk, M.; Duncan, R.; Guilderson, T.; Shirley, T.

    2002-12-01

    with undergraduate and graduate students at their respective institutions. A production team from the National Geographic Channel also joined the expedition, and will use cruise footage to produce several segments for their program. A port call in Kodiak, Alaska, provided an opportunity for local students, teachers, fishing and conservation representatives, and elected officials to come aboard the R/V Atlantis and view the Alvin and the science made possible by this expedition. Many of the outreach opportunities developed through the Gulf of Alaska cruise can be duplicated on other research cruises, and all major OE expeditions include many of these initiatives, as do some of the minor expeditions. Details can be found on the NOAA Ocean Explorer website at http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov.

  9. Petrogenesis of gabbronorite at Yakobi and northwest Chichagof Islands, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Nabelek, P.I.

    1987-01-01

    Irregular bodies up to 55 km in outcrop of gabbronorite occur within a 40-43 m.y. composite pluton consisting largely of tonalite. The gabbronorites include rocks ranging from hornblende pyroxenite to quartz-bearing norite and gabbronorite and, are the host rocks for a magmatic Ni-Co sulphide deposit consisting mainly of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite. The tonalite pluton ranges from hornblende diorite to biotite granodiorite, the contacts between the different rock types being gradational. The field, petrographic and chemical data, including trace-element abundances, of the gabbronorites and tonalite pluton are compatible with an origin by either: 1) fractional crystallization of a tholeiitic magma with subsequent assimilation by tonalite that was simultaneously undergoing fractional crystallization, or 2) fractional crystallization of a quartz diorite magma yielding the range of gabbronorite and tonalite plutons. -L.C.H.

  10. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across the Alaska-Yukon border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaff, L.; Yang, D.; Li, Y.; Mekis, E.

    2015-12-01

    This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (National Weather Service (NWS) 8 in. gauge and Nipher gauge) and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 136 % in January and 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall) than for cold month (mainly snowfall) between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the USA-Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross-border, climate and hydrology investigations.

  11. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  12. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  13. 78 FR 73144 - Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... Subsistence Management Program for Public Lands in Alaska; Western Interior Alaska Federal Subsistence... subsistence uses on Federal public lands and waters in Alaska. The Federal Subsistence Board, which includes... the subsistence management of fish and wildlife on Federal public lands in Alaska. The Board...

  14. Alaska's Children, 1998. Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project, Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of four issues of the quarterly report "Alaska's Children," which provides information on the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and updates on Head Start activities in Alaska. Regular features in the issues include a calendar of conferences and meetings, a status report on Alaska's children, reports from the…

  15. Alaska GeoFORCE, A New Geologic Adventure in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartes, D.

    2011-12-01

    RAHI, the Rural Alaska Honors Institute is a statewide, six-week, summer college-preparatory bridge program at the University of Alaska Fairbanks for Alaska Native and rural high school juniors and seniors. A program of rigorous academic activity combines with social, cultural, and recreational activities. Students are purposely stretched beyond their comfort levels academically and socially to prepare for the big step from home or village to a large culturally western urban campus. This summer RAHI is launching a new program, GeoFORCE Alaska. This outreach initiative is designed to increase the number and diversity of students pursuing STEM degree programs and entering the future high-tech workforce. It uses Earth science as the hook because most kids get excited about dinosaurs, volcanoes and earthquakes, but it includes physics, chemistry, math, biology and other sciences. Students will be recruited, initially from the Arctic North Slope schools, in the 8th grade to begin the annual program of approximately 8 days, the summer before their 9th grade year and then remain in the program for all four years of high school. They must maintain a B or better grade average and participate in all GeoFORCE events. The carrot on the end of the stick is an exciting field event each summer. Over the four-year period, events will include trips to Fairbanks, Arizona, Oregon and the Appalachians. All trips are focused on Earth science and include a 100+ page guidebook, with tests every night culminating with a final exam. GeoFORCE Alaska is being launched by UAF in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin, which has had tremendous success with GeoFORCE Texas. GeoFORCE Alaska will be managed by UAF's long-standing Rural Alaska Honors Insitute (RAHI) that has been successfully providing intense STEM educational opportunities for Alaskan high school students for almost 30 years. The Texas program, with adjustments for differences in culture and environment, will be

  16. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    MedlinePlus

    ... million American Indians and Alaska Natives. Typically, this urban clientele has less accessibility to hospitals; health clinics ... IHS and tribal health programs. Studies on the urban American Indian and Alaska Native population have documented ...

  18. 76 FR 53151 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Kuskokwim Corporation, Successor in Interest to Red Devil Incorporated. The decision approves the surface... Devil, Alaska, and are located in: Seward Meridian, Alaska T. 22 N., R. 44 W., Secs. 27 to 34,...

  19. Pumice deposits in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, R.M.

    1952-01-01

    Three principal areas of pumice deposition have been found in the Alaska Peninsula-Cook Inlet region: Katmai National Monument, Augustine Island, and the Veniaminof-Aniakchak area. Vast quantities of pumice were deposited in Katmai National Monument resulting from the eruption of Mt. Katmai and related volcanic action in 1912. The principal deposits in the coastal areas of the Monument occur in the valley of the Katmai River and in the Amalik Bay-Kukak Bay area. Several areas of pumice deposition have been found on the south and west sides of Augustine Island, located 200 miles southwest of Anchorage. Mining was carried on by the Alaska Katmalite Corporation during the period 1946-1949, but no production has taken place since that time. Pumice deposits found in the Aniakchak-Veniaminof area have probably been derived from three principal sources: Aniakchak Crater, Mt. Veniaminof and Purple Crater. The limited data available indicate the deposits of chief interest occur in the valley of the Aniakchak River and in areas adjacent to Chignik Bay.

  20. Breeding ecology of Spectacled Eiders Somateria fischeri in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, J.; Earnst, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Spectacled Eiders Somateria fischeri were studied on the Colville River delta during 1994-1999, prior to oil field development, to document aspects of breeding biology that are poorly known, especially for northern-nesting populations. Both sexes arrived June 6-12; many males remained for only about 10 days. Density on the 178-km2 study area was 0.48 birds/km 2, comparable to densities reported from extensive surveys in western Alaska and Russia. Wetlands with numerous islands and peninsulas were utilised prior to incubation, a little-studied period. Females spent considerably more time feeding than males (56% vs. 18%). Males travelled, rested and were alert more than females, and actively defended females from intruding males. Whole nest survival was 31% and varied substantially between years, as has been demonstrated in other studies. Brood size showed no detectable decline from hatch about July 10 to mid-August, suggesting low mortality during this period, a sharp contrast with results from a study in a lead-contaminated area of western Alaska in which duckling survival to 30 days post-hatch was 34%. The likelihood of adverse impacts on this threatened species, from oil-related or other activities, can be reduced by industry avoiding areas, throughout the summer, with numerous islands, peninsulas and deep water. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.