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Sample records for koenig sandra soo-jin

  1. Rudolph Koenig's workshop of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantalony, David A.

    2001-05-01

    Rudolph Koenig's workshop was a busy meeting place for instruments, ideas, experiments, demonstrations, craft traditions, and business. Starting around 1860 it was also the place in Paris where people discovered the new science of sound emerging from the studies of Hermann von Helmholtz in Germany. Koenig built Helmholtz's ideas into apparatus, created new instruments, and spread them throughout the scientific and musical world. Through his own research, he also became Helmholtz's strongest critic. This paper looks at the activities of this unique space, and, in particular, how it contributed to the protracted disputes over an elusive acoustical phenomenon called the combination tone. Many of these instruments became standard teaching and demonstration apparatus.

  2. The Acoustical Apparatus of Rudolph Koenig.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of Rudolph Koenig's contribution to the development of acoustical apparatus. Contributions include the clock fork to determine absolute acoustic frequencies, a forerunner of the oscilloscope called the manometric flame, and an acoustic interference apparatus used in the Fourier synthesis of musical sounds. (MDH)

  3. 29. Photocopy of historic photograph (provided by Wilma F. Koenig, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of historic photograph (provided by Wilma F. Koenig, photographer unknown, ca. 1919) JOE FULTON IN FIRST FOREST SERVICE DISTRICT RANGER UNIFORM, QUILCENE, WASHINGTON - Quinault Ranger's Residence, Quinault Recreation Area, Quinault, Grays Harbor County, WA

  4. 22. Photocopy of historic photograph (provided by Wilma F. Koenig, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of historic photograph (provided by Wilma F. Koenig, daughter of District Ranger Joe Fulton, photographer unknown, August 30, 1931) VIEW OF LAKE QUINAULT LODGE AND QUINAULT TOWNSITE FROM BOAT ON LAKE - Quinault Ranger's Residence, Quinault Recreation Area, Quinault, Grays Harbor County, WA

  5. In Vitro Assisted Breeding of Hedychium J. Koenig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium J. Koenig, one of the largest genera of Zingiberaceae, consists of species mostly native to central and southeastern Asia, southern China and the Himalayan region. These gingers are cultivated for their perfume essences. The essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticid...

  6. IMERG Video of Hurricane Sandra - Duration: 12 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA IMERG Data Hurricane Sandra's Heavy Rainfall This IMERG rainfall analysis indicates that moisture flowing from Hurricane Sandra caused heavy rainfall totals of over 700 mm (28 inches) in an ar...

  7. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage. PMID:24431530

  8. GOES-West Video of Sandra - Duration: 43 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite showed Tropical Storm Sandra has become decoupled by strong wind shear as it was approaching landfall in western Mexico ...

  9. Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944-2014).

    PubMed

    Golden, Carla; McHugh, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    This article memorializes Sandra Lipsitz Bem (1944-2014). Bem was a feminism psychologist whose incisive writing and research transformed the psychology of gender and contributed significantly to our understanding of sex-typing, psychological androgyny, gender schema theory, and sexual inequality. Bem and her husband, Daryl Bem, were active in the feminist community in Pittsburgh, and worked with the National Organization for Women to challenge gender-segregated job advertisements in a lawsuit against the Pittsburgh Press in 1969. The Bems co-wrote an influential article, "Case Study of a Nonconscious Ideology: Training the Woman to Know Her Place" (1970) using the word "sexism" when it was not widely known. She created the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and conducted research showing that conventional gender typing was not necessarily correlated with psychological adjustment. Her publications won her enduring recognition and awards, including the American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution (1976), Distinguished Publication Awards from the Association for Women in Psychology (AWP; 1977, 1994), the Young Scholar Award from the American Association of University Women (1980), and, posthumously, the Distinguished Career Award (AWP, 2014). PMID:25844652

  10. Cognitive Development, Culture, and Conversation: Comments on Harris and Koenig's "Truth in Testimony: How Children Learn about Science and Religion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.

    2006-01-01

    Harris and Koenig make a compelling case for the importance of adult "testimony" and its influence on children's developing conceptions of topics in science and religion. This commentary considers how their analysis relates to constructivist and sociocultural theories and discusses several ways in which Harris and Koenig's arguments help to debunk…

  11. Induced polyploidy and mutagenesis of embryogenic cultures of ornamental giner (Hedychium J. Koenig)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hedychium J. Koenig is among the largest genera of Zingiberaceae. These plants are increasingly being used as ornamentals worldwide because of their diverse and showy, scented flowers. Hedychium plants are mainly planted in the landscape because they are generally too tall to be grown as potted plan...

  12. Battling Machismo in the Poetry and Prose of Sandra Cisneros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breshears, Russell D.

    Sandra Cisneros is giving a voice to farm workers, migrant workers, and Latinos living in the inner cities across the United States in poems and short stories that call attention to gender, class, and race issues that many would prefer to ignore. While her women protagonists challenge destructive "machismo," which takes the form of spousal abuse,…

  13. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  14. Statement of Facts for 1993 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Sandra W. v. Gregg M.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its 22nd annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides the material for a mock civil trial in which Sandra Williams sues Gregg Mason for negligent transmission of the Human Immuno-Deficient Virus (HIV). On the night of May 15, 1990, Sandra and Gregg engaged…

  15. Sandra L. Shullman: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. The 2012 winner is Sandra L. Shullman for her outstanding contributions and leadership as an independent practitioner in the fields of counseling and consulting psychology. Through her…

  16. Sandra Diane Knapp—Recipient of the 2008 Peter Raven Award

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Sandra Knapp, Curator at Natural History Museum in London, is the 2009 recipient of the Peter Raven Award. This award is provided each year by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists to a plant systematist who has made exceptional efforts at outreach to nonscientists. This publication summariz...

  17. Mi Casa Es Su Casa: Sandra Tauler--City Librarian, Calexico, CA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Sandra Tauler has tailored her collection and services to the needs of a community that is 97 percent Hispanic. Unfortunately, that's only half the job. The other half is getting potential users through the door. The solution Tauler and other Imperial Valley librarians came up with was Proyecto Televista. With LSTA funding, and the assistance of…

  18. Supreme Civics: An Interview with Justice Sandra Day O'Connor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. Justice O'Connor is the driving force behind iCivics, a nonprofit organization designed to increase students' knowledge of civics through interactive computer games that focus on history, laws, and government. In the interview, Justice O'Connor talks about the lack of civics…

  19. Mi Casa Es Su Casa: Sandra Tauler--City Librarian, Calexico, CA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Sandra Tauler has tailored her collection and services to the needs of a community that is 97 percent Hispanic. Unfortunately, that's only half the job. The other half is getting potential users through the door. The solution Tauler and other Imperial Valley librarians came up with was Proyecto Televista. With LSTA funding, and the assistance of

  20. Milnesium minutum and Milnesium sandrae, two new species of Milnesiidae (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Apochela)

    PubMed Central

    Pilato, Giovanni; Lisi, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Milnesium are described, Milnesium minutum sp. n. from Sicily and Milnesium sandrae sp. n. from the Hawaiian Archipelago. The body size of Milnesium minutum is the smallest of the known species of the genus. The stylet supports are inserted on the buccal tube at 63–66% of its length and the claws have a [3-3]-[3-3] configuration. Milnesium sandrae has stylet supports inserted on the buccal tube at 58–60.5% of its length, a [3-3]-[3-3] claw configuration, and the percent ratio between the secondary claw and primary claw length on legs I–III (78.6%–85.5%) clearly higher than on legs IV (70.5%–71.4%). With the description of these two new species, the number of species in the genus is increased to 31. PMID:27110205

  1. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko.

    PubMed

    Saroka, Kevin S; Vares, David E; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m) and magnetic field (pT) components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6-16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV) obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric) comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7-8 Hz), second (13-14 Hz) and third (19-20 Hz) harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the 'best-of-fitness' of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity. PMID:26785376

  2. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko

    PubMed Central

    Saroka, Kevin S.; Vares, David E.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m) and magnetic field (pT) components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6–16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV) obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric) comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7–8 Hz), second (13–14 Hz) and third (19–20 Hz) harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the ‘best-of-fitness’ of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity. PMID:26785376

  3. Pollen Biology of Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp. J. Koenig)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved in vitro pollen germination assay was developed to assess the viability of stored Hedychium pollen. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (10, 15, and 20% w/v) on pollen germination and tube growth was evaluated for H. longicornutum and two commercial Hedychium cultivars, ‘Orange Brush...

  4. 'Ramata': a new dwarf and variegated Hedychium J. Koenig cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new dwarf (~71 cm) variegated Hedychium cultivar, ‘Ramata’, was developed at the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL), Poplarville. A potted ‘Ramata’ plant produces multiple pseudostems, originating from the rhizome, giving it a compact appearance. ‘Ramata’ originated fr...

  5. Antioxidant potential and total phenolic content of methanolic bark extract of Madhuca indica (koenig) Gmelin.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Anu; Bhandari, Anil; Pandurangan, A

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC(50) value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC(50) values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH(-) radical generated from Fe(2+)-ascorbate-EDTA-H(2)O(2) in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this. PMID:23284220

  6. Sporophyte and gametophyte development of Platycerium coronarium (Koenig) Desv. and P. grande (Fee) C. Presl. (Polypodiaceae) through in vitro propagation.

    PubMed

    Aspiras, Reyno A

    2010-01-01

    The sporophyte and gametophyte development of Platycerium coronarium and P. grande were compared through ex situ propagation using in vitro culture technique and under greenhouse and field conditions. The morphology of the sporophyte and gametophyte, type of spore germination and prothallial development of P. coronarium and P. grande were documented. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande were cultured in vitro using different media. The gametophytes were then transferred and potted in sterile chopped Cyathea spp. (anonotong) roots and garden soil for sporophyte formation. Sporophytes (plantlets) of the two Platycerium species were attached on the slabs of anonotong and on branches and trunks of Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) under greenhouse and field conditions. Sporophyte morphology of P. coronarium and P. grande varies but not their gametophyte morphology. P. coronarium and P. grande exhibited rapid spore germination and gametophyte development in both spore culture medium and Knudson C culture medium containing 2% glucose. Gametophytes of P. coronarium and P. grande transferred to potting medium produced more number of sporophytes while the gametophytes inside the culture media did not produce sporophytes. Sporophytes of P. grande attached on mahogany branches produced more number of leaves with bigger leaf area than those attached on anonotong slabs. Likewise, sporophytes of P. coronarium attached on mahogany branches and anonotong slabs did not develop new leaves during two weeks monitoring and are still in a period of adjustment to its environment. Sporophytes of P. grande grown or attached on the trunk of mahogany trees in the field and under shaded environment favored their growth. PMID:23961053

  7. Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruit traits in Benin: implications for domestication and conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blighia sapida is a woody perennial multipurpose fruit tree species native to the Guinean forests of West Africa. The fleshy arils of the ripened fruits are edible. Seeds and capsules of the fruits are used for soap-making and all parts of the tree have medicinal properties. Although so far overlooked by researchers in the region, the tree is highly valued by farmers and is an important component of traditional agroforestry systems in Benin. Fresh arils, dried arils and soap are traded in local and regional markets in Benin providing substantial revenues for farmers, especially women. Recently, ackee has emerged as high-priority species for domestication in Benin but information necessary to elaborate a clear domestication strategy is still very sketchy. This study addresses farmers' indigenous knowledge on uses, management and perception of variation of the species among different ethnic groups taking into account also gender differences. Methods 240 randomly selected persons (50% women) belonging to five different ethnic groups, 5 women active in the processing of ackee fruits and 6 traditional healers were surveyed with semi-structured interviews. Information collected refer mainly to the motivation of the respondents to conserve ackee trees in their land, the local uses, the perception of variation, the preference in fruits traits, the management practices to improve the production and regenerate ackee. Results People have different interests on using ackee, variable knowledge on uses and management practices, and have reported nine differentiation criteria mainly related to the fruits. Ackee phenotypes with preferred fruit traits are perceived by local people to be more abundant in managed in-situ and cultivated stands than in unmanaged wild stands, suggesting that traditional management has initiated a domestication process. As many as 22 diseases have been reported to be healed with ackee. In general, indigenous knowledge about ackee varies among ethnic and gender groups. Conclusions With the variation observed among ethnic groups and gender groups for indigenous knowledge and preference in fruits traits, a multiple breeding sampling strategy is recommended during germplasm collection and multiplication. This approach will promote sustainable use and conservation of ackee genetic resources. PMID:20302642

  8. Studying the impact of air/brine displacement on acoustic velocities in carbonates. El Amin Mokhtar and Sandra Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, E.; Vega, D.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of air/brine displacement on acoustic velocities of carbonate rocks is not fully comprehended yet. In order to improve our understanding of this effect, we conducted laboratory measurements of porosity and acoustic velocities (Vp and Vs) under both dry and brine saturated conditions at ambient pressure and temperature. The core plug samples in this study were collected from a hydrocarbon reservoir in the Middle East. A petrographic analysis was also performed on thin sections taken from the core plugs using a microscope and a digital camera. The aim of this analysis was to study depositional facies and the extent of diagenetic overprint that caused the observed variations in rock fabrics. Cross-plots were generated to analyze the trends of behavior between acoustic velocities and porosities taking into account the influence of different rock fabrics, in both dry and brine saturated samples. Acoustic velocities of brine saturated samples were higher than velocities of dry samples, as expected. However, their differences also respond to both, total porosity and carbonate rock fabrics. This result can be attributed to the different carbonate pore structures and rock frames formed during deposition and diagenesis. Similarly, the Vp/Vs ratio cross-plots display an increase in Vp/Vs ratios for the brine saturated samples compared to the dry ones. In conclusion, differences in acoustic velocities between dry and brine saturated carbonate rocks seem to be highly effected by porosity, rock fabric, and fluid content. This information can help to better understand the differences in acoustic response between gas and brine saturated zones in well logs and seismic.

  9. NASA's GPM Gets a Look at Newborn, Late Season Eastern Pacific Tropical Storm Sandra - Duration: 15 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 24, GPM saw intense convective storms south of the tropical storm's center of circulation were dropping rain at a rate of over 80 mm (3.1 inches) per hour. Cloud tops reached heights above ...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

  11. 76 FR 76179 - Public Land Order No. 7785; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6912; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... FR 60928 (1991)), which withdrew approximately 490 acres of reserved public minerals from location... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra Ward, Bureau of Land Management, Montana State Office, 5001...

  12. 75 FR 52344 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Date reissued 000641F Wilmoth Fast July 24, 2010. Forwarding, Inc., 13302 Michaelangelo Drive, Bakersfield, CA 93314. Sandra L. Kusumoto, Director, Bureau of Certification and Licensing. BILLING CODE...

  13. ISS Update: ISTAR -- International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research - Duration: 9 minutes, 17 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Sandra Fletcher, EVA Systems Flight Controller. They discuss the International Space Station Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) activity that...

  14. 77 FR 59880 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Coos County, OR, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 43968, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in..., 2012. Sandra K. Knight, Deputy Associate Administrator for Mitigation, Department of Homeland...

  15. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Hampden County, MA, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... proposed rulemaking at 74 FR 46047, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding.... Sandra K. Knight, Deputy Associate Administrator for Mitigation, Department of Homeland Security,...

  16. United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, No. 73-2348. Michael C. McCrary Infant by Curtis L. McCrary and Sandra McCrary and Colin M. Gonzales, Infant by Raymond Gonzales and Margaret R. Gonzales, Appellees, Versus Russell L. Runyon, Katheryne E. Runyon Defendants, Southern Independent School Association, Appellant...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court of Appeals. Fourth Circuit.

    In his decision, Chief Judge Haynsworth notes that the issue in this case is whether 42 U.S.C.A. Section 1981--"All persons within the jurisdiction of the U.S. shall have the same right in every state and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for

  17. Simple protocols for oblivious transfer and secure identification in the noisy-quantum-storage model

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, Christian

    2010-09-15

    We present simple protocols for oblivious transfer and password-based identification which are secure against general attacks in the noisy-quantum-storage model as defined in R. Koenig, S. Wehner, and J. Wullschleger [e-print arXiv:0906.1030]. We argue that a technical tool from Koenig et al. suffices to prove security of the known protocols. Whereas the more involved protocol for oblivious transfer from Koenig et al. requires less noise in storage to achieve security, our ''canonical'' protocols have the advantage of being simpler to implement and the security error is easier control. Therefore, our protocols yield higher OT rates for many realistic noise parameters. Furthermore, a proof of security of a direct protocol for password-based identification against general noisy-quantum-storage attacks is given.

  18. 78 FR 59677 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... to FR Notice Published 08/09/2013; Extending ] Comment Period from 09/30/2013 to 10/24/2013. EIS No.../2013, Contact: Cory Scott 808-472-1420 Revision to FR Notice Published 08/30/2013; Extending the Review..., Contact: Daniel Koenig 202- 219-3528 Revision to FR Notice Published 09/06/2013; Extending Review...

  19. On Being Examined: Do Students and Faculty Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrella, Andrew; Koenig, Joshua; Kwon, Henry; Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Students measure out their lives, not with coffee spoons, but with grades on examinations. But what exams mean and whether or not they are a bane or a boon is moot. Senior undergraduates (A. Perrella, J. Koenig, and H. Kwon) designed and administered a 15-item survey that explored the contrasting perceptions of both students (n = 526) and faculty

  20. The solution of transcendental equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, K. M.; Outlaw, R.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the existing methods to globally approximate the roots of transcendental equations namely, Graeffe's method, are studied. Summation of the reciprocated roots, Whittaker-Bernoulli method, and the extension of Bernoulli's method via Koenig's theorem are presented. The Aitken's delta squared process is used to accelerate the convergence. Finally, the suitability of these methods is discussed in various cases.

  1. Matters of Accuracy and Conventionality: Prior Accuracy Guides Children's Evaluations of Others' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scofield, Jason; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Pierucci, Jillian; Morgan, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that children trust previously reliable sources over previously unreliable ones (e.g., Koenig, Clement, & Harris, 2004). However, it is unclear from these studies whether children rely on accuracy or conventionality to determine the reliability and, ultimately, the trustworthiness of a particular source. In the current study, 3- and…

  2. Early Childhood Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Laying the Foundation for Success (Mary Caputo); (2) Ready or Not? (Laura Koenig); (3) Every Child A School-Ready Child (Leah Newkirk Meunier); (4) Parents As Teachers (Erin Garner);…

  3. Detection of methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG) and hypoglycin A in litchi fruit (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Methylenecyclopropylalanine (hypoglycin A), an unusual amino acid, is known to occur in the fruit of Blighia sapida Koenig. Known as ackee fruit, this member of the family Sapindaceae (soapberry family) is associated with a hypoglycemic malady, and Jamaican vomiting sickness. Another f...

  4. Learning for Keeps: Teaching the Strategies Essential for Creating Independent Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Rhoda

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers ensure instruction is aligned with 21st century demands for self-directed, collaborative problem solvers? Practice exercises are not the answer. Instead, here's a book that explains why the key is to use explicit instruction that includes proficient models, specific feedback, and supportive coaching. Rhoda Koenig gives you insight…

  5. On Being Examined: Do Students and Faculty Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrella, Andrew; Koenig, Joshua; Kwon, Henry; Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Students measure out their lives, not with coffee spoons, but with grades on examinations. But what exams mean and whether or not they are a bane or a boon is moot. Senior undergraduates (A. Perrella, J. Koenig, and H. Kwon) designed and administered a 15-item survey that explored the contrasting perceptions of both students (n = 526) and faculty…

  6. Can Reading and Writing Braille Be Taught Effectively on an Itinerant Basis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, A. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This point/counterpoint feature evaluates braille literacy instruction in three commentaries by A. J. Koenig, J. E. Olmstead, and E. J. Rex. The commentaries indicate that itinerant instruction of braille skills can be effective with adequate student motivation and requisite skills, school staff and family support, vigilant focus on student needs,…

  7. Comments on Position Paper on Literacy of the Council of Executives of American Residential Schools for the Visually Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rex, Evelyn

    1991-01-01

    Five individuals involved in literacy for blind and visually impaired young people respond to the position paper of the Council of Executives of American Residential Schools for the Visually Handicapped (EC 232 322). They are Evelyn Rex, Virginia Sowell, Alan Koenig, Elaine Mose Sveen, and Barbara Cheadle. (DB)

  8. 76 FR 61738 - Public Land Order No. 7781; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6881; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...: Public Land Order No. 6881 (56 FR 47414 (1991)) which withdrew 95 acres of National Forest System lands..., sbixler@fs.fed.us , or Sandra Ward, Bureau of Land Management, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings,...

  9. 77 FR 11617 - Data Collection Available for Public Comments and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Data Collection Available for Public Comments and Recommendations ACTION: 60-Day notice and... Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Small Business Administration's intentions to request... Sandra Johnston, Program Analyst, Office of Financial Assistance, Small Business Administration, 409...

  10. 77 FR 16828 - Constellation Energy Commodities Group, Inc.; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Constellation Energy Commodities Group, Inc.; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission Personnel as Non-Decisional Commission staff members Sandra Waldstein and...

  11. 75 FR 57798 - Rescission of Order of Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Wardlow Road, Corona, CA 91720. Order Published: FR: 9/1/2010 (Volume 75, No. 169, Pg. 53697). Sandra L... being rescinded by the Federal Maritime Commission pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of...

  12. 76 FR 31963 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Rescission of Order of Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Published: FR: 5/18/11 (Volume 76, No. 96, Pg. 28780) Sandra L. Kusumoto, Director, Bureau of Certification... pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. Chapter 409) and the regulations of...

  13. 76 FR 30361 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Rescission of Order of Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Number: 022370NF. Name: JP Shipping and Son, Inc. Address: 12600 NW. 25th Street, Suite 107, Miami, FL 33182. Order Published: FR: 5/12/11 (Volume 76, No. 92, Pg. 27644) Sandra L. Kusumoto, Director,...

  14. Some Themes in the History of Education in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duclaud-Williams, Roger

    1986-01-01

    Reviews three books that make a contribution to the study of French educational history. Themes include provincial French education (Robert Gildea, 1985), liberal reform (Sandra Horvath-Peterson, 1984), and Renaissance public schools (George Huppert, 1984). (TRS)

  15. 76 FR 31977 - Public Land Order No. 7768; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6861; Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ..., 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6861 (56 FR 26035 (1991)), which... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lonna Sandau, BLM Missoula Field Office, 406-329-1093, or Sandra Ward, BLM Montana...

  16. 76 FR 2383 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Rescission of Order of Revocation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Number: 020667N. Name: Atlas Logistics (U.S.A.), Inc. Address: 2401 E. Atlantic Blvd., Suite 310, Pompano Beach, FL 33062. Order Published: FR: 12/22/10 (Volume 75, No. 245, Pg. 80501). Sandra L....

  17. 77 FR 66790 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Madison County, AL and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 21695, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... report. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 4104; 44 CFR 67.4. Dated: September 27, 2012. Sandra K. Knight,...

  18. 77 FR 55787 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Clay County, FL, and Incorporated Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... rulemaking at 76 FR 62006, proposing flood elevation determinations along one or more flooding sources in... report. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 4104; 44 CFR 67.4. Dated: September 3, 2012. Sandra K. Knight,...

  19. 77 FR 59880 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for the City of McCleary, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 5, 2011, FEMA published a proposed rulemaking at 76 FR 61649, proposing... near future. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 4104; 44 CFR 67.4. ] Dated: September 14, 2012. Sandra K....

  20. The Shuttle Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Shuttle Enterprise rolls out of the Palmdale manufacturing facilities with Star Trek television cast members. From left to right they are: Dr. James D. Fletcher, NASA Administrator, DeForest Kelley (Dr. 'Bones' McCoy), George Takei (Mr. Sulu), Nichelle Nichols (Lt. Uhura), Leonard Nimoy (the indefatigable Mr. Spock), Gene Rodenberry (The Great Bird of the Galaxy), and Walter Koenig (Ensign Pavel Checkov).

  1. A new species of Chaeridiona Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae: Oncocephalini) infesting ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in India and redescription of Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu.

    PubMed

    Shameem, K M; Prathapan, K D

    2014-01-01

    Chaeridiona mayuri n. sp. infesting ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in southern India is described and illustrated. Cheilocostus speciosus ( J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Globba sessiliflora Sims and Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith are reported as additional host plants. Chaeridiona pseudometallica Basu is redescribed and illustrated. A key to the species of Indian Chaeridiona is provided. PMID:24943635

  2. Responding to Challenges and Conflict in Higher Education Collective Bargaining. Proceeding of the Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions (26th, April 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Caesar J., Ed.

    This proceedings presents 18 essays that focus on collective bargaining and other labor issues in higher education. The essays include: (1) "Looking Toward the Future" (Sandra Feldman); (2) "The New Unionism in Higher Education" (Bob Chase); (3) "Post-Tenure Review: Threat or Promise" (Christine M. Licata); (4) "A Response to Post-Tenure Review:…

  3. Pedagogy Journal, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marashio, Paul, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This annual serial volume contains 13 articles offering practical pedagogical ideas from faculty at New Hampshire Technical Colleges. After a brief preface, the following articles are presented: (1) "Variety Is the Spice of Learning," by Sandra Cole; (2) "Separating the Wheat from the Chaff at the Annual Conference," by Diana Wyman; (3) "Teaching…

  4. Measuring Institutional Performance in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This collection of seven essays from the Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures focuses on how downsizing, quality management, and reengineering have are affecting higher education. An introductory paper, "Introduction: Change in Higher Education: Its Effect on Institutional Performance," (Joel W. Meyerson and Sandra L. Johnson) notes that

  5. 75 FR 6702 - Notice of Correction to Notice of Realty Action; Application for Recordable Disclaimer of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Disclaimer of Interest; Montana in the Federal Register on December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68280). The document...'' and on page 74 FR 68281, in the second paragraph, the words ``legislative withdrawal'' are corrected... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra Ward, 406-896-5052. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal...

  6. Postcolonial Literature and the Curricular Imagination: Wilson Harris and the Pedagogical Implications of the Carnivalesque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Cameron; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2004-01-01

    In this essay, the authors join with an emergent set of voices shifting intellectual focus to postcolonial carnivalesque practices. Here, they refer to writers such as Paget Henry (2000), Hommi Babha (1994), Michael Dash (1990), Sandra Drake (1989), and Russell McDougall (1989). The authors are particularly interested in the carnivalesque as…

  7. Leaving Mango Street: Speech, Action and the Construction of Narrative in Britton's Spectator Stance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford-Garrett, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…

  8. The Last Nine Weeks: Helping Seniors Say Goodbye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Describes a unit for the final nine weeks of a senior English class which helps seniors say goodbye. Discusses how reading Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street" and writing their own versions of excerpts of it (along with other class activities) helps students define what they are leaving and come to terms with it. (SR)

  9. Saving Mango Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

  10. A Ride Down Mango Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

  11. "Writing Will Keep You Free": Allusions to and Recreations of the Fairy Tale Heroine in "The House on Mango Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissman, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how Sandra Cisneros alludes to and recasts popular fairy tales in "The House on Mango Street" to reveal their troubled legacy in the lives of many women in the novel. Drawing upon Latina feminist theory and Cisneros's autobiographical writing, this article posits that the main character Esperanza's alternative "happily ever…

  12. Developmental Education: How "Novel" Can We Make It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    Describes using a novel ("The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros) in a freshman developmental education course. Argues that the novel keeps the students focused and interested. Suggests that all outside reading support the novel's theme and that all writing assignments relate to the same theme. (SR)

  13. Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, M. Alayne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in…

  14. Generational Change: Closing the Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    In the 2003 Grutter v. Bollinger University of Michigan Law School affirmative action case, Sandra Day O'Connor declared on behalf of the majority of justices that, "We expect that 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary." As this amounts to no less than a mandate that affirmative action for college admissions…

  15. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part II: Mass Media Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The mass media studies section of the proceedings includes the following 14 papers: "Media Use, Political Activity and the 'Climate of Opinion'" (Robert L. Stevenson and William J. Gonzenbach); "Seeing Is Believing: News as Cultural Ritual in Times of Disaster" (Sandra L. Haarsager); "Creativity and Creative Control in the Work of American Music

  16. Putting the "Her" in Science Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Sandra Wentworth invites science teachers to ask a group of students to write the names of three famous scientists on a piece of paper within one minute. Chances are that most students will mention Einstein and be unable to name another scientist, specifically a woman, except for an occasional Marie Curie response. This article…

  17. When History Teachers Forget the Founding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    It's unsettling to hear of credentialed school teachers who--ignorant of our principles and of so much more--are seduced by, and pass on, ludicrous and even subversive accounts of our history. Sandra Stotsky tells of curricula that equate white Americans with Nazis and of officials who discredit the Constitution as a license for slavery. She…

  18. Teaching American Ethnic Literatures: Nineteen Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitino, John R., Ed.; Peck, David R., Ed.

    This book features scholarly criticism on works by 19 famous authors, such as N. Scott Momaday, James Welch, Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, Rudolfo Anaya, Sandra Cisneros, Amy Tan, and more. These authors' works are widely taught, but little critical comment is yet available about them. Written specifically for instructors in literature courses,

  19. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  20. Check & Connect: A Comprehensive Student Engagement Intervention Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Sandra L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Sinclair, Mary F.; Lehr, Camilla A.; Kaibel, Colleen M.; Reschly, Amy L.; Mavis, Ann; Pohl, Angie

    2008-01-01

    Check & Connect was created in a five year period from 1990 to 1995. The original manual, entitled "Keeping Kids in School: Using Check & Connect for Dropout Prevention" and written by David Evelo, Mary Sinclair, Christine Hurley, Sandra Christenson, and Martha Thurlow, was published in 1996 (ED398701). This newly revised Check & Connect manual…

  1. Young family together after the Gemini 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini-Titan 3 Astronaut John W. Young is shown with his wife and children after his return to Cape Kennedy, March 25, from the recovery ship, U.S.S. Intrepid. Shown (left to right) are Young's daughter, Sandra; his son, John; and his wife Barbara.

  2. The Rhetoric of Dissent in Justice O'Connor's Akron Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartanen, Kristine M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes judicial dissent as a backdrop for examining Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's dissenting opinion in the 1983 abortion decision. Highlights O'Connor's distinctive defense of personal credibility, emphasis on legal logic, and appeal for reversal of "Roe vs. Wade." Discusses how effectively the value appeals characteristic of judicial rhetoric…

  3. Making the Abstract Concrete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan nominated a woman to serve on the United States Supreme Court. He did so through a single-page form letter, completed in part by hand and in part by typewriter, announcing Sandra Day O'Connor as his nominee. While the document serves as evidence of a historic event, it is also a tangible illustration of abstract concepts…

  4. State of the World 1992. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress toward a Sustainable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.; And Others

    This book is the 1992 report by Worldwatch Institute on the progress toward a sustainable society. The book contains 11 chapters discussing topics related to the theme: (1) "Denial in the Decisive Decade" (Sandra Postel); (2) "Conserving Biological Diversity" (John C. Ryan); (3) "Building a Bridge to Sustainable Energy" (Christopher Flavin); (4)…

  5. Teaching Thinking Skills: Mapping the Arguments for Curriculum Choices Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, H. E. Melville; Haynes, B. T.

    This paper explores the teaching of thinking through description and analysis of the infusion approach as exemplified in the work of Robert Swartz, David Perkins, and Sandra Parks. After consideration of a substantive contentious issue raised by the analysis, the logic of curriculum decision-making in relation to the choice of ways of teaching…

  6. Zolotopia: A New Classic for Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Janet

    2007-01-01

    While working on a graphic design job at FAO Schwartz, entrepreneurs Sandra Higashi and Byron Glaser recognized a need for something new in toys. The result was the birth of Zolo, an innovative, interactive toy, designed and produced by Higashi and Glaser and distributed by the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York. The initial idea for Zolo…

  7. 78 FR 12106 - Public Availability of Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management FY 2012 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Availability of Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Office of Acquisitions and Contract Management (OACM), Peace Corps. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability... inventory should be directed to Sandra R. Harrell in the Office of Acquisitions and Contract...

  8. CACD Journal. Volume 16. 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CACD Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The exploration of innovative programs in counseling is the focus of this journal. Articles include: "Social Images and Interpersonal Interaction: Implications for Counseling Chinese and U.S. College Students" (Russell L. Young, MyLuong T. Tran, and Joseph D. DiLella); "Persistence Rate of College Freshmen with Declared Majors" (Sandra K. Brodwin…

  9. Race, Income, and College in 25 Years: Evaluating Justice O'Connor's Conjecture. Center for Studies in Higher Education, Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.19.06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Alan; Rothstein, Jesse; Turner, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), Justice Sandra Day O'Connor conjectured that in 25 years affirmative action in college admissions will be unnecessary. We project the test score distribution of black and white college applicants 25 years from now, focusing on the role of black-white family income gaps. Economic progress alone is unlikely to narrow…

  10. High-School Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Portrays the Sandra Day O'Connor High School in Helotes, Texas, whose architectural design, materials, and building forms reflect a rural Texas setting and a community wish that the large campus not overpower the nearby town. Includes photographs and a site plan. (GR)

  11. Highlights from the Second World Congress of Education International (2nd, Washington, DC, July 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    The papers in this volume reflect the general theme of the conference, which includes issues that will shape the future of Education International and of education for decades to come. The first half of the publication includes speeches by the following individuals: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President, Education International; (2) Sandra Feldman,…

  12. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  13. Responding to Challenges and Conflict in Higher Education Collective Bargaining. Proceeding of the Annual Conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education and the Professions (26th, April 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naples, Caesar J., Ed.

    This proceedings presents 18 essays that focus on collective bargaining and other labor issues in higher education. The essays include: (1) "Looking Toward the Future" (Sandra Feldman); (2) "The New Unionism in Higher Education" (Bob Chase); (3) "Post-Tenure Review: Threat or Promise" (Christine M. Licata); (4) "A Response to Post-Tenure Review:

  14. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  15. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1988-1989. The Best of the Literacy Beat 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Writers Association, Washington, DC.

    This document is a set of two volumes that contain prize-winning newspaper articles and summaries of radio and television shows selected as part of the Media Resource Project on Literacy. Items in the 1988-89 book include the following: "Why Daddy Can't Read" (Sally L. Gilman); "The Triumph of Jimmy Sanchez" (Sandra Macias); "Illiteracy:…

  16. Transforming the Knowledge Base. A Panel Discussion at the National Network of Women's Caucuses (1st, Washington, D.C., February 24-26, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Research on Women, New York, NY.

    The National Network of Women's Caucuses first biennial meeting saw over 50 participants come together to discuss a broad range of issues affecting women in the disciplines and professions. One set of discussions included panelists Dorothy O. Helly, Elizabeth Kamarck Minnich, Sandra Coyner, Leslie Hill-Davidson, and Betty Schmitz. The discussion

  17. Leadership Magazine. Volume 34, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Every month, "Leadership" features articles written in an informal, conversational style that provide practical information for school administrators. This issue of "Leadership" contains the following titles: (1) "A Culture of Greatness"; (2) "Achieving and Sustaining Greatness" (Sandra Carsten); (3) "Communication with Parents: It Works Both…

  18. Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the…

  19. 76 FR 7839 - Notice of Commission and Commission Staff Attendance at ISO/RTO Council and Regional State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission and Commission Staff Attendance at ISO/RTO Council and... of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following ISO/RTO Council and Regional State..., RTO/ISO Performance Metrics. For more information, contact Sandra Waldstein, Office of...

  20. Retraction of Hard, Lozano, and Tversky (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, B. M.; Lozano, S. C.; Tversky, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reports a retraction of "Hierarchical encoding of behavior: Translating perception into action" by Bridgette Martin Hard, Sandra C. Lozano and Barbara Tversky (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2006[Nov], Vol 135[4], 588-608). All authors retract this article. Co-author Tversky and co-author Hard believe that the research results cannot…

  1. Welcome to the Fun House: When Is a Children's Room Not a Children's Room? When It's The Trove

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about The Trove, a children's space--library doesn't quite cut it--located in the White Plains Public Library, New York. Sandra Miranda, the library's director, came up with the idea for The Trove, although it took the work of many--from her staff to the architects to theatrical designers and fabrications--to…

  2. Data Archivists: The Intermediaries the Census Bureau Forgot. A Review Essay of "The Role of Intermediaries in the Interpretation and Dissemination of Census Data Now and in the Future."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    Reviews a Census Bureau report by Sandra Rowland that was written to describe the importance of intermediaries in providing census data to the general public and to specialized researchers. Intermediaries described include the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), federal depository libraries, state data centers, and private vendors, as well as…

  3. Principal Training on the Ground: Ensuring Highly Qualified Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Janiece T.

    2004-01-01

    Assuming the quality of the principal is directly linked to student learning and instruction, whose responsibility is it to develop building administrators to their fullest? This question is at the center of Principal Training on the Ground by Sandra Stein and colleagues from the School of Public Affairs at Baruch College of the City University of…

  4. State of the World 1992. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress toward a Sustainable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.; And Others

    This book is the 1992 report by Worldwatch Institute on the progress toward a sustainable society. The book contains 11 chapters discussing topics related to the theme: (1) "Denial in the Decisive Decade" (Sandra Postel); (2) "Conserving Biological Diversity" (John C. Ryan); (3) "Building a Bridge to Sustainable Energy" (Christopher Flavin); (4)

  5. Neoliberalism and the Battle over Ethnic Studies in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Sandra K.; Joseph, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, 2010, Sandra K. Soto was the faculty convocation speaker for the University of Arizona College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. To a significant extent, she congratulated the parents and graduates and flattered the graduates by crediting them with having learned both skills and information, and urging graduates to make use of their…

  6. Aid for the Visually Impaired

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Viewstar is a video system that magnifies and focuses words so partially sighted people can read or type from printed or written copy. Invented by Dr. Leonard Weinstein, a Langley engineer, the device enables Sandra Raven, Weinstein's stepdaughter, who is legally blind, to work as a clerk typist. Weinstein has also developed other magnification systems for individual needs.

  7. Advocacy for School Leaders: Becoming a Strong Voice for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In today's political and global world, it's not enough to remain a solid educational leader; leaders must become advocates for education--on Capitol Hill, in state legislatures, and within communities. In this book, Sandra Whitaker examines key issues facing education, demonstrates methods for unpacking the issues, and discusses strategies to

  8. 75 FR 71187 - Atlantic Coast Financial Corporation, Waycross, GA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Atlantic Coast Financial Corporation, Waycross, GA; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on November 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the... 30309. Dated: November 16, 2010. By the Office of Thrift Supervision. Sandra E. Evans, Federal...

  9. 75 FR 61246 - Kaiser Federal Financial Group, Inc., Covina, CA; Approval of Conversion Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Kaiser Federal Financial Group, Inc., Covina, CA; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the..., Texas 75261-9027. Dated: September 28, 2010. By the Office of Thrift Supervision. Sandra E....

  10. Shaping the Curriculum. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Members of the Council of Universities and Colleges present recommendations and practical strategies in the area of curriculum development in this monograph. Louis Bender discusses strategies for curriculum revision. James Wattenbarger and Sandra Scaggs relate organization theory to the process of curriculum change. Raymond Schultz and Carl Webb…

  11. "Woman Hollering Creek" a Traves de la Musica: Articulating Mexicanidad to Pochismo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Lydia A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay intervenes in contemporary scholarship on Sandra Cisneros's "Woman Hollering Creek" (1991) by examining the canciones she uses as epigraphs and their relationship to the multiple nationalisms that Chicana/os actively negotiate. I argue that Cisneros's decision to include powerfully nationalist Mexican cancion traditions directs the…

  12. The Average Expectable Environment Is Not Good Enough: A Response to Scarr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1993-01-01

    Takes the position, contrary to that of Sandra Scarr, that the details of socialization patterns are crucial to an understanding of normal and deviant development. Research is cited to support the argument that better than adequate parenting optimizes the development of both normal and vulnerable children and that parents' belief in their own…

  13. Language Socialization in Bilingual and Multilingual Societies. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayley, Robert, Ed.; Schecter, Sandra R., Ed.

    This collection of papers explores language socialization from very early childhood through adulthood. After "Introduction: Toward a Dynamic Model of Language Socialization" (Robert Bayley and Sandra R. Schecter), there are 16 papers in 4 parts. Part 1, "Language Socialization at Home," includes: (1) "Transforming Perspectives on Bilingual…

  14. Putting the "Her" in Science Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentworth, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Sandra Wentworth invites science teachers to ask a group of students to write the names of three famous scientists on a piece of paper within one minute. Chances are that most students will mention Einstein and be unable to name another scientist, specifically a woman, except for an occasional Marie Curie response. This article

  15. Supreme Court Biographies as a Classroom Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author goes beyond Supreme Court decisions to investigate the upbringing and personalities of three Supreme Court justices who left their mark on history: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, and Sandra Day O'Connor. His interviews with their biographers, G. Edward White for Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Juan Williams

  16. Rainbow Nation's "Ubuntu": Discovering Distinctness as a Spectrum through South African Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Colin Bridges

    2007-01-01

    Apartheid created more than physical distances between color groups; South Africa is made up of people with often separated minds. Leaders of the democratic government draw from and modify the ancient African tribal value called "ubuntu" as the philosophic basis for their cultural strategy of unification. Sandra Chait has pointed out that much of…

  17. The Poisoning of Young Minds: Learning in an Age of Neurotoxins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingraber, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "Raising Elijah: Protecting Our Children in an Age of Environmental Crisis" (2011), by Sandra Steingraber. As a scientist, mother, and concerned citizen, Steingraber explores herein the damaging effects of the myriad and ubiquitous environmental pollutants--in homes, schools, and communities--on the lives…

  18. Responses to Nietupski et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five special educators (Michael F. Giangreco, Martha E. Snell, Carolyn Hughes, Asha Jitendra, and Sandra Alper) respond to a review in the same issue by John Nietupski and others entitled "A Review of Curricular Research in Severe Disabilities From 1976 to 1995 in Six Selected Journals." Each respondent raises additional aspects of curriculum for…

  19. Building Partnerships for Service-Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Barbara

    The chapters in this collection contain information, exemplary models, and practical tools to make service-learning succeed. The chapters are: (1) "Fundamentals of Service-Learning Partnerships" (Barbara Jacoby); (2) "Developing a Theory and Practice of Campus-Community Partnerships" (Sandra Enos and Keith Morton); (3) "Assessment as a Means of

  20. Advocacy for School Leaders: Becoming a Strong Voice for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In today's political and global world, it's not enough to remain a solid educational leader; leaders must become advocates for education--on Capitol Hill, in state legislatures, and within communities. In this book, Sandra Whitaker examines key issues facing education, demonstrates methods for unpacking the issues, and discusses strategies to…

  1. iCivics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2012-01-01

    According to former Supreme Court Judge Sandra Day O'Connor, active citizenship requires that students know how to persuade others by logic, seek consensus, understand and create constructive dissent, and practice other vital critical-thinking skills. However, in the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress in civics, only one in four

  2. 78 FR 16679 - Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy Council; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Medical Policy... (Council) in FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). These comments will help the Agency... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sandra J. Benton, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  3. A Coordinated Approach to Raising the Socio-Economic Status of Latinos in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Elias, Ed.; Puddefoot, Ginny, Ed.; Gandara, Patricia, Ed.

    This report presents a collection of papers that focuses on a coordinated approach to raising the socioeconomic status of Hispanic Americans living in California. After presenting "The Need for a Coordinated Approach," the papers are: "Preschool Access" (Theresa Garcia, Sandra Gutierrez, and Giovanna Stark); "K-12 Performance" (Patricia de Cos,…

  4. Science Teacher Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Sandra K., Ed.

    This book presents reform efforts in science teacher education from an international perspective. Chapters include: (1) "International Perspectives on Science Teacher Education: An Introduction" (Sandra K. Abell); (2) "The Development of Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Education in Australia" (Ken Appleton, Ian S. Ginns, and James J.…

  5. Managerial Performance Issues. Symposium 24. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This document contains three papers on managerial performance issues. "Managerial Skill Requirements: Evidence from the Scottish Visitor Attraction Industry" (Sandra Watson, Martin McCracken) presents the findings from an exploratory study of those skills that managers in the Scottish visitor attraction sector considered most important to success…

  6. English Leadership Quarterly, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    These 4 issues of the English Leadership Quarterly comprise volume 17, published during 1995. Articles in number 1 deal with multicultural and multiethnic literature, and are, as follows: "Guidelines for Selecting European Ethnic Literature for Interdisciplinary Courses" (Sandra Stotsky); "Striving for Kinship within Diverse Communities" (Peter…

  7. Women, Work and Age: Policy Challenges. Proceedings of the Conference (Lansing, Michigan, April 11-12, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Gerontology, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Proceedings of a conference on women, work, and age are presented. The introduction by Carol Hollenstead give background on the topic, identifies the conference's goals and objectives, and describes the rationale behind the published proceedings. The keynote address, "Age Discrimination: The Invisible Barriers" (Sandra V. Porter), discusses…

  8. Introducing Bruner: A Guide for Practitioners and Students in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smidt, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Sandra Smidt takes the reader on a journey through the key concepts of Jerome Bruner, a significant figure in the field of early education whose work has spanned almost a century. His wide-ranging and innovative principles of early learning and teaching are unpicked here using everyday language and the links between his ideas and those of other…

  9. Supreme Court Biographies as a Classroom Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author goes beyond Supreme Court decisions to investigate the upbringing and personalities of three Supreme Court justices who left their mark on history: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, and Sandra Day O'Connor. His interviews with their biographers, G. Edward White for Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Juan Williams…

  10. Look Out World, Here We Come!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Barbara, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The journal includes nine articles on the theme of a world view of foreign language teaching. They are: "The Foreign Language Articulation Task Force Survey: A Report" (Reid Baker); "Report of the Ohio Foreign Language Task Force" (Barbara Snyder); "The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps" (John D. Durden and Sandra K. Strauber);…

  11. 78 FR 13873 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Ends: 03/26/2013, Contact: Sandra Shelin 509-527-7265. Revision to FR Notice Published 12/21/2012... Ends: 04/01/2013, Contact: Matt Buhyoff 202-502- 6824. EIS No. 20130047, Draft EIS, NPS, FL, Everglades National Park Draft General Management Plan/East Everglades Wilderness Study, Comment Period Ends:...

  12. The Power of Conversation: On the Diversity Director and Head Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sandra; Kassen, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1920s, diversity initiatives at the "Little Red School House and Elisabeth Irwin High School" (LREI) in New York City have centered on strategic conversations related to equity, justice, and inclusion. In this article, Sandra Chapman, Director of Diversity and Community, and Phil Kassen, Head of School, decided that they…

  13. One more river to cross--looking back, moving forward: advancing the NMA "equality agenda" in the era of 21st-century medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Gadson, Sandra L.

    2005-01-01

    The following is an excerpt of the inaugural address given July 27, 2005 by Sandra L. Gadson, MD, who was installed as the 106th president of the National Medical Association (NMA) during NMA's 2005 Annual Convention and Scientific Assembly in New York, NY. Images p1327-a PMID:16353653

  14. 76 FR 40886 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting (conference call). SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery... accessing the live streaming service, you may send an e-mail to Sandra.Krause@noaa.gov ....

  15. Journal of Business and Training Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmann, Donna H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue contains eight articles on a wide variety of topics in business and training education. "Ethics and beyond: Enhancing Communication and Critical Thinking Skills through Ethics Instruction" (Sandra A. Howard) offers strategies for incorporating ethics instruction in the business curriculum that can also enhance students' communication…

  16. Engaging Urban Learners in Reading "The Scarlet Letter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Using the overarching concept of the role of an outcast in society, high school teacher Sandra Whitaker persuades urban students to explore the relevance among their lives, the district-required reading, and research on historical and contemporary outcasts. From the unit, students gain an appreciation for Hawthorne and, importantly, ascertain the…

  17. 75 FR 52711 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Sheep 2011 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... Sheep 2011 Study. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before October 26, 2010... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Sheep 2011 Study, contact Ms. Sandra Warnken, Management...

  18. 76 FR 43965 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... FR 70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations... buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 73 FR 70944, in the November 24, 2008, issue of the... Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: April 21, 2011. Sandra K. Knight, Deputy...

  19. 75 FR 42813 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Assistant Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee... (Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorism Act of 1986), as amended; Public Law 107-56 (USA PATRIOT Act... Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or EnochT@state.gov . Dated: July 14, 2010. Sandra Clark,...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  1. Neoliberalism and the Battle over Ethnic Studies in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Sandra K.; Joseph, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, 2010, Sandra K. Soto was the faculty convocation speaker for the University of Arizona College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. To a significant extent, she congratulated the parents and graduates and flattered the graduates by crediting them with having learned both skills and information, and urging graduates to make use of their

  2. Diversity in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines aspects…

  3. Androgyny and Moral and Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Dov; Gaa, John P.

    Traditionally, "masculine" males and "feminine" females are seen as being the most mentally healthy individuals. Recently this view has been challenged by Sandra Bem and other researchers in the area of sex role identity. Bem (1975) maintains that those individuals whose behavioral and emotional repertoires incorporate aspects of both masculine…

  4. The Crucial Role of the Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2008-01-01

    In the Perspectives column of this issue, Meredith Park Rogers and Sandra Abel address the importance of teacher questions on student thinking. With school improvement efforts often focused on the curriculum, standards, outcomes, and student work, it becomes easy to overlook the fact that the teacher is the single most important school-based…

  5. HRD in Difficult Times. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on challenges facing human resource development today. "In Difficult Times: Influences of Attitudes and Expectations Towards Training and Redeployment Opportunities in a Hospital Retraction Programme" (Sandra Watson, Jeff Hyman) presents reasons behind the low uptake of training and redeployment opportunities in…

  6. Rhyming Words and Onset-Rime Constituents: An Inquiry into Structural Breaking Points and Emergent Boundaries in the Syllable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geudens, Astrid; Sandra, Dominiek; Martensen, Heike

    2005-01-01

    Geudens and Sandra, in their 2003 study, investigated the special role of onsets and rimes in Dutch-speaking children's explicit phonological awareness. In the current study, we tapped implicit phonological knowledge using forced-choice similarity judgment (Experiment 1) and recall of syllable lists (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, Dutch-speaking

  7. Building Partnerships for Service-Learning. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Barbara

    The chapters in this collection contain information, exemplary models, and practical tools to make service-learning succeed. The chapters are: (1) "Fundamentals of Service-Learning Partnerships" (Barbara Jacoby); (2) "Developing a Theory and Practice of Campus-Community Partnerships" (Sandra Enos and Keith Morton); (3) "Assessment as a Means of…

  8. Teaching American Ethnic Literatures: Nineteen Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitino, John R., Ed.; Peck, David R., Ed.

    This book features scholarly criticism on works by 19 famous authors, such as N. Scott Momaday, James Welch, Toni Morrison, Alice Walker, Rudolfo Anaya, Sandra Cisneros, Amy Tan, and more. These authors' works are widely taught, but little critical comment is yet available about them. Written specifically for instructors in literature courses,…

  9. Human Behavioral Genetics, Scarr's Theory, and Her Views on Interventions: A Critical Review and Commentary on Their Implications for African American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

    1993-01-01

    Key components of human behavioral genetics and Sandra Scarr's work of the past two decades are critically reviewed based on scholarship in animal neuropsychology and clinical and educational psychology. Scarr's opinion that interventions to enhance intellectual development are ineffectual for children from abuse- and neglect-free backgrounds is…

  10. Segmenting Two-Phoneme Syllables: Developmental Differences in Relation with Early Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geudens, Astrid; Sandra, Dominiek; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2004-01-01

    This study explored developmental differences in children's segmentation skills of VC and CV syllables (e.g., /af/ and /fa/) in relation to their early reading abilities. To this end, we followed a subgroup of Dutch speaking prereaders who participated in Geudens and Sandra (2003, Experiment 1), and replicated the segmentation task in first grade,…

  11. Assessing the Learning Organization. Symposium 10. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on assessing the learning organization. The first paper, "Relationship between Learning Organization Strategies and Performance Driver Outcomes" (Elwood F. Holton III, Sandra M. Kaiser), reports on a study of a new learning organization assessment instrument that was administered to 440 employees…

  12. The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps and The Akron Story Part II: Europe on $15 a Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, John D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two articles combined here describe aspects of the Akron, Ohio Public Schools' summer foreign language immersion camps for both students and teachers. The first article, "The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps" (John D. Durden and Sandra K. Strauber), outlines the structure of the camps, in which students live in simulated cultures,…

  13. Affirmative Action on the Docket. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    In signing off the majority opinion in "Grutter v. Bollinger," Justice Sandra Day O'Connor opined, "That 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary to further the interest approved today" (2003, p. 342). The Supreme Court's acceptance of "Fisher v. University of Texas," however, may signal an end to affirmative…

  14. Measuring Institutional Performance in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This collection of seven essays from the Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures focuses on how downsizing, quality management, and reengineering have are affecting higher education. An introductory paper, "Introduction: Change in Higher Education: Its Effect on Institutional Performance," (Joel W. Meyerson and Sandra L. Johnson) notes that…

  15. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (80th, Chicago, Illinois, July 30-August 2, 1997): Mass Communication and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society section of the Proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "A Cynical Press: Coverage of the 1996 Presidential Campaign" (Sandra H. Dickson, Cynthia Hill, Cara Pilson, and Suzanne Hanners); "JMC Faculty Divided: Majority Finds Dozen Uses for Research" (Fred Fedler, Maria Cristina Santana, Tim Counts, and Arlen…

  16. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (73rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 1-4, 1990). Part II: Mass Media Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The mass media studies section of the proceedings includes the following 14 papers: "Media Use, Political Activity and the 'Climate of Opinion'" (Robert L. Stevenson and William J. Gonzenbach); "Seeing Is Believing: News as Cultural Ritual in Times of Disaster" (Sandra L. Haarsager); "Creativity and Creative Control in the Work of American Music…

  17. China: Tradition and Transformation. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1999 (China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee on United States-China Relations, New York, NY.

    This collection of curriculum projects is the result of the authors' participation in a Fulbright summer seminar program in China. The following 16 curriculum projects are in the collection: (1) "Banpo Village: A Prehistoric Dig" (Sandra Bailey); (2) "China: Moving into the New Millennium: A Study of China's Past, Present and Future" (Shirley…

  18. High Court Splits on Search of Public Employee's Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents divergent opinions of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor (for the plurality), Justice Antonin Scalia, and Justice Harry Blackmun in the Supreme Court decision to return the case of "O'Connor v. Ortega" (questioning the constitutionality of searching a public employee's office) to the district court. O'Connor rejected the notion that public…

  19. 78 FR 35930 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    .... Stephens, SDT U/A 12-23-92 trust, MAD GST for CA Stephens trust, and MAD GST for SR Stephens trust; Sandra D. Stephens, Atlanta, Georgia, individually and as trustee of MAD Trust for S.D. Stephens, MAD GST for CA Stephens trust, and MAD GST for SR Stephens trust; Scott R. Stephens, Lake Panasofkee,...

  20. Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, M. Alayne

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in

  1. 77 FR 66084 - Quarterly Publication of Individuals, Who Have Chosen To Expatriate, as Required by Section 6039G

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-01

    ... GISI-TOLLE KERSTIN SANDRA GOEBEL GARY ROBERT GOLAN DANIEL SAM GRAF KAROLINE MADELEINE GUNTHARDT DOUGLAS... HUY HOE TIFFANY SU YIN HOLLING- BRUCE WILLIAM SHEAD HOLTON EDWARD JOHN HONG JONG MIN HOOP MARIA... HA JEONG PAUL CLARA PO YIN PAUL JORDAN RAY PENNELL CHRISTINE RENEE PETERSON WAYNE EDWARD PEY...

  2. The Impact of iCivics on Students' Core Civic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCompte, Karon; Moore, Brandon; Blevins, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    iCivics, a free online, civics education program created by Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, is aligned to state and national standards to teach core civics content. The research question for this study is: Does spending at least 30 minutes on the iCivics interactive web site 2 times per week improve student scores on a civics test? A…

  3. A Virtual Panel of Expert Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the observations of a panel of research experts who have conducted research on music and the brain. States that the participants are Andrea Halpern, Larry Parsons, Ralph Spintge, and Sandra Trehub. After an introduction of each person, the participants characterized their principal findings. (CMK)

  4. The Poisoning of Young Minds: Learning in an Age of Neurotoxins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingraber, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "Raising Elijah: Protecting Our Children in an Age of Environmental Crisis" (2011), by Sandra Steingraber. As a scientist, mother, and concerned citizen, Steingraber explores herein the damaging effects of the myriad and ubiquitous environmental pollutants--in homes, schools, and communities--on the lives

  5. Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

    Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

  6. Sense of Place in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Pat, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal issue contains interviews, essays, short stories, and poetry focusing on sense of place in Appalachia. In interviews, author Wilma Dykeman discussed past and recent novels set in Appalachia with interviewer Sandra L. Ballard; and novelist Lee Smith spoke with interviewer Pat Arnow about how Appalachia has shaped her writing. Essays…

  7. The cerebral hemispheres and neural network simulations: design considerations.

    PubMed

    Cook, N D; Frh, H; Landis, T

    1995-04-01

    The conclusions concerning hemispheric specializations based on neural network simulations, which were previously reported by Kosslyn, Chabris, Marsolek, and Koenig (1992), are shown not to be valid. Differences in network performance on tasks said to be "categorical" and "coordinate spatial" in nature were due to imbalances in the input stimuli and cannot, in principle, be related to differences in performance on such tasks in human subjects. The use of truth tables and correlation coefficients in the design of neural networks is discussed. PMID:7714480

  8. Synthesis of O- and C-glycosides derived from β-(1,3)-D-glucans.

    PubMed

    Marca, Eduardo; Valero-Gonzalez, Jessika; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomás; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon; Merino, Pedro

    2013-12-15

    A series of β-(1,3)-d-glucans have been synthesized incorporating structural variations specifically on the reducing end of the oligomers. Both O- and C-glucosides derived from di- and trisaccharides have been obtained in good overall yields and with complete selectivity. Whereas the O-glycosides were obtained via a classical Koenigs-Knorr glycosylation, the corresponding C-glycosides were obtained through allylation of the anomeric carbon and further cross-metathesis reaction. Finally, the compounds were evaluated against two glycosidases and two endo-glucanases and no inhibitory activity was observed. PMID:24140893

  9. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks.

    PubMed

    Leverrier, Anthony; García-Patrón, Raúl; Renner, Renato; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2013-01-18

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)]. PMID:23373907

  10. Greenland aquifer properties measured for the first time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-04-01

    A dozen meters beneath the surface of the southeastern Greenland Ice Sheet is an aquifer that holds roughly as much water as Israel's Dead Sea. The unconfined aquifer occupies about 980 cubic kilometers of Greenland's porous firn, snow that is more than a year old but has not yet compacted to ice. Were the aquifer to drain into the ocean, the water could cause as much as 0.4 millimeter of global sea level rise. Koenig et al. build on their 2011 discovery of the aquifer and report the first attempts to directly measure its properties.

  11. Synthesis, Thermal Properties and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Alkyl β-D-xylopyranoside Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenjin; Osei-Prempeh, Gifty; Lema Herrera, Fresia C.; Oldham, E. Davis; Aguilera, Renato J.; Parkin, Sean; Rankin, Stephen E.; Knutson, Barbara L.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides are highly surface active, biodegradable surfactants that can be prepared from hemicelluloses and are of interest for use as pharmaceuticals, detergents, agrochemicals and personal care products. To gain further insights into their structure-property and structure-activity relationships, the present study synthesized a series of hydrocarbon (-C6H13 to -C16H33) and fluorocarbon (-(CH2)2C6F13) alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides in four steps from D-xylose by acylation or benzoylation, bromination, Koenigs-Knorr reaction and hydrolysis, with the benzoyl protecting group giving better yields compared to the acyl group in the Koenigs-Knorr reaction. All alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides formed thermotropic liquid crystals. The phase transition of the solid crystalline phase to a liquid crystalline phase increased linearly with the length of the hydrophobic tail. The clearing points were near constant for alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides with a hydrophobic tail ≥ 8, but occurred at a significantly lower temperature for hexyl β-D-xylopyranoside. Short and long-chain alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides displayed no cytotoxicity at concentration below their aqueous solubility limit. Hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon alkyl β-D-xylopyranosides with intermediate chain length displayed some toxicity at millimolar concentrations due to apoptosis. PMID:22207000

  12. HARMING KIN TO SAVE STRANGERS: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR ABNORMALLY UTILITARIAN MORAL JUDGMENTS AFTER VENTROMEDIAL PREFRONTAL DAMAGE

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bradley C.; Croft, Katie E.; Tranel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated as a critical neural substrate mediating the influence of emotion on moral reasoning. It has been shown that the vmPFC is especially important for making moral judgments about “high-conflict” moral dilemmas involving direct personal actions, i.e., scenarios that pit compelling utilitarian considerations of aggregate welfare against the highly emotionally aversive act of directly causing harm to others (Koenigs, Young et al., 2007). The current study was designed to elucidate further the role of the vmPFC in high-conflict moral judgments, including those that involve indirect personal actions, such as indirectly causing harm to one’s kin to save a group of strangers. We found that patients with vmPFC lesions were more likely than brain-damaged and healthy comparison participants to endorse utilitarian outcomes on high-conflict dilemmas regardless of whether the dilemmas (1) entailed direct versus indirect personal harms, and (2) were presented from the Self versus Other perspective. Additionally, all groups were more likely to endorse utilitarian outcomes in the Other perspective as compared to the Self perspective. These results provide important extensions of previous work, and the findings align with the proposal that the vmPFC is critical for reasoning about moral dilemmas in which anticipating the social-emotional consequences of an action (e.g., guilt or remorse) is crucial for normal moral judgments (Koenigs, Young et al., 2007; Greene 2007). PMID:20946057

  13. Cognitive processing of drawing abilities.

    PubMed

    Guérin, F; Ska, B; Belleville, S

    1999-08-01

    This critical review examines constructional apraxia from a cognitive neuropsychological perspective. To our knowledge, van Sommers (1989) is the only researcher to present a global cognitive model of drawing abilities. He organizes it into two hierarchical systems: Marr's model of visual perception and a graphic production system. The latter comprises four hierarchically organized components: depiction decisions, production strategy, contingent planning, and articulatory and economic constraints. Van Sommers' model will be discussed in light of other models and on the basis of empirical neuropsychological studies (Farah, 1984; Kosslyn & Koenig, 1992; Roncato, Sartori, Masterson, & Rumiati, 1987; van Sommers, 1989). We find that: (1) the Kosslyn and Koenig visual perception model describes more accurately the perceptual components underlying copying than the visual perception system of van Sommers' drawing model, (2) Van Sommers' arguments in favor of a depiction processing as opposed to visual imagery are not convincing, (3) Van Sommers' assumption that a production strategy is a component is unclear, and (4) articulatory and economic constraints are not cognitive components, but constraints imposed during action programming. This literature review leads to a discussion of future research topics and the specificity of constructional apraxia. PMID:10415132

  14. STS-112 takes part in post-landing briefing for the media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew takes part in a post-landing briefing for the media. From left are Mission Specialists David Wolf, Sandra Magnus, responding to a question, and Piers Sellers. Mission STS-112 was the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, installing the S1 truss. The landing was the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  15. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, Sandra Rossi user her NASA-developed prosthesis for the first time. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  16. Making ultracold molecules in a two-color pump-dump photoassociation scheme using chirped pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Christiane P.; Luc-Koenig, Eliane; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-03-15

    This theoretical paper investigates the formation of ground state molecules from ultracold cesium atoms in a two-color scheme. Following previous work on photoassociation with chirped picosecond pulses [Luc-Koenig et al., Phys. Rev. A, 70, 033414 (2004)], we investigate stabilization by a second (dump) pulse. By appropriately choosing the dump pulse parameters and time delay with respect to the photoassociation pulse, we show that a large number of deeply bound molecules are created in the ground triplet state. We discuss (i) broad-bandwidth dump pulses which maximize the probability to form molecules while creating a broad vibrational distribution as well as (ii) narrow-bandwidth pulses populating a single vibrational ground state level, bound by 113 cm{sup -1}. The use of chirped pulses makes the two-color scheme robust, simple, and efficient.

  17. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    We prove the security of Gaussian continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against arbitrary attacks in the finite-size regime. In contrast to previously known proofs of principle (based on the de Finetti theorem), our result is applicable in the practically relevant finite-size regime. This is achieved using a novel proof approach, which exploits phase-space symmetries of the protocols as well as the postselection technique introduced by Christandl, Koenig and Renner (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)). This work was supported by the SNF through the National Centre of Competence in Research ``Quantum Science and Technology'' and through Grant No. 200020-135048, the ERC (grant No. 258932), the Humbolt foundation and the F.R.S.-FNRS under project HIPERCOM.

  18. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1). PMID:15693713

  19. Ethnic and Gender Variation in Religious Involvement: Patterns of Expression in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Janine M.; St. Peter, Josie R.; Fernandes, Sherira J.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis to empirically derive profiles of religious involvement among a sample of 808 young adults and describe ethnic and gender differences within such religious involvement patterns. Items on the Duke Religion Index were included as part of a larger longitudinal survey of emotional, physical, and behavioral health. The scale measured the organizational, nonorganizational, and intrinsic dimensions of religiosity (Koenig et al. 2001) in a sample of young adults at two waves of the study—age 27 and age 30. At age 27, five religious profiles were distinguishable in the sample while at age 30 six profiles emerged. Ethnic differences were found for each of the religious profiles where religious involvement manifested in different ways. Religious profiles between ages 27 and 30 changed over time and were affected by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23002308

  20. Permeance of H2 through porous graphene from molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongjun; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en

    2013-12-01

    A recent experiment (Koenig et al., 2012 [15]) demonstrated the capability of porous graphene as one-atom-thin membrane to separate gases by molecular sieving. A quantitative connection between the measured leak rate and the simulated gas permeance has yet to be established. Using H2 as a model gas, here we determine its permeance through porous graphene from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Trajectories are used to directly obtain H2 flux, pressure drop across the graphene membrane, and subsequently, H2 permeance. The permeance is determined to be on the order of 105 GPU (gas permeance unit) for pressure driving forces ranging from 2 to 163 atm. By relating to the experimental leak rate, we then use the permeation data to estimate the pore density in the experimentally created porous graphene.

  1. Session: Program Review X Wrap-Up

    SciTech Connect

    1992-01-01

    This wrap-up session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of Closing Remarks by Roland R. Kessler and six NGA Industry Critique Panel presentations: ''Summary of Comments on DOE-Industry Cooperation by Geothermal Industry Panel'' by James B. Koenig, GeothermEx, Inc.; ''NGA Industry Critique of the Exploration Component'' by Joe L. Iovenitti, Weiss Associates; ''Critique of Drilling Research'' by Jerry Hamblin, UNOCAL Geothermal; ''Critique Panel Comments on Reservoir Engineering, DOE Geothermal Technology Development'' by Dennis Kaspereit, California Energy Company, Inc.; ''DOE Geothermal Program Review - Critique on Production'' by Douglas B. Jung, Two-Phase Engineering and Research; ''Comments on the DOE Hydrothermal Energy Conversion R&D Program'' by David L. Mendive, Geothermal Development Associates.

  2. Determination of Young's Modulus of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Ung; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene are interesting research subjects because its Young's modulus and strength are extremely high. Values of ˜1 TPa for the Young's modulus have been reported [Lee et al. Science, 321, 385 (2008), Koenig et al. Nat. Nanotech. 6, 543 (2011)]. We made a graphene sample on a SiO2/Si substrate with closed-bottom holes by mechanical exfoliation. A pressure difference across the graphene membrane was applied by putting the sample in a vacuum chamber. This pressure difference makes the graphene membrane bulge upward like a balloon. By measuring the shifts of the Raman G and 2D bands, we estimated the amount of strain on the graphene membrane. By comparing the strain estimated from the Raman measurements with numerical simulations based on the finite element method, we obtained the Young's modulus of graphene.

  3. Does devoutness delay death? Psychological investment in religion and its association with longevity in the Terman sample.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Michael E; Friedman, Howard S; Enders, Craig K; Martin, Leslie R

    2009-11-01

    Religious people tend to live slightly longer lives (M. E. McCullough, W. T. Hoyt, D. B. Larson, H. G. Koenig, & C. E. Thoresen, 2000). On the basis of the principle of social investment (J. Lodi-Smith & B. W. Roberts, 2007), the authors sought to clarify this phenomenon with a study of religion and longevity that (a) incorporated measures of psychological religious commitment; (b) considered religious change over the life course; and (c) examined 19 measures of personality traits, social ties, health behaviors, and mental and physical health that might help to explain the religion-longevity association. Discrete-time survival growth mixture models revealed that women (but not men) with the lowest degrees of religiousness through adulthood had shorter lives than did women who were more religious. Survival differences were largely attributable to cross-sectional and prospective between-class differences in personality traits, social ties, health behaviors, and mental and physical health. PMID:19857007

  4. Parasitoids of Hesperiidae from peninsular India with description of a new species of Dolichogenidea (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on caterpillar of Borbo cinnara (Wallace) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankita; Lokhande, Swapnil A; Soman, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Five species of parasitic wasps associated with hesperiids from peninsular India are documented along with the description of a new species of gregarious endoparasitoid, Dolichogenidea cinnarae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on caterpillar of Borbo cinnara (Wallace) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Also, the gregarious larval parasitoid, Cotesia erionotae (Wilkinson) (Braconidae) and solitary pupal parasitoid Charops plautus Gupta & Maheshwary (Ichneumonidae) were bred from the host Udaspes folus (Cramer) on the host plant Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig. Udaspesfolus is the new host record for the parasitic wasp genus Charops. Cotesia erionotae was bred from U. folus caterpillars from three states: Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala. An encyrtid wasp Ooencyrtus papilionis Ashmead was bred from eggs of Bibasisjaina (Moore) on the host pant Hiptage benghalensis (L.). This is the first documentation of a parasitic wasp from the genus Bibasis. Leptobatopsis indica (Cameron) (Ichneumonidae), often associated with Parnara guttatus (Bremer & Grey), was recorded from the Andaman islands. PMID:26191582

  5. Historical Experiments in Students' Hands: Unfragmenting Science through Action and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth Mary

    2008-08-01

    Two students, meeting together with a teacher, redid historical experiments. Unlike conventional instruction where science topics and practices often fragment, they experienced interrelatedness among phenomena, participants’ actions, and history. This study narrates actions that fostered an interrelated view. One action involved opening up historical telephones to examine interior circuitry. Another made sound visible in a transparent air column filled with Styrofoam bits and through Lissajous figures produced by reflecting light off orthogonal nineteenth century tuning forks crafted by Koenig and Kohl. Another involved orienting magnetic compasses to reveal the magnetism of conducting wires, historically investigated by Oersted and Schweigger. Replicating Homberg’s triboluminescent compound elicited students’ reflective awareness of history. These actions bore pedagogical value in recovering some of the interrelatedness inherent in the history and reintroducing the wonder of science phenomena to students today.

  6. Ctenosciara alexanderkoenigi sp. n. (Diptera: Sciaridae), an exotic invader in Germany?

    PubMed Central

    Rulik, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Ctenosciara Tuomikoski, 1960 is here described based upon a single specimen, obtained from collectings in the garden at Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn. Ctenosciara alexanderkoenigi sp. n. differs from all other congeneric European species by its striking coloration and distinct male genitalia. However, DNA barcoding reveals associations with two specimens from New Zealand. Therefore a recent migration of Ctenosciara species from the Australasian Region, the likely center of origin of the genus, is discussed. A key to the European species of Ctenosciara is provided. Barcoding results reveale that Ctenosciara exigua is not clearly distinguished from Ctenosciara hyalipennis by its COI sequence (both share the same BIN BOLD:AAH3983) and that its species status may be questionable. PMID:27099547

  7. Affine cellularity of finite type KLR algebras, and homomorphisms between Specht modules for KLR algebras in affine type A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubert, Joseph William

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first we prove that the Khovanov-Lauda-Rouquier algebras Ralpha of finite type are (graded) affine cellular in the sense of Koenig and Xi. In fact, we establish a stronger property, namely that the affine cell ideals in Ralpha are generated by idempotents. This in particular implies the (known) result that the global dimension of Ralpha is finite. In the second part we use the presentation of the Specht modules given by Kleshchev-Mathas-Ram to derive results about Specht modules. In particular, we determine all homomorphisms from an arbitrary Specht module to a fixed Specht module corresponding to any hook partition. Along the way, we give a complete description of the action of the standard KLR generators on the hook Specht module. This work generalizes a result of James. This dissertation includes previously published coauthored material.

  8. Insights into CO2/N2 separation through nanoporous graphene from molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-en

    2013-10-21

    We show from molecular dynamics simulations that porous graphene of a certain pore size can efficiently separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen with high permeance, in agreement with the recent experimental finding (Koenig et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 728-732). The high selectivity is reflected in the much higher number of CO2 passing-through events than that of N2 from the trajectories. The simulated CO2 permeance is on the order of magnitude of 10(5) GPU (gas permeation unit). The selective trend is further corroborated by the free energy barriers of permeation. The predicted CO2/N2 selectivity is around 300. Overall, the combination of high CO2 flux and high CO2/N2 selectivity makes nanoporous graphene a promising membrane for post-combustion CO2 separation. PMID:23990030

  9. Insights into CO2/N2 separation through nanoporous graphene from molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongjun; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, De-En

    2013-09-01

    We show from molecular dynamics simulations that porous graphene of a certain pore size can efficiently separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen with high permeance, in agreement with the recent experimental finding (Koenig et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 728-732). The high selectivity is reflected in the much higher number of CO2 passing-through events than that of N2 from the trajectories. The simulated CO2 permeance is on the order of magnitude of 105 GPU (gas permeation unit). The selective trend is further corroborated by the free energy barriers of permeation. The predicted CO2/N2 selectivity is around 300. Overall, the combination of high CO2 flux and high CO2/N2 selectivity makes nanoporous graphene a promising membrane for post-combustion CO2 separation.We show from molecular dynamics simulations that porous graphene of a certain pore size can efficiently separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen with high permeance, in agreement with the recent experimental finding (Koenig et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2012, 7, 728-732). The high selectivity is reflected in the much higher number of CO2 passing-through events than that of N2 from the trajectories. The simulated CO2 permeance is on the order of magnitude of 105 GPU (gas permeation unit). The selective trend is further corroborated by the free energy barriers of permeation. The predicted CO2/N2 selectivity is around 300. Overall, the combination of high CO2 flux and high CO2/N2 selectivity makes nanoporous graphene a promising membrane for post-combustion CO2 separation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02852f

  10. STS-112 main engine installation after welding repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The first Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is installed on Space Shuttle Atlantis following the welding repair of the propulsion system flow liners as preparations to launch mission STS-112 continue. Mission STS-112 is an assembly flight to the International Space Station and is targeted for launch no earlier than Sept. 28, 2002. Members of the STS-112 crew are Commander Jeffrey Ashby; Pilot Pamela Melroy; and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency.

  11. STS-112 main engine installation after welding repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The first Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is installed on Space Shuttle Atlantis following the welding repair of the propulsion system flow liners as preparations to launch mission STS-112 continue. Angela DiMattia is the move director for Rocketdyne. Rocketdyne employee Gerald Braham is seen here behind the engine offering additional guidance. Mission STS-112 is an assembly flight to the International Space Station and is targeted for launch no earlier than Sept. 28, 2002. Members of the STS-112 crew are Commander Jeffrey Ashby; Pilot Pamela Melroy; and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency.

  12. Waste Site Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Old aircraft considered not restorable are melted down in on-site furnaces to reclaim the aluminum in their airframes. The process produces aluminum ingots and leaves a residue known as "dross." Because dross contains contaminants like lead silver cadmium and copper, Pima County, the dross dumping site, wanted to locate areas where dross had been dumped. Dr. Larry Lepley and Sandra L. Perry used the Landsat Thematic Mapper to screen for dross. A special two-step procedure was developed to separate the dross dumps (typically no larger than 50 meters across) from the desert background. The project has opened the door for similar applications.

  13. Karma eaters: the politics of food and fat in women's land communities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Luis, Keridwen N

    2012-01-01

    Why is thinness so important among women who have largely rejected mainstream definitions of femininity? The idea of health has great cultural power and has come to symbolize not simply bodily but also spiritual, social, and moral well-being. These ideas permeate U.S. culture, and in women's land communities, the virtue of hunger and the morality of health take on differently inflected but no less potent meanings. Ironically, in a context where women reject many gender restrictions--restrictions increasingly, as Sandra Bartky notes, focused on the female body-the importance of the thin (and thus properly feminine) body persists through the symbolism of health and virtue. PMID:22239456

  14. The Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures: Ongoing Institutional Cooperation for Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years (with one year off for good behavior), four astronomical institutions in the San Francisco Bay Area have cooperated to produce a major evening public-lecture series on astronomy and space science topics. Co-sponsored by Foothill College's Astronomy Program, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the SETI Institute, and NASA Ames Research Center, the six annual Silicon Valley Astronomy Lectures have drawn audiences ranging from 450 to 950 people, and represent a significant opportunity to get information about modern astronomical research out to the public. Past speakers have included Nobel Laureate Arno Penzias, Vera Rubin, Frank Drake, Sandra Faber, and other distinguished scientists.

  15. A case for more curiosity-driven basic research

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Having been selected to be among the exquisitely talented scientists who won the Sandra K. Masur Senior Leadership Award is a tremendous honor. I would like to take this opportunity to make the case for a conviction of mine that I think many will consider outdated. I am convinced that we need more curiosity-driven basic research aimed at understanding the principles governing life. The reasons are simple: 1) we need to learn more about the world around us; and 2) a robust and diverse basic research enterprise will bring ideas and approaches essential for developing new medicines and improving the lives of humankind. PMID:26515972

  16. Stir bar sorptive extraction applied to the analysis of biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Nazyropoulou, Chrysoula; Samanidou, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is a sample preparation technique, which is used for the extraction as well as the preconcentration of organic substances from various aqueous matrices, prior to the determination of the analytes with a separation technique, such as LC or GC, coupled to different detectors. Since 1999, when SBSE was first developed by Sandra and co-workers, SBSE has been used in the analysis of samples of environmental, food, pharmaceutical and biomedical origin. In this article, we focus on the application of SBSE in biological fluids. PMID:26354598

  17. KSC-03PD-2976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Sandra Anderson, wife of STS-107 Payload Commander Michael Anderson, visits a new residence hall at the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT) in Melbourne, Fla., named for her late husband. Family members of the STS-107 astronauts, other dignitaries, members of the university community and the public gathered for a dedication ceremony for the Columbia Village at FIT. Each of the seven new residence halls in the complex is named for one of the STS-107 astronauts who perished during the Columbia accident -- Rick Husband, Willie McCool, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Ilan Ramon.

  18. STS-112 crew in front of Launch Pad 39B before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Members of the STS-112 crew pose in front of Launch Pad 39B during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to launch. From left, they are Mission Specialist Sandra H. Magnus, Commander Jeffrey S. Ashby, Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy, a nd Mission Specialists David A. Wolf, Fyodor N. Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency, and Piers J. Sellers. The launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis was postponed today to no earlier than Thursday, Oct. 3, while weather forecasters and the mission managemen t team assess the possible effect Hurricane Lili may have on the Mission Control Center located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

  19. STS-112 crew post-landing briefing for the media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew takes part in a post-landing briefing for the media. Moderating, at left, is George Diller, with the NASA News Center. The crew, from left, are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Sandra Magnus, Piers Sellers and cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin. Mission STS-112 was the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, installing the S1 truss. The landing was the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  20. STS-112 Pilot Melroy inspects cables prior to launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-112 Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy (left) conducts a last-minute inspection of some cables inside Space Shuttle Atlantis at Launch Pad 39B prior to the launch of her mission. The STS-112 crew also includes Commander Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists David A. Wolf, Sandra H. Magnus, Piers J. Sellers, and Fyodor N. Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency. Launch of the mission was postponed today to no earlier than Thursday, Oct. 3, while weather forecasters and the mission management team assess the possible effect Hurricane Lili may have on the Mission Control Center located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

  1. Validation of MODIS Terra and Aqua Ice Surface Temperatures at Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Shuman, C. A.; Xiong, X.; Wenny, B. N.; DiGirolamo, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-surface temperature (IST) is used in many studies, for example for validation of model output and for detection of leads and thin ice in sea ice. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites are useful for mapping IST of sea ice and the Greenland ice sheet (Hall et al., 2012), and validation of the ISTs derived from MODIS has been an ongoing effort (e.g., Koenig & Hall, 2010; Shuman et al., 2014). Recent results call into question the calibration of the MODIS-derived ISTs at very cold temperatures that are characteristic of the Greenland ice sheet high interior during winter (Shuman et al., 2014). In the present work, we investigate the calibration of MODIS IR bands 31 (10.780 - 11.280 µm) and 32 (11.770 - 12.270 µm) under very cold conditions. MODIS IR bands are calibrated using a quadratic algorithm. In Collection 6 (C6), the offset and nonlinear calibration coefficients are computed from data collected during the blackbody cool-down vs the warm-up data used in Collection 5 (C5). To improve the calibration accuracy for low-temperature scenes, the offset terms are set to 0. In general, Aqua MODIS bands 31 and 32 perform better than Terra MODIS bands 31 and 32. One of the reasons is that the Aqua bands have a lower saturation temperature (~340 K) than the Terra (~380 K) bands, and lower saturation or smaller dynamic range means better resolution. As compared to ~2-m NOAA air temperatures (TA) at Summit, Greenland, Shuman et al. (2014) show a small (~0.5°C) offset in Terra MODIS-derived IST vs TA near 0°C, and an increasingly larger offset (up to ~5°C) as TA drops to -60°C. To investigate this further, we compare Terra and Aqua C5 and C6 ISTs with TA data from Summit. This work will document the calibration of bands 31 and 32 at very low temperatures in C5 and C6. Hall, D.K., et al., 2012: Satellite-Derived Climate-Quality Data Record of the Clear-Sky Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Jour. Clim., 25(14):4785-4798.Koenig, L.S. and D.K. Hall, 2010: Comparison of satellite, thermochron and station temperatures at Summit, Greenland, during the winter of 2008/09, Jour. Glaciol., 56(198):735-741. Shuman, C.A., et al., 2014: Comparison of near-surface air temperatures and MODIS ice-surface temperatures at Summit, Greenland (2008-2013), JAMC, in press.

  2. Automated Laser-Light Scattering measurements of Impurities, Bubbles, and Imperfections in Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, M. R.; Ram, M.

    2004-12-01

    Laser- light scattering (LLS) on polar ice, or on polar ice meltwater, is an accepted method for measuring the concentration of water insoluble aerosol deposits (dust) in the ice. LLS on polar ice can also be used to measure water soluble aerosols, as well as imperfections (air bubbles and cavities) in the ice. LLS was originally proposed by Hammer (1977a, b) as a method for measuring the dust concentration in polar ice meltwater. Ram et al. (1995) later advanced the method and applied it to solid ice, measuring the dust concentration profile along the deep, bubble-free sections of the Greenland Ice Sheet Projetct 2 (GISP2) ice core (Ram et al., 1995, 2000) from central Greenland. In this paper, we will put previous empirical findings (Ram et al., 1995, 2000) on a theoretical footing, and extend the usability of LLS on ice into the realm of the non-transparent, bubbly polar ice. For LLS on clear, bubble-free polar ice, we studied numerically the scattering of light by soluble and insoluble (dust) aerosol particles embedded in the ice to complement previous experimental studies (Ram et al., 2000). For air bubbles in polar ice, we calculated the effects of multiple light scattering using Mie theory and Monte Carlo simulations, and found a method for determining the bubble number size and concentration using LLS on bubbly ice. We also demonstrated that LLS can be used on bubbly ice to measure annual layers rapidly in an objective manner. Hammer, C. U. (1977a), Dating of Greenland ice cores by microparticle concentration analyses., in International Symposium on Isotopes and Impurities in Snow and Ice, pp. 297-301, IAHS publ. no. 118. Hammer, C. U. (1977b), Dust studies on Greenland ice cores, in International Symposium on Isotopes and Impurities in Snow and Ice, pp. 365-370, IAHS publ. no. 118. Ram, M., M. Illing, P. Weber, G. Koenig, and M. Kaplan (1995), Polar ice stratigraphy from laser-light scattering: Scattering from ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(24), 3525-3527. Ram, M., J. Donarummo, M. R. Stolz, and G. Koenig (2000), Calibration of laser-light scattering measurements of dust concentration for Wisconsinan GISP2 ice using instrumental neutron activation analysis of aluminum: Results and discussion, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D20), 24,731--24,738.

  3. Spirituality and Health Education: A National Survey of Academic Leaders UK.

    PubMed

    Culatto, A; Summerton, C B

    2015-12-01

    Whole person care is deemed important within UK medical practice and is therefore fundamental in education. However, spirituality is an aspect of this often neglected. Confusion and discomfort exists regarding how care relating to issues of spirituality and health (S&H) should be delivered. Different interpretations have even led to disciplinary action with professionals seeking to address these needs [ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/4409168/Nurse-suspended-for-offering-to-prayfor-patients-recovery.html ]. Previous research shows 45% of patients want spiritual needs to be addressed within their care (Jackson and Summerton 2008). Two-thirds of healthcare professionals want to do this. However, lack of knowledge is a significant barrier (Moynihan 2008). Little is known regarding how Medical schools address S&H, only one limited study exists in the literature (Koenig et al. in Int J Psychiat Med 40: 391-8, 2010). Thirty-two UK educational institutions were surveyed. The chosen survey was compiled by Koenig and Meador (Spirituality and Health in Education and Researc. Duke University, Durham, 2008). Fifty-nine academics were contacted across UK medical schools, and the response rate was 57.6%. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. 5.6% institutions provide required and dedicated S&H teaching, 63.4% provided it as an integrated component. Nearly 40% felt staff were not adequately trained to teach S&H but welcomed opportunities for training. S&H is given value in undergraduate education but with little evidence of formal teaching. Institutions feel that this area is addressed within other topic delivery, although previous studies have shown integrating S&H with PBL leads to poor clinical performance (Musick et al. in Acad Psychiatry 27(2):67-73, 2003). Seminars or lectures are students' preferred methods of learning (Guck and Kavan in Med Teach 28(8):702-707, 2006). Further consideration should be given towards S&H delivery and training for practice. PMID:25424304

  4. Relationships Between the Bulk-Skin Sea Surface Temperature Difference, Wind, and Net Air-Sea Heat Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to evaluate and improve models for the bulk-skin temperature difference to the point where they could accurately and reliably apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this goal, work was conducted in three primary areas. These included production of an archive of available data sets containing measurements of the skin and bulk temperatures and associated environmental conditions, evaluation of existing skin layer models using the compiled data archive, and additional theoretical work on the development of an improved model using the data collected under diverse environmental conditions. In this work we set the basis for a new physical model of renewal type, and propose a parameterization for the temperature difference across the cool skin of the ocean in which the effects of thermal buoyancy, wind stress, and microscale breaking are all integrated by means of the appropriate renewal time scales. Ideally, we seek to obtain a model that will accurately apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. A summary of the work in each of these areas is included in this report. A large amount of work was accomplished under the support of this grant. The grant supported the graduate studies of Sandra Castro and the preparation of her thesis which will be completed later this year. This work led to poster presentations at the 1999 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting and 2000 IGARSS meeting. Additional work will be presented in a talk at this year's American Meteorological Society Air-Sea Interaction Meeting this May. The grant also supported Sandra Castro during a two week experiment aboard the R/P Flip (led by Dr. Andrew Jessup of the Applied Physics Laboratory) to help obtain additional shared data sets and to provide Sandra with a fundamental understanding of the physical processes needed in the models. In a related area, the funding also partially supported Dr. William Emery and Daniel Baldwin in the preparation of their publication "Accuracy of in situ sea surface temperatures used to calibrate infrared satellite measurements". The remainder of this report is drawn from these publications and presentations.

  5. Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Sayani; Ashok, B. K.; Nishteswar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is considered to be one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana. In folklore, the herb is well known for its laxative activity. This plant belongs to Convolvulaceae family. It is observed that the plants of this family especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins. The present experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time on Swiss albino mice and the test drugs were administered in dose of 400 mg/kg. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter. The results shows that both root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among which leaf sample is found to be better. Hence, for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant. PMID:24696582

  6. Evaluation of intestinal transit time of root and leaves of Ipomea sepiaria.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Sayani; Ashok, B K; Nishteswar, K

    2013-10-01

    Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig Ex. Roxb is considered to be one of the source plants of the classical herb Lakshmana. In folklore, the herb is well known for its laxative activity. This plant belongs to Convolvulaceae family. It is observed that the plants of this family especially the species of Ipomoea are rich in purgative resins. The present experimental study was carried out to evaluate the effect of leaf and root of I. sepiaria on intestinal transit time on Swiss albino mice and the test drugs were administered in dose of 400 mg/kg. Evaluation of intestinal transit time was carried out by adopting Kaolin expulsion test and latency of onset of kaolin expulsion in fecal matter. The results shows that both root and leaf samples of I. sepiaria have marked intestinal motility enhancing property, among which leaf sample is found to be better. Hence, for the therapeutic purpose leaf can be preferred to get better activity profile and also to prevent destructive harvesting of the plant. PMID:24696582

  7. On being examined: do students and faculty agree?

    PubMed

    Perrella, Andrew; Koenig, Joshua; Kwon, Henry; Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P K

    2015-12-01

    Students measure out their lives, not with coffee spoons, but with grades on examinations. But what exams mean and whether or not they are a bane or a boon is moot. Senior undergraduates (A. Perrella, J. Koenig, and H. Kwon) designed and administered a 15-item survey that explored the contrasting perceptions of both students (n = 526) and faculty members (n = 33) in a 4-yr undergraduate health sciences program. A series of statements gauged the level of agreement on a 10-point scale. Students and faculty members agreed on the value of assessing student learning with a variety of methods, finding new information to solve problems, assessing conceptual understanding and logical reasoning, having assessments with no single correct answer, and having comments on exams. Clear differences emerged between students and faculty members on specific matters: rubrics, student choice of exam format, assessing creativity, and transfer of learning to novel situations. A followup questionnaire allowed participants to clarify their interpretation of select statements, with responses from 71 students and 17 faculty members. All parties strongly agreed that exams should provide a good learning experience that would help them prepare for the future (students: 8.64 ± 1.71 and faculty members: 8.03 ± 2.34). PMID:26628655

  8. The quantum spin Hall effect and the topological magneto-electric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shoucheng

    2009-03-01

    Search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become a important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. I shall review the theoretical prediction[1] of the QSH state in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells, and its recent experimental observation [2]. The QSH effect can be generalized to three dimensions as the topological magneto-electric effect (TME) of the topological insulators [4]. I shall also present realistic experimental proposals to observe fractional charge [3], spin-charge separation and the deconfinement of the magnetic monopoles in these novel topological states of matter. [4pt] [1] A. Bernevig, T. Hughes and S. C. Zhang, Science, 314, 1757, (2006) [0pt] [2] M. Koenig et al, Science 318, 766, (2007) [0pt] [3] X. Qi, T. Hughes and S. C. Zhang, Nature Physics, 4, 273 (2008) [0pt] [4] Xiao-Liang Qi, Taylor Hughes and Shou-Cheng Zhang, ``Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators", Phys. Rev B. 78, 195424 (2008)

  9. Rational approximations from power series of vector-valued meromorphic functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram

    1992-01-01

    Let F(z) be a vector-valued function, F: C yields C(sup N), which is analytic at z = 0 and meromorphic in a neighborhood of z = 0, and let its Maclaurin series be given. In this work we developed vector-valued rational approximation procedures for F(z) by applying vector extrapolation methods to the sequence of partial sums of its Maclaurin series. We analyzed some of the algebraic and analytic properties of the rational approximations thus obtained, and showed that they were akin to Pade approximations. In particular, we proved a Koenig type theorem concerning their poles and a de Montessus type theorem concerning their uniform convergence. We showed how optical approximations to multiple poles and to Laurent expansions about these poles can be constructed. Extensions of the procedures above and the accompanying theoretical results to functions defined in arbitrary linear spaces was also considered. One of the most interesting and immediate applications of the results of this work is to the matrix eigenvalue problem. In a forthcoming paper we exploited the developments of the present work to devise bona fide generalizations of the classical power method that are especially suitable for very large and sparse matrices. These generalizations can be used to approximate simultaneously several of the largest distinct eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors and invariant subspaces of arbitrary matrices which may or may not be diagonalizable, and are very closely related with known Krylov subspace methods.

  10. Simulation of acoustic agglomeration processes of poly-disperse solid particles

    SciTech Connect

    Changdong Sheng; Xianglin Shen

    2007-01-15

    This article presents the simulation of acoustic agglomeration of poly-disperse solid particles with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The modelled processes include the agglomeration due to the orthokinetic and hydrodynamic mechanisms, Brownian coagulation and wall deposition. The aggregates formed during the agglomeration process were characterised as mass fractal aggregates with an equivalent radius to estimate the average radius of the primary particles in individual aggregates. Acoustic agglomeration of fly ash with a lognormal size distribution and TiO{sub 2} particles with a bimodal size distribution was simulated and validated against the experimental data in the literature. It was found that the acoustic agglomeration process of solid particles could be represented with a modified version of Song's orthokinetic model and Koenig's hydrodynamic equation that account for the fractal-like morphology of the aggregates. The fractal dimensions of around 1.8 and 2.2 were obtained for the fly ash and TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively, consistent with the values reported for the aggregates in the literature. The poly-disperse nature of the primary particles is essential to the simulation; assuming mono-disperse primary particles leads to a significant underestimation of the agglomeration rate and the particle size growth particularly during the early stages of the acoustic agglomeration process. Particle deposition on the chamber walls also has some effect on acoustic agglomeration.

  11. Detailed analysis of the repeat domain of dystrophin reveals four potential hinge segments that may confer flexibility.

    PubMed

    Koenig, M; Kunkel, L M

    1990-03-15

    Most of dystrophin, the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus, is composed of spectrin-like repeats, suggesting that dystrophin is an elongated cytoskeletal molecule (Davison, M. D., and Critchley, D. R. (1988) Cell 52, 159-160; Koenig, M., Monaco, A. P., and Kunkel, L. M. (1988) Cell 53, 219-228). We present here a detailed analysis of the repeat domain of human dystrophin and propose that it is composed of 24 rather than 26 repeat units as previously suggested. Moreover, spacer sequences which do not align with the repeat consensus are present at the beginning and at the end of the repeat domain. Two other non-repeat spacers are found between repeat elements 3 and 4 and 19 and 20. The high proline content of each spacer suggests that it might represent a hinge. Using five new anti-dystrophin antisera and two previously described antisera (Hoffman, E. P., Brown, R. H., Jr., and Kunkel, L. M. (1987a) Cell 51, 919-928) to detect different dystrophin peptides after proteolytic cleavage, we show that the four hinge segments are sensitive sites for proteolysis. We present a model for a membrane-associated network of dystrophin in which the hinges play a key role by conferring flexibility to the network and thus resilience to the membrane. PMID:2407739

  12. Satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious and religious people: it's practicing one's religion that makes the difference.

    PubMed

    Berthold, Anne; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    According to systematic reviews, religious beliefs and practices are related to higher life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect (Koenig and Larson, 2001). The present research extends previous findings by comparing satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious people, religious people, who practice their religion and people that have a religious affiliation but do not practice their religion. We assessed life satisfaction (SWLS), character strengths (VIA-IS) and the orientations to happiness (OTH) in a sample of N = 20538 participants. People with a religious affiliation that also practice their religion were found to be more satisfied with their life and scored higher on life of meaning than those who do not practice their religion and than non-religious people. Also religious people who practice their religion differed significantly from those who do not practice their religion and non-religious people regarding several character strengths; they scored higher on kindness, love, gratitude, hope, forgiveness, and on spirituality. There were no substantial differences between people who had no religious affiliation and those with a religious affiliation that do not practice their religion (all [Formula: see text]s < 0.009). Altogether, the present findings suggest that people profit from a religious affiliation if they also actively practice their religion. PMID:25177303

  13. Adaptive optics without altering visual perception

    PubMed Central

    DE, Koenig; NW, Hart; HJ, Hofer

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive optics combined with visual psychophysics creates the potential to study the relationship between visual function and the retina at the cellular scale. This potential is hampered, however, by visual interference from the wavefront-sensing beacon used during correction. For example, we have previously shown that even a dim, visible beacon can alter stimulus perception (Hofer, H. J., Blaschke, J., Patolia, J., & Koenig, D. E. (2012). Fixation light hue bias revisited: Implications for using adaptive optics to study color vision. Vision Research, 56, 49-56). Here we describe a simple strategy employing a longer wavelength (980nm) beacon that, in conjunction with appropriate restriction on timing and placement, allowed us to perform psychophysics when dark adapted without altering visual perception. The method was verified by comparing detection and color appearance of foveally presented small spot stimuli with and without the wavefront beacon present in 5 subjects. As an important caution, we found that significant perceptual interference can occur even with a subliminal beacon when additional measures are not taken to limit exposure. Consequently, the lack of perceptual interference should be verified for a given system, and not assumed based on invisibility of the beacon. PMID:24607992

  14. Satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious and religious people: it’s practicing one’s religion that makes the difference

    PubMed Central

    Berthold, Anne; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    According to systematic reviews, religious beliefs and practices are related to higher life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect (Koenig and Larson, 2001). The present research extends previous findings by comparing satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious people, religious people, who practice their religion and people that have a religious affiliation but do not practice their religion. We assessed life satisfaction (SWLS), character strengths (VIA-IS) and the orientations to happiness (OTH) in a sample of N = 20538 participants. People with a religious affiliation that also practice their religion were found to be more satisfied with their life and scored higher on life of meaning than those who do not practice their religion and than non-religious people. Also religious people who practice their religion differed significantly from those who do not practice their religion and non-religious people regarding several character strengths; they scored higher on kindness, love, gratitude, hope, forgiveness, and on spirituality. There were no substantial differences between people who had no religious affiliation and those with a religious affiliation that do not practice their religion (all ηp2s < 0.009). Altogether, the present findings suggest that people profit from a religious affiliation if they also actively practice their religion. PMID:25177303

  15. Herbig-haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the VELA C molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg{sup 2}. In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang and Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  16. Herbig-Haro Objects and Mid-infrared Outflows in the Vela C Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg2. In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang & Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Vilnius photometry near Sh 2-205 (Straizys+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straizys, V.; Cepas, V.; Boyle, R. P.; Zdanavicius, J.; Maskoliunas, M.; Kazlauskas, A.; Zdanavicius, K.; Cernis, K.

    2016-04-01

    Table 1 contains the results of photometry of 302 stars down to V=19.5mag in the Vilnius seven-color system in the vicinity of the dark cloud TGU H942 P7 and emission nebula Sh2-205. Photometric data are used to classify stars in spectral and luminosity classes. The identification numbers, coordinates, V magnitudes and six color indices in the Vilnius system, photometric two-dimensional spectral types (spectral and luminosity classes) are given. The identification numbers start from from 1001 to avoid confusion with the catalog of Cepas et al. (2013BaltA..22..243C, Cat. J/BaltA/22/223). The coordinates are from PPMXL catalog (Roeser et al. 2010AJ....139.2440R, Cat. I/317). Table 2 contains the list of 88 YSOs, identified using the Koenig & Leisawitz (2014ApJ...791..131K) classification scheme, which combines the WISE and 2MASS near- and mid-infrared colours. The identification number and W1, W2, W3, J, H, Ks magnitudes are from WISE All-sky Data Release (Cutri et al., 2012yCat.2311....0C, Cat. II/311). The types of identified YSOs are given. (2 data files).

  18. Varieties of testimony: children's selective learning in semantic versus episodic domains.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Elizabeth C; Koenig, Melissa A

    2015-04-01

    Although preschoolers appear sensitive to the risk of misinformation and demonstrate selective learning in certain experimental contexts (e.g., Koenig, Clément, & Harris, 2004), other paradigms emphasize their striking credulity (e.g., Jaswal, Croft, Setia, & Cole, 2010). The current study sought to explain these divergent patterns by examining the possibility that errors for semantic information, a type of information that is typically generalizable and difficult to verify independently, promote greater vigilance than errors for episodic information, which is often event-specific and independently verifiable. Three- and 4-year-olds first viewed 2 speakers testify correctly or incorrectly about object labels (Semantic condition) or locations (Episodic condition). At test, speakers presented conflicting novel object labels and locations. Preschoolers initially exposed to semantic inaccuracy more vigilantly preferred a previously accurate informant than did children initially exposed to episodic inaccuracy. Findings speak against a homogeneous treatment of testimony and suggest that preschoolers' testimonial vigilance varies according to the content of speakers' errors. PMID:25681558

  19. Can the Effects of Religion and Spirituality on Both Physical and Mental Health be Scientifically Measured? An Overview of the Key Sources, with Particular Reference to the Teachings of Said Nursi.

    PubMed

    Turner, Mahshid

    2015-12-01

    Within Western secular societies, everything has to be substantiated by empirical evidence; this means it has to be quantifiable and measurable. Research, particularly quantitative research, then, is the criterion by which everything, including religion, is either accepted or rejected. The separation of religion from science began with the Renaissance, the Reformation and the advent of the Enlightenment. It was perceived that religion did not match the language of science and that there was no logical proof or empirical evidence for the existence of God. Religion therefore, due to its inability to be measured and quantified, has since been largely marginalised. In recent times, in order to integrate 'religion' into everyday life, attempts have been made to argue and bring in scientific proof for the effectiveness of religion for improved health and well-being. The psychiatrist Harold Koenig has been one of the key people whose collation of research evidence has shown that religion has a positive effect on both physical and mental health. By looking firstly at the definitions of religion and spirituality and then discussing various opinions from both secular and religious perspectives, including those of Said Nursi, this paper aimed to determine whether religion and spirituality can indeed be measured. PMID:24928720

  20. Experimental study of highly compressed iron user laser driven shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Huser, Gael; Koenig, Michel; Grandjouan, Nicolas; Faral, Bernard; Batani, Dimitri; Henry, Emeric; Tomasini, Michaela; Hall, Thomas; Romain, Jp; Resseguier, Thibault; Hallouin, Martine; Guyot, François

    2001-06-01

    Experiments with lasers have recently provided important improvements in our knowledge of highly compressed matter (in particular, Equation Of State). We present recent results on iron which are relevant to planetary physics1. We measured the free surface velocity of the compressed iron by using a VISAR diagnostic2, and the shock velocity through step targets on the same shot3. An absolute EOS is then deduced for the lower pressures (1-3 Mbar). For higher pressures (3-7 Mbar), we compared release wave in vacuum with calculassions based on SESAME EOS . With a iron+LiF window, we also determined a release wave in iron for the transmitted shock in the window. The experiments have been performed at the LULI laboratory of the Ecole Polytechnique. References 1 W. Anderson, et al., J. Geophys. Research 99, 4273 (1994). 2 P. M. Celliers, et al., Applied Phys. Lett. 73, 1320 (1998). 3 M. Koenig, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2260 (1995).

  1. What Does Galileo's Discovery of Jupiter's Moons Tell Us About the Process of Scientific Discovery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter''smoons with the aid of a new morepowerful telescope of his invention. Analysisof his report reveals that his discoveryinvolved the use of at least three cycles ofhypothetico-deductive reasoning. Galileofirst used hypothetico-deductive reasoning to generateand reject a fixed star hypothesis.He then generated and rejected an ad hocastronomers-made-a-mistake hypothesis.Finally, he generated, tested, and accepted a moonhypothesis. Galileo''s reasoningis modeled in terms of Piaget''s equilibration theory,Grossberg''s theory of neurologicalactivity, a neural network model proposed by Levine &Prueitt, and another proposedby Kosslyn & Koenig. Given that hypothetico-deductivereasoning has played a rolein other important scientific discoveries, thequestion is asked whether it plays a rolein all important scientific discoveries. In otherwords, is hypothetico-deductive reasoningthe essence of the scientific method? Possiblealternative scientific methods, such asBaconian induction and combinatorial analysis,are explored and rejected as viablealternatives. Educational implications of thishypothetico-deductive view of scienceare discussed.

  2. Physical characteristics of experienced and junior open-wheel car drivers.

    PubMed

    Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter; Patterson, Carson

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of open-wheel car racing, scientific literature about the physical characteristics of competitive race car drivers is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare selected fitness parameters of experienced and junior open-wheel race car drivers. The experienced drivers consisted of five Formula One, two GP2 and two Formula 3 drivers, and the nine junior drivers drove in the Formula Master, Koenig, BMW and Renault series. The following fitness parameters were tested: multiple reactions, multiple anticipation, postural stability, isometric upper body strength, isometric leg extension strength, isometric grip strength, cyclic foot speed and jump height. The group differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Because of the multiple testing strategy used, the statistical significance was Bonferroni corrected and set at P < 0.004. Significant differences between the experienced and junior drivers were found only for the jump height parameter (P = 0.002). The experienced drivers tended to perform better in leg strength (P = 0.009), cyclic foot speed (P = 0.024) and grip strength (P = 0.058). None of the other variables differed between the groups. The results suggested that the experienced drivers were significantly more powerful than the junior drivers: they tended to be quicker and stronger (18% to 25%) but without statistical significance. The experienced drivers demonstrated excellent strength and power compared with other high-performance athletes. PMID:22938195

  3. Management of failed and infected first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty by reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Wissam E; Fahim, Ramy; Sciulli, Jessica M; Ehredt, Duane J

    2012-01-01

    Management of failed first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty, especially in the face of infection, is an area of debate without a clear consensus. The purpose of the present report was to explore a new option of reconstructing the joint with an acellular dermal matrix substance in a single case study during a 12-month follow-up period. A staged approach that began with removal of the failed 2-component great toe implant, Koenig(®), excisional debridement of the wound with resection of the necrotic bone (proximal phalanx and distal portion of the first metatarsal bones), and culture-specific antibiosis therapy. The final stage included incorporating the acellular dermal matrix, Graftjacket(®) into the joint in an accordion-type fashion, and reconstruction of the joint capsule. Postoperative radiographs revealed a more rectus joint with some improvement in length. At 6 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging revealed incorporation of the graft material into the joint. Finally, at the 1-year mark, the patient was pain free with satisfactory function at the first metatarsophalangeal joint during gait. This is the first reported case of salvaging failed and infected first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty with incorporation of the acellular dermal matrix and provides a new option to consider in the future. PMID:22704789

  4. Two real-time RT-PCR assays of classical swine fever virus, developed for the genetic differentiation of naturally infected from vaccinated wild boars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Hoffmann, Bernd; Baule, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Belák, Sándor; Widén, Frederik

    2009-07-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a disease notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). A live marker vaccine would be the ultimate choice for controlling CSF, which enables serological and genetic differentiation of vaccine from wild type CSFV. Recently, a marker vaccine CP7_E2alf has been reported [Koenig, P., Lange, E., Reimann, I., Beer, M., 2007. CP7_E2alf: a safe and efficient marker vaccine strain for oral immunisation of wild boar against classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Vaccine 25, 3391-3399]. A vaccine-specific TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay was developed and evaluated, and a second, wild type-specific assay was modified from an established one in such a way that both can be performed in two wells side-by-side in a microplate in a single run. The detection limit is 50 viral RNA copies per reaction for the vaccine-specific assay, and 20 copies per reaction for the wild type assay. The two assays have been shown to be highly specific and reproducible, with potential application for genetic differentiation of wild type CSFV from the marker vaccine CP7_E2alf in wild boar vaccination programs. PMID:19442858

  5. Size-to-charge dispersion of collision-induced dissociation product ions for enhancement of structural information and product ion identification.

    PubMed

    Zinnel, Nathanael F; Russell, David H

    2014-05-20

    Ion mobility is used to disperse product ions formed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) on the basis of charge state and size-to-charge ratio. We previously described an approach for combining CID with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) for dispersing fragment ions along charge state specific trend lines (Zinnel, N. F.; Pai, P. J.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 3390; Sowell, R. A.; Koeniger, S. L.; Valentine, S. J.; Moon, M. H.; Clemmer, D. E. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2004, 15, 1341; McLean, J. A.; Ruotolo, B. T.; Gillig, K. J.; Russell, D. H. Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2005, 240, 301), and this approach was used to assign metal ion binding sites for human metallothionein protein MT-2a (Chen, S. H.; Russell, W. K.; Russell, D. H. Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 3229). Here, we use this approach to distinguish b-type N-terminal fragment ions from both internal fragment ions and y-type C-terminal fragment ions. We also show that in some cases specific secondary structural elements, viz., extended coils or helices, can be obtained for the y-type fragment ions series. The advantage of this approach is that product ion identity can be correlated to gas-phase ion structure, which provides rapid identification of the onset and termination of extended coil structure in peptides. PMID:24754452

  6. An experimental model system for HIV-1-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, H E; Genis, P; Jett, M; Zhai, Q H; Nottet, H S

    1994-01-01

    The pathological hallmark of HIV infection in brain is productive viral replication in cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage including brain macrophages, microglia and multinucleated giant cells (Koenig et al., 1986; Wiley et al., 1986; Gabuzda et al., 1986; Stoler et al., 1986). These cells secrete viral and cell encoded neurotoxins that lead to neuronal injury, glial proliferation and myelin pallor during advancing disease (Genis et al., 1992; Giulian et al., 1990, 1993; Pulliam et al., 1991). The apparent paradox between the distribution and numbers of virus infected cells and brain tissue pathology support indirect mechanisms for CNS damage (Epstein, 1993; Geleziunas et al., 1992; Merrill and Chen, 1992; Michaels et al., 1988; Price et al., 1988). First, brain macrophages and microglia can produce neurotoxins by secretion of viral proteins (for example, gp120) (Dawson et al., 1991; Merrill et al., 1989; Lipton et al., 1990; Lipton, 1993). Second, HIV primes macrophages for immune activation to produce neurotoxins including: cytokines (TNF alpha and IL-1 beta), eicosanoids: quinolinate and nitric oxide (NO). Chronic immune stimulation mediated by opportunistic infections and chronic interferon gamma (IFN gamma) production (in and outside the CNS) continues the process of macrophage activation leading to progressive neural injury. The hyperresponsiveness of HIV-infected macrophages to activation results in production of cellular factors that activate uninfected macrophages. This suggests that HIV-infected macrophages are both perpetrators and amplifiers for neurotoxic activities. PMID:7874386

  7. STS-112 main engine installation after welding repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The first Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is installed on Space Shuttle Atlantis following the welding repair of the propulsion flow liners as preparations to launch mission STS-112 continue. Angela DiMattia is the move director for Rocketdyne. Rocketdyne employee Gerald Braham is seen here behind the engine offering additional guidance. Below him is Teryon Jones (right), also of Rocketdyne. Mission STS-112 is an assembly flight to the International Space Station and is targeted for launch no earlier than Sept. 28, 2002. Members of the STS-112 crew are Commander Jeffrey Ashby; Pilot Pamela Melroy; and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency.

  8. STS-112 main engine installation after welding repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The first Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is installed on Space Shuttle Atlantis following the welding repair of the propulsion system flow liners as preparations to launch mission STS-112 continue. Angela DiMattia is the move director for Rocketdyne. Rocketdyne employee Gerald Braham is seen here behind the engine offering additional guidance. Below him are Mark Starr (left) and Teryon Jones (right), both employees of Rocketdyne. Mission STS-112 is an assembly flight to the International Space Station and is targeted for launch no earlier than Sept. 28, 2002. Members of the STS-112 crew are Commander Jeffrey Ashby; Pilot Pamela Melroy; and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency.

  9. STS-112 main engine installation after welding repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The first Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is installed on Space Shuttle Atlantis following the welding repair of the propulsion system flow liners as preparations to launch mission STS-112 continue. Sitting atop the engine is Angela DiMattia, the move director for Rocketdyne. Just behind and below her is Rocketdyne employee Brickford Lero, offering some additional guidance. Mission STS-112 is an assembly flight to the International Space Station and is targeted for launch no earlier than Sept. 28, 2002. Members of the STS-112 crew are Commander Jeffrey Ashby; Pilot Pamela Melroy; and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency.

  10. STS-112 crew talks to media after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-112 crew pauses at the microphone in front of Atlantis after exiting the crew transport vehicle. From left are Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus, Pilot Pamela Melroy, Commander Jeffrey Ashby, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Fyodor Yurchikhin and Piers Sellers. The flawless landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis on Runway 33 at KSC completed a 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment.

  11. STS-112 crew arrives at KSC's SLF for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After their arrival at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility, the STS-112 crew members stride happily to the side of the parking apron and a photo opportunity. From left are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Mission Specialist Piers Sellers, Pilot Pamela Melroy and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin, who is with the Russian Space Agency. Launch is scheduled for Oct. 2 between 2 and 6 p.m. STS-112, aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks.

  12. STS-112 crew on SLF after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Pilot Pamela Melroy (left) and Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus (center) talk to Acting Deputy Director JoAnn Morgan (right) after the crew's return to KSC. A flawless landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis completed a 4.5 -million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Other crew members are Commander Jeffrey Ashby and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Fyodor Yurchikhin and Piers Sellers. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11: 43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment.

  13. Psychodynamic cultural psychiatry: a new approach to teaching residents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    This article describes a course, Psychodynamic Cultural Psychiatry, taught to PGY-3 residents at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center that uses psychodynamic theory to help deepen cultural understanding. We (Sandra Park, the instructor for the course, and Elizabeth Auchincloss, the residency training director) developed the class in 2006 in an effort to raise cultural awareness in the residency curriculum. We believe that despite an inherent Western bias, psychodynamic theory can be an effective way to teach cultural psychiatry. Additionally, cultural understanding can enhance understanding of psychodynamic principles. In this article, we argue that our course in psychodynamic cultural psychiatry helps residents to integrate these two points of view. PMID:23480159

  14. STS-112 Crew walkout of O&C building for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew strides out of the Checkout and Operations Building on their way to the launch pad and a simulated countdown. On the left, front to back, are Pilot Pamela Melroy and Mission Specialists David Wolf and Fyodor Yurchikhin (RSA). On the right, front to back, are Commander Jeffrey Ashby and Mission Specialists Sandra Magnus and Piers Sellers. Mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  15. STS-112 Crew walkout of O&C building for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew heads for the Astrovan and a ride to the launch pad for a simulated countdown. From left are Mission Specialists Fyodor Yurchikhin (RSA), David Wolf and Piers Sellers; Pilot Pamela Melroy; Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus; and Commander Jeffrey Ashby. Mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  16. [Rethinking identity].

    PubMed

    Dorais, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Pioneering work conducted over the past decades used to design sex, gender and sexual orientation in order to go beyond the traditional binary model. In general, professionals in the health and social services, however, are a little bit slow to take note of this paradigm shift making more space for human diversity, and much less to the marginalization or pathologizing of differences. In this article, the work of Alfred Kinsey, Sandra Bem and Anne Fausto-Sterling will be especially presented, respectively on sexual orientation, gender and sex. It will be proposed to include their contributions (and also those of their successors) in a model taking into account both the diversity and the fluidity that may be present in identities and self-expressions related to sex, gender and sexual orientation. PMID:26966847

  17. STS-112 crew take break during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus, and Pilot Pamela Melroy take a momentary break from training at Pad 39B during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  18. STS-112 crew practices emergency egress training during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-112 Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus (left) sits in the slidewire basket basket on the 195-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure, Launch Pad 39B, while Mission Specialist Piers Sellers (right) reaches for the release lever. They and the rest of the crew are practicing emergency egress from the pad during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. Mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  19. Incentivising improvements in health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Adam

    2015-07-01

    This Special Section of Health Economics, Policy and Law begins with an article on the different ways in which one might incentivise improved performance among health care providers. I asked five experts on performance management, Gwyn Bevan, Tim Doran, Peter Smith, Sandra Tanenbaum and Karsten Vrangbaek, to write brief reactions to the article and to the notion of performance management in health care in general. The commentators were given an open remit to be as critical as they wished to be, and their reactions can be found in the pages that follow. I would like to thank Albert Weale for reviewing all of the articles, and Katie Brennan for serving as the catalyst for this collection. PMID:25728467

  20. STS-112 crew with President of Ajara in Georgia (Russia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, Aslan Abashidze (right), President of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara in Georgia (Russia), visits with the STS-112 crew. From left, they are Mission Specialist Piers J. Sellers; Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy; Mission Specialist Fyodor N. Yurchikhin, a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency; Mission Specialist Sandra H. Magnus; and CommanderJeffrey S. Ashby. Mission Specialist David A. Wolf, not pictured, is also a member of the crew. The crew is awaiting launch on mission STS-112 to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The launch has been postponed to no earlier than Monday, Oct. 7, so that the Mission Control Center, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, can be secured and protected from potential storm impacts from Hurricane Lili.

  1. Roster of president's Advisory Council.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    Twenty-three of the thirty members of President Clinton's Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS are listed. Seven members will be named at a later date. R. Scott Hitt, a physician and member of the board of directors of AIDS Project Los Angeles, will chair the Council. Bob Hattoy, Jeremy Landau, Steve Lew, and H. Alexander Robinson, each working in the AIDS community, are all living with HIV disease. Other members include Terje Anderson, Regina Aragon, Mary Boland, Nicholas Bollman, Robert L. Fogel, Debra Frazer-Howze, Kathleen M. Gerus, Edward Gould, Phyllis Greenberger, Carole laFavor, Alexandra Mary Levine, Altagracia Perez, Debbie Runions, Benjamin Schatz, Denise Stokes, Charles Quincy Troupe, Sandra Thurman, and Bruce G. Weninger. PMID:11362645

  2. STS-112 crew during meal before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew relaxes at the traditional crew meal before getting ready for launch later in the day. Seated, from left, are Mission Specialist Piers Sellers and Fyodor Yurchikhin, Pilot Pamela Melroy, Commander Jeffrey Ashby, and Mission Specialists Sandra Magnus and David Wolf. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. Launch is scheduled for 3:46 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B.

  3. Gold medal award for life achievement in the application of psychology.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Stuart Oskamp. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison. PMID:19618969

  4. Gold medal award for life achievement in psychology in the public interest.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is E. Scott Geller. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison. PMID:19618971

  5. STS-112 crew in front of Launch Pad 39B before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-112 Commander Jeffrey S. Ashby poses in front of Launch Pad 39B during a tour of Kennedy Space Center prior to launch. Also on the tour were the other members of the crew including Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Speci alists David A. Wolf, Sandra H. Magnus, Piers J. Sellers, and Fyodor N. Yurchikhin of the Russian Space Agency. The launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis was postponed today to no earlier than Thursday, Oct. 3, while weather forecasters and the mission managem ent team assess the possible effect Hurricane Lili may have on the Mission Control Center located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

  6. Technical report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Multiskilling.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This technical report was prepared by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Multiskilling: Brenda Adamovich, chair; Elise Davis-McFarland; William W. Green; and Arlene A. Pietranton, ex officio. Sandra R. Ulrich, 1993-1995 vice president for quality of service and John E. Bernthal, 1996-1998 vice president for quality of service, served as monitoring officers. The contributions of the Executive Board and select peer reviewers are gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are extended to Michelle Ferketic and Kirsten Gardner for their assistance in editing this report. Technical reports provide information to members on special issues affecting the delivery of services and/or serve as a basis for the development of a position statement. PMID:8680265

  7. Considerations on systematics of the Phytoseiidae (Acari: Mesostigmata), with definition of a new species group and description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Tsolakis, Haralabos; Ragusa, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The authors debate some aspects of the classification of the Phytoseiidae, especially the subfamily Typhlodrominae. Within this taxon, the rhenanus group is the most numerous species group of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius), with 206 nominal species. Detailed observation of morphological characters of the species in this group showed a considerable variation, suggesting the presence of different natural lineages. The discovery of the new species here described, Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) sandrae Ragusa & Tsolakis n. sp., allowed the definition of the new porathi species group. Definition of the new species group, a dichotomous key as well as the description of the new species are given. PMID:25781780

  8. Gold medal award for life achievement in the science of psychology.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Mary K. Rothbart. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison. PMID:19618972

  9. STS-112 crew talks to media after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew clown for the camera in front of Atlantis after saying a few words about their 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. From left are Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus, Pilot Pamela Melroy, Commander Jeffrey Ashby, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Fyodor Yurchikhin and Piers Sellers. The flawless landing of Space Shuttle Atlantis on Runway 33 at KSC completed the 10 day, 19 hour, 58 minute, 44 second- long mission. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment.

  10. Erratum.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Molecular Profile of Adult T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Mutations in RUNX1 and DNMT3A Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in T-ALL. Vera Grossmann, Claudia Haferlach, Sandra Weissmann, Andreas Roller, Sonja Schindela, Franziska Poetzinger, Kathrin Stadler, Frauke Bellos, Wolfgang Kern, Torsten Haferlach, Susanne Schnittger, and Alexander Kohlmann. Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer (2013) 52(4):410–422. DOI 10.1002/gcc.22039. For the above mentioned article, the authors submit a revised version of Figure 2A. The two protein domains MTase and PWWP of the DNMT3A protein were wrongly depicted in the legend, as the MTase domain has to be colored in green and PWWP in blue. The authors apologize to the editors of Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer and to the readers of this journal for this mistake. PMID:26273797

  11. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis stirs up dust as it touches down on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  12. STS-112 crew leave the crew transport vehicle after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As the STS-112 crew leaves the crew transport vehicle, they are greeted by mission managers and guests. The crew, from left, are Mission Specialists David Wolf, Fyodor Yurchikhin and Sandra Magnus; Pilot Pamela Melroy; Piers Sellers (talking to Acting Deputy Director JoAnn Morgan) and Commander Jeffrey Ashby (talking to Launch Director Mike Leinbach). Morgan is also Director of External Relations and Business Development. The crew returned to KSC after completing a 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. .

  13. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis is close to touchdown at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  14. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis kicks up dust as it touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  15. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Its drag chute deployed, Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop after touchdown on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  16. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  17. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Space Shuttle Atlantis drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  18. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis casts a needle-shaped shadow as it drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program.

  19. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  20. STS-112 crew boarding Atlantis for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the White Room at Launch Pad 39B, STS-112 Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus, Ph.D., receives assistance with her spacesuit during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a dress rehearsal for launch. Launch of STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, which will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  1. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A fire rescue truck stands by for safety reasons as Space Shuttle Atlantis slows to a stop on Runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  2. STS-112 Atlantis landing at KSC's shuttle landing facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Its shadow precedes it as Space Shuttle Atlantis drops to the runway at the Shuttle Landing Facility, completing the 4.5-million-mile journey to the International Space Station. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. Mission STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment. The returning crew of Atlantis are Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pamela Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin. This landing is the 60th at KSC in the history of the Shuttle program. .

  3. STS-112 crew in front of Atlantis after landing at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- After a flawless landing on runway 33 of the Shuttle Landing Facility, the STS-112 crew poses in front of Atlantis. From left are Mission Specialists Piers Sellers and Sandra Magnus, Pilot Pamela Melroy, Commander Jeffrey Ashby, and Mission Specialists David Wolf and Fyodor Yurchikhin, who represents the Russian Space Agency. Main gear touchdown occurred at 11:43:40 a.m. EDT; nose gear touchdown at 11:43:48 a.m.; and wheel stop at 11:44:35 a.m. Mission elapsed time was 10:19:58:44. STS-112 expanded the size of the Station with the addition of the S1 truss segment.

  4. STS-112 crew arrives at KSC's SLF for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus is happy to return to KSC to prepare for launch. She will be making her first Shuttle flight. STS-112, aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. Launch is scheduled for Oct. 2 between 2 and 6 p.m.

  5. Organ Transplantation for Individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Fins, Joseph J

    2016-04-01

    In 1996, Sandra Jensen became the first person with Down syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant. Although it took place almost 20 years ago, her experience continues to shed light on contemporary challenges that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders face in securing access to transplantation. While overt discrimination has decreased, barriers persist in physician referrals, center-specific decisionmaking regarding wait-listing, and the provision of accommodations for optimizing the assessment and medical management of these individuals. These issues arise from the persistent biases and assumptions of individuals as well as those of a healthcare system that is inadequately positioned to optimally serve the medical needs of the growing number of individuals with functional impairments. More data and greater transparency are needed to understand the nature and extent of ongoing access problems; however, long-term solutions will require changes at the healthcare professional, regional transplant center, and national levels. PMID:26957452

  6. A climate-data record of the “clear-sky” surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; Digirolamo, N. E.; Stock, L. V.; Riggs, G. A.; Shuman, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    We are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of daily “clear-sky” ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (1982 - present) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data (2000 - present) at a resolution of approximately 5 km. The CDR will be continued in the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite era. Two algorithms remain under consideration. One algorithm under consideration is based on the split-window technique used in the Polar Pathfinder dataset (Fowler et al., 2000 & 2007). Another algorithm under consideration, developed by Comiso (2006), uses a single channel of AVHRR data (channel 4) in conjunction with meteorological-station data to account for atmospheric effects and drift between AVHRR instruments. Known issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover (surface temperatures can be different under clouds vs. clear areas) and cross-calibration in the overlap period between AVHRR instruments, and between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, mainly due to clouds (Stroeve & Steffen, 1998; Wang and Key, 2005; Hall et al., 2008 and Koenig and Hall, submitted), time-series of satellite IST do not necessarily correspond to actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with automatic-weather station (AWS) data and with satellite-derived surface-temperature products. Regional “clear-sky” surface temperature increases in the Arctic, measured from AVHRR infrared data, range from 0.57±0.02 deg C (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72±0.10 deg C (Comiso, 2006) per decade since the early 1980s. Arctic warming has important implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet is already near 0 deg C during the melt season, and is thus vulnerable to rapid melting if temperatures continue to increase. References Comiso, J.C., 2006: Arctic warming signals from satellite observations, Weather, 61(3):70-76. Fowler, Chuck, James Maslanik, Terry Haran, Ted Scambos, Jeffrey Key, and William Emery, 2000, updated 2007: AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Twice-daily 5 km EASE-Grid Composites V003, Boulder, Colorado, USA: NSIDC, digital media. Hall, D.K., R.S. Williams, S.B. Luthcke and N.E. Digirolamo, 2008: Greenland ice sheet surface temperature, melt and mass loss: 2000-06, J. Glaciol., 54(184):81-93. Koenig, L.S. and D.K. Hall, submitted: Comparison of satellite, thermochron and station temperatures at Summit, Greenland during the winter of 2008-09 with implications for global-change monitoring, J. Glaciol. (under review). Stroeve, J. and K. Steffen, 1998: Variability of AVHRR-derived clear-sky surface temperature over the Greenland ice sheet, JAM, 37(1):23-31. Wang, X.J. and J.R. Key, 2005: Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties based on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder dataset. Part II: Recent trends, J. Climate, 18(14):2575-2593.

  7. Speech across the menstrual cycle: a replication and extension study.

    PubMed

    Wadnerkar, Meghana B; Cowell, Patricia E; Whiteside, Sandra P

    2006-11-01

    Whiteside et al. [S.P. Whiteside, A. Hanson, P.E. Cowell, Hormones and temporal components of speech: sex differences and effects of menstrual cyclicity on speech, Neurosci. Lett. 367 (2004) 44-47] documented effects of menstrual cycle phase and sex on voice onset time (VOT) in naturally timed speech using whole words. VOT is a temporal component of speech that plays an important role in production and perception [L.L. Koenig, Laryngeal factors in voiceless consonant production in men, women, and 5-year-olds, J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 43 (2000) 1211-1228; A. Löfqvist, L.L. Koenig, R.S. McGowan, Vocal tract aerodynamics in /aCa/ utterances: measurements, Speech Commun. 16 (1995) 49-66; T.M. Nearey, B. Rochet, Effects of place of articulation and vowel context in VOT production and perception for French and English Stops, J. Int. Phon. Assoc. 24 (1994) 1-18; L.M. Rimol, T. Eichele, K. Hugdahl, The effect of voice-onset-time on dichotic listening with consonant-vowel syllables, Neuropsychologia 44 (2006) 191-196; P.G. Simos, R.L. Diehl, J.I. Breier, M.R. Molis, G. Zouridakis, A.C. Papanicolaou, MEG correlates of categorical perception of a voice onset time continuum in humans, Cogn. Brain Res. 7 (1998) 215-219; S.P. Whiteside, J. Marshall, Developmental trends in voice onset time: some evidence for sex differences, Phonetica 58 (2001) 196-210]. The present study was designed to replicate and expand upon Whiteside et al. [S.P. Whiteside, A. Hanson, P.E. Cowell, Hormones and temporal components of speech: sex differences and effects of menstrual cyclicity on speech, Neurosci. Lett. 367 (2004) 44-47] using a speeded syllable repetition paradigm. VOT measurements for 6 English plosives (/p b t d k g/) were obtained from speech samples of 15 women and 20 men (age 20-25 years). Women were tested across two points in the menstrual cycle (Days 2-5: low estrogen and progesterone/low-EP; Days 18-25: high estrogen and progesterone/high-EP) and men were tested once. Results indicated significant interaction between menstrual cycle phase and voicing (F(1,14)=8.239, P<0.02), whereby the voiced plosives (b, g) displayed shorter VOT values and the voiceless plosives (p, k) displayed longer values at the high-EP phase. Thus, the distinction between the voiced and voiceless plosive was enhanced at high-EP. Significant sex effects (F(1,33)=10.080, P<0.005) were seen with women at high-EP but not the low-EP phase having longer VOT values than men for voiceless plosives. Sex differences between the voiced and voiceless plosives were enhanced at the high-EP phase. This study indicates a role for activational ovarian hormones in regulating temporal features of speech in both whole words and speeded syllable repetition. PMID:16989947

  8. Development of a Climate-Data Record of the Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; Digirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    To quantify the ice-surface temperature (IST) we are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of monthly IST of the Greenland ice sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at 5-km resolution. “Clear-sky” surface temperature increases have been measured from the early 1980s to the early 2000s in the Arctic using AVHRR data, showing increases ranging from 0.57±0.02 (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72±0.10 deg C per decade (Comiso, 2006). Arctic warming has implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the ice sheet is near 0 deg C in the melt season and is thus vulnerable to more extensive melting (Hanna et al., 2008). The algorithm used for this work has a long history of measuring IST in the Arctic with AVHRR (Key and Haefliger, 1992). The data are currently available from 1981 to 2004 in the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset (Fowler et al., 2000). J. Key/NOAA modified the AVHRR algorithm for use with MODIS (Hall et al., 2004). The MODIS algorithm is now being processed over Greenland. Issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover, and cross-calibration between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, time series of satellite ISTs do not necessarily correspond with actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with in-situ (see Koenig and Hall, in press) and automatic-weather station data (e.g., Shuman et al., 2001). References Comiso, J. C., 2006: Arctic warming signals from satellite observations, Weather, 61(3): 70- 76. Fowler, C. et al., 2000: updated 2007. AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Twice-daily 5 km EASE-Grid Composites V003, [used dates from 2000 - 2004], Boulder, CO: NSIDC. Digital media. Hall, D.K., J.Key, K.A. Casey, G.A. Riggs and D. J. Cavalieri, 2004: Sea ice surface temperature product from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), IEEE TGRS, 42(5):1076-1087. Hanna, E., P. Huybrechts, K. Steffen, J. Cappelen, R. Huff, C.A. Shuman, T. Irvine-Fynn and S. Wise, 2008: Increased runoff from melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: a response to global warming? J. Climate, vol. 21(2):331-341. Key, J., and M. Haefliger, 1992: Arctic ice surface temperature retrieval from AVHRR thermal channels, JGR, 97:5885-5893. Koenig, L.S. and D.K. Hall, in press: Comparison of satellite, thermochron and station temperatures at Summit, Greenland, during the winter of 2008-09, J. Glaciol. Shuman, C.A., K. Steffen, J.E. Box and C.R. Stearns, 2001: A dozen years of temperature observations at the Summit: Central Greenland automatic weather stations 1987-1999, JAM, 40(4):741-752. Wang, X., and J. Key, 2005: Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties based on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder data set. Part II: Recent trends, J. Climate, 18, 2575- 2593.

  9. Component volumes of unsaturated phosphatidylcholines in fluid bilayers: a densitometric study.

    PubMed

    Uhríková, Daniela; Rybár, Peter; Hianik, Tibor; Balgavý, Pavol

    2007-02-01

    The specific volumes of six 1,2-diacylphosphatidylcholines with monounsaturated acyl chains (diCn:1PC, n=14-24 is the even number of acyl chain carbons) in fluid bilayers in multilamellar vesicles dispersed in H(2)O were determined by the vibrating tube densitometry as a function of temperature. From the data obtained with diCn:1PC (n=14-22) vesicles in combination with the densitometric data from Tristram-Nagle et al. [Tristram-Nagle, S., Petrache, H.I., Nagle, J.F., 1998. Structure and interactions of fully hydrated dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. Biophys. J. 75, 917-925.] and Koenig and Gawrisch [Koenig, B.W., Gawrisch, K., 2005. Specific volumes of unsaturated phosphatidylcholines in the liquid crystalline lamellar phase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1715, 65-70.], the component volumes of phosphatidylcholines in fully hydrated fluid bilayers at 30 degrees C were obtained. The volume of the acyl chain CH and CH(2) group is V(CH)=22.30 A(3) and V(CH2) =A(3), respectively. The volume of the headgroup including the glyceryl and acyl carbonyls, V(H), and the ratio of acyl chain methyl and methylene group volumes, r=V(CH3):V(CH2) are linearly interdependent: V(H)=a-br, where a=434.41 A(3) and b=-55.36 A(3) at 30 degrees C. From the temperature dependencies of component volumes, their isobaric thermal expansivities (alpha(X)=V(X)(-1)(partial differential V(X)/ partial differential T) where X=CH(2), CH, or H were calculated: alpha(CH2)=118.4x10(-5)K(-1), alpha(CH)=71.0x10(-5)K(-1), alpha(H)=7.9x10(-5)K(-1) (for r=2) and alpha(H)=9.6x10(-5)K(-1) (for r=1.9). The specific volume of diC24:1PC changes at the main gel-fluid phase transition temperature, t(m)=26.7 degrees C, by 0.0621 ml/g, its specific volume is 0.9561 and 1.02634 ml/g at 20 and 30 degrees C, respectively, and its isobaric thermal expansivity alpha=68.7x10(-5) and 109.2x10(-5)K(-1) below and above t(m), respectively. The component volumes and thermal expansivities obtained can be used for the interpretation of X-ray and neutron scattering and diffraction experiments and for the guiding and testing molecular dynamics simulations of phosphatidylcholine bilayers in the fluid state. PMID:17196953

  10. A uniform catalog of candidate IR-excess and optically variable Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) across the full Orion complex: Aiding target selection for the APOGEE-2 Young Cluster Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, J'Neil; Covey, Kevin R.; Ford Schlafly, Edward; Arce, Hector G.; Borissova, Jura; Downes, Juan Jose; Feigelson, Eric; Getman, Konstantin V.; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Ybarra, Jason E.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Hearty, Fred R.; Majewski, Steven R.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Stassun, Keivan; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of the intrinsic (e.g., T_eff & log g) and dynamical (e.g, radial velocity & v sin i) properties of young stars provide important constraints for models of star formation and early stellar evolution. The APOGEE-2 YSO Young Cluster Program aims to measure the dynamics and star formation history uniformly across the full extent of the Orion star forming complex, based on thousands of high-resolution H-band spectra that APOGEE-2 will obtain of candidate Orion members. We utilize data from wide-field photometric surveys to select candidate YSOs throughout Orion via two complementary techniques. We follow the Koenig et al. (2014) criteria by using WISE+2MASS data to identify YSOs with IR excesses due to warm circumstellar dust; we also use multi-epoch optical PanSTARRS photometry to identify variable YSOs both with and without circumstellar disks (or circumstellar materials). The IR excess technique identifies 1729 candidates brighter than H=12.8 mag, a limit selected to ensure a minimum S/N > 50 for a typical 3-hour APOGEE exposure. selecting sources which display significant variability in at least 3 PanSTARRS bands similarly produces a preliminary sample of 1500 candidates with H<12.8 mag. In total, we identify nearly 2700 YSO candidates, 450 of which were identified via both selection methods. The resulting catalog exhibits clear spatial over-densities associated with known sub-regions of Orion such as the ONC, sigma Ori and L1641, and provides a uniform catalog for spectroscopic targeting over Orion's full 250+ sq. degree footprint.

  11. Communicating polar sciences to school children through a scientific expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacarra, Maite; Lamarque, Gaelle; Koenig, Zoé; Bourgain, Pascaline; Mathilde Thierry, Anne

    2015-04-01

    APECS-France, the French national committee of the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), was created in 2013 to improve the dissemination of polar sciences towards the general public and school children in particular, through activities developed in French for French schools. During the autumn of 2014, a young polar oceanographer from the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Zoé Koenig, participated in an expedition on board a sailing vessel in the Southern Ocean. APECS-France set up a new education and outreach project called "Zoé en Expé". Using different media, about 800 children, aged 6 to 12, and from 40 schools, were actively involved in the project. Interactions between Zoé and the students occurred before, during, and after the expedition, through a newsletter, a blog updated in real-time during the expedition, webinars (interactive video-conferences), and visits in classrooms when possible. Teachers were given a list of websites dedicated to polar and oceanographic science outreach and activities adapted to the age and level of the students were offered. Different activities were developed around the expedition, depending on teachers' objectives and children affinities. In particular, students were able to relate to the expedition by imagining a day in the life of Chippy, the mascot of the expedition. They were then asked to draw and/or write Chippy's adventures. APECS-France is now planning to edit a children's book using students' drawings as well as photographs taken during the expedition. Older students were also able to follow in real-time sensors released in the Southern Ocean by Zoé, measuring salinity and temperature. Throughout this 3-month project, children were able to study a wide range of topics (oceanography, biology, history, geography…). The expedition and the educational project allowed raising the awareness of children about the fragile and badly known Antarctic environment.

  12. Geothermal GIS coverage of the Great Basin, USA: Defining regional controls and favorable exploration terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Oppliger, G.L.; Minor, T.B.; Raines, G.L.; Shevenell, L.; Blewitt, G.; Louie, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) of geothermal resources, built last year for the state of Nevada, is being expanded to cover the Great Basin, USA. Data from that GIS is being made available to industry, other researchers, and the public via a web site at the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Reno, Nevada. That web site features a search engine, supports ArcExplorer?? for on-line map construction, and provides downloadable data layers in several formats. Though data collection continues, preliminary analysis has begun. Contour maps of geothermal temperatures, constructed using geothermometer temperatures calculated from a Great Basin geochemical database compiled by the Geo-Heat Center, reveal distinctive trends and patterns. As expected, magmatic-type and extensional-type geothermal systems have profoundly different associations, with magmatic-type systems following major tectonic boundaries, and extensional-type systems associating with regionally high heat flow, thin crust, active faulting, and high extensional strain rates. As described by earlier researchers, including Rowen and Wetlaufer (1981) and Koenig and McNitt (1983), high-temperature (> 100??C) geothermal systems appear to follow regional northeast trends, most conspicuously including the Humboldt structural zone in Nevada, the "Black Rock-Alvord Desert" trend in Oregon and Nevada, and the "Newcastle-Roosevelt" trend in Utah and Nevada. Weights-of-evidence analyses confirm a preference of high-temperature geothermal systems for young northeast-trending faults, but the distribution of geothermal systems correlates even better with high rates of crustal extension, as measured from global positioning system (GPS) stations in Nevada. A predictive map of geothermal potential based only on areas of high extensional strain rates and high heat flux does an excellent job of regionally predicting the location of most known geothermal systems in Nevada, and may prove useful in identifying blind systems.

  13. Finding Young Stars in IC417

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odden, Caroline; Rebull, Luisa M.; Sanchez, Richard; Hall, Garrison; Dear, AnnaMaria; Hengel, Cassie; LaRocca, Mia; Lin, Samantha; Nix, Sabine; Sweckard, Teaghan; Wilhelm, Katie

    2016-01-01

    IC 417 is a young cluster in the constellation Auriga, towards the Galactic anti-center in the Perseus arm, at a distance of ~2.3 kpc. Previous studies suggested that there are young stars in this region; Camargo et al. (2012) identified several few-Myr-old clusters in this region from 2MASS clustering, and Jose et al. (2008) identified H-alpha excess sources. Since stars form from clouds of interstellar dust and gas, a signature of star formation is excess infrared (IR) emission, which is interpreted as evidence for circumstellar dust around young stars. We identified new candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in IC 417 by incorporating near- and mid-infrared observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). Infrared excess sources were identified by using a series of color cuts in various 2MASS/WISE color-magnitude and color-color diagrams following Koenig & Leisawitz (2014). We also assembled a list of OB and H-alpha stars from the literature, including those from Jose et al. (2008), and H-alpha bright stars from the IPHAS survey (Witham et al. 2008). Starting with this compiled list of approximately 200 interesting objects in the region, we then set about checking their reliability in three ways. We inspected the POSS, 2MASS, and WISE images of the sources. We assembled and inspected spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from archival data ranging from wavelengths of 0.7 to 22 um. Finally, we created and inspected color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. We find enough new YSO candidates to more than double the number yet identified in the IC 417 region. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  14. Removal of nitrate from liquid effluents with bio-nano hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Ela; Haniff Wahid, M.; Chen, Xianjue; Smith, Steven M.; Raston, Colin L.

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae are a group of microorganisms that are abundant in the environment and have been commonly used as a tool for sustainable green technologies including bioenergy production1,2, CO2 sequestration2, wastewater treatment3,4, and nutritional supplement5. We have recently developed a hybridization process between common microalgal cells (Chlorella vulgaris) and multi-layer graphene sheets4. Graphene has very strong adhesion energies6 with an ability to attach on the surface of microalgal cells, which results in a functional hybrid material. Initially dynamic thin films formed within a microfluidic platform, as a vortex fluidic device, were used to exfoliate multi-layer graphene from graphite flakes in water. This was followed by hybridizing the multi-layer graphene with microalgal cells. The resulting bio-nano hybrid material was particularly efficient for the removal of nitrate from liquid effluents without being toxic for the microalgal cells. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy techniques were used for the characterization of the formed graphene sheets, with the fluorescence microscopy and chlorophyll content analyzed for monitoring the viability and growth pattern of the microalgal cells. E. Eroglu and A. Melis, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 2009, 102(5), 1406-1415. É. C Francisco, D. B. Neves, E. Jacob-Lopes, and T. T. Franco, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 2010, 85, 395-403. E. Eroglu, V. Agarwal, M. Bradshaw, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, C.L. Raston and K.S. Iyer, Green Chem., 2012, 14(10), 2682 - 2685. M. H. Wahid, E. Eroglu, X. Chen, S.M. Smith, and C.L. Raston, Green Chem., 2012, doi:10.1039/C2GC36892G. P. Spolaore, C. Joannis-Cassan, E. Duran and A. Isambert, J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2006, 101, 87-96. S. P. Koenig, N. G. Boddeti, M. L. Dunn and J. S. Bunch, Nat. Nanotechnol., 2011, 6, 543-546.

  15. Cigarette smoke decreases mitochondrial porin expression and steroidogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Gairola, C. Gary; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2008-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for steroidogenesis. Here, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on steroidogenesis using adrenal mitochondria isolated from mice chronically exposed to CS. Steroidogenesis was decreased approximately 78% in CS-exposed mitochondria, as measured by synthesis of the steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone. This effect was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial import of {sup 35}S-StAR. Further characterization of the imported {sup 35}S-StAR by native gradient PAGE revealed the presence of a high molecular weight complex in both control and CS-exposed groups. Following density gradient fractionation of {sup 35}S-StAR that had been extracted from control mitochondria, precursor StAR could be found in fractions 2-6 and smaller-sized StAR complexes in fractions 6-13. In the CS-exposed group, the appearance of precursor shifted from fraction 1-6 and the smaller complexes in fractions 6-9 disappeared. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the {sup 35}S-StAR-associated protein complex was composed of several resident matrix proteins as well as the OMM resident, VDAC. VDAC expression was greatly reduced by CS, and blockage of VDAC with Koenig's polyanion decreased pregnenolone synthesis in isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these results suggest that VDAC may participate in steroidogenesis by promoting StAR interaction with the OMM and that CS may inhibit steroidogenesis by reducing VDAC-StAR interactions.

  16. Raman Studies of Particle Structure and Graphitization in Carbon Blacks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Tyler Charles

    Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the in-plane layer dimensions (L_{rm a} ) of graphitic nanocrystalline regions within several carbon blacks. The empirical relationship of Tuinstra and Koenig is used to relate integrated peak intensities to L_{rm a}. These data are compared to those derived from Raman spectra calculated using a theoretical phonon-confinement model developed by Richter and coworkers in their studies on silicon and not previously applied to measurements of L_ {rm a} in graphitic materials. These Raman measurements yield L_{rm a} values which correlate very well with measurements performed using an accepted x-ray diffraction-based method. Graphitization was investigated in terms of the dependence of L_{rm a} on furnace, continuous wave laser, and pulsed laser heat -treatment. Nanocrystal environment and heat transfer in carbon black particles were identified as strong influences on the final state of graphitization. Graphitic crystal planes grow substantially on the microsecond time scale, and graphitization is completed within seconds. In addition, surface activity decreased dramatically in graphitized carbon blacks, indicating surface homogenization and removal of active surface sites through increases in L _{rm a} at the particle boundary. These results give new insight to the energetic processes which govern graphitic nanolayer realignment. Three-dimensional transmission electron microscope investigations of structure in graphitized carbon blacks demonstrate that aggregates are more or less flat entities, which may be contrasted with the expected isotropic structure. Anisotropy is quantified and discussed in terms of its potential effects on the reinforcement of elastomers by carbon black. These discoveries should contribute to the development of improved carbon blacks through new production technologies.

  17. Spectroscopic Assessment of WISE-based Young Stellar Object Selection Near λ and σ Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Xavier; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Padgett, Deborah L.; DeFelippis, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    We have conducted a sensitive search down to the hydrogen burning limit for unextincted stars over ∼200 square degrees around Lambda Orionis and 20 square degrees around Sigma Orionis using the methodology of Koenig & Leisawitz. From WISE and 2MASS data we identify 544 and 418 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the vicinity of λ and σ respectively. Based on our followup spectroscopy for some candidates and the existing literature for others, we found that ∼80% of the K14-selected candidates are probable or likely members of the Orion star-forming region. The yield from the photometric selection criteria shows that WISE sources with {K}S-w3\\gt 1.5 mag and KS between 10 and 12 mag are most likely to show spectroscopic signs of youth, while WISE sources with {K}S-w3 > 4 mag and {K}S\\gt 12 were often active galactic nuclei when followed up spectroscopically. The population of candidate YSOs traces known areas of active star formation, with a few new “hot spots” of activity near Lynds 1588 and 1589 and a more dispersed population of YSOs in the northern half of the H ii region bubble around σ and ɛ Ori. A minimal spanning tree analysis of the two regions to identify stellar groupings finds that roughly two-thirds of the YSO candidates in each region belong to groups of 5 or more members. The population of stars selected by WISE outside the MST groupings also contains spectroscopically verified YSOs, with a local stellar density as low as 0.5 stars per square degree.

  18. New Young Star Candidates in BRC 27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novatne, Lauren J.; Mattrocce, G.; Milan, T.; Quinonez, A.; Rebull, L. M.; Barge, J.; Amayo, R.; Bieber, H.; Block, L.; Cheung, E.; Cruz, A.; Elkin, D.; Figueroa, A.; Jakus, M.; Kelo, A.; Larson, O.; Lemma, B.; Li, Y.; Loe, C.; Maciag, V.; Moreno, N.; Nevels, M.; Pezanoski-Cohen, G.; Short, M.; Skatchke, K.; Tur-Kaspa, A.; Zegeye, D.; Armstrong, J.; Bonadurer, R.; French, D.; Free, B.; Miller, C.; Scherich, H.; Willis, T.; Koenig, X.; Laher, R.; Padgett, D.; Piper, M.; Pavlak, A.; Piper, M.; Venezio, E.; Ali, B.

    2013-01-01

    All stars originate from clouds of interstellar gas that collapse either under their own gravity or with external help. In triggered star formation, the collapse of a cloud is initiated by pressure, e.g., from nearby star(s). When the external source is bright stars, it can illuminate the rims of the cloud, creating bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) to be visible at optical and infrared (IR) wavelengths. We searched for new candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) primarily using the March 2012 all-sky release of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data in BRC 27, which is part of CMa R1, a region of known star formation. Spitzer data of a 5’x5’ region centered on BRC 27 were presented by Johnson et al. 2012 and Rebull et al. 2012. We investigated WISE data within a 20 arcminute radius of BRC 27 0.35 sq. deg), combining it with Spitzer data serendipitously obtained in this region, 2MASS data, and optical data. We started from nearly 4000 WISE sources and identified about 200 candidate YSOs via a series of color cuts (Koenig et al. 2012) to identify objects with WISE colors consistent with other YSOs, e.g., having an apparent IR excess. There are about 100 objects in this region already identified in the literature as possible YSOs, about 40 of which we recovered with the color cuts. We investigated these literature YSOs and YSO candidates in all available images, and created spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and color-magnitude diagrams for further analysis of each object. We will present an analysis of our selected sub-sample of YSO candidates. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds. Our education results are described in a companion education poster, Bonadurer et al.

  19. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the ice-surface temperature (IST) we are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of monthly IST of the Greenland ice sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at 5-km resolution. "Clear-sky" surface temperature increases have been measured from the early 1980s to the early 2000s in the Arctic using AVHRR data, showing increases ranging from 0.57-0.02 (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72 0.10 deg C per decade (Comiso, 2006). Arctic warming has implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the ice sheet is near 0 deg C in the melt season and is thus vulnerable to more extensive melting (Hanna et al., 2008). The algorithm used for this work has a long history of measuring IST in the Arctic with AVHRR (Key and Haefliger, 1992). The data are currently available from 1981 to 2004 in the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset (Fowler et al., 2000). J. Key1NOAA modified the AVHRR algorithm for use with MODIS (Hall et al., 2004). The MODIS algorithm is now being processed over Greenland. Issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover, and cross-calibration between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, time series of satellite ISTs do not necessarily correspond with actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with in-situ (see Koenig and Hall, in press) and automatic-weather station data (e.g., Shuman et al., 2001).

  20. Is The Water Shortage Crisis Really One of the Most Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The author has reported on this in his previous AGU presentations. In the next four decades, more than half of the world’s population will have to deal with sever water shortages. The United States has been blessed with several large fresh water lakes. In spite of having this fresh water supply, some states like Arizona could be facing sever fresh water shortages in the next couple of decades. Sid Wilson, general manager of the Central Arizona Project has indicated "It's not a question of if there is a water shortage anymore. It is in reality, when there will be a water shortage. " Several states share water from the Colorado river. The river has limited water supply to cater to the needs of Arizona, Nevada, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. World Health Organization, NASA, Department of the Interior, NOAA and several organizations have observed that there is a real water shortage crisis. This is because the world’s population has tripled in the twentieth century. This has resulted in a six-fold increase of water usage. Fresh water supply is limited. This is because water cannot be replaced with an alternative. It is important to observe that petroleum can be replaced with alternative fuel resources. It is necessary to recognize that fact that irrigation necessitates almost 65% to 70% of water withdrawal. Industry may utilize about 20% and domestic consumption is about 10% Evaporation from reservoirs is also a major factor, depending upon the climate and environment. Therefore there is an urgent need for all the countries to establish a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

  1. Gold Medal Award for life achievement in the science of psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Philip G. Zimbardo. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison. PMID:22800105

  2. Practical implications of implementing emergency department crowding interventions: summary of a moderated panel.

    PubMed

    Pines, Jesse M; Pilgrim, Randy L; Schneider, Sandra M; Siegel, Bruce; Viccellio, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and around the world. In June 2011, the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference focused on exploring interventions to alleviate ED crowding and to generate a series of research agendas on the topic. As part of the conference, a panel of leaders in the emergency care community shared their perspectives on emergency care, crowding, and some of the fundamental issues facing emergency care today. The panel participants included Drs. Bruce Siegel, Sandra Schneider, Peter Viccellio, and Randy Pilgrim. The panel was moderated by Dr. Jesse Pines. Dr. Siegel's comments focused on his work on Urgent Matters, which conducted two multihospital collaboratives related to improving ED crowding and disseminating results. Dr. Schneider focused on the future of ED crowding measures, the importance of improving our understanding of ED boarding and its implications, and the need for the specialty of emergency medicine (EM) to move beyond the discussion of unnecessary visits. Dr. Viccellio's comments focused on several areas, including the need for a clear message about unnecessary ED visits by the emergency care community and potential solutions to improve ED crowding. Finally, Dr. Pilgrim focused on the effect of effective leadership and management in crowding interventions and provided several examples of how these considerations directly affected the success or failure of well-constructed ED crowding interventions. This article describes each panelist's comments in detail. PMID:22168191

  3. STS-112 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-112 (Jeffrey Ashby, Commander; Pamela Melroy, Pilot; David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin, Mission Specialists) during several parts of their training. The video is arranged into short segments. In 'Topside Activities at the NBL', Wolf and Sellers are fitted with EVA suits for pool training. 'Pre-Launch Bailout Training in CCT II' shows all six crew members exiting from the hatch on a model of a shuttle orbiter cockpit. 'EVA Training in the VR Lab' shows a crew member training with a virtual reality simulator, interspersed with footage of Magnus, and Wolf with Melroy, at monitors. There is a 'Crew Photo Session', and 'Pam Melroy and Sandy Magnus at the SES Dome' also features a virtual reality simulator. The final two segments of the video involve hands-on training. 'Post Landing Egress at the FFT' shows the crew suiting up into their flight suits, and being raised on a harness, to practice rapelling from the cockpit hatch. 'EVA Prep and Post at the ISS Airlock' shows the crew assembling an empty EVA suit onboard a model of a module. The crew tests oxygen masks, and Sellers is shown on an exercise bicycle with an oxygen mask, with his heart rate monitored (not shown).

  4. STS-112 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of STS-112 (Jeffrey Ashby, Commander; Pamela Melroy, Pilot; David Wolf, Piers Sellers, Sandra Magnus, and Fyodor Yurchikhin, Mission Specialists) during several parts of their training. The video is arranged into short segments. In 'Topside Activities at the NBL', Wolf and Sellers are fitted with EVA suits for pool training. 'Pre-Launch Bailout Training in CCT II' shows all six crew members exiting from the hatch on a model of a shuttle orbiter cockpit. 'EVA Training in the VR Lab' shows a crew member training with a virtual reality simulator, interspersed with footage of Magnus, and Wolf with Melroy, at monitors. There is a 'Crew Photo Session', and 'Pam Melroy and Sandy Magnus at the SES Dome' also features a virtual reality simulator. The final two segments of the video involve hands-on training. 'Post Landing Egress at the FFT' shows the crew suiting up into their flight suits, and being raised on a harness, to practice rapelling from the cockpit hatch. 'EVA Prep and Post at the ISS Airlock' shows the crew assembling an empty EVA suit onboard a model of a module. The crew tests oxygen masks, and Sellers is shown on an exercise bicycle with an oxygen mask, with his heart rate monitored (not shown).

  5. Prebiotic Synthesis of Autocatalytic Products From Formaldehyde-Derived Sugars as the Carbon and Energy Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Our research objective is to understand and model the chemical processes on the primitive Earth that generated the first autocatalytic molecules and microstructures involved in the origin of life. Our approach involves: (a) investigation of a model origin-of-life process named the Sugar Model that is based on the reaction of formaldehyde- derived sugars (trioses and tetroses) with ammonia, and (b) elucidation of the constraints imposed on the chemistry of the origin of life by the fixed energies and rates of C,H,O-organic reactions under mild aqueous conditions. Recently, we demonstrated that under mild aqueous conditions the Sugar Model process yields autocatalytic products, and generates organic micropherules (2-20 micron dia.) that exhibit budding, size uniformity, and chain formation. We also discovered that the sugar substrates of the Sugar Model are capable of reducing nitrite to ammonia under mild aqueous conditions. In addition studies done in collaboration with Sandra Pizzarrello (Arizona State University) revealed that chiral amino acids (including meteoritic isovaline) catalyze both the synthesis and specific handedness of chiral sugars. Our systematic survey of the energies and rates of reactions of C,H,O-organic substrates under mild aqueous conditions revealed several general principles (rules) that govern the direction and rate of organic reactions. These reactivity principles constrain the structure of chemical pathways used in the origin of life, and in modern and primitive metabolism.

  6. Component Repair Experiment-1: An Experiment Evaluating Electronic Component-Level Repair During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The Component Repair Experiment-1 (CRE-1) examines the capability for astronauts to perform electronics repair tasks in space. The goal is to determine the current capabilities and limits for the crew, and to make recommendations to improve and expand the range of work that astronauts may perform. CRE-1 provided two-layer, functional circuit boards and replacement components, a small tool kit, written and video training materials, and 1 hr of hands on training for the crew slated to perform the experiment approximately 7 months prior to the mission. Astronauts Michael Fincke and Sandra Magnus performed the work aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in February and March 2009. The astronauts were able to remove and replace components successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of performing component-level electronics repairs within a spacecraft. Several unsuccessful tasks demonstrated areas in need of improvement. These include improved and longer training prior to a mission, an improved soldering iron with a higher operating temperature and steady power source, video training and practice boards for refresher work or practice before a repair, and improved and varied hand tools and containment system.

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of biotic exchanges of CO{sub 2} between the atmosphere and tropical landscapes and their role in the global carbon balance. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.F.; Flint, E.P.

    1993-10-01

    Since mid-September we have been engaged in final revision of the data base for South and Southeast Asia. In October we revised our second chapter for the forthcoming volume Effects of Land Use Change on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations, edited by Virginia Dale. ``Trends in Carbon Content of Vegetation in South and Southeast Asia Associated with Changes in Land Use``, in response to a second round of reviews. Both this chapter and `` Century of Land Use Change in South and Southeast Asia`` (submitted in revised form in July) are have been accepted and are now in the hands of the technical editor. our time series of land use data and carbon content estimates for live vegetation in 93 zones comprising thirteen Asian nations at four dates was finalized in the course of manuscript revision. We sent machine-readable copies of the spreadsheets containing tabular data for Southeast Asia to CDIAC in October, and the following month delivered the South Asian data. At the same time, we sent these files to the research groups of Sandra Brown and Charlie Hall, who have entered this information in their geographic information systems, and also to Skee Houghton.

  8. STS-112 crew takes a group photo at the 215-foot level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-112 crew gathers for a group photo on the 215-foot level of the Fixed Service Structure. From left are Mission Specialists Fyodor Yurchikhin, Piers Sellers and David Wolf; Pilot Pamela Melroy; Commander Jeffrey Ashby; and Mission Specialist Sandra Magnus. Behind them at left is seen one of the white solid rocket boosters and the orange external tank on Space Shuttle Atlantis. Mission STS-112 is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. The 11-day mission is expected to conclude with a landing at KSC Oct. 13.

  9. STS-112 Flight Day 10 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Flight Day 10 of the STS-112 mission, its crew (Jeffrey Ashby, Commander; Pamela Melroy, Pilot; David Wolf, Mission Specialist; Piers Sellers, Mission Specialist; Sandra Magnus, Mission Specialist; Fyodor Yurchikhin, Mission Specialist) on the Atlantis and the Expedition 5 crew on the International Space Station (ISS) (Valery Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitson, Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) are shown exchanging farewells in the ISS's Destiny Laboratory Module following the completion of a week-long period of docked operations. The Expedition 5 crew is nearing the end of five and a half continuous months aboard the space station. Following the closing of the hatches, the Atlantis Orbiter undocks from the station, and Melroy pilots the shuttle slowly away from the ISS, and engages in a radial fly-around of the station. During the fly-around cameras aboard Atlantis shows ISS from a number of angles. ISS cameras also show Atlantis. There are several shots of each craft with a variety of background settings including the Earth, its limb, and open space. The video concludes with a live interview of Ashby, Melroy and Yurchikhin, still aboard Atlantis, conducted by a reporter on the ground. Questions range from feelings on the conclusion of the mission to the experience of being in space. The primary goal of the mission was the installation of the Integrated Truss Structure S1 on the ISS.

  10. A synopsis of the genus Ethmia Hübner in Costa Rica: biology, distribution, and description of 22 new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea, Depressariidae, Ethmiinae), with emphasis on the 42 species known from Área de Conservación Guanacaste

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Rodríguez, Eugenie; Powell, Jerry A.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We discuss 45 Costa Rican species of Ethmia Hübner, 1819, including 23 previously described: Ethmia delliella (Fernald), Ethmia bittenella (Busck), Ethmia festiva Busck, Ethmia scythropa Walsingham, Ethmia perpulchra Walsingham, Ethmia terpnota Walsingham, Ethmia elutella Busck, Ethmia janzeni Powell, Ethmia ungulatella Busck, Ethmia exornata (Zeller), Ethmia phylacis Walsingham, Ethmia mnesicosma Meyrick, Ethmia chemsaki Powell, Ethmia baliostola Walsingham, Ethmia duckworthi Powell, Ethmia sandra Powell, Ethmia nigritaenia Powell, Ethmia catapeltica Meyrick, Ethmia lichyi Powell, Ethmia transversella Busck, Ethmia similatella Busck, Ethmia hammella Busck, Ethmia linda Busck, and 22 new species: Ethmia blaineorum, Ethmia millerorum, Ethmia dianemillerae, Ethmia adrianforsythi, Ethmia stephenrumseyi, Ethmia berndkerni, Ethmia dimauraorum, Ethmia billalleni, Ethmia ehakernae, Ethmia helenmillerae, Ethmia johnpringlei, Ethmia laphamorum, Ethmia petersterlingi, Ethmia lesliesaulae, Ethmia turnerorum, Ethmia normgershenzi, Ethmia nicholsonorum, Ethmia hendersonorum, Ethmia randyjonesi, Ethmia randycurtisi, Ethmia miriamschulmanae and Ethmia tilneyorum. We illustrate all species and their male and female genitalia, along with distribution maps of Costa Rican localities. Immature stages are illustrated for 11 species, and food plants are listed when known. Gesneriaceae is added as a new food plant family record for Ethmia. CO1 nucleotide sequences (“DNA barcodes”) were obtained for 41 of the species. PMID:25561859

  11. STS-112 crew practices emergency egress training during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During emergency egress training from the launch pad, the STS-112 crew get instructions on using the slidewire basket. From left, Mission Specialist Piers Sellers (back to camera), Pilot Pamela Melroy, Mission Specialists Sandra Magnus and Fyodor Yurchikhin (with the Russian Space Agency), watch as Commander Jeffrey Ashby (below right) grabs the release lever. Not seen is Mission Specialist David Wolf. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. Mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2, between 2 and 6 p.m. EDT. STS-112 is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts.

  12. STS-112 crew visits with Russian officials prior to launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Operations and Checkout Building, the STS-112 crew takes time out from a visit with Russian officials to pose for a portrait. From left are Mission Specialist Fyodor N. Yurchikhin, Ph.D., a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency; Aslan Abashidze, President of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara in Georgia (Russia); Commander Jeffrey S. Ashby; Mission Specialist Sandra H. Magnus, Ph.D.; Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy; Georgi Abashidze, Mayor of Batumi (Yurchikhin's hometown); and Mission Specialist Piers J. Sellers, Ph.D. Mission Specialist David A. Wolf, M.D., not pictured, is also a member of the crew. The STS-112 crew is awaiting launch to the International Space Station aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The launch has been postponed to no earlier than Monday, Oct. 7, so that the Mission Control Center, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, can be secured and protected from potential storm impacts from Hurricane Lili.

  13. [Mechanisms of reproductive behavior in humans: olfactory markers of males' attractiveness].

    PubMed

    Butovskaia, M L; Veselkovskaia, E V; Rostovtseva, V V; Sel'verova, N B; Ermakova, I V

    2012-01-01

    The present work represents a pilot study in the area of olfactory communication in humans. On the basis of experiments, it is demonstrated that women are able to detect, by means of smell, a number of morphological and psychological characteristics of men. The samples of sweat from 29 young men were collected, as well as anthropometry measurements (interpupillary distance, height and width of the lower jaw, and so forth) and behavioral characteristics (personality questionnaire NEO, risk-taking questionnaire, Sandra Bem masculinity and femininity indices, a self-rating on aggression Buss-Perry questionnaire). Data on hormonal status of all males were collected (testosterone and cortisol). It is demonstrated that women are able to detect both morphological (masculinity, physical health) and psychological characteristics (aggression, risk taking, neuroticism, extraversion, cooperation, etc.). The smell of men rating high on cortisol is estimated as the least attractive. On the contrary, the sweat of men with combination of high level of testosterone and low level of cortisol is considered the most attractive. Females rating of male's smell differed depending on a phase of a monthly cycle. The data obtained are discussed in the light of evolutionary basis of permanent partner choice. PMID:23101403

  14. STS-112/Atlantis/ISS 9A Pre-Launch - Launch On-Orbit - Landing - Crew Egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The video starts with an introduction of the crew of Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-112 at their customary pre-flight meal. The crew consists of Commander Jeffrey Ashby, Pilot Pam Melroy, and Mission Specialists David Wolf, Sandra Magnus, Piers Sellers, and Fyodor Yurchikhin. The crew is then shown during suit-up, while exiting the Operations and Checkout Building to board the Astrovan, and during ingress and seating. Launch views include: Beach Tracker, VAB, PAD-B, Tower-1, DLTR-3, Grandstand, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, OTV-170, OTV-171, and External Tank Camera. On-orbit footage includes the Atlantis orbiter docking with the ISS (International Space Station). The video shows clips of extravehicluar activities (EVAs), and some of the tasks performed during the mission. Footage included shows the installation of the S1 Truss onto the ISS with the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm 2), Canadarm 2 carrying the Ammonia Tank Assembly prior to connection, the checkout of the Thermal Radiator Rotary Joint, the soft docking of an S-Band antenna, and the deployment of the S1 Radiator. An onboard repair of the ISS humidity separator is also shown. Landing views include: VAB, Tower 1, Mid-Field, Runway South End, Runway North End, Tower-2, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, and PPOV. Kennedy Space Center managers greet the crew upon arrival, and Commander Ashby gives a brief speech while standing with his crew members.

  15. Gold medal award for life achievement in the practice of psychology.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is Robert J. Resnick, PhD, ABPP. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison. PMID:19618970

  16. Hodgkin's lymphoma: basing the treatment on the evidence.

    PubMed

    Connors, J M; Noordijk, E M; Horning, S J

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence available to guide treatment decisions in three areas of Hodgkin's lymphoma management. In Section I Dr. Evert Noordijk describes evolving strategies for patients with early stage disease outlining the eras during which the focus has changed from initially accomplishing cure through refining and intensifying the treatment to one of maximizing cure rates and finally into a patient-oriented era in which the twin goals of maintaining high rates of cure and minimizing late toxicity are being achieved. In Section II Dr. Sandra Horning reviews the way in which the cooperative groups of North America and Europe have built upon initial observations from single centers to assemble the trials that have defined the treatment for advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Over a period of almost three decades, these well-constructed trials have defined a current standard of treatment, ABVD chemotherapy and are now investigating innovative approaches to move beyond this standard. She also indicates the need to appreciate diagnostic factors and the implications of prognostic factor models for the design and interpretation of clinical trials. In Section III Dr. Joseph Connors summarizes the evidence available to inform our choice of treatment for the uncommon but important entity of lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma. Once again, the guidance that can be derived from carefully conducted clinical investigation is used to address the issues surrounding choice of treatment, reasonable monitoring in long term follow-up and the clear-cut need to base diagnosis on objective immunohistochemical evidence. PMID:11722984

  17. Tissue preference of some myxobolids (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) from the musculature of European freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Kálmán; Székely, Csaba

    2014-01-16

    For several species of fish myxosporeans known at present, the musculature has been designated as the location of intrapiscine development. In the majority of these cases, plasmodia and spores are actually found in the muscle cells, but there are also myxosporeans that select intermuscular connective tissue, fish bones, nerves and capillaries of the musculature as their site of development. During the plasmodial development of Myxobolus, Henneguya and Thelohanellus species in fish inhabiting Hungarian freshwaters, 3 main locations of development inside the muscles were identified. Pseudodispar-type plasmodia, such as M. cyprini, M. musculi and M. pseudodispar, form plasmodia intracellularly in the muscle cells, while the plasmodia of M. pfeifferi, M. sandrae and T. hovorkai develop in the intermuscular connective tissue. A similar development in the connective tissue of the ventricle and the bulbus arteriosus was observed for M. dogieli, a heart parasite found in some cyprinid fishes. The third type of development is represented by M. tauricus, which prefers the collagenous elements of the fin rays, but its plasmodia are commonly found in the muscle attached to the fish bones. PMID:24429470

  18. STS-112 Mission Highlights Resource Tape Part 2 of 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the STS-112 Mission is presented. The fourth flight day begins with a view inside of the Destiny Laboratory of the International Space Station where Expedition Five Commander Valery Korzun is shown. The robotics workstation where Mission Specialist Sandra Mangus and Flight Engineer Peggy Whitson operate Canadarm 2 to lift the S(1) Truss segment out of the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis and maneuver it for installation onto the S(1) Truss is presented. Mission Specialist Piers Sellers is shown preparing for his six and one half hour spacewalk by performing breathing exercises. Animation of the installation of the S(1) Truss, and also the unbirthing of the S(1) truss is also presented. Mission Specialists David Wolf and Piers Sellers are shown getting suited for their spacewalks. During the spacewalk, David Wolf is removing the antenna assembly from its launched position and Piers Sellers is releasing launch restraints from the Radiator Beam Assembly. A beautiful view of the coast of Texas is captured during this spacewalk. Flight day five shows pilot Pam Melroy and Mission Specialist Dave Wolf working inside of the International Space Station's Quest Airlock. Flight day six is shown with Dave Wolf and Piers Sellers exiting their spacesuits inside of the Quest Airlock Module after a successful spacewalk. This presentation ends with views of the International Space Station's installed S(1) Truss, rotation of the radiator assembly and the radiator's coolant tubing.

  19. STS-112 Crew exit O&C building before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-112 crew eagerly exit the Operations and Checkout Building for their ride to Launch Pad 39B and the launch scheduled 3:46 p.m. EDT. Leading the way are Pilot Pamela Melroy and Commander Jeffrey Ashby. In the second row are Mission Specialists David Wolf (left) and Sandra Magnus. Behind them are Mission Specialists Fyodor Yurchikhin and Piers Sellers. Sellers, Magnus and Yurchikhin are making their first Shuttle flights. STS-112 is the 15th assembly flight to the International Space Station, carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. On the 11-day mission, three spacewalks are planned to attach the S1 truss to the Station. [Photo courtesy of Scott Andrews

  20. Small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development.

    PubMed

    Effland, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This address is an exploration of a lifetime of disparate and often conflicting observations about how different people view what is right and good for agriculture, food, and farmers around the world. The exploration utilizes the concept of wicked problems to focus on the issue of differing historical interpretations of global agricultural development. Sandra Batie defines wicked problems as "dynamically complex, ill-structured, public problems" for which "there can be radically different views and understanding of the problem by different stakeholders, with no unique 'correct' view." The wicked problem construct is applied to four core ideas in the history of agricultural development -- small farms, cash crops, agrarian ideals, and international development -- to demonstrate the potential for using this concept to approach complex problems of historical interpretation and contribute to solutions to the challenges of global agricultural development. The author suggests historians should acknowledge contradictory interpretations adn work toward reconciliation and synthesis, where it is possible and, where not, toward a clear explication of the basis for remaining differences. The author also encourages historians to seek multidisciplinary research opportunities that will help bring insights about historical context to policy deliberations. PMID:20235391

  1. Effect of wounding on phenolic enzymes in six minimally processed lettuce cultivars upon storage.

    PubMed

    Cantos, E; Espn, J C; Toms-Barbern, F A

    2001-01-01

    The effect of wounding on polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was studied in six minimally processed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars upon storage for 7 days at 5 degrees C (Iceberg Mikonos (IM), I. Green Queen (IGQ), I. Asdrbal (IA), Little Gem Sandra (LGS), Romaine Cazorla (RC), and R. Modelo (RM)). Wounding of lettuce tissue midribs (because of minimal processing) caused an exponential increase in PPO activity due to the activation process from latent to fully active PPO by following first order kinetics in the time range from 3.7 days (LGS) to 6.3 days (RC). However, total PPO activity (active plus latent) remained constant. Isoform pattern of PPO changed upon storage probably because of posttranslational processes. POD activity linearly increased with induction of new POD isoenzymes. PAL activity presented a typical bell-shaped induction pattern in four cultivars. Only IM and IGQ showed a second induction response which has not been previously described in the literature. IM was the cultivar most susceptible to browning and RC was the cultivar least susceptible. However, no clear correlation was observed between browning and any of the biochemical and physiological attributes investigated (PPO, PAL, and POD activities, total and individual phenols accumulation, and ascorbic acid content). PMID:11170594

  2. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dispersed nanodiamond novel hybrids: Microscopic structure evolution, physical properties, and radiation resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Farmer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure and physical properties of novel hybrids of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ultradispersed diamond (UDD) forming nanocomposite ensemble that were subjected to 50, 100, and 10{sup 3} kGy gamma ray doses and characterized using various analytical tools to investigate hierarchical defects evolution. This work is prompted by recent work on single-walled CNTs and UDD ensemble [Gupta et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 104308 (2010)] where radiation-induced microscopic defects seem to be stabilized by UDD. The present experiments show similar effects where these hybrids display only a minimal structural modification under the maximum dose. Quantitative analyses of multiwavelength Raman spectra revealed lattice defects induced by irradiation assessed through the variation in prominent D, G, and 2D bands. A minimal change in the position of D, G, and 2D bands and a marginal increase in intensity of the defect-induced double resonant Raman scattered D and 2D bands are some of the implications suggesting the radiation coupling. The in-plane correlation length (L{sub a}) was also determined following Tunistra-Koenig relation from the ratio of D to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) besides microscopic stress. However, we also suggest the following taking into account of intrinsic defects of the constituents: (a) charge transfer arising at the interface due to the difference in electronegativity of MWCNT C sp{sup 2} and UDD core (C sp{sup 3}) leading to phonon and electron energy renormalization; (b) misorientation of C sp{sup 2} at the interface of MWCNT and UDD shell (C sp{sup 2}) resulting in structural disorder; (c) softening or violation of the q{approx}0 selection rule leading to D band broadening and a minimal change in G band intensity; and (d) normalized intensity of D and G bands with 2D band help to distinguish defect-induced double resonance phenomena. The MWCNT when combined with nanodiamond showed a slight decrease in their conductance further affected by irradiation pointing at relatively good interfacial contact. Furthermore, owing to high thermal and electrical conductivity properties, they can facilitate potentially efficient heat-transfer applications and some results deduced using Nielsen's model is provided.

  3. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dispersed nanodiamond novel hybrids: Microscopic structure evolution, physical properties, and radiation resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Farmer, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure and physical properties of novel hybrids of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ultradispersed diamond (UDD) forming nanocomposite ensemble that were subjected to 50, 100, and 103 kGy gamma ray doses and characterized using various analytical tools to investigate hierarchical defects evolution. This work is prompted by recent work on single-walled CNTs and UDD ensemble [Gupta et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 104308 (2010)] where radiation-induced microscopic defects seem to be stabilized by UDD. The present experiments show similar effects where these hybrids display only a minimal structural modification under the maximum dose. Quantitative analyses of multiwavelength Raman spectra revealed lattice defects induced by irradiation assessed through the variation in prominent D, G, and 2D bands. A minimal change in the position of D, G, and 2D bands and a marginal increase in intensity of the defect-induced double resonant Raman scattered D and 2D bands are some of the implications suggesting the radiation coupling. The in-plane correlation length (La) was also determined following Tunistra-Koenig relation from the ratio of D to G band (ID/IG) besides microscopic stress. However, we also suggest the following taking into account of intrinsic defects of the constituents: (a) charge transfer arising at the interface due to the difference in electronegativity of MWCNT C sp2 and UDD core (C sp3) leading to phonon and electron energy renormalization; (b) misorientation of C sp2 at the interface of MWCNT and UDD shell (C sp2) resulting in structural disorder; (c) softening or violation of the q ˜0 selection rule leading to D band broadening and a minimal change in G band intensity; and (d) normalized intensity of D and G bands with 2D band help to distinguish defect-induced double resonance phenomena. The MWCNT when combined with nanodiamond showed a slight decrease in their conductance further affected by irradiation pointing at relatively good interfacial contact. Furthermore, owing to high thermal and electrical conductivity properties, they can facilitate potentially efficient heat-transfer applications and some results deduced using Nielsen's model is provided.

  4. Topics in quantum cryptography, quantum error correction, and channel simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhicheng

    In this thesis, we mainly investigate four different topics: efficiently implementable codes for quantum key expansion [51], quantum error-correcting codes based on privacy amplification [48], private classical capacity of quantum channels [44], and classical channel simulation with quantum side information [49, 50]. For the first topic, we propose an efficiently implementable quantum key expansion protocol, capable of increasing the size of a pre-shared secret key by a constant factor. Previously, the Shor-Preskill proof [64] of the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) [6] quantum key distribution protocol relied on the theoretical existence of good classical error-correcting codes with the "dual-containing" property. But the explicit and efficiently decodable construction of such codes is unknown. We show that we can lift the dual-containing constraint by employing the non-dual-containing codes with excellent performance and efficient decoding algorithms. For the second topic, we propose a construction of Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) [19, 68] quantum error-correcting codes, which are originally based on pairs of mutually dual-containing classical codes, by combining a classical code with a two-universal hash function. We show, using the results of Renner and Koenig [57], that the communication rates of such codes approach the hashing bound on tensor powers of Pauli channels in the limit of large block-length. For the third topic, we prove a regularized formula for the secret key assisted capacity region of a quantum channel for transmitting private classical information. This result parallels the work of Devetak on entanglement assisted quantum communication capacity. This formula provides a new family protocol, the private father protocol, under the resource inequality framework that includes the private classical communication without the assisted secret keys as a child protocol. For the fourth topic, we study and solve the problem of classical channel simulation with quantum side information at the receiver. Our main theorem has two important corollaries: rate-distortion theory with quantum side information and common randomness distillation. Simple proofs of achievability of classical multi-terminal source coding problems can be made via a unified approach using the channel simulation theorem as building blocks. The fully quantum generalization of the problem is also conjectured with outer and inner bounds on the achievable rate pairs.

  5. WISE Identified Young Stellar Objects In BRC 38

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, John; Rebull, L. M.; Laurence, W.; Marshall, R.; Murphy, M.; Orr, L.; Whitworth, C.; Burton, A.; Corris, T.; Goodey, S.; McGinnis, S.; Laurence, C.; Aschman, O.; Kikuchi, R.; Prather, J.; Whitley, L.; Billings, C.; Mader, C.

    2014-01-01

    Bright rimmed clouds (BRCs) are dense clumps of gas and dust within HII regions at the edges of molecular clouds; while the BRCs themselves are dark, their rims are optically bright from illumination by nearby O or B stars. Many BRCs show evidence of active star formation possibly triggered by the ionizing radiation from the nearby O or B stars. The large molecular cloud IC1396 is home to eleven BRCs thought to be driven by the O6.5V star HD206267. BRC 38 is located in the north of IC1396, at 21:40:42 +58:16:13. The immediate ~5'x5' region around BRC 38 has been extensively studied in many wavelengths from X-rays to infrared (IR), identifying ~100 young stellar objects (YSOs). We used data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to expand the search for YSOs to a 20 arcminute radius from the center of BRC 38. Starting with approximately 7000 sources identified in the WISE catalog, we used an updated version of the IR color selection scheme developed by Koenig et al. (2012) to identify ~40 objects having IR colors consistent with those of YSOs; some overlapping with the literature YSO candidates. Combining confirmed and candidate YSOs from literature with those we identified by color selection, we find 115 unique objects of interest. For each of these sources, we analyzed (a) the WISE, 2MASS, and Spitzer images to determine if they were point-like sources; (b) their IR colors to determine if they exhibited a clear IR excess; and (c) their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to determine if they had an SED shape consistent with their identification as YSO candidates. Our work adds several new YSO candidates to the list of YSOs in and near BRC 38 and newly identifies IR excesses for many of the previously identified YSOs in the region. We looked for evidence of triggered star formation in BRC 38, but are limited in our conclusions by small-number statistics. Support is provided for this work by the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP), which receives funding from the NASA ADP program and the IPAC archives. A companion paper presenting the educational results of this team's work can be found in another AAS poster by Laurence et al.

  6. A Climate-Data Record of the "Clear-Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. K.; Comiso, J. C.; Digirolamo, N. E.; Stock, L. V.; Riggs, G. A.; Shuman, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a climate-data record (CDR of daily "clear-sky" ice-surface temperature (IST) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (1982 - present) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data (2000 - present) at a resolution of approximately 5 km. The CDR will be continued in the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite era. Two algorithms remain under consideration. One algorithm under consideration is based on the split-window technique used in the Polar Pathfinder dataset (Fowler et al., 2000 & 21007). Another algorithm under consideration, developed by Comiso (2006), uses a single channel of AVHRR data (channel 4) in conjunction with meteorological-station data to account for atmospheric effects and drift between AVHRR instruments. Known issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: tune-series bias caused by cloud cover (surface temperatures can be different under clouds vs. clear areas) and cross-calibration in the overlap period between AVHRR instruments, and between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, mainly due to clouds (Stroeve & Steffen, 1998; Wang and Key, 2005; Hall et al., 2008 and Koenig and Hall, submitted), time-series of satellite 1S'1" do not necessarily correspond to actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with automatic-,",eather station (AWS) data and with satellite-derived surface-temperature products. Regional "clear-sky" surface temperature increases in the Arctic, measured from AVHRR infrared data, range from 0.57+/-0.02 deg C (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72+/-0.10 deg C (Comiso, 2006) per decade since the early 1980s. Arctic warming has important implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet is already near 0 deg C during the melt season, and is thus vulnerable to rapid melting if temperatures continue to increase. References

  7. Epigenetic modifications of GABAergic interneurons are associated with the schizophrenia-like phenotype induced by prenatal stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Matrisciano, Francesco; Tueting, Patricia; Dalal, Ishani; Kadriu, Bashkim; Grayson, Dennis R; Davis, John M; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Human studies suggest that a variety of prenatal stressors are related to high risk for cognitive and behavioral abnormalities associated with psychiatric illness (Markham and Koenig, 2011). Recently, a downregulation in the expression of GABAergic genes (i.e., glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 and reelin) associated with DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) overexpression in GABAergic neurons has been regarded as a characteristic phenotypic component of the neuropathology of psychotic disorders (Guidotti et al., 2011). Here, we characterized mice exposed to prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in order to study neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities related to development of schizophrenia in the adult. Offspring born from non-stressed mothers (control mice) showed high levels of DNMT1 and 3a mRNA expression in the frontal cortex at birth, but these levels progressively decreased at post-natal days (PND) 7, 14, and 60. Offspring born from stressed mothers (PRS mice) showed increased levels of DNMTs compared to controls at all time-points studied including at birth and at PND 60. Using GAD67-GFP transgenic mice, we established that, in both control and PRS mice, high levels of DNMT1 and 3a were preferentially expressed in GABAergic neurons of frontal cortex and hippocampus. Importantly, the overexpression of DNMT in GABAergic neurons was associated with a decrease in reelin and GAD67 expression in PRS mice in early and adult life. PRS mice also showed an increased binding of DNMT1 and MeCP2, and an increase in 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in specific CpG-rich regions of the reelin and GAD67 promoters. Thus, the epigenetic changes in PRS mice are similar to changes observed in the post-mortem brains of psychiatric patients. Behaviorally, adult PRS mice showed hyperactivity and deficits in social interaction, prepulse inhibition, and fear conditioning that were corrected by administration of valproic acid (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) or clozapine (an atypical antipsychotic with DNA-demethylation activity). Taken together, these data show that prenatal stress in mice induces abnormalities in the DNA methylation network and in behaviors indicative of a schizophrenia-like phenotype. Thus, PRS mice may be a valid model for the investigation of new drugs for schizophrenia treatment targeting DNA methylation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neurodevelopmental Disorders'. PMID:22564440

  8. Real-Time Access to Meteosat Data Using the ADDE Server Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, M.; Gaertner, V. K.

    2006-05-01

    The McIDAS ADDE technology is used by EUMETSAT to provide access to real-time Meteosat-8 image data to globally foster training activities within and outside classroom courses. (McIDAS - Man computer Interactive Data Access System, ADDE - Abstract Data Distribution Environment). The advanced imaging capabilities of Meteosat-8 - a satellite of the Meteosat Second Generation series - provides full disk Earth coverage in 11 spectral channels every 15 minutes. A further 12th channel covers the land surfaces in a 1 km spatial resolution in a solar wavelength. Real-time operational services use the EUMETCast dissemination mechanism for timely access to the image data. EUMETCast covers the geographic area of Europe, Africa, South America and parts of North America and Asia. Details of the EUMETCast system are given in a separate presentation by Gaertner and Koenig in this conference. In addition to EUMETCast, however, for training purposes, access is also made available in near real-time on the basis of the ADDE technology. This is an internet based data access, i.e. it is globally available. ADDE offers the possibility to retrieve only the area of interest, e.g. a special geographic area and only selected channels. This implies that the actual data transfer is small so that the internet is used very efficiently. ADDE was developed as part of the McIDAS software, and is now also freely available in the OpenADDE package (http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/mcidas/software/openadde). Other than McIDAS itself, there is a variety of application packages that are ADDE enabled, as e.g. McIDAS-Lite, the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer, Hydra, IDL, or Matlab. These tools also offer further analysis concepts. Examples will be shown during the presentation. The user community of the ADDE access also needs to be licensed according to the EUMETSAT data policy. After the successful commissioning of Meteosat-9, the data of this satellite will of course be incorporated into the ADDE data provision.

  9. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and STM impairments in aphasia has motivated an active area of research that has revealed much about the relationship of these two systems and the effect of their impairment on language function and verbal learning (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Martin & Saffran, 1999; Trojano & Grossi, 1995). In keeping with this view a number of researchers have developed treatment protocols to improve verbal STM in order to improve language function (e.g., Koenig-Bruhin & Studer-Eichenberger, 2007). This account of aphasia predicts that treatment of a fundamental ability, such as STM, which supports language function, should lead to improvements that generalise to content and tasks beyond those implemented in treatment. Aims We investigated the efficacy of a treatment for language impairment that targets two language support processes: verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive processing, in the context of a language task (repetition). We hypothesised that treatment of these abilities would improve repetition abilities and performance on other language tasks that require STM. Method A single-participant, multiple-baseline, multiple-probe design across behaviours was used with a participant with conduction aphasia. The treatment involved repetition of words and nonwords under three “interval” conditions, which varied the time between hearing and repeating the stimulus. Measures of treatment effects included acquisition, maintenance, and follow-up data, effect sizes, and pre- and post-treatment performance on a test battery that varies the STM and executive function demands of language tasks. Outcomes & Results Improvement of repetition was mostly specific to treated stimuli. Post-treatment measures of language ability indicated improvements in single and multiple word processing tasks, verbal working memory tasks, and verbal span. Conclusions Treatment of STM and executive processes in the context of a word repetition task resulted in improvements in other non-treated language tasks. The approach used in this study can be incorporated into other language-processing tasks typically used in treatment of language disorders (e.g., sentence processing). PMID:22791930

  10. Air Pollution from Road Traffic and Systemic Inflammation in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the European ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Regina; Tiittanen, Pekka; Andrich, Silke; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Dratva, Julia; De Faire, Ulf; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Hoffmann, Barbara; Imboden, Medea; Jousilahti, Pekka; Koenig, Wolfgang; Mahabadi, Amir A.; Künzli, Nino; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schindler, Christian; Sugiri, Dorothea; Swart, Wim J.R.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Turunen, Anu W.; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Peters, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter air pollution (PM) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Objectives In this study we evaluated whether annual exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with systemic inflammation, which is hypothesized to be an intermediate step to cardiovascular disease. Methods Six cohorts of adults from Central and Northern Europe were used in this cross-sectional study as part of the larger ESCAPE project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects). Data on levels of blood markers for systemic inflammation—high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen—were available for 22,561 and 17,428 persons, respectively. Land use regression models were used to estimate cohort participants’ long-term exposure to various size fractions of PM, soot, and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, traffic intensity on the closest street and traffic load within 100 m from home were used as indicators of traffic air pollution exposure. Results Particulate air pollution was not associated with systemic inflammation. However, cohort participants living on a busy (> 10,000 vehicles/day) road had elevated CRP values (10.2%; 95% CI: 2.4, 18.8%, compared with persons living on a quiet residential street with < 1,000 vehicles/day). Annual NOx concentration was also positively associated with levels of CRP (3.2%; 95% CI: 0.3, 6.1 per 20 μg/m3), but the effect estimate was more sensitive to model adjustments. For fibrinogen, no consistent associations were observed. Conclusions Living close to busy traffic was associated with increased CRP concentrations, a known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, it remains unclear which specific air pollutants are responsible for the association. Citation Lanki T, Hampel R, Tiittanen P, Andrich S, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Dratva J, De Faire U, Fuks KB, Hoffmann B, Imboden M, Jousilahti P, Koenig W, Mahabadi AA, Künzli N, Pedersen NL, Penell J, Pershagen G, Probst-Hensch NM, Schaffner E, Schindler C, Sugiri D, Swart WJ, Tsai MY, Turunen AW, Weinmayr G, Wolf K, Yli-Tuomi T, Peters A. 2015. Air pollution from road traffic and systemic inflammation in adults: a cross-sectional analysis in the European ESCAPE project. Environ Health Perspect 123:785–791; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408224 PMID:25816055

  11. Cruise Report; RV Moana Wave cruise M1-01-GM; the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid shelf to upper slope off Panama City, Florida, northeastern Gulf of Mexico; September 3, through October 12, 2001, Panama City, FL to Panama City, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Dartnell, Peter; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama City, Florida (Figure 1, 67kb). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama are found in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957; Gardner et al., in press) and were the focus of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2000; in press). If this deep-water-reef trend does exist along the northwestern Florida shelf, then it is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology and type of the reefs that occur because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry is a fundamental first step in the study of areas suspected to be critical habitats. Morphology is thought to be critical to defining the distribution of dominant demersal plankton/planktivores communities. Fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have been relatively ignored. The ecology of deep-water ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatypic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web in ahermatypic reefs. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Thus, one of the principle uses of the morphology data will be to identify whether any reefs found are hermatypic or ahermatypic in origin. Community structure and trophodynamics of demersal fishes of the outer continental of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico presently are the focus of a major USGS reseach project. A goal of the project is to answer questions concerning the relative roles played by morphology and surficial geology in controling biological differentiation. Deep-water reefs are important because they are fish havens, key spawning sites, and are critical early larval and juvenile habitats for economically important sport/food fishes. It is known that deep-water reefs function as a key source for re-population (via seasonal and ontogenetic migration) of heavily impacted inshore reefs. The deep-water reefs south of Mississippi and Alabama support a lush fauna of ahermatypic hard corals, soft corals, black corals, sessile crinoids and sponges, that together form a living habitat for a well-developed fish fauna. The fish fauna comprises typical Caribbean reef fishes and Carolinian shelf fishes, plus epipelagic fishes, and a few deep-sea fishes. The base of the megafaunal invertebrate food web is plankton, borne by essentially continuous semi-laminar currents generated by eddies, spawned off the Loop Current, that periodically travel across the shelf edge. A few, sidescan-sonar surveys have been made of areas locally identified as Destin Pinnacles, Steamboat Lumps Marine Reserve (Koenig et al., 2000; Scanlon, et al., 2000; 2001), Twin Ridges (Briere, et al., 2000; Scanlon, et al., 2000), and Madison-Swanson Marine Reserve (Koenig et al., 2000; Scanlon, et al., 2000; 2001). However, no quantitative and little qualitative information about the geomorphology and surficial geology can be gained from these data. Existing bathymetry along the northwestern Florida shelf suggests the existence of areas of possible isolated deep-water reefs. NOAA bathymetric maps NOS NH16-9 and NG16-12 show geomorphic expressions that hint of the presence of reefs in isolated areas rather than in a continuous zone. There has been no systematic, high-resolution bathymetry collected in this area, prior to this cruise. After the successful mapping of the deep-water reefs on the Mississippi and Alabama shelf (Gardner et al., 2000; in press), a partnership composed of the USGS, Minerals Management Service, and NOAA was formed to continue the deep-reef mapping to the northwest Florida mid shelf and upper slope. This cruise is the first fruit of that partnership.

  12. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    From 18 January until 28 March the 2000 IEE Faraday Lecture will be touring venues in the UK, aiming to inspire and encourage students to choose a career in science and engineering. The lecture tour is being supported by communications and IT company, Marconi, and it is being presented by University College London. Interactive experiments for the audience of 14 - 16 year-olds will combine with a multimedia presentation on the theme `Time and Place in the Communications Age', exploring our ability to make precise measurements of time, place and space and how these impact on our personal and business lives. Among the curious facts from the lecture is the discovery that Cornwall rises and falls by 20 cm every time the tide moves in and out. The whole of the UK rises and falls by 50 cm every time the Moon goes by and the UK is actually 20 m shorter than was thought ten years ago, before the Global Positioning Satellite system was in operation. Attendance at the lectures is free and schools interested in booking tickets should visit the Faraday website at www.faraday.org.uk . Further details of the tour are available from the Faraday Lecture Office, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, Herts SG1 2AY (tel: 01438 313311, fax: 01438 742856, e-mail: faraday@iee.org.uk ). Among the `Strands' on the programme at the 2000 Edinburgh international science festival on 2 - 18 April are: visions of the future; time; the natural world; new materials; science book festival; science film festival. Festival programmes should be available soon from the festival office at 8 Lochend Road, Edinburgh EH6 8BR (tel: 0131 530 2001, fax: 0131 530 2002, e-mail: esf@scifest.demon.co.uk ). BA2000 will be one of the key features of the `creating SPARKS' festival where the sciences meet the arts in London during 6 - 30 September. Centred on South Kensington, and led by the British Association, creating SPARKS will be staged at such famous institutions as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  13. Is Storage a Solution to End Water Shortage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water shortage is a problem of supply and demand. Some authors refer to it as Water Scarcity. The author has discussed this in his previous presentation at the 2008 AGU International Conference. Part of it is reproduced here for purposes of clarification. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: “You will never miss water till the well runs dry.” Researchers have also concluded that quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities around the world. Furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent (Narayanan, 2008). One must observe that water conservation schemes and efficient utilization practices also benefit the environment to a large extent. These water conservation practicies indeed have a short payback period althought it may seem that there is a heavy initial investment is required. Research scientists have studied MARR (Mean Annual River Runoff) pattern over the years and have arrived at some significant conclusions. Vörsömarty and other scientists have indicated that water scarcity exists when the demand to supply ratio exceeds the number 0.4. (Vörsömarty, 2005). Furthermore other researchers claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. This obviously, is indicative of higher living standards. Nevertheless, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently (Narayanan, 2008). Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Sandra Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called “water-stressed” countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years (Narayanan, 2008). It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. References: Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

  14. Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2008-12-01

    Research scientists claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. While this indicates higher living standards, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently. Dr. Sandra Postel directs the independent Global Water Policy Project, as well as the Center for the Environment at Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called "water-stressed" countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The United Nations declared the years 2005 - 2015 as the "Water for Life" decade. It is also interesting and important to observe that the Oil - Rich Middle - East suffers from water scarcity to the maximum extent. It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. In excess of 10,000 desalination plants operate around the world in more than a hundred countries, but such a process is expensive and may seem prohibitive for developing countries with limited resources. Farmers can cut water usage by adopting the method known as drip irrigation which is known to be highly efficient. Drip Irrigation was pioneered by Israel and the Israeli farmers documented their efficiency by reducing the water used for irrigation by more than 30 percent. Unfortunately the rest of the world has failed to follow the lead set by this Great Jewish Nation. Worldwide, hardly 1percent of irrigated land utilizes efficient drip irrigation techniques. The problem lies in the fact that water is considered to be a free natural commodity. Applying the principles of Market Economics to this problem may promote the transfer of a monetary value to freshwater. In this presentation the author examines the possibility of applying principles of Market Economics to the problem in question. It is important to recognize that water is essential for the survival of all life on earth. Many water-rich states have thought of water conservation as an art that is practiced mainly in the arid states. But one has to recite the famous quote: "You will never miss water till the well runs dry." Quantity deficiency experienced by groundwater supplies are affecting many communities and furthermore federal regulations pertaining to the quality of potable or drinking water have become more stringent. It is also important to observe the fact that one can protect the environment by practicing water efficiency procedures and saving valuable water resources. It may seem that there may be heavy investment involved, however, in reality these do have a short payback period. References: Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20036, Phone: 202-452-1999; FAX: 202-296-7365, wwpub@igc.apc.org. MRI Water Conservation Technical Bulletin 1, Water Conservation Best Management Practices General Practices and References; New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission, Wilmington, MA; 1996. Vickers, Amy; Handbook of Water Use and Conservation; WaterPlow Press, Amherst, MA; 2001; pp 2-9, 276.

  15. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Two teachers from the town of San Pedro de Atacama, in the northern desert of the South American nation of Chile, arrive in Magdalena, New Mexico, Sunday, January 28, for a two-week visit that is part of a Sister Cities program sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), the nonprofit research corporation that operates the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). They will be accompanied by their town's mayor. Myriam Nancy Rivera Mercado, Head of the high school in San Pedro, Gabriela Fernanda Rodriguez Moraleda, a tourism teacher there, and San Pedro Mayor Sandra Berna Martinez will begin a visit that includes classroom observations in the Magdalena schools, a reception hosted by the Magdalena Village Council, and a Mayor's Breakfast with Magdalena Mayor Jim Wolfe. They also will meet local residents, tour the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge with a second-grade class, visit an area ranch, tour the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, and see Socorro's Community Arts Party. "These teachers will learn much about New Mexico, the United States, and our educational system, and will take this new knowledge back to their students and their community," said NRAO Education Officer Robyn Harrison. The visit is part of a Sister Cities program initiated and funded by AUI, which operates the NRAO for the U.S. National Science Foundation. Radio astronomy is a common link between San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena. San Pedro is near the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project now under construction with funding by major partners in North America, Europe, and Japan. Magdalena is near the site of NRAO's VLA radio telescope. In Magdalena, the Village Council and Mayor Wolfe formalized their participation in the Sister Cities program last September, and San Pedro ratified the program in December. In San Pedro, the ceremony ratifying the agreement was attended by U.S. Ambassador to Chile Craig K. Kelly. The Chilean teachers are visiting Magdalena while they are on their Southern Hemisphere summer vacation, and Magdalena's schools are in session. Two Magdalena teachers, Joleen Welborn and Sandra Montoya, will visit San Pedro in June, while they are on summer vacation and the Chilean schools will be in session. Dr. Eduardo Hardy, the AUI/NRAO representative in Chile, will accompany the Chilean teachers on their visit, which has been coordinated by Harrison. "ALMA is a groundbreaking example of the type of international cooperation that marks the future of astronomy. We are especially pleased to sponsor a program that brings together two communities that both enjoy proximity to world-class astronomical research facilities," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. "While separated by many miles, San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena have much in common. Both are small communities in high desert environments, and both are next to telescopes where the world's astronomers will be making many exciting discoveries in the coming decades. Bringing these two communities together will advance education and international understanding," Harrison said. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Search for Signatures of Life in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M.; Schwehm, G.; Arnould, J.; Dawson, S.; Devore, E.; Evans, D.; Ferrazzani, M.; Shostak, S.

    The search for evidence of extraterrestrial life is an important scientific theme that fascinates the public and encourages interest in space exploration, both within the solar system and beyond. The rapid pace of mass media communication allows the public to share mission results and new discoveries almost simultaneously with the scientific community. The public can read about proposed sample return missions to Mars, listen as scientists debate about in situ exploration of the oceans on Europa, learn about the growing number of extrasolar planets, or use their personal computers to participate in searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). As the science community continues its multi-pronged efforts to detect evidence of extraterrestrial life, it must be mindful of more than just science and technology. It is important to understand public perceptions, misperceptions, beliefs, concerns and potential complications associated with the search for life beyond our home planet. This panel is designed to provide brief overviews of some important non-scientific areas with the potential to impact future astrobiological exploration. The presentations will be followed by open discussion and audience participation. Invited panelists and their topical areas include: SCIENCE FICTION AND MISPERCEPTIONS: Seth Shostak, Dylan EvansBattling Pseudo-Science, Hollywood and Alien Abductions LEGAL ISSUES: Marcus FerrazzaniLooming Complications for Future Missions and Exploration RISK COMMUNICATION: Sandra DawsonEngaging the Public, Explaining the Risks, and Encouraging Long-Term Interestin Mission Science EDUCATION: Edna DeVoreUsing the Search for Life as a Motivating Theme in Teaching Basic Science andCritical Thinking. ETHICAL ISSUES AND CONCERNS: Jacques ArnouldWhat Will it Mean if We Find "ET"? PANEL MODERATORS: Margaret Race, Gerhard Schwehm

  17. STS-112 Flight Day 4 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    On the fourth day of STS-112, its crew (Jeffrey Ashby, Commander; Pamela Melroy, Pilot; David Wolf, Mission Specialist; Piers Sellers, Mission Specialist; Sandra Magnus, Mission Specialist; Fyodor Yurchikhin, Mission Specialist) onboard Atlantis and the Expedition 5 crew (Valery Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitson, Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) are seen preparing for the installation of the S1 truss structure. Inside the Destiny Laboratory Module, Korzun and other crewmembers are seen as they busily prepare for the work of the day. Sellers dons an oxygen mask and uses an exercise machine in order to purge the nitrogen from his bloodstream, in preparation for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Whitson uses the ISS's Canadarm 2 robotic arm to grapple the S1 truss and remove it from Atlantis' payload bay, with the assistance of Magnus. Using the robotic arm, Whitson slowly maneuvers the 15 ton truss structure into alignment with its attachment point on the starboard side of the S0 truss structure, where the carefully orchestrated mating procedures take place. There is video footage of the entire truss being rotated and positioned by the arm, and ammonia tank assembly on the structure is visible, with Earth in the background. Following the completion of the second stage capture, the robotic arm is ungrappled from truss. Sellers and Wolf are shown exiting the the Quest airlock hatch to begin their EVA. They are shown performing a variety of tasks on the now attached S1 truss structure, including work on the Crew Equipment Translation Cart (CETA), the S-band Antenna Assembly, and umbilical cables that provide power and remote operation capability to cameras. During their EVA, they are shown using a foot platform on the robotic arm. Significant portions of their activities are shown from the vantage of helmet mounted video cameras. The video closes with a final shot of the ISS and its new S1 truss.

  18. The moonlighter.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Bronwyn

    2002-11-01

    Jeremy Hicks, Zagante Systems' lead programmer, walks into the office at eight o'clock on a Sunday night and does a double take when he spots his boss, Melanie. She's equally surprised to find she isn't alone. Before leaving for the evening, Melanie pays Jeremy a visit, only to discover that he isn't hard at work on Zagante's new product--he's programming a game for another company. The next day over lunch, Melanie confronts Jeremy and lets him know that he needs to stay focused on Zagante's new software. Jeremy insists that he's fully engaged in it. So Melanie agrees to keep the moonlighting under wraps so long as it doesn't interfere with Jeremy's job. That night, Melanie sits down at her laptop and opens up a Google window. "Moonlighting," she types. Dismayed at the number of hits, she changes her search to "Fired for moonlighting." This search leads her to case after case, but none helps her with Jeremy. She tries one more time. "Promoted for moonlighting," she types. No surprise. Zero hits. Frustrated with Jeremy, yet anxious to keep such a talented employee, Melanie turns to Jill Darby, Zagante's HR director, for guidance. Jill has both good and bad news. The bad news is that the company has no moonlighting policy. The good news is that Jill can arrange for Jeremy to receive a low-interest loan. But when Melanie tells Jeremy about the loan, he doesn't go for it. He's not just freelancing for the money, it turns out; he's downright enjoying the work and doesn't appreciate his boss butting in to his private business. How should Melanie handle this moonlighting issue? Commentators Bill Jensen, author of Work 2.0: Rewriting the Contract; attorney Barry LePatner; economics professors Jean Kimmel and Karen Conway; and HR director Sandra Davis offer advice in this fictional case study. PMID:12422787

  19. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    PubMed

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management. PMID:12858712

  20. STS-112 Flight Day 4 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On the fourth day of STS-112, its crew (Jeffrey Ashby, Commander; Pamela Melroy, Pilot; David Wolf, Mission Specialist; Piers Sellers, Mission Specialist; Sandra Magnus, Mission Specialist; Fyodor Yurchikhin, Mission Specialist) onboard Atlantis and the Expedition 5 crew (Valery Korzun, Commander; Peggy Whitson, Flight Engineer; Sergei Treschev, Flight Engineer) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) are seen preparing for the installation of the S1 truss structure. Inside the Destiny Laboratory Module, Korzun and other crewmembers are seen as they busily prepare for the work of the day. Sellers dons an oxygen mask and uses an exercise machine in order to purge the nitrogen from his bloodstream, in preparation for an extravehicular activity (EVA). Whitson uses the ISS's Canadarm 2 robotic arm to grapple the S1 truss and remove it from Atlantis' payload bay, with the assistance of Magnus. Using the robotic arm, Whitson slowly maneuvers the 15 ton truss structure into alignment with its attachment point on the starboard side of the S0 truss structure, where the carefully orchestrated mating procedures take place. There is video footage of the entire truss being rotated and positioned by the arm, and ammonia tank assembly on the structure is visible, with Earth in the background. Following the completion of the second stage capture, the robotic arm is ungrappled from truss. Sellers and Wolf are shown exiting the the Quest airlock hatch to begin their EVA. They are shown performing a variety of tasks on the now attached S1 truss structure, including work on the Crew Equipment Translation Cart (CETA), the S-band Antenna Assembly, and umbilical cables that provide power and remote operation capability to cameras. During their EVA, they are shown using a foot platform on the robotic arm. Significant portions of their activities are shown from the vantage of helmet mounted video cameras. The video closes with a final shot of the ISS and its new S1 truss.

  1. An analysis of the synoptic and climatological applicability of circulation type classifications for Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, Ciaran; Fealy, Rowan

    2013-04-01

    Circulation type classifications (CTCs) compiled as part of the COST733 Action, entitled 'Harmonisation and Application of Weather Type Classifications for European Regions', are examined for their synoptic and climatological applicability to Ireland based on their ability to characterise surface temperature and precipitation. In all 16 different objective classification schemes, representative of four different methodological approaches to circulation typing (optimization algorithms, threshold based methods, eigenvector techniques and leader algorithms) are considered. Several statistical metrics which variously quantify the ability of CTCs to discretize daily data into well-defined homogeneous groups are used to evaluate and compare different approaches to synoptic typing. The records from 14 meteorological stations located across the island of Ireland are used in the study. The results indicate that while it was not possible to identify a single optimum classification or approach to circulation typing - conditional on the location and surface variables considered - a number of general assertions regarding the performance of different schemes can be made. The findings for surface temperature indicate that that those classifications based on predefined thresholds (e.g. Litynski, GrossWetterTypes and original Lamb Weather Type) perform well, as do the Kruizinga and Lund classification schemes. Similarly for precipitation predefined type classifications return high skill scores, as do those classifications derived using some optimization procedure (e.g. SANDRA, Self Organizing Maps and K-Means clustering). For both temperature and precipitation the results generally indicate that the classifications perform best for the winter season - reflecting the closer coupling between large-scale circulation and surface conditions during this period. In contrast to the findings for temperature, spatial patterns in the performance of classifications were more evident for precipitation. In the case of this variable those more westerly synoptic stations open to zonal airflow and less influenced by regional scale forcings generally exhibited a stronger link with large-scale circulation.

  2. Work Done For the Safety and Assurance Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struhar, Paul T., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The Safety and Assurance Directorate (SAAD) has a vision. The vision is to be an essential part of NASA Glenn's journey to excellence. SAAD is in charge of leading safety, security, and quality and is important to our customers. When it comes to programmatic and technical decision making and implementation, SAAD provides clear safety, reliability, maintainable, quality assurance and security. I worked on a couple different things during my internship with Sandra Hardy. I did a lot of logistics for meeting and trips. I helped run the budget for the SAAD directorate. I also worked with Rich Miller for one week and we took water samples and ran tests. We also calibrated the different equipment. There is a lot more to meetings than people see. I did one for a retirement party. I had to get work orders and set up the facilities where the event is going to take place. I also set up a trip to Plum Brook Station. I had to order vans and talk with the people up there to see when a good time was. I also had to make invitations and coordinate everything. I also help Sandy run the numbers in the budget. We use excel to do this, which makes it a lot easier. things. He is in the environmental safety office. I learned how to collaborate the equipment using alpha and beta sources. I went out with him and we took water samples and tested them for conductivity and chlorine. I have learned a lot in the short time I've been here. It has been a great experience and I have has the pleasure of meeting and working with great people.

  3. The S1 Truss Prior to Installation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Being attached to the Canadarm2 on the International Space Station (ISS), the Remote Manipulator System arm built by the Canadian Space Agency, the Integrated Truss Assembly (S1) Truss is suspended over the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' cargo bay. Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, STS-112 mission specialist, and Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, used the Canadarm2 from inside the Destiny laboratory on the ISS to lift the S1 truss out of the orbiter's cargo bay and move it into position prior to its installation on the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  4. It's All About You: An ERP Study of Emotion and Self-Relevance in Discourse

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Eric C.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2013-01-01

    Accurately communicating self-relevant and emotional information is a vital function of language, but we have little idea about how these factors impact normal discourse comprehension. In an event-related potential (ERP) study, we fully crossed self-relevance and emotion in a discourse context. Two-sentence social vignettes were presented either in the third or the second person (previous work has shown that this influences the perspective from which mental models are built). ERPs were time-locked to a critical word toward the end of the second sentence which was pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant (e.g., A man knocks on Sandra's/your hotel room door. She/You see(s) that he has a gift/tray/gun in his hand.). We saw modulation of early components (P1, N1, and P2) by self-relevance, suggesting that a self-relevant context can lead to top-down attentional effects during early stages of visual processing. Unpleasant words evoked a larger late positivity than pleasant words, which evoked a larger positivity than neutral words, indicating that, regardless of self-relevance, emotional words are assessed as motivationally significant, triggering additional or deeper processing at post-lexical stages. Finally, self-relevance and emotion interacted on the late positivity: a larger late positivity was evoked by neutral words in self-relevant, but not in non-self-relevant, contexts. This may reflect prolonged attempts to disambiguate the emotional valence of ambiguous stimuli that are relevant to the self. More broadly, our findings suggest that the assessment of emotion and self-relevance are not independent, but rather that they interactively influence one another during word-by-word language comprehension. PMID:22584232

  5. Wet, Carbonaceous Asteroids: Altering Minerals, Changing Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2011-04-01

    Many carbonaceous chondrites contain alteration products from water-rock interactions at low temperature and organic compounds. A fascinating fact known for decades is the presence in some of them of an assortment of organic compounds, including amino acids, sometimes called the building blocks of life. Murchison and other CM carbonaceous chondrites contain hundreds of amino acids. Early measurements indicated that the amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites had equal proportions of L- and D-structures, a situation called racemic. This was in sharp contrast to life on Earth, which heavily favors L- forms. However, beginning in 1997, John Cronin and Sandra Pizzarello (Arizona State University) found L- excesses in isovaline and several other amino acids in the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. In 2009, Daniel Glavin and Jason Dworkin (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center) reported the first independent confirmation of L-isovaline excesses in Murchison using a different analytical technique than employed by Cronin and Pizzarello. Inspired by this work, Daniel Glavin, Michael Callahan, Jason Dworkin, and Jamie Elsila (Astrobiology Analytical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center), have done an extensive study of the abundance and symmetry of amino acids in carbonaceous chondrites that experienced a range of alteration by water in their parent asteroids. The results show that amino acids are more abundant in the less altered meteorites, implying that aqueous processing changes the mix of amino acids. They also confirmed the enrichment in L-structures of some amino acids, especially isovaline, confirming earlier work. The authors suggest that aqueously-altered planetesimals might have seeded the early Earth with nonracemic amino acids, perhaps explaining why life from microorganisms to people use only L- forms to make proteins. The initial imbalance caused by non-biologic processes in wet asteroids might have been amplified by life on Earth. Alternatively, the same processes that produced the L-amino acid excesses in carbonaceous asteroids also operated on the early Earth.

  6. Children as consumers: advertising and marketing.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the discretionary income of children and their power to influence parent purchases have increased over time. Second, as the enormous increase in the number of available television channels has led to smaller audiences for each channel, digital interactive technologies have simultaneously opened new routes to narrow cast to children, thereby creating a growing media space just for children and children's products. Calvert explains that paid advertising to children primarily involves television spots that feature toys and food products, most of which are high in fat and sugar and low in nutritional value. Newer marketing approaches have led to online advertising and to so-called stealth marketing techniques, such as embedding products in the program content in films, online, and in video games. All these marketing strategies, says Calvert, make children younger than eight especially vulnerable because they lack the cognitive skills to understand the persuasive intent of television and online advertisements. The new stealth techniques can also undermine the consumer defenses even of older children and adolescents. Calvert explains that government regulations implemented by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission provide some protection for children from advertising and marketing practices. Regulators exert more control over content on scarce television airwaves that belong to the public than over content on the more open online spaces. Overall, Calvert concludes, children live and grow up in a highly sophisticated marketing environment that influences their preferences and behaviors. PMID:21338011

  7. The Massive Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy NGC 4486B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, A.; Green, R. F.; Gebhardt, K.; Bower, G. A.; Kormendy, J.; Lauer, T.; Richstone, D. O.; STIS IDT Galaxy Nuclei Team; Nuker Team

    2003-12-01

    We report results from the application of a three-integral galactic dynamical model to NGC 4486B. This dwarf E1 companion to M87 has long been known to be an outlier in the Fundamental Plane. Kormendy and Magorrian et al. found a substantial central black hole mass, making it an outlier in the MBH to Lbulge relationship as well. From the modeling we are able to determine the extent to which NGC 4486B follows the MBH - sigma relation more closely than the other bulge galaxy relationships. The other unique feature NGC 4486B exhibits is a double nucleus structure, the second of only two observed. We combine the high resolution of STIS spectra with ground based data to form a more complete description of the line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) in the nuclear region of NGC 4486B. Through the increased resolution of the dynamics and the three-integral model, we place an improved constraint on the mass-to-light ratio and black hole mass. Bender's research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation through Scientific Program Order No. 3 (AST-0243875) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF. RG and GB were supported by NASA for the STIS Instrument Definition Team. This work is a collaboration with the STIS Instrument Definition Team galaxy nuclei group, which also includes John Hutchings, Charles Joseph, Mary Elizabeth Kaiser, Charles Nelson, Donna Weistrop, and Bruce Woodgate. This work is a collaboration with the Nuker Team, which also includes Ralf Bender, Alan Dressler, Sandra Faber, Alex Filippenko, Carl Grillmair, Luis Ho, John Magorrian, Jason Pinkney, Christos Siopis, and Scott Tremaine.

  8. Vailulu'u Seamount, Samoa: Life and Death at the Edge of An Active Submarine Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vailulu'U Research Group, T.

    2005-12-01

    Exploration of Vailulu'u seamount (14°13'S; 169°04'W) by manned submersible, ROV, and surface ship revealed a new, 300m tall volcano that has grown in the summit crater in less than four years. This shows that Vailulu'u's eruption behavior is at this stage not predictable and continued growth could allow Vailulu'u to breach sea level within decades Several types of hydrothermal vents fill Vailulu'u crater with particulates that reduce visibility to less than a few meters in some regions. Hydrothermal solutions mix with seawater that enters the crater from its breaches to produce distinct biological habitats. Low temperature hydrothermal vents can produce Fe-oxide chimneys or up to one meter-thick microbial mats. Higher temperature vents (85°C) produce low salinity acidic fluids containing buoyant droplets of immiscible CO2. Low temperature hydrothermal vents at Nafanua summit (708m depth) support a thriving population of eels (Dysommia rusosa). The areas around the high temperature vents and the moat and remaining crater around the new volcano is almost devoid of any macroscopic life and is littered with fish, and mollusk carcasses that apparently died from exposure to hydrothermal fluid components in deeper crater waters. Acid- tolerant polychaetes adapt to this environment and feed near and on these carcasses. Vailulu'u presents a natural laboratory for the study of how seamounts and their volcanic systems interact with the hydrosphere to produce distinct biological habitats, and how marine life can adapt to these conditions or be trapped in a toxic volcanic system that leads to mass mortality. The Vailulu'u research team: Hubert Staudigel, Samantha Allen, Brad Bailey, Ed Baker, Sandra Brooke, Ryan Delaney, Blake English, Lisa Haucke, Stan Hart, John Helly, Ian Hudson, Matt Jackson, Daniel Jones, Alison Koleszar, Anthony Koppers, Jasper Konter, Laurent Montesi, Adele Pile, Ray Lee, Scott Mcbride, Julie Rumrill, Daniel Staudigel, Brad Tebo, Alexis Templeton, Rhea Workman, Craig Young, Robert Zierenberg.

  9. Developing IMS-IMS-MS for rapid characterization of abundant proteins in human plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Bohrer, Brian C.; Merenbloom, Samuel I.; Sowell, René A.; Mechref, Yehia; Clemmer, David E.

    2009-06-01

    A drift tube mass spectrometer that utilizes back-to-back ion mobility regions separated by a collisional activation zone and new autosampling [R.T. Kurulugama, S.J. Valentine, R.A. Sowell, D.E. Clemmer, Development of a high-throughput IMS-IMS-MS approach for analyzing mixtures of biomolecules, J. Proteomics 71 (3) (2008) 318-331] and data acquisition techniques [S. Trimpin, D.E. Clemmer, Ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry snapshots for assessing the molecular compositions of complex polymeric systems, Anal. Chem. 80 (23) (2008) 9073-9083; C. Becker, K.N. Qian, D.H. Russell, Molecular weight distributions of asphaltenes and deasphaltened oils studied by laser desorption ionization and ion mobility mass spectrometry, Anal. Chem. 80 (22) (2008) 8592-8597; S.I. Merenbloom, S.L. Koeniger, B.C. Bohrer, S.J. Valentine, D.E. Clemmer, Improving the efficiency of IMS-IMS by a combing technique, Anal. Chem. 80 (6) (2008) 1918-1927; M.E. Belov, B.H. Clowers, D.C. Prior, W.F. Danielson III, A.V. Liyu, B.O. Petritis, R.D. Smith, Dynamically multiplexed ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Anal. Chem. 80 (15) (2008) 5873-5883] is used to analyze tryptic peptides from proteins obtained from 70 individual human plasma samples. The combination of methods allows ions to be efficiently separated in an initial drift region (based on differences in mobilities that arise from initial conformations), activated (in order to alter conformations), and then separated again in a second drift region, prior to detection in a mass spectrometer. The two-dimensional ion mobility separation makes it possible to create a large analytical peak capacity for the complex mixture. Additionally, the mobility distributions of the ions in different states (precursor and post-activation) provide a signature that is valuable in verifying that the same ions are being examined across the distribution of individuals. Finally, because this characterization is carried out in the gas phase it is possible to obtain information in a high-throughput fashion. Here, we develop and assess an analysis that requires ~4 min per sample. While this prototype approach is at a very early stage several thousand peaks can be resolved and detected for each sample. From a comparison of 15 plasma samples analyzed with IMS-IMS-MS and LC-MS/MS techniques we find that an average of 262 +/- 54 (1[sigma]) unique peptides assigned in the latter analyses are also observed in the former. On average, these assigned peptides represent 63 +/- 9 proteins. The utility of the approach as a means of characterizing physiologies in a state-to-state fashion is discussed.

  10. Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Four European Cohort Studies in the ESCAPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Kathrin; Hennig, Frauke; Penell, Johanna; Basagaña, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Cyrys, Josef; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Adam, Martin; Baldassarre, Damiano; Cirach, Marta; Elosua, Roberto; Dratva, Julia; Hampel, Regina; Koenig, Wolfgang; Marrugat, Jaume; de Faire, Ulf; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rivera, Marcela; Seissler, Jochen; Schindler, Christian; Thiery, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Background: In four European cohorts, we investigated the cross-sectional association between long-term exposure to air pollution and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT), a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Methods: Individually assigned levels of nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), absorbance of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), PM10, PMcoarse, and two indicators of residential proximity to highly trafficked roads were obtained under a standard exposure protocol (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects—ESCAPE study) in the Stockholm area (Sweden), the Ausburg and Ruhr area (Germany), and the Girona area (Spain). We used linear regression and meta-analyses to examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and CIMT. Results: The meta-analysis with 9,183 individuals resulted in an estimated increase in CIMT (geometric mean) of 0.72% (95% CI: –0.65%, 2.10%) per 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and 0.42% (95% CI: –0.46%, 1.30%) per 10–5/m increase in PM2.5abs. Living in proximity to high traffic was also positively but not significantly associated with CIMT. Meta-analytic estimates for other pollutants were inconsistent. Results were similar across different adjustment sets and sensitivity analyses. In an extended meta-analysis for PM2.5 with three other previously published studies, a 0.78% (95% CI: –0.18%, 1.75%) increase in CIMT was estimated for a 5-μg/m3 contrast in PM2.5. Conclusions: Using a standardized exposure and analytical protocol in four European cohorts, we found that cross-sectional associations between CIMT and the eight ESCAPE markers of long-term residential air pollution exposure did not reach statistical significance. The additional meta-analysis of CIMT and PM2.5 across all published studies also was positive but not significant. Citation: Perez L, Wolf K, Hennig F, Penell J, Basagaña X, Foraster M, Aguilera I, Agis D, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Cyrys J, Fuks KB, Adam M, Baldassarre D, Cirach M, Elosua R, Dratva J, Hampel R, Koenig W, Marrugat J, de Faire U, Pershagen G, Probst-Hensch NM, de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Rathmann W, Rivera M, Seissler J, Schindler C, Thiery J, Hoffmann B, Peters A, Künzli N. 2015. Air pollution and atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis of four European cohort studies in the ESCAPE Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:597–605; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307711 PMID:25625785

  11. Antarctic glaciations under Pliocene climate conditions from numerical modeling and compilation of local field-based reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernales, Jorge; Rogozhina, Irina; Greve, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The mid-Pliocene (3.15 to 2.85 million years before present) is the most recent period in Earth's history when temperatures and CO2 concentrations were likely sustainedly higher than pre-industrial values. Furthermore, the positions of the continents and their sea-land distributions had already reached their present configuration, sharing some similarities with today's patterns of ocean circulation and vegetation distributions. Although significant differences exist -such as a peak sea level that could have been 22 ± 10 m higher than it is today and sea surface temperatures particularly warmer at higher latitudes, mid-Pliocene has been identified as an ideal interval for studying the climate system under conditions similar to those projected for the end of this century. Among the sources of uncertainty in the projections, the response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to warmer-than-today conditions seems to play a central role. Therefore, a better understanding of AIS's behavior during periods like the mid-Pliocene will provide valuable information that could help improve future predictions. For this purpose, we have compiled a wide range of local field-based reconstructions of the ice-sheet margin from Pliocene sediments (with the inclusions of organic matters such as, for instance, diatoms or palynoflora, or ice rafted debris), geochemical records, volcanic ashes and rocks, and geomorphology, and designed numerical experiments of the AIS dynamics during the mid-Pliocene warm period using the large-scale polythermal ice sheet-shelf model SICOPOLIS (Greve, 1997 [1]; Sato and Greve, 2012 [2]). The model is run with a horizontal resolution of 40 × 40 km by the climatology obtained from the PlioMIP Atmosphere Ocean Global Circulation Model experiments (Dolan et al., 2012 [3]). Parameters of the AIS model (e.g. ice calving, sub-ice shelf and surface ice melt, basal sliding, etc.) have initially been estimated using ice-sheet simulations driven by the present-day climate and ocean conditions and calibrated against available remote-sensed and in-situ observations. In our Pliocene experiments, we employ alternative parameterizations of sub-ice shelf and ice surface melting processes to test the likelihood of numerous controversial theories and reconstructions arguing for or against significant retreat of the East Antarctic ice sheet from the coasts (locally up to 450 km) in the mid-Pliocene. Finally, we assess the sensitivity of the modeled West Antarctic/Antarctic Peninsula ice geometry to the above parameters and emphasize a crucial role of surface mass balance model parameters in modeling the Pliocene ice sheet configuration in agreement with existing reconstructions on a regional scale. References [1] Greve, R. (1997). Application of a polythermal three-dimensional ice sheet model to the Greenland ice sheet: response to steady-state and transient climate scenarios. Journal of Climate, 10(5), 901-918. [2] Sato, T., and Greve, R. (2012). Sensitivity experiments for the Antarctic ice sheet with varied sub-ice-shelf melting rates. Annals of Glaciology, 53(60), 221-228. [3] Dolan, A. M., Koenig, S. J., Hill, D. J., Haywood, A. M., and DeConto, R. M. (2012). Pliocene Ice Sheet Modelling Intercomparison Project (PLISMIP)-experimental design. Geoscientific Model Development, 5(4), 963-974.

  12. Advances in Quantitative Analyses and Reference Materials Related to Laser Ablation ICP-MS: A Look at Methods and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, A. E.; Ridley, W. I.

    2009-12-01

    The role of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) continues to expand both in geological sciences and other fields. As the technique continues to gain popularity, so too does the need for good reference materials and methods development and validation. Matrix matched reference materials (RMs) are required for calibration and quality control of LA-ICP-MS analyses. New advances in technology such as <200nm lasers and femtosecond lasers have reduced the dependence on matrix matching to some degree, but general matrix matching is still preferred. Much work has revolved around the available RMs such as the NIST 61x silicate glasses and several series of basaltic composition glasses such as the USGS natural basaltic glasses BCR-2g and synthetic basaltic glasses, the GS series (e.g. GSD-1g). While many quantitative hurdles have been recognized by analogous techniques such as EPMA and SIMS, some of these hurdles have not been fully addressed or validated for some cases of LA-ICP-MS. Trace element mapping by LA-ICP-MS is rapidly becoming more widespread for samples. Here relative differences in raw signal can be easily and rapidly obtained. However as too often is the case the magnitude of the relative differences in raw intensity are a function of different ablation yields, sample density or other factors. Methods of quantification for trace element mapping will be presented. The USGS has been developing microanalytical RMs intended for LA-ICP-MS for several years. The widely popular basaltic rock powders BCR-2, BIR-1 and BHVO-2 have all been successfully converted to homogeneous glasses suitable for LA-ICP-MS and have been in use by many workers. The newer synthetic basaltic glass GS series consists of 4 glasses of basaltic composition artificially doped at nominal concentrations of almost of trace elements at 400, 40, 4 and < 1 ppm. Additional developments in non-silcate or basaltic materials include the previously released MASS-1 Cu, Fe, Zn sulfide calibration RM (Wilson et al. 2002), the MACS-1 and MACS-3 Ca carbonate RMs and a prototype Ca phosphate RM. Other work in-house currently includes testing of additional sulfide materials (Fe and Ni sulfides) and a gypsum material. Data for several matrices and RMs will be presented using multiple laser wavelengths. For new methods development regarding quantitative analyses, we have developed several new methods for quantitative trace element mapping in a variety of mineral, biomineral and materials applications. Rapid trace element mapping in bones (Koenig et al. 2009) is not only quantitative for trace elements but provides data that would be difficult to obtain as quickly or accurately by EPMA or other techniques. A method has been developed for rapid mapping of trace elements in building materials and other complex rock materials using a modification of the sum to 100% method presented by others (e.g. Leach and Heftje, 2001). This paper will outline new methods of integrating imaging and analytical data from EPMA, SEM, Raman and other techniques that improve the utility, accuracy and overall science of the subsequent LA-ICP-MS. Additional new directions for quantitative analyses of fluid inclusions, tissues, minerals and biological samples will be discussed.

  13. The Geysers Geothermal Field Update1990/2010

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, P.; Lippmann, M.; Dobson, P.F.; Poux, B.

    2010-10-01

    In this report, we have presented data in four sections: (1) THE GEYSERS HISTORICAL UPDATE 1990-2010 - A historical update of the primary developments at The Geysers between 1990 and 2010 which uses as its start point Section IIA of the Monograph - 'Historical Setting and History of Development' that included articles by James Koenig and Susan Hodgson. (2) THE GEYSERS COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE LIST 1990-2010 - In this section we present a rather complete list of technical articles and technical related to The Geysers that were issued during the period 1990-2010. The list was compiled from many sources including, but not limited to scientific journals and conference proceedings. While the list was prepared with care and considerable assistance from many geothermal colleagues, it is very possible that some papers could have been missed and we apologize to their authors in advance. The list was subdivided according to the following topics: (1) Field characterization; (2) Drilling; (3) Field development and management; (4) Induced seismicity; (5) Enhanced Geothermal Systems; (6) Power production and related issues; (7) Environment-related issues; and (8) Other topics. (3) GRC 2010 ANNUAL MEETING GEYSERS PAPERS - Included in this section are the papers presented at the GRC 2010 Annual Meeting that relate to The Geysers. (4) ADDITIONAL GEYSERS PAPERS 1990-2010 - Eighteen additional technical papers were included in this publication in order to give a broad background to the development at The Geysers after 1990. The articles issued during the 1990-2010 period were selected by colleagues considered knowledgeable in their areas of expertise. We forwarded the list of references given in Section 2 to them asking to send us with their selections with a preference, because of limited time, to focus on those papers that would not require lengthy copyright approval. We then chose the articles presented in this section with the purpose of providing the broadest possible view across all technical fields, as related to The Geysers steam-dominated geothermal system. The Geysers has seen many fundamental changes between 1990-2010 and yet the geothermal resource seems still to be robust to the extent that, long after its anticipated life span, we are seeing new geothermal projects being developed on the north and west peripheries of the field. It is hoped that this report provides a focused data source particularly for those just starting their geothermal careers, as well as those who have been involved in the interesting and challenging field of geothermal energy for many years. Despite many hurdles The Geysers has continued to generate electrical power for 50 years and its sustainability has exceeded many early researchers expectations. It also seems probable that, with the new projects described above, generation will continue for many years to come. The success of The Geysers is due to the technical skills and the financial acumen of many people, not only over the period covered by this report (1990-2010), but since the first kilowatt of power was generated in 1960. This Special Report celebrates those 50 years of geothermal development at The Geysers and attempts to document the activities that have brought success to the project so that a permanent record can be maintained. It is strongly hoped and believed that a publication similar to this one will be necessary in another 20 years to document further activities in the field.

  14. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea Falco, JD, and Stephen E. Johnson presented issues related to drug abuse and measures to curb drug abuse by various means. Stephen J. Pasierb presented startling statistics on teen drug abuse and various educational programs to deter abuse. Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD presented an overview of prescription drug abuse, strategies to prevent drug abuse, including immediate funding and rapid implementation of NASPER, education at all levels and improving relations with the DEA and the provider community. PMID:17066115

  15. Evaluation of a Subunit Vaccine to Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, July 31, 1988 to September 20, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, JoAnn Ching

    1989-10-01

    A recombinant DNA vaccine to IHNV was prepared and tested in field trials at Clear Springs Trout Company's Box Canyon Hatchery in Buhl, Idaho this year in Phase III of the project. The vaccine under consideration in these field trials consisted of lysed bacteria that contained a plasmid which expressed an antigenic portion of the IHNV glycoprotein. In addition, laboratory trials with a bacterial expressed viral nucleoprotein indicated that this served as an immune adjuvant. Therefore, a decision was made to conduct these field trials on a vaccine containing both IHNV glycoprotein and IHNV nucleoprotein. Original plans to conduct the field trial at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery were canceled because a management decision was made by Dworshak Fish and Wildlife personnel to rear steelhead salmon eggs from IHNV positive parents at Kooskia National Fish Hatchery. This decision, which was made without prior notification to us, resulted in some discussion at the IHNV committee meeting convened by the Fish and Wildlife Service in Moscow, Idaho on April 27, 1989. At that time, the authors dismay at this decision was voiced and the prediction that an outbreak of IHNV would occur at Kooskia was made. In less than a week, a massive IHNV outbreak did occur at Kooskia and plans to run a field trial at this facility had to be discarded. An alternative site was found at the Box Canyon Hatchery site of Clear Springs Trout Company. Dr. Robert Busch, Director of Research and Development for Clear Springs Trout Company, offered the use of the site. In preparation for the site change they consulted Mary Buckman, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife statistician, and they obtained a sample of the IHN virus present at Box Canyon. The Box Canyon virus isolate was typed by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies by Dr. Sandra Ristow at Washington State University. There was insufficient time to examine the vaccine efficacy with the Box Canyon virus isolate in laboratory trials and they had to prepare for field trials without this supporting data. In addition, they had to make numerous changes in the vaccination schedule and in the design of the challenge to accommodate the new site. Most importantly, an application for a change in site had to be approved by the Idaho State Veterinarian and the Veterinary Biologics Group at the USDA National Office in Hyattsville, Maryland. A new work plan was formulated, approvals were obtained, the demands for statistical analyses were satisfied in the new work plan, and 20,000 rainbow trout fry were vaccinated on July 19, 1989. The following is a summary of the results of the work that was initiated at Box Canyon Hatchery.

  16. Extensive glaciations in Anatolian Mountains during the global Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akar, Naki; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Ye?ilyurt, Serdar; Reber, Regina; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Kubik, Peter; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    As a response to the changes in the atmospheric circulation at the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), equilibrium line altitude commenced to decrease and, thus, also Anatolian glaciers started to expand. Depending on the altitude of the mountains and size of the accumulation area, the advance began earlier in the eastern Black Sea Mountains prior to 27 ka. In the Kavron, Verenik, Ba?yayla and oruh valleys, glaciers terminated at an altitude of 1600 m with a length of > 10 km. In eastern Anatolia, 15 km-long glaciers descended to 1400 m from the extensive ice-fields of the Munz?r Mountains. In central and western Anatolia, glaciers were smaller (ca. 6 km-long) except for Dedegl Mountains. There, a glacier length of around 9 km and an advance down to 1450 m were mapped. At Mount Erciyes glaciers began to advance down to 2150 m prior to 25 ka. In southwestern Anatolia, beginning of the LGM advance was documented at ca. 22 ka at Mount Sand?ras, where a 1.5 km-long cirque glacier terminated at an altitude of 1900 m. Meanwhile, valley glaciers descended to 2050 m at Mount Akda?, 6 km down from the peak. In northwestern Anatolia, one paleoglacier commenced to grow prior to ca. 25 ka at Uluda? and it reached a length of 5 km and an altitude 1600 m. In brief, Anatolian glaciers reached their maximum extent between 27 and 21 ka during the global LGM. The LGM deglaciation resulted in the collapse of Anatolian glaciers. The deglaciation was almost synchronous in all mountains. Climatic fluctuations at the end of LGM have produced only small glaciers, which are much more sensitive to temperature and/or precipitation changes than larger glaciers. Our recent study at Uluda? revealed that the glaciers re-advanced at least three times until 19 ka after their maximum extent at around 21 ka. We explain this dynamic behaviour as a response mechanism to different phases of the winter indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which resulted in an enhanced oscillatory pattern of atmospheric circulation at the end of LGM.

  17. EDITORIAL: Inertial Fusion State of the Art---A Collection of Overview and Technical Papers from IFSA2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, W. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Third International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2003) was held in Monterey, CA, USA, on 7--12 September 2003. The goal of IFSA2003 was to bring together scientists and engineers in the fields of inertial fusion sciences, high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy (IFE) and other related research and applications. By all measures IFSA2003 was a resounding success. IFSA2003 was hosted by the University of California, which was supported in organizing the conference by seven institutions: General Atomics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics. IFSA2003 was the largest IFSA conference yet with 405 participants from 17 countries. Approximately 430 papers were presented and 236 appeared in the Proceedings, published in July 2004 by the American Nuclear Society [1]. A subset of the Nuclear Fusion Board of Editors, those who work on inertial confinement fusion (ICF), recommended creating this special issue of Nuclear Fusion by selecting a representative cross-section of the papers presented at IFSA2003. Authors of the selected papers were asked to expand their papers and make them suitable for publication in it Nuclear Fusion. Nineteen papers are presented in this special issue. They represent a cross-section of the papers presented at IFSA2003. However, there was no attempt to represent the `feel' of the conference by having the same fraction of papers on each topic as existed at IFSA. There were far more detailed scientific papers at IFSA than are presented in this special issue. However, in the interest of giving the reader a cross-section of the papers and showing the entire breadth of ICF research going on, we have biased the selection process toward review papers. The first three papers here are based upon the keynote talks at IFSA2003 and are, therefore, overviews of all ICF research being done in the Americas, Asia, and Europe. The next two papers are also reviews but of a different sort. The Teller Medal is awarded at the IFSA conferences for pioneering work and leadership in inertial fusion and high energy density science. The two recipients for 2003 were H. Takabe of the Institute of Laser Engineering at Osaka University and L. Suter of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These awardees were asked to deliver the two Teller Lectures at IFSA based upon the work for which they were being honoured. The papers presented here are expansions of those two review talks. Suter chose to focus his review on his recent work on ignition physics for targets driven by 0.54 m light. This is of interest because large facilities like the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will deliver much more energy in the frequency doubled wavelength than in the frequency tripled one. Takabe, on the other hand chose to give a historical perspective of his lifelong work. The other 14 papers were selected to represent a cross-section of the research being conducted in the science and engineering of inertial fusion. The papers by Haan et al and Holstein et al represent some of the recent progress in target design calculations for the ignition first experiments. Haan presents his team's work on indirect drive ignition targets (driven by 0.35 m) intended for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) when all the beamlines are activated. Holstein does the same for targets being design for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Suter's paper, presented earlier as a Teller Lecture also falls into this ignition target physics category. The next four papers look at some of the exciting high energy density physics being studied in ICF facilities around the world. Glenzer et al looks at stimulated light scattering processes in hot dense plasmas. Pukhov et al look at relativistic laser-plasma interactions that produce energetic particles and x-rays. Peyrusse et al examine atomic physics and radiative processes in hot dense plasmas. Koenig et al examine ways to simulate planetary physics processes using high pressures generated in laser driven shocks. Non-laser approaches to inertial fusion were also fully represented at IFSA2003. The paper by Lebedev et al shows important physics developments in Z-pinch plasmas. Sharp et al present chamber transport modelling for heavy ion fusion drivers. Technology development studies were also well represented at IFSA2003. There was a special session on facility and driver developments that contained several papers. Presented here are the papers by Miller et al on the NIF, Danson et al on the Vulcan petawatt facility, and Myers et al on KrF lasers for IFE. A paper by Goodin et al shows progress in finding cost effective target manufacturing methods for IFE. Finally, there were many papers at IFSA2003 that focused upon the very promising but more immature field of fast ignition. Barty et al give an overview of the development issues for short pulse lasers that will be essential if fast ignition is to become mainstream. A paper by Kodama et al looks at target physics using cone focus targets. Fast ignition lasers and innovative target physics within this concept were a `hot topic' at IFSA2003. The IFSA conferences have become the principal forum for the exchange of research results in inertial fusion and high energy and density science. There is a unique blend of science and technology. All fields of inertial fusion are represented. This special issue is a snapshot and a cross-section of the field at this time. We hope the reader is encouraged to look into more of the papers in areas that interest them. References [1] Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications: State of the Art 2003 ed B. Hammel, D. Meyerhofer, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn and H. Azechi American Nuclear Society (July 2004) These IFSA2003 proceedings may be purchased on-line at http://www.ans.org.

  18. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The report details key priorities for the Agency: Many researchers are of the opinion that applying the principles of free market enterprise to water conservation ideas would result in a more efficient utilization of water supply and distribution everywhere. References: EPA's June 2011 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) (PDF) (74 pp, 1MB) June 2010 EPA Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (PDF) (67 pp, 3.8MB) U.S. EPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation (PDF) (3pp, 55KB) Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997. Falkenmark, M.J. and Rockström, J. (2004). Balancing Water For Humans and Nature. Sterling, VA. Earthscan. Giordano, M. (2006) Agricultural Groundwater Use and Rural Livelihoods Journal of Hydrogeology. 14, 310 - 318. Allan, J.A. (2003). Virtual Water. Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International. 28, 4-11. Vörsömarty, C.J., Douglas, E.M., Green, P.A. and Revenga, C. 2005. Geospatial Indicators of Energing Water Stress. Ambio, 34. 230-236.

  19. SINOMA - A new iterative statistical approach for the identification of linear relationships between noisy time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thees, Barnim; Buras, Allan; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kutzbach, Lars; Zorita, Eduardo; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In paleoclimatology, reconstructions of environmental conditions play a significant role. Such reconstructions rely on the relationship between proxies (e.g. tree-rings, lake sediments) and the processes which are to be reconstructed (e.g. temperature, precipitation, solar activity). However, both of these variable types in general are noisy. For instance, ring-width is only a proxy for tree growth and further determined by several other environmental signals (e.g. precipitation, length of growing season, competition). On the other hand, records of process data that are to be reconstructed are mostly available for too short periods (too short in terms of calibration) at the particular site at which the proxy data have been sampled. The resulting 'spatial' noise (e.g. by using climate station data not situated at the proxy site) causes additional errors in the relationship between measured proxy data and available process data (e.g. Kutzbach et al., 2011). If deriving models from such noisy data, Thees et al. (2009) and Kutzbach et al. (2011) could show (amongst others), that model slopes (the factor with which the one variable is multiplied to predict the other variable) in most cases are misestimated - depending on the ratio of the variances of the respective variable noises. Despite these facts, many recent reconstructions are based on ordinary least squares regressions, which underestimate model slopes as they do not account for the noise in the predictor variable (Kutzbach et al., 2011). This is because there yet only are few methodological approaches available to treat noisy data in terms of modeling, and for those methods additional information (e.g. a good estimate of the error noise ratio) which often is impossible to acquire is needed. Here we introduce the Sequential Iterative NOise Matching Algorithm - SINOMA - with which we are able to derive good estimates for model slopes between noisy time series. The mathematical background of SINOMA is described accompanied by a successful application to a pseudo-proxy dataset of which the error noise conditions and true model parameters are known. Further examples on its successful application are intended for presentation in another contribution to this EGU session (Buras et al., 2014) which aims at representing SINOMAs range of applicability rather than its theoretical background which is the focus of the herewith submitted contribution. Given the features of yet published paleoclimatological reconstructions (mostly ordinary least squares regression) and the generally noisy characteristics of process and proxy data, SINOMA has the potential to change our understanding of past climate variability. This is because the magnitude of amplitudes in reconstructed climate parameters may change significantly as soon as comparably precise slope estimates (as acquired by SINOMA) are used for reconstructions. Therefore, SINOMA has the potential to reframe our picture of the past. References Kutzbach, L., Thees, B., and Wilmking, M., 2011: Identification of linear relationships from noisy data using errors-in-variables models - relevance for reconstruction of past climate from tree-ring and other proxy information. Climatic Change 105, 155-177. Thees, B., Kutzbach, L., Wilmking, M., Zorita, E., 2009: Ein Bewertungsmaß für die amplitudentreue regressive Abbildung von verrauschten Daten im Rahmen einer iterativen "Errors in Variables" Modellierung (EVM). GKSS Reports 2009/8. GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht, Germany, 20 pp (in German) Allan Buras, Barnim Thees, Markus Czymzik, Nadine Dräger, Ulrike Kienel, Ina Neugebauer, Florian Ott, Tobias Scharnweber, Sonia Simard, Michal Slowinski, Sandra Slowinski, Izabela Zawiska, and Martin Wilmking, 2014: SINOMA - a better tool for proxy based reconstructions? Abstract submitted to EGU-session CL 6.1.

  20. Socorro Students Translate NRAO Web Pages Into Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-07-01

    Six Socorro High School students are spending their summer working at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) on a unique project that gives them experience in language translation, World Wide Web design, and technical communication. Under the project, called "Un puente a los cielos," the students are translating many of NRAO's Web pages on astronomy into Spanish. "These students are using their bilingual skills to help us make basic information about astronomy and radio telescopes available to the Spanish-speaking community," said Kristy Dyer, who works at NRAO as a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow and who developed the project and obtained funding for it from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The students are: Daniel Acosta, 16; Rossellys Amarante, 15; Sandra Cano, 16; Joel Gonzalez, 16; Angelica Hernandez, 16; and Cecilia Lopez, 16. The translation project, a joint effort of NRAO and the NM Tech physics department, also includes Zammaya Moreno, a teacher from Ecuador, Robyn Harrison, NRAO's education officer, and NRAO computer specialist Allan Poindexter. The students are translating NRAO Web pages aimed at the general public. These pages cover the basics of radio astronomy and frequently-asked questions about NRAO and the scientific research done with NRAO's telescopes. "Writing about science for non-technical audiences has to be done carefully. Scientific concepts must be presented in terms that are understandable to non-scientists but also that remain scientifically accurate," Dyer said. "When translating this type of writing from one language to another, we need to preserve both the understandability and the accuracy," she added. For that reason, Dyer recruited 14 Spanish-speaking astronomers from Argentina, Mexico and the U.S. to help verify the scientific accuracy of the Spanish translations. The astronomers will review the translations. The project is giving the students a broad range of experience. "They are getting hands-on experience in language translation, in Web design and computer science, and learning some astronomy as well," said Dyer. "This is a challenging project, but these students are meeting the challenge well," she added. The students are enthusiastic. "I've always been interested in stars and space, and I love working with computers," said Amarante. "We are pleased that these local students are using their skills to enhance our public-education efforts," said NRAO's director of New Mexico operations James Ulvestad. "Our Web site is one of our best tools for informing the public about astronomy and the work done at our observatory. This translation project now allows us to reach an important new audience," Ulvestad added. The students began the project in June and will complete the effort on July 26. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wold, S.; Garcia-Garcia, S.; Jonsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials Susanna Wold*, Sandra García-García and Mats Jonsson KTH Chemical Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden *Corresponding author: E-mail: wold@kth.se Phone: +46 8 790 6295 In colloid transport in water-bearing fractures, the retardation depends on interactions with the fracture surface by sorption or filtration. These mechanisms are difficult to separate. A rougher surface will give a larger area available for sorption, and also when a particle is physically hindered, it approaches the surface and enables further sorption. Sorption can be explained by electrostatics were the strongest sorption on minerals always is observed at pH below pHpzc (Filby et al., 2008). The adhesion of colloids to mineral surfaces is related to the surface roughness according to a recent study (Darbha et al., 2010). There is a large variation in the characteristics of water-bearing fractures in bedrock in terms of aperture distribution, flow velocity, surface roughness, mineral distributions, presence of fracture filling material, and biological and organic material, which is hard to implement in modeling. The aim of this work was to study the transport of negatively charged colloids in model fracture filling material in relation to flow, porosity, mineral type, colloid size, and surface charge distribution. In addition, the impact on transport of colloids of mixing model fracture filling materials with different retention and immobilization capacities, determined by batch sorption experiments, was investigated. The transport of Na-montmorillonite colloids and well-defined negatively charged latex microspheres of 50, 100, and 200 nm diameter were studied in either columns containing quartz or quartz mixed with biotite. The ionic strength in the solution was exclusively 0.001 and pH 6 or 8.5. The flow rates used were 0.002, 0.03, and 0.6 mL min-1. Sorption of the colloids on the model fracture minerals was studied prior to the transport experiments under the same conditions. By varying the amount of solid substrate, it was possible to determine an interaction constant from a linear expression. Complementary zeta potential measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging were performed to examine the mineral surfaces after exposure to colloids. In experiments with low flow rates the retention of the colloids in the transport experiments were attributed to the interaction constants including both physical filtration and sorption. At higher flow rate the interactions between colloids and mineral surfaces were also significant but not as pronounced. Immobilization and retardation of the colloids were reflected by the interaction constants, which included both an irreversible and a reversible component of physical filtration and sorption. References Darbha, G.K., Schaefer, T., Heberling, F., Lüttge, A. and Fisher, C. 2010. Retention of Latex Colloids on Calcite as a Function of Surface Roughness and Topography. Langmuir, 26(7), 4743-4752. Filby, A., Plaschke, M., Geckeis, H., Fanghänel, Th. 2008. Interaction of latex colloids with mineral surfaces and Grimsel granodiorite. J. Contam. Hydrol., 102, 273-284.

  2. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa; a novel method for the synthesis of graphene using bacteria extracted from a riverside in Toyohashi by Toyohashi Tech scientists; and ambitious plans to harvest energy by laying massive numbers of solar cells in North Africa as part of the 'Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB) Plan' for a global clean-energy superhighway, described by Hideomi Koinuma. In addition to the technical sessions, the conference banquet included a short session during which the invited speakers described notable trends in research and policy in their part of the world. The short speeches led to animated discussions between the delegates, particularly the young scientists and graduate students, who were able to talk directly with veteran researchers for a first-hand view of the issues raised during the day's presentations. In closing the conference, Professor Makoto Ishida, co-chair of the conference and vice-president of Toyohashi Tech announced that this conference will be held annually at the same time each year, with AP-IRC 2012 scheduled for 15-16 November 2012 at the Irago Sea-Park & Spa Hotel in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. AP-IRC group The PDF also contains lists of the Committees involved.

  3. PREFACE: DISCRETE 2012 - Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, G. C.; Emmanuel-Costa, D.; González Felipe, R.; Joaquim, F. R.; Lavoura, L.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Rebelo, M. N.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The Third Symposium on Prospects in the Physics of Discrete Symmetries (DISCRETE 2012) was held at Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, from 3-7 December 2012 and was organised by Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas (CFTP) of Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. This is the sequel to the Symposia that was successfully organised in Valéncia in 2008 and in Rome in 2010. The topics covered included: T, C, P, CP symmetries CPT symmetry, decoherence, Lorentz symmetry breaking Discrete symmetries and models of flavour mixing Baryogenesis, leptogenesis Neutrino physics Electroweak symmetry breaking and physics beyond the Standard Model Accidental symmetries (B, L conservation) Experimental prospects at LHC Dark matter searches Super flavour factories, and other new experimental facilities The Symposium was organised in plenary sessions with a total of 24 invited talks, and parallel sessions with a total of 70 talks, including both invited and selected contributions from the submitted abstracts. The speakers of the plenary sessions were: Ignatios Antoniadis, Abdelhak Djouadi, Rabindra Mohapatra, André Rubbia, Alexei Yu Smirnov, José Bernabéu, Marco Cirelli, Apostolos Pilaftsis, Antonio Di Domenico, Robertus Potting, João Varela, Frank Rathmann, Michele Gallinaro, Dumitru Ghilencea, Neville Harnew, John Walsh, Patrícia Conde Muíño, Juan Aguilar-Saavedra, Nick Mavromatos, Ulrich Nierste, Ferruccio Feruglio, Vasiliki Mitsou, Masanori Yamauchi, and Marcello Giorgi. The Symposium was attended by about 140 participants. Among the social events, there was a social dinner in the historical Associação Comercial de Lisboa, which included a musical performance of 'Fado', the traditional music from Lisbon. The next symposium of the series will be organised by King's College, London University, UK, from 1-5 December 2014. Guest Editors G C Branco, D Emmanuel-Costa, R González Felipe, F R Joaquim, L Lavoura, S Palomares-Ruiz, M N Rebelo, J C Romão, J P Silva and J I Silva-Marcos International Advisory CommitteeLocal Organising Committee Francisco del Águila (Granada)From CFTP Jose Bernabéu (Valencia) Francisco Botella (Valencia)G C Branco Andrzej Buras (Munich)D Emmanuel-Costa Marcos Cerrada (Madrid)R González Felipe Pierluigi Campana (CERN)F R Joaquim Antonio Di Domenico (Rome)L Lavoura John Ellis (CERN)S Palomares-Ruiz Fernando Ferroni (Rome)M N Rebelo Luis Garrido (Barcelona)J C Romão Marcello Giorgi (Pisa)J P Silva Neville Harnew (Oxford)J I Silva-Marcos Maria José Herrero (Madrid) David Hitlin (Caltech)From LIP Gino Isidori (Frascati) Guido Martinelli (Rome)G Barreira Antonio Masiero (Padua)J Varela Nickolaos Mavromatos (London) Vasiliki Mitsou (Valencia) Hitoshi Murayama (Berkeley) Tatsuya Nakada (Lausanne) Antonio Pich (Valencia) Apostolos Pilaftsis (Manchester) Stefan Pokorski (Warsaw) Fabio Zwirner (Padua) Secretariat Dulce Conceição Sandra Oliveira Cláudia Romão discrete2012@cftp.ist.utl.pt http://indico.cern.ch/event/discrete2012 Sponsors CFTP - Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas LIP - Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas IST - Instituto Superior Técnico FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia Group picture The PDF also contains the conference poster and a list of participants.

  4. Close to the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile. ALMA will be composed initially of 66 high-precision telescopes, operating at wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. The ALMA antennas will be electronically combined and will provide astronomical observations which are equivalent to those from a single large telescope of tremendous size and resolution. Chajnantor was selected as the ideal spot for ALMA, following several years of atmospheric and meteorology studies. The high elevation, stable atmosphere, and low humidity make it one of the best locations in the world for radio astronomy. To protect the outstanding conditions of Chajnantor, the Government of Chile declared a major portion of the area a scientific reserve. The publication is available in PDF format. It is the second book on ALMA for the general public, following the previous launch of "Footprints in the Desert", also available on the Internet in PDF format in Spanish. ALMA is a partnership between Europe, East Asia and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. It is funded in Europe by ESO, in East Asia by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences of Japan in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of East Asia by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc.

  5. The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. Water conservation also means, less use of water. This in turn, results in less strain on the city sewage treatment plants. This may also imply that one uses less energy for heating water. For example, the city of Los Angeles has grown by more than a million over the past thirty years. Regardless, the city still uses almost the same amount of water even now. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The report details key priorities for the Agency: 1. GHG emissions inventories and reduction through energy efficiency, renewable energy, and transportation management. 2. High-performance sustainable buildings. 3. Regional and local planning. 4. Water conservation. 5. Recycling and pollution prevention. 6. Sustainable acquisition. 7. Electronics stewardship. Many researchers are of the opinion that applying the principles of free market enterprise to water conservation ideas would result in a more efficient utilization of water supply and distribution everywhere. References: EPA's June 2011 Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) (PDF) (74 pp, 1MB) June 2010 EPA Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (PDF) (67 pp, 3.8MB) U.S. EPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation (PDF) (3pp, 55KB) Narayanan, Mysore. (2008). Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics. 68th AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 89, No. 53, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2009. H11E - 0801. Postel, Sandra L. The Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. 1997.

  6. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Hector

    2014-10-31

    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1)#3; Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras (Carlos Malca). The students H. Moreno and C. Malca has been directly supervised by Dr. Mendez and S. Santiesteban supervised by Dr. Ramirez. During the last 13 years, our group have graduated 23 MS students on experimental High Energy Physics data analysis and applied hardware techniques. Most of the students have been supported by DOE grants, included this grant. Since 2001, Dr. Mendez have directly supervised eleven students, Dr. Ramirez three students and the former PI (Dr. Lopez) nine students. These theses work are fully documented in the group web page (http://charma.uprm.edu). The High Energy Physics group at Mayaguez is small and presently consists of three Physics faculty members, the Senior Investigators Dr. Hector Mendez (Professor) and Dr. Juan Eduardo Ramirez (Professor), and Dr. Sudhir Malik who was just hired in July 2014. Dr. Ramirez is in charge of the UPRM Tier-3 computing and will be building the network bandwidth infrastructure for the campus, while Dr. Mendez will continues his effort in finishing the heavy quark physics data analysis and moving to work on SUSY analysis for the 2015 data. Our last grant application in 2012 was awarded only for 2013-2014. As a result our postdoc position was lost last month of March. Since then, we have hired Dr. Malik as a new faculty in order to reinforce the group and to continue our efforts with the CMS experiment. Our plan is to hire another junior faculty in the next two years to strengthen the HEP group even further. Dr. Mendez continues with QuarkNet activities involving an ever larger group of high school physics teachers from all around Puerto Rico.

  7. Environmental and Occupational Causes of Cancer New Evidence, 2005–2007

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Richard W.; Jacobs, Molly M.; Loechler, Edward L

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary What do we currently know about the occupational and environmental causes of cancer? As of 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified 415 known or suspected carcinogens. Cancer arises through an extremely complicated web of multiple causes. We will likely never know the full range of agents or combinations of agents that cause cancer. However, we do know that preventing exposure to individual carcinogens prevents the disease. Declines in cancer rates – such as the drop in male lung cancer cases from the reduction in tobacco smoking or the drop in bladder cancer among cohorts of dye workers from the elimination of exposure to specific aromatic amines – provides evidence that preventing cancer is possible when we act on what we know. Although the overall age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the U.S. among both men and women have declined in the last decade, rates of several types of cancers are on the rise; some of these cancers are linked to environmental and occupational exposures. This report chronicles the most recent epidemiological evidence linking occupational and environmental exposures with cancer. Peer-reviewed scientific studies published from January 2005-June 2007 were reviewed, supplementing our state-of-the-evidence report published in September 2005. Despite weaknesses in some individual studies, we consider the evidence linking the increased risk of several types of cancer with specific exposures somewhat strengthened by recent publications, among them: brain cancer from exposure to non-ionizing radiation, particularly radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile telephones;breast cancer from exposure to the pesticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) prior to puberty;leukemia from exposure to 1,3-butadiene;lung cancer from exposure to air pollution;non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) from exposure to pesticides and solvents; andprostate cancer from exposure to pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metal working fluids or mineral oils. In addition to NHL and prostate cancer, early findings from the Agricultural Health Study suggest that several additional cancers may be linked to a variety of pesticides. Our report also briefly describes the toxicological evidence related to the carcinogenic effect of specific chemicals and mechanisms that are difficult to study in humans, namely exposures to bis-phenol A and epigenetic, trans-generational effects. To underscore the multi-factorial, multi-stage nature of cancer, we also present a technical description of cancer causation summarizing current knowledge in molecular biology. We argue for a new cancer prevention paradigm, one that is based on an understanding that cancer is ultimately caused by multiple interacting factors rather than a paradigm based on dubious attributable fractions. This new cancer prevention paradigm demands that we limit exposures to avoidable environmental and occupational carcinogens in combination with additional important risk factors such as diet and lifestyle. The research literature related to environmental and occupational causes of cancer is constantly growing and future updates will be carried out in light of new biological understanding of the mechanisms and new methods for studying exposures in human populations. However, the current state of knowledge is sufficient to compel us to act on what we know. We repeat the call of ecologist Sandra Steingraber, “From the right to know and the duty to inquire flows the obligation to act.” 1 PMID:18557596

  8. EDITORIAL: Tropical deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Herold, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation have long been recognized as a key component of the global carbon budget, and more recently of our global climate system. Tropical forest clearing accounts for roughly 20% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and destroys globally significant carbon sinks (IPCC 2007). Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to address these emissions and to more actively include developing countries in greenhouse gas mitigation (e.g. Santilli et al 2005, Gullison et al 2007). In 2005, at the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Montreal, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) launched a new initiative to assess the scientific and technical methods and issues for developing policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in developing countries (Gullison et al 2007). Over the last two years the methods and tools needed to estimate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation have quickly evolved, as the scientific community responded to the UNFCCC policy needs. This focus issue highlights those advancements, covering some of the most important technical issues for measuring and monitoring emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and emphasizing immediately available methods and data, as well as future challenges. Elements for effective long-term implementation of a REDD mechanism related to both environmental and political concerns are discussed in Mollicone et al. Herold and Johns synthesize viewpoints of national parties to the UNFCCC on REDD and expand upon key issues for linking policy requirements and forest monitoring capabilities. In response to these expressed policy needs, they discuss a remote-sensing-based observation framework to start REDD implementation activities and build historical deforestation databases on the national level. Achard et al offer an assessment of remote sensing measurements across the world's tropical forests that can provide key consistency and prioritization for national-level efforts. Gibbs et al calculate a range of national-level forest carbon stock estimates that can be used immediately, and also review ground-based and remote sensing approaches to estimate national-level tropical carbon stocks with increased accuracy. These papers help illustrate that methodologies and tools are indeed available to estimate emissions from deforestation. Clearly, important technical challenges remain (e.g. quantifying degradation, assessing uncertainty, verification procedures, capacity building, and Landsat data continuity) but we now have a sufficient technical base to support REDD early actions and readiness mechanisms for building national monitoring systems. Thus, we enter the COP 13 in Bali, Indonesia with great hope for a more inclusive climate policy encompassing all countries and emissions sources from both land-use and energy sectors. Our understanding of tropical deforestation and carbon emissions is improving and with that, opportunities to conserve tropical forests and the host of ecosystem services they provide while also increasing revenue streams in developing countries through economic incentives to avoid deforestation and degradation. References Gullison R E et al 2007 Tropical forests and climate policy Science 316 985 6 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Summary for Policymakers http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-spm.pdf Santilli M et al 2005 Tropical deforestation and the Kyoto Protocol: an editorial essay Clim. Change 71 267 76 Focus on Tropical Deforestation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Contents The articles below represent the first accepted contributions and further additions will appear in the near future. Pan-tropical monitoring of deforestation F Achard, R DeFries, H Eva, M Hansen, P Mayaux and H-J Stibig Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality Holly K Gibbs, Sandra Brown, John O Niles and Jonathan A Foley Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC D Mollicone, A Freibauer, E D Schulze, S Braatz, G Grassi and S Federici

  9. A Roof for ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    On 10 March, an official ceremony took place on the 2,900m high site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Operations Support Facility, from where the ALMA antennas will be remotely controlled. The ceremony marked the completion of the structural works, while the building itself will be finished by the end of the year. This will become the operational centre of one of the most important ground-based astronomical facilities on Earth. ESO PR Photo 13a/07 ESO PR Photo 13a/07 Cutting the Red Ribbon The ceremony, known as 'Tijerales' in Chile, is the equivalent to the 'roof-topping ceremony' that takes place worldwide, in one form or another, to celebrate reaching the highest level of a construction. It this case, the construction is the unique ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF), located near the town of San Pedro de Atacama. "The end of this first stage represents an historic moment for ALMA," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "Once completed in December 2007, this monumental building of 7,000 square metres will be one of the largest and most important astronomical operation centres in the world." ALMA, located at an elevation of 5,000m in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. The OSF buildings are designed to suit the requirements of this exceptional observatory in a remote, desert location. The facility, which will host about 100 people during operations, consists of three main buildings: the technical building, hosting the control centre of the observatory, the antenna assembly building, including four antenna foundations for testing and maintenance purposes, and the warehouse building, including mechanical workshops. Further secondary buildings are the transporter shelters and the vehicle maintenance facilities as well as the ALMA gate house. The construction started in August 2006 and will be completed in December 2007. ESO PR Photo 13b/07 ESO PR Photo 13b/07 The Ceremony The ceremony took place in the presence of representatives of the regional authorities, members of the Chilean Parliament, and representatives of the local community, including the mayor of San Pedro, Ms. Sandra Berna, who joined more than 40 representatives of ESO, NRAO and NAOJ - the organisations that are, together, building ALMA. "This is certainly a big step in the realisation of the ALMA Project. The completion of this facility will be essential for assembly, testing and adjustment as well as operation and maintenance of all ALMA antennas from Europe, North America and from Japan," said Ryusuke Ogasawara, the representative of NAOJ in Chile. "This is a tremendous achievement and represents a major milestone for the ALMA project," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. ESO PR Photo 13c/07 ESO PR Photo 13c/07 The OSF (Artist's View) The first ALMA antennas, the prototypes of which successfully achieved their first combined astronomical observation last week, are expected to arrive at the ALMA site in a few months. These huge antennas will travel in pieces from Europe, USA and Japan and will be assembled next to the OSF building. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership among Europe, Japan and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of Europe by ESO, on behalf of Japan by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)

  10. Interstellar Chemistry Gets More Complex With New Charged-Molecule Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    Astronomers using data from the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have found the largest negatively-charged molecule yet seen in space. The discovery of the third negatively-charged molecule, called an anion, in less than a year and the size of the latest anion will force a drastic revision of theoretical models of interstellar chemistry, the astronomers say. Molecule formation Formation Process of Large, Negatively-Charged Molecule in Interstellar Space CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and detailed information "This discovery continues to add to the diversity and complexity that is already seen in the chemistry of interstellar space," said Anthony J. Remijan of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "It also adds to the number of paths available for making the complex organic molecules and other large molecular species that may be precursors to life in the giant clouds from which stars and planets are formed," he added. Two teams of scientists found negatively-charged octatetraynyl, a chain of eight carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom, in the envelope of gas around an old, evolved star and in a cold, dark cloud of molecular gas. In both cases, the molecule had an extra electron, giving it a negative charge. About 130 neutral and about a dozen positively-charged molecules have been discovered in space, but the first negatively-charged molecule was not discovered until late last year. The largest previously-discovered negative ion found in space has six carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom. "Until recently, many theoretical models of how chemical reactions evolve in interstellar space have largely neglected the presence of anions. This can no longer be the case, and this means that there are many more ways to build large organic molecules in cosmic environments than have been explored," said Jan M. Hollis of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Ultraviolet light from stars can knock an electron off a molecule, creating a positively-charged ion. Astronomers had thought that molecules would not be able to retain an extra electron, and thus a negative charge, in interstellar space for a significant time. "That obviously is not the case," said Mike McCarthy of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "Anions are surprisingly abundant in these regions." Remijan and his colleagues found the octatetraynyl anions in the envelope of the evolved giant star IRC +10 216, about 550 light-years from Earth in the constellation Leo. They found radio waves emitted at specific frequencies characteristic of the charged molecule by searching archival data from the GBT, the largest fully-steerable radio telescope in the world. Another team from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) found the same characteristic emission when they observed a cold cloud of molecular gas called TMC-1 in the constellation Taurus. These observations also were done with the GBT. In both cases, preceding laboratory experiments by the CfA team showed which radio frequencies actually are emitted by the molecule, and thus told the astronomers what to look for. "It is essential that likely interstellar molecule candidates are first studied in laboratory experiments so that the radio frequencies they can emit are known in advance of an astronomical observation," said Frank Lovas of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Both teams announced their results in the July 20 edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "With three negatively-charged molecules now found in a short period of time, and in very different environments, it appears that many more probably exist. We believe that we can discover more new species using very sensitive and advanced radio telescopes such as the GBT, once they have been characterized in the laboratory," said Sandra Bruenken of the CfA. "Further detailed studies of anions, including astronomical observations, laboratory studies, and theoretical calculations, will allow us to use them to reveal new information about the physical and chemical processes going on in interstellar space," said Martin Cordiner, of Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland. "The GBT continues to take a leading role in discovering, identifying and mapping the distribution of the largest molecules ever found in astronomical environments and will continue to do so for the next several decades," said Phil Jewell of NRAO. In addition to Hollis, Lovas, Cordiner and Jewell, Remijan worked with Tom Millar of Queen's University in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and Andrew Markwick-Kemper of the University of Manchester in the UK. Bruenken worked with McCarthy, Harshal Gupta, Carl Gottlieb, and Patrick Thaddeus, all of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.

  11. Deep Sky Diving with the ESO New Technology Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    Preparations for future cosmological observations with the VLT Within a few months, the first 8.2-meter Unit Telescope of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) array will open its eye towards the sky above the Atacama desert. As documented by recent Press Photos from ESO, the construction work at the Paranal VLT Observatory is proceeding rapidly. Virtually all of the telescope components, including the giant Zerodur mirror (cf. ESO PR Photos 35a-l/97 ), are now on the mountain. While the integration of the telescope and its many optical, mechanical and electronic components continues, astronomers in the ESO member countries and at ESO are now busy defining the observing programmes that will be carried out with the new telescope, soon after it enters into operation. In this context, new and exciting observations have recently been obtained with the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, 600 km to the south of Paranal. How to record the faintest and most remote astronomical objects With its very large mirror surface (and correspondingly great light collecting power), as well as an unsurpassed optical quality, the VLT will be able to look exceedingly far out into the Universe, well beyond current horizons. The best technique to record the faintest possible light and thus the most remote celestial objects, is to combine large numbers of exposures of the same field with slightly different telescope pointing. This increases the total number of photons recorded and by imaging the stars and galaxies on different areas (pixels) of the detector, the signal-to-noise ratio and hence the visibility of the faintest objects is improved. The famous Hubble Deep Field Images were obtained in this way by combining over 300 single exposures and they show myriads of faint galaxies in the distant realms of the Universe. The NTT as test bench for the VLT ESO is in the fortunate situation of possessing a `prototype' model of the Very Large Telescope, the 3.5-m New Technology Telescope. Many of the advanced technological concepts now incorporated into the VLT were first tested in the NTT. When this new facility entered into operation at La Silla in 1990, it represented a break-through in telescope technology and it has since then made many valuable contributions to front-line astronomical projects. Last year, the control and data flow system at the NTT was thoroughly refurbished to the high VLT standards and current observations with the NTT closely simulate the future operation of the VLT. The successful, early tests with the new operations system have been described in ESO Press Release 03/97. The NTT SUSI Deep Field With the possibility to test already now observing procedures which will become standard for the operation of the VLT, a group of astronomers [1] was granted NTT time for observations of Faint Galaxies in an Ultra-Deep Multicolour SUSI field . This is a programme aimed at the study of the distribution of faint galaxies in the field and of gravitational lensing effects (cosmic mirages and deformation of images of distant galaxies caused by the gravitational field of intervening matter). SUSI (SUperb Seeing Imager) is a high-resolution CCD-camera at the NTT that is particularly efficient under excellent sky conditions. The observations were fully defined in advance and were carried out in service mode from February to April 1997 with flexible scheduling by a team of dedicated ESO astronomers (the NTT team). Only in this way was it possible to obtain the exposures under optimal atmospheric conditions, i.e. `photometric' sky and little atmospheric turbulence (seeing better than 1 arcsec). A total of 122 CCD frames were obtained in four colours (blue, green-yellow, red and near-infrared) with a total exposure time of no less than 31.5 hours. The frames cover a 2.3 x 2.3 arcmin `empty' sky field centered south of the high-redshift quasar QSO BR 1202-0725 (z=4.7), located just south of the celestial equator. ESO PR Photo 01a/98 Caption to ESO PR Photo 01/98 and access to two versions of the photo The frames were computer processed and combined to yield a colour view of the corresponding sky field ( ESO Press Photo 01/98 ). This is indeed a very deep look into the southern sky. The astronomers have found that the limiting magnitude (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) is beyond 27 in the blue and red frames and only slightly brighter in the two others. Magnitude 27 corresponds to a brightness that is 250 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye. Although not as deep as the Hubble Deep Field due to the shorter exposure time and brighter sky background (caused by light emission in the upper layers of the terrestrial atmosphere), this new set of data is among the best ground-based observations of this type ever obtained. Galaxies down to a magnitude of roughly 25 will soon be targets of detailed spectroscopic observations with the VLT. They will provide a measure of their basic physical parameters like redshift, luminosity and mass. How to access the new data This scientific program aims at the study of the photometric redshift distribution of the faint galaxies [2] and of gravitational lensing effects (cosmic mirages). It has been decided to make the complete data set available to the wide scientific community and it is expected that many astronomers all over the world will want to perform their own investigations by means of this unique observational material. A full description of the project is available on the ESO Web at http://www.eso.org/ndf/. Here you will find a comprehensive explanation of the scientific background, details about the observations and the data reduction, as well as easy access to the corresponding data files. Notes: [1] The group consists of Sandro D'Odorico (Principal Investigator, ESO) and Jacqueline Bergeron (ESO), Hans-Martin Adorf (ESO), Stephane Charlot (IAP, Paris, France), David Clements (IAS, Orsay, France), Stefano Cristiani (Univ. of Padova, Italy), Luiz da Costa (ESO), Eiichi Egami (MPI Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany), Adriano Fontana (Rome Observatory, Italy), Bernard Fort (Paris Observatory, France), Laurent Gautret (Paris Observatory, France), Emanuele Giallongo (Rome Observatory, Italy), Roberto Gilmozzi, Richard N.Hook and Bruno Leibundgut (ESO), Yannick Mellier and Patrick Petitjean (IAP, Paris, France), Alvio Renzini, Sandra Savaglio and Peter Shaver (ESO), Stella Seitz (Munich Observatory, Germany) and Lin Yan (ESO). [2]. The photometric redshift method allows to determine an approximate distance of a distant galaxy by measuring its colour, i.e., its relative brightness (magnitude) in different wavebands. It is based on the proportionality between the distance of a galaxy and its recession velocity (the Hubble law). The higher the velocity, the more its emission will be shifted towards longer wavelengths and the redder is the colour. Recent investigations of galaxies seen in the Hubble Deep Field have shown that the redshifts (and thus distances) found by this method are quite accurate in most cases. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  12. Obituary: Franklyn M. Branley, 1915-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Kenneth L.

    2003-12-01

    Franklyn Mansfield Branley was born in New Rochelle, New York, 5 June 1915, and died of natural causes in Brunswick, Maine, on 5 May 2002, just one month before his 87th birthday. He will be remembered by the hundreds of grateful students he so skillfully introduced to astronomy. Franklyn Branleys parents were Ella Lockwood and Percival Branley. Mr. Branley was a veteran of the Spanish American war and an insurance salesman for Metropolitan Life. Frank's mother died during a flu epidemic when he was only a few years old. At that time, his sister was taken in by the Lockwood family and he and his two brothers were sent to live with a farm family near Newburgh, New York. His father visited them there on the weekends. Because he contracted polio at a young age, he did not participate in sports except for swimming. He was an avid stamp collector. After graduating from the New Paltz Normal School (now SUNY), he married his college sweetheart, Margaret Lemon, who became a grade school teacher for a while. After he retired, he and Peg moved from New Jersey to Sag Harbor, New York. When they were both in their eighties, they moved to Thornton Oaks, a retirement community in Brunswick, Maine. His life had been devoted to education, chiefly writing books that make science accessible to, and fun for, children at the grade school level. There are about 200 of his books in print, or available in school libraries or on the shelves of now grown youngsters who have saved them for their children. His last, published posthumously in fall 2002, ``Mission to Mars," has a forward by Neil Armstrong. Frank and his publishers have been able to engage top-flight illustrators with the imagination to envision his concepts. Each one is only about 30 pages, with few words on a page. Thus, each book lights a candle against the cursed darkness. Branley joined the staff of the American Museum-Hayden Planetarium in September 1956, to run the Planetariums education program. He came from the New Jersey State Teachers College where he was teaching teachers how to teach science, and had been a guest lecturer at the Hayden for several months. Frank continued his own education while working at the Planetarium, gaining a Masters degree from New York University, and his Ed. D. from Columbia Teachers College. I joined the Hayden staff two weeks after Frank. Many of our friends and professional colleagues are aware of the confusion caused by the coincidence of our arrival and the similarity of our names. Frank did not appreciate it when the payroll department took my deductions from his check. About five years ago, a librarian I met in our travels wanted to know if I still wrote books. Evidently, the confusion persists. On Friday, 4 October 1957, the Russian satellite, Sputnik, was sent into orbit, surprising the world, and embarrassing our science establishment in the midst of the International Geophysical Year. CBS producers Vern Diamond and Don Hewitt were at the Planetarium on Saturday to plan a Sunday nationwide broadcast concerning this event. Branley and I were the only staff members available for the hour-long show. Richard C. Hottlet was at the Planetarium, and Douglas Edwards was in the CBS studio. It went well. In 1959, Chairman Joseph Miles Chamberlain, then Education Officer of the AAS, Frank Edmondson, AAS Treasurer, and Frank Branley met at the nearby Alden Hotel for lunch. When they had finished, the Society's Visiting Professor program was born. Branley, assisted by his secretary Barbara Harrison, administered the program for several years. The first four in the stable were Harlow Shapley, Seth Nicholson, Frank Edmondson, and Gibson Reaves. This highly successful program is now named for Harlow Shapley. In 1968, he took the reins of the Hayden as Chairman until he retired in 1972. During that time, we went to taped public shows, but shows for schools continued to be live. The use of tapes for the shows allowed much tighter control over their scientific content, and for more uniformity in their presentation. Gone, however, were ``the live lecturers and their live mistakes," as someone complained. This was also the period when we changed from a Zeiss Model 4 star projector to a Zeiss Model 6. This entailed a major renovation of the Sky Theater. Branley also transformed the room with the ceiling model of the Copernican solar system into another theater using eleven screens with 22 slide projectors. This involved a very complex control system taking several months to perfect. During his whole tenure at the Hayden, Branley organized many workshops for the teachers of the Metropolitan New York area. These were very well conceived and received. Not only did the teachers get useful instruction from professional astronomers, they were also entertained with a behind-the-scenes look at the Planetarium, and could see how the shows were put on. Many brought their classes to see the shows, a welcome occurrence, because all our income came solely from the box office. Perhaps Frank Branley's greatest direct impact on astronomy, and even the Society, was a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation for 13 years. It was a two-week summer adventure for top-level high school students with a strong interest in science, especially astronomy. They arrived from all over the country, but we never knew quite where they were staying. Every morning, there were at least two concentrated lectures by top astronomers and other specialists. In the afternoon, astronomy graduate students, also from around the country, gave a continuing course in astronomy. The students were either reinforced in their interest in astronomy, or they found out it was not for them. Either outcome was good, as it came early in their lives. The program must have been well respected, for the NSF seldom financed anything like this for more than about three years. At his death, he was survived by his wife, Margaret, a sister Marion Gray, daughter Mary Jane Day, four grandchildren, and four great-grandchildren. Another daughter, Sandra Kay Bridges, died in 1985.

  13. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow, let alone with an instrument such as UVES, which is capable of splitting the afterglow light with uttermost precision. What is more, this amazing record was broken less than two months later by the same team. On 7 June 2006, the Rapid-Response Mode triggered UVES observations of the afterglow of an even more distant gamma-ray source a mere 7.5 minutes after its detection by the Swift satellite. Gamma-ray bursts are the most intense explosions in the Universe. They are also very brief. They randomly occur in galaxies in the distant Universe and, after the energetic gamma-ray emission has ceased, they radiate an afterglow flux at longer wavelengths (i.e. lower energies). They are classified as long and short bursts according to their duration and burst energetics, but hybrid bursts have also been discovered (see ESO PR 49/06). The scientific community agrees that gamma-ray bursts are associated with the formation of black holes, but the exact nature of the bursts remains enigmatic. ESO PR Photo 17b/07 ESO PR Photo 17b/07 Kueyen at Night Because a gamma-ray burst typically occurs at very large distances, its optical afterglow is faint. In addition, it fades very rapidly: in only a few hours the optical afterglow brightness can fade by as much as a factor of 500. This makes detailed spectral analysis possible only for a few hours after the gamma-ray detection, even with large telescopes. During the first minutes and hours after the explosion, there is also the important opportunity to observe time-dependent phenomena related to the influence of the explosion on its surroundings. The technical challenge therefore consists of obtaining high-resolution spectroscopy with 8-10 m class telescopes as quickly as possible. "The afterglow spectra provide a wealth of information about the composition of the interstellar medium of the galaxy in which the star exploded. Some of us even hoped to characterize the gas in the vicinity of the explosion," said team member Cédric Ledoux (ESO). ESO PR Photo 17c/07 ESO PR Photo 17c/07 The Kueyen Control Room The Rapid Response Mode UVES observations of 17 April 2006 allowed the astronomers to discover variable spectral features associated with a huge gas cloud in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst. The cloud was found to be neutral but excited by the radiation from the UV afterglow light. From detailed modelling of these observations, the astronomers were able - for the first time - to not only pinpoint the physical mechanism responsible for the excitation of the atoms, but also determine the distance of the cloud to the GRB. This distance was found to be 5,500 light-years, which is much further out than was previously thought. Either this is a special case, or the common picture that the features seen in optical spectra originate very close to the explosion has to be revised. As a comparison, this distance of 5,500 light-years is more than one fifth of that between the Sun and the centre of our Galaxy. "All the material in this region of space must have been ionised, that is, the atoms have been stripped of most if not all of their electrons," said co-author Alain Smette (ESO). "Were there any life in this region of the Universe, it would most probably have been eradicated." "With the Rapid-Response Mode of the VLT, we are really looking at gamma-ray bursts as quickly as possible," said team member Andreas Jaunsen from the University of Oslo (Norway). "This is crucial if we are to unravel the mysteries of these gigantic explosions and their links with black holes!" More Information The two gamma-ray bursts were discovered with the NASA/ASI/PPARC Swift satellite, which is dedicated to the discovery of these powerful cosmic explosions. Preliminary reports on these observations have been presented in GCN GRB Observation Reports 4974 and 5237. A paper is also in press in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics ("Rapid-Response Mode VLT/UVES spectroscopy of GRB 060418 - Conclusive evidence for UV pumping from the time evolution of Fe II and Ni II excited- and metastable-level populations" by P. M. Vreeswijk et al.). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20066780 The team is composed of Paul Vreeswijk, Cédric Ledoux, Alain Smette, Andreas Kaufer and Palle Møller (ESO), Sara Ellison (University of Victoria, Canada), Andreas Jaunsen (University of Oslo, Norway), Morten Andersen (AIP, Potsdam, Germany), Andrew Fruchter (STScI, Baltimore, USA), Johan Fynbo and Jens Hjorth (Dark Cosmology Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark), Patrick Petitjean (IAP, Paris, France), Sandra Savaglio (MPE, Garching, Germany), and Ralph Wijers (Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Paul Vreeswijk was at the time of this study also associated with the Universidad de Chile, Santiago.

  14. Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwelling and downwelling, as has been postulated for Venus [10]? Many of these critical questions related to the Archean also face investigators studying Venus: 1) What is the nature of the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of Venus? (e.g., episodic plate tectonics [11]; vertical crustal accretion and depleted mantle layer overturn [10]; transition from mobile lid to stagnant lid convection [12]). 2) What is the nature of the geological evolution of Venus? (e.g., "nondirectional/ patchwork" [13], or displaying broad evolutionary, or "directional" trends [14]). 3) What is the nature of the volcanic record of Venus? (what is the significance in time and space of the wide range of different volcanic feature and deposit morphologies, ranging from extremely fluid (komatiite-like?) to much more viscous (rhyolite or dacite-like?). 4) What is the nature of the tectonic record of Venus? (e.g., what is the role and geodynamic linkage of the major deformation belts [15]; how do the protocontinent-like deformed crustal plateaus form (e.g., upwelling [16] or downwelling [17] ?). 5) What is the role of hot spots/rises in heat loss, volcanism, and mantle dynamics on Venus? [16]. 6) What is the role of crustal/lithospheric instabilities and diapirism? (e.g., are coronae mantle derived hot spots, or could they represent crustal/lithospheric instabilities and their evolution [18]. The geological and geophysical characteristics and global record of Venus provide a critical resource in which to explore these common questions between Venus and the Earth's Archean. Data from the Venera and Magellan missions have shown that Venus is characterized by atmosphere-induced high upper crustal temperatures and abundant and varied global ductile and brittle deformation [15, 19]. A wide range of tectonic features include tessera, intensely deformed high-standing terrains of thicker crust, linear fracture belts of extensional origin arrayed in narrow interconnected zones thousands of km long, narrow ridge belts of contractional origin arrayed in zones adjacent to and cross-cutting the fracture belts, folded mountain belts arrayed around the margins of tessera plateaus, young rift zones often associated with recent mantle upwelling, and zones of radial fractures and graben interpreted to be due to dike emplacement around a central intrusion. These data have shown that volcanism played a major role in the resurfacing of Venus and the building of its upper crust [20]. Extensive tracts of regional volcanic plains comprise the vast majority of the current surface. A wide range of basaltic volcanic landforms are observed, including small shields apparently representing small-scale broadly distributed melting, vast featureless flood-basalt-like plains filling lows with evidence for very high effusion rates in sinuous rilles hundreds to thousands of kilometers long, and huge lobate flow complexes emerging from rift zones and coronae (diapiric-like upwellings). Despite the current lack of a hydrosphere on Venus and evidence for dry crustal rocks, massive steep-sided domes and huge festoons are observed, suggesting evolved, more felsic compositions, often in areas of protocontinentlike crustal thickening. Broad topographic rises characterized by associated rifting and volcanism are interpreted to represent hot spots and mantle upwelling [21]. Hundreds of coronae dot the surface of Venus [18], and are interpreted to represent mantle upwellings or diapiric structures representing crustal and/or lithospheric instabilities and whose depth of origin is uncertain. Abundant shield volcanoes may be transitional to coronae. In summary, Venus and the Earth's Archean have both similarities and differences. Among the similarities are upper crustal temperatures, the importance of ductile deformation styles, evidence for both vertical and lateral tectonic structures and styles, abundant radial dike swarms, diapirism as an important candidate process, an important role for hot spots, and shared uncertainties about the geological and geodynamic precursors and evolution of the observed record. Differences include the fact that the Archean record is early in planetary history, while the record of Venus is late; the Archean record has been modified by several billion years of subsequent evolution and the recent Venus record is currently preserved and globally visible; the Archean was characterized by the presence of a hydrosphere and wet mantle, influencing petrogenesis, tectonics and erosion, while Venus apparently has a much dryer crust and lithosphere; the Archean shows some evidence for the presence of plate tectonics, but no active plate tectonics is seen on Venus, although it may have been episodic in its past [10, 11]. We have identified five key themes and questions common to both the Archean and Venus, the assessment of which could provide important new insights into the history and processes of both planets: 1) Crustal Thickening Environments and Processes. There is clear evidence of crustal thickening in the Archean record, but there are major uncertainties in terms of its tectonic setting, particularly in light of the apparent lack of evidence for obduction and other features that characterize modern-day plate tectonics. What is the range of environments in which crustal thickening occurs on Venus and what insight does this provide for the Archean record on Earth? 2) The Role of Diapirism. Crustal and lithospheric density inversions are a hallmark of the Archean, as revealed by the deep erosion of Archean terrains and the exposure of domes many tens of km in diameter, cored by gneisses and associated felsic intrusions, and surrounded by extensive deformation belts [22]. What are the similarities and differences between coronae and other diapiric structures on Venus and the basement- cored domes so common in the Earth's Archean record? 3) Nature and Origin of Deformation Belts. Archean linear and arcuate deformation belts are common [23] and are characterized by contractional features (tight, often highly inclined folds), extensional features (rift zones), and shear zones, with various amounts of offset. What is the geologic setting of linear deformation belts on Venus and how do they compare to those in the Archean in terms of structure and geological relationships? Is there evidence for extensive shear in the one-plate planet context of the Venus record [24,25]? 4) Origin and Context of Regional Plains. A hallmark of the Archean is the presence of volumetrically significant effusive volcanism (komatiite lavas and volcanic plains) thought to be derived from upwelling undepleted mantle and to have erupted onto the surface at very high temperatures [26]. Do these plains deposits bear similarities to the regional plains (and their associated sinuous channels) on Venus in terms of their emplacement style and geologic relationships [22]? 5) Geodynamic Evolution: Venus-Archean. What insight does the local, regional and global geology of Venus provide into selecting among the geodynamic processes thought to have operated during the Earth's Archean (e.g, vertical crustal accretion, lateral crustal accretion, depleted mantle layer formation, mantle and crustal overturn, massive diapirism, komatiitic flood basalts, crustal thickening and early continental growth)[5]? Archean-Venus: What insight does the Earth's Archean record provide to the nature and understanding of features, units and sequences on Venus? References: 1) E. Nisbet, The Young Earth, Allen & Unwin, 1987; 2) K. Condie, Archean Crustal Evolution, Elsevier, 1994; 3) S. Solomon & J. Head, Science 252,1991; 4) W. Bleeker, Lithos 71, 99, 2003; 5) K. Condie & K. Benn, AGU Mon. 47, 2006; 6) R. Taylor, Tectonophysics 161, 147, 1989; 7) A. Goodwin, Precambrian Geology, AP, 1991; 8) G. Davies, Geology 20, 963, 1992; 9) W. Collins et al., JSG 20, 1405, 1998; 10) E. Parmentier & P. Hess, GRL 19, 2015, 1992; 11) D. Turcotte, JGR 98, 17061, 1993; 12) R. Herrick, Geology 22, 703, 1994; 13) J. Guest & E. Stofan, Icarus 139, 55, 1999; 14) A. Basilevsky & J. Head, JGR 103, 8531, 1998; 15) S. Solomon et al., JGR 97, 13199, 1992; 16) R. Phillips and V. Hansen, Science 279, 1492, 1998; 17) D. Bindschadler et al, JGR 97, 13495, 1992; 18) E. Stofan et al., JGR 97, 13347, 1992; 19) V. Hansen et al., Venus II, UA, 797, 1997; 20) Head et al., JGR 97, 13153, 1992; 21) S. Smrekar et al., Venus II, UA, 845, 1997; 22) M. Van Kranendonk et al., Precambrian Res. 131, 173, 2004; 23) K. Benn et al., JES 31, 271, 1994; 24) E. Koenig & A. Aydin, Geology 26, 551, 1998; 25) P. Kumar, JGR 110, EO7001, 2005; 26) N. Arndt, Geology 26, 739 1998.

  15. News & Announcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    News from Journal House

    Guidelines for Submission The Journal's current Guide to Submissions can be found on pages 29-30 of this issue. They have been streamlined a bit and also include a handy check list. This information is also available on JCE Online at http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Authors/. Wanted: Demo Checkers The Tested Demonstrations column needs people who like to try out demos. Column editor Ed Vitz is looking for additional volunteers to serve as "checkers" for manuscripts that have been submitted to the Journal for possible publication as Tested Demonstrations. A checker is expected to perform two functions: to review the manuscript for accuracy and novelty, and to attempt to perform the demonstration according to the procedure supplied by the author. Checkers may suggest important improvements in demonstration procedures, and for their efforts they are cited in the byline when the manuscript is published. For instance, the demo showing the yellow cascading precipitates (lead iodide) made from potassium iodide and lead nitrate was submitted by Wobbe de Vos and checked by Kim Kostka. The (yellow) cascading precipitates are from "Using Large Glass Cylinders To Demonstrate Chemical Reactions" that appeared in the April 1999 issue of JCE. We prefer that checkers begin the review process (which may in some cases involve procuring supplies) very soon after being contacted so that their review can be completed in the timely manner that authors deserve. Checkers are usually teachers who routinely present lecture demonstrations in their classes in either high school or colleges. We try not to call on checkers more often than once a year, which is one of the reasons for this request. Another is that we lose many highly valued, experienced checkers to retirement or other endeavors. Prospective checkers may want to look at a copy of the JCE Tested Demonstration Evaluation Form. It can be found on the Web at http://www.kutztown.edu/ vitz/TD/TDhome.html. This site also has links to JCE guidelines for prospective authors. Volunteers should contact Vitz by the medium of their preference: Ed Vitz, Editor, Tested Demonstrations, Journal of Chemical Education, Department of Chemistry, Kutztown University, Kutztown, PA 19530; phone: 610/683-4443; fax: 610/683-1352; email: vitz@kutztown.edu.

    Awards Announced

    ACS Regional Awards in High School Chemistry Teaching The American Chemical Society has announced winners of regional awards in high school chemistry teaching for 1999. Winners have demonstrated excellence in teaching, exceptional ability to challenge and inspire students, extracurricular work, and willingness to keep up to date in the field. The award consists of two certificates (one for the recipient, the other for display at the recipient's school) and a cash prize of 1,000.
    • Thomas W. Adams, Indiana Academy for Science, Mathematics & Humanities at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana: Central Region
    • Arthur J. Crumm, Barstow School, Kansas City, Missouri: Midwest Region
    • Esther H. Freeman, Tabb High School, Yorktown, Virginia: Southeast Region
    • Joan A. Laredo-Liddell, St. Barnabas High School, Bronx, New York: Middle Atlantic Region, 1998
    • David T. Lee, Mountain Lakes High School, Mountain Lakes, New Jersey: Middle Atlantic Region, 1999
    • Diane Coley McGann, Santa Ana High School, Santa Ana, California: Western Region
    • William J. Pilotte, Newington High School, Newington, Connecticut: Northeast Region
    • Judith C. Seydel, Idaho Falls High School, Idaho Falls, Idaho: Northwest Region
    • Brenda A. Wolpa, Canyon Del Oro High School, Tucson, Arizona: Southwest/Rocky Mountain Region
    NSF Distinguished Public Service Award As a part of its celebration in 2000 of its half-century in existence, the National Science Foundation has announced the recipient of its Distinguished Public Service Award.
    • Samuel P. Massie, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland (Emeritus)
    1999 Ford Foundation Fellowships The National Academies have announced the recipients in the 1999 fellowship programs. The names of those in chemistry or chemistry-related programs appear below. The complete list and background information about fellowship programs are available at http://national-academies.org. Information about the next (2000) competition can be obtained by contacting the Fellowship Office of the National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418; email: infofell@nas.edu; WWW: http://fellowships.nas.edu. 1999 Predoctoral Fellows
    • Martin Elliott Hayes, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Organic Chemistry
    1999 Dissertation Fellows
    • Robyn P. Hickerson, University of Utah, Chemistry
    1999 Postdoctoral Fellows
    • Luke Koenigs Lightning, University of California, San Francisco, Biochemistry
    • Eric W. Wong, University of California, Los Angeles, Physical Chemistry
    University of Wisconsin System Award Alliant Energy has announced the recipient of its 1999 Underkofler Excellence in Teaching Award, to recognize and reward outstanding teachers at University of Wisconsin System institutions.
    • Kim Kostka, University of Wisconsin-Rock County, Janesville, Wisconsin
    Kim is also the recipient of the 1999 Green Chemistry Challenge Award from the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Partnership for Reinventing Government. She is co-editor of the JCE feature column Teaching with Problems and Case Studies.

    Award Deadlines

    James Flack Norris Award The Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society is receiving nominations for the 2000 James Flack Norris Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Teaching of Chemistry. The Norris Award, one of the oldest awards given by a Section of the American Chemical Society, is presented annually and consists of a certificate and an honorarium of 3,000. Nominees must have served with special distinction as teachers of chemistry at any level: secondary school, college, or graduate school. Since 1951, awardees have included eminent and less-widely-known but equally effective teachers at all levels. The awardee for 1999 is Joseph J. Lagowski of the University of Texas at Austin. Nominating material must be limited to 30 pages and focus specifically on the nominee's contribution to and effectiveness in teaching chemistry, as distinguished from research. These qualities are demonstrated by a condensed curriculum vitae as a portion of a nominating letter, which, in turn, is supported by as many seconding letters as are necessary to convey the nominee's qualification for the award. These may show the impact of the nominee's teaching in inspiring colleagues and students toward an active life on chemistry or related sciences, or may attest to the influence of the nominee's other activities in chemical education, such as textbooks, journal articles, or other professional activity at the national level. Materials should be of 8.5 x 11-in. size and should not include books or reprints. Nomination materials for 2000 should be sent to Robert S. Umans, Chemistry Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215-2521; email: umans@chem.bu.edu. They should be received before April 15, 2000. Undergraduate Analytical Research Program Grant The Society for Analytical Chemists of Pittsburgh (SACP) has established a 10,000 annual grant to promote high-quality, innovative undergraduate research in the field of analytical chemistry and to promote training and development of undergraduate students in the field of analytical chemistry. Chemistry faculty at U.S. colleges and universities not having a graduate program in the chemical sciences are eligible to apply. Application forms for the Undergraduate Analytical Research Program (UARP) grant may be obtained by calling 1-800/825-3221 ext. 208 or by visiting the SACP's Web site at www.sacp.org. The deadline for applications for the year 2000 grant is March 31, 2000. American Microchemical Society Undergraduate Student Awards The American Microchemical Society announces its undergraduate awards for students who have done research in any area of analytical chemistry. Awardees receive 1000, travel expenses up to 250, and accommodation for two nights to receive the awards at the Eastern Analytical Symposium (EAS) to be held October 29-November 3, 2000. Applications should include a cover letter, a two-page summary of analytical research conducted by the student written in his or her own words, at least three letters of recommendation (one must be from a research director), a one-page summary of career goals, and official transcripts from undergraduate institution(s). Awardees are expected to present their work at EAS as a poster at the Undergraduate Research Poster Session. More details and a list of former awardees is available at http://chemweb.chem.uconn.edu/microchem/. Three copies of all materials, including letters and transcripts, should be sent to David J. Butcher, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723; phone: 828/227-3683; fax: 828/227-7647; email: butcher@wpoff.wcu.edu; WWW: http://www3.wcu.edu/ butcher/. The deadline for applications for 2000 awards is March 15, 2000. Dimick Award for Chromatography The Society for Analytical Chemists of Pittsburgh (SACP) solicits nominations for the year 2001 Keene P. Dimick Award for Chromatography. The award is presented annually for noteworthy accomplishments in the area of gas and supercritical fluid chromatography (GC, SFC). The award, administered by SACP, consists of 5,000 cash prize presented at a symposium arranged by the awardee during the Pittsburgh Conference. There are no restrictions of age, nationality, sex, or professional affiliation. Letters of nomination, including a complete resume for the candidate, should be sent to Keene P. Dimick Award Committee, Society for Analytical Chemists of Pittsburgh, 300 Penn Center Boulevard, Suite 332, Pittsburgh, PA 15235-5503. The deadline for nominations is April 15, 2000.

    Courses, Seminars, Meetings, Opportunities

    Upcoming Conferences PITTCON The Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy will present its annual event, PITTCON 2000, at the Morial Convention Center in New Orleans, LA, March 12-17, 2000. There will be more than 1,900 technical presentations and 3,000 exposition booths. Further information is available on the Web at http://www.pittcon.org or by telephone at 412/826-3220, ext. 142. Oilseed Conference The 49th Oilseed Conference will be held March 19-21, 2000, at the Doubletree Hotel in New Orleans, LA. The theme of the meeting is "Surviving in a Changing Global Economy". More information is available at the conference Web site: www.aocs.org/oilseed.htm, by phone: 217/359-2344, or by fax: 217/351-8091. American Oil Chemists' Society The 91st American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Annual Meeting and Expo will be held April 25-28, 2000, at the San Diego Convention Center in San Diego, CA. Further information is available by contacting the AOCS Meetings & Exhibits Department; phone: 217/359-2344; fax: 217/351-8091; email: meetings@aocs.org. Chem 13 News: In Memory of Reg Friesen Issue 278 of Chem 13 News (October 1999) is in memory of Reg Friesen (see also JCE, 1999, 76, 27). A complimentary copy of this memorial issue is available upon request to kjackson@uwaterloo.ca. Free Source of Problems The Moles Web site (http://138.100.72.157/moles) is a free source of problems (in the Spanish language) that can be used in teaching problems of chemistry at the college/university level. While it is specially devoted to engineering education, it is also of interest for other studies where chemistry is involved. This site seeks to broaden its base by soliciting contributions from the United States and other American countries. Those interested in submitting problems for peer review (papers in English would be translated into Spanish) should contact Gabriel Pinto, Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnical University of Madrid, 28006 Madrid, Spain; email: gpinto@iqi.etsii.upm.es.

    Proposal Deadlines

    National Science Foundation Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE)
    • Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) June 5, 2000 (anticipated)
    • NSF Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships Program (CSEMS) TBA
    • Advanced Techological Education (ATE) Preliminary April 13, 2000 (anticipated) Formal Oct. 13, 2000 (anticipated)
    • NSF Graduate Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) TBA (anticipated late spring 2000)
    • Online DUE forms available at http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/DUE/documents/general/forms/forms.htm
    • NSF Documents Online available at http://www.nsf.gov/cgi-bin/pubsys/browser/odbrowse.pl
    For further information about NSF DUE programs consult the DUE Web site, http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/DUE/start.htm. To contact the DUE Information Center, phone: 703/306-1666; email: undergrad@nsf.gov. The Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc.
    • Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Awards Program: November 15, 1999, and November 15, 2000
    • Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Awards Program: June 30, 2000
    • New Faculty Awards Program: May 15, 2000
    • Faculty Start-up Grants for Undergraduate Institutions: May 15, 2000
    • Scholar/Fellow Program for Undergraduate Institutions: June 30, 2000
    • Special Grant Program in the Chemical Sciences: Preliminary Proposals: June 15, 2000 Complete Proposals: September 1, 2000
    • Postdoctoral Program in Environmental Chemistry: March 1, 2000
    • Senior Scientist Mentor: September 1, 2000
    Further information may be obtained from The Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc., 555 Madison Avenue, Suite 1305, New York, NY 10022; phone: 212/753-1760; email: admin@dreyfus.org; WWW:http://www.dreyfus.org/ Research Corporation
    • Cottrell College Science Awards: May 15 and November 15
    • Cottrell Scholars: First regular business day in September
    • Research Opportunity Awards: May 1 and October 1
    • Research Innovation Awards: May 1
    Further information may be obtained from Research Corporation, 101 North Wilmot Road, Suite 250, Tucson, AZ 85711-3332; phone: 520/571-1111; fax: 520/571-1119; email: awards@rescorp.org; WWW:http://www.rescorp.org

  16. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith

    2004-12-01

    Fred Whipple, one of the founding fathers of planetary science, died on August 30, 2004 just two months shy of his 98th birthday. The breadth of Fred's published research from 1927 through 2000 is quite extraordinary. Although his collected works were published in two massive volumes in 1972, shortly before his retirement, Fred's research contributions continued for another three decades - and another volume is planned. Fred Lawrence Whipple was born on November 5, 1906 on a farm in Red Oak Iowa. His parents were Harry Lawrence and Celestia (MacFarl) Whipple. At the age of fifteen, the Whipple family moved to California where Fred studied mathematics at Occidental College and the University of California at Los Angeles. As a graduate student at the University of California at Berkeley in 1930, he was one of the first to compute an orbit for the newly discovered planet Pluto. Upon receiving his PhD in 1931, he joined the staff of the Harvard College Observatory. He was Chairman of the Harvard Department of Astronomy (1949 - 1956), Director or the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1955 - 1973), Phillips Professor of Astronomy (1968 - 1977) and Emeritus Phillips Professor of astronomy (1977 - 2004). In 1928 he married Dorothy Woods and their son, Earle Raymond, survives him. The marriage ended in divorce in 1935. Eleven years later, he married Babette F. Samelson and she too survives him, as do their two daughters Laura and (Dorothy) Sandra. Shortly after arriving at Harvard in the early 1930's, Fred developed a photographic tracking network to determine meteor trajectories from simultaneous observations from two or more stations. The photographic trails, chopped by a rotating shutter, allowed their orbits in space to be determined accurately. With the strong involvement of Richard McCrosky and others, he concluded in the early 1960's that most of these meteors were on comet-like orbits and less than 1% of the naked eye, sporadic meteors could be traced to an origin outside the solar system. To fill the daytime gap when meteors could not be photographed, Fred organized a program for the radio detection of these objects. With the launch of Sputnik in October 1957, Whipple's visual network of amateur astronomers (Moon watch) was already in place to follow its progress and later on he developed an optical tracking system for meteors and artificial satellites using wide field, Baker-Nunn cameras. This latter system proved so successful that the precision tracking of these satellites could be used to model the Earth's shape and density variations from the observed gravitational effects upon these satellite orbits. He once noted that the highlight of his career was having his family and parents present at the White House while he received the President's Award for Distinguished Public Service from John F. Kennedy for this work. His seminal works in 1950-51 on the icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus prompted a complete paradigm switch. Until then, the current consensus model for a comet was a flying cloud of particles; it had been so since the second half of the nineteenth century when comets were identified with meteor showers. He envisaged the cometary nucleus as a conglomerate of ices (mostly water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide ices) embedded within, and covered over with, a nonvolatile matrix of meteoric material. Part of his rationale for developing this "dirty snowball" model for the cometary nucleus was to provide an explanation of the so-called nongravitational forces acting upon comets. The rocket-like thrusting of a comet when the ices vaporize near the sun introduced a small, but noticeable, thrust on the comet itself and when this effect was properly modeled, the motions of active comets could be predicted far more accurately. Subsequent spacecraft ultraviolet observations showing enormous cometary hydrogen atmospheres confirmed that the major cometary ice was likely to be water. The 1986 Giotto spacecraft images, revealing a solid cometary nucleus (albeit far blacker than most had predicted), were a dramatic confirmation of Whipple's model -- though in truth few really expected otherwise at the time. In 1942-1946, he led an effort to develop and implement strips of reflective aluminum (i.e., chaff) to confuse enemy radars in World War II. In 1948, he received a certificate of merit for this work from President Harry S. Truman. Eleven years before the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, he developed what is now generally termed the Whipple Shield; a thin outer metallic layer stands out from a spacecraft and protects it from high-speed interplanetary dust particles. While particles hitting this outside thin layer would penetrate, they would also vaporize, and in so doing, the resultant debris would disperse and lack the energy to penetrate the main spacecraft skin. This design was used to successfully protect the Stardust spacecraft from cometary dust particles when the spacecraft flew rapidly past comet Tempel 1 in January 2004. He also made significant contributions to fields as diverse as meteor astronomy, satellite tracking, variable stars, supernovae, stellar evolution, astronomical instrumentation and radio astronomy. Along with his colleagues Willy Ley, Wernher von Braun and others, Fred wrote and consulted for a series of very popular articles in Collier's magazine in the early 1950's and these articles, along with earlier lectures at New York's Hayden Planetarium, helped spark the U.S. involvement in space exploration. Of these early beginnings of space exploration, Fred wrote in 1972 "it was no easy task to convince people that man could really go into empty space beyond the Earth's atmosphere, and even beyond the Earth's tenacious gravitational grasp. On looking back over these years, I am still surprised that we succeeded in convincing them." Fred was responsible for initiating the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's observatory on Mt. Hopkins near Tucson Arizona and he was active in the design of the multi-mirror telescope that was in operation until 1999, when a 6.5-meter single mirror telescope replaced it. In 1981, the observatory was renamed the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. Fred was successful as both a manager of large science enterprises and as a researcher. He once told me that one of his secrets for doing both management and science simultaneously involved his spending some mornings in a room adjacent to his office doing research. His secretary was asked to (correctly) notify morning callers that Dr. Whipple was not in his office at the moment and could he return the call later on in the day. When asked the secret of his longevity at his 90th birthday party, he noted, "you've got to start early." Fortunately for Planetary Science, he did start early - and he stayed late. Until he reached 90 years of age, he rode his bicycle to the office most every day and those days when he drove to work, his car was easy to identify from the single word "comets" on his license plate. Fred Whipple was awarded seven honorary degrees and included among his many tributes are a certificate of Merit from President Truman (1948), the J. Lawrence Smith Medal of the National Academy of Sciences (1949), a Distinguished Federal Civilian Service Award (1963), the Frederick C. Leonard Memorial Medal of the Meteoritical Society (1970), the Gold Medal of the Royal Society (1983), the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (1986), and the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society (1987). He also discovered six new comets and discovered and named an asteroid (1252 Celestia) after his mother. Asteroid 1940 was renamed (1940) Whipple to honor his professional achievements. Fred Whipple was a Harvard Professor, director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, a Presidential medallist and his name is synonymous with comets. He was one of the few great innovative thinkers in twentieth century planetary science. Yet through it all, he remained just Fred to all who knew him. Whether you were a young student or a distinguished internationally recognized scientist, this gentleman treated everyone with the same kindness and respect. The entire planetary science community has benefited immeasurably from his wide-ranging insights; we've lost a creative scientist and a kind mentor - but he remains a superb role model for us all. This obituary is based on one by D.K. Yeomans and J. Veverka that appeared in "Nature" (4 Nov. 2004, vol. 432, p. 31). Photograph provided by J. Veverka.

  17. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at La Silla, each covering a sky area of 5 o.5 x 5 o.5. When comparing plates of the same sky field obtained at time intervals of several years [1] , she was able to detect, among the hundreds of thousands of stellar images on the plates, a few faint ones whose positions had changed a little in the meantime. The search technique is based on the fact that such a shift is a good indicator of the object being relatively nearby. It must therefore also be intrinsically faint, i.e. a potential White Dwarf candidate. On every pair of plates, approximately twenty faint moving objects were detected with proper motions [2] of more than 0.25 arcsec per year. Indeed, follow-up spectroscopic observations showed that about 20 percent of these or about four per plate were White Dwarfs. Until now, a total of forty new White Dwarfs have been discovered during this very successful project, i.e. over ten times more than originally expected. And then - a Brown Dwarf! Caption to ESO PR Photo 11/97 [JPEG, 144k] ESO Press Photo 11/97 When checking two plates with a time inverval of 11 years, Maria Teresa Ruiz earlier this year discovered a very faint object in the southern constellation of Hydra (The Water-Snake), moving at 0.35 arcsec per year (cf. ESO Press Photo 11/97). In order to establish its true nature, she obtained its spectrum (in the visual to near-infrared region from wavelengths 450-1000 nm) on March 15 using the ESO 3.6-m telescope and the EFOSC1 spectrograph. Caption to ESO PR Photo 12/97 [GIF, 35k] ESO Press Photo 12/97 To her great surprise, the spectrum was of a type never seen before and certainly not that of a White Dwarf or any other easily identifiable type of star (cf. ESO Press Photo 12/97). In particular, there were no signs of spectral bands of titanium oxide (TiO) or vanadium oxide (VO) which are common in very cool stars, nor of the spectral lines seen in White Dwarfs. On the other hand, an absorption line of the short-lived element lithium was identified, as well as a hydrogen line in emission. However, when the colour of this mysterious object was measured in different wavebands, it was found to be very red and quite similar to that of one of the two known Brown Dwarfs in double star systems. The presence of the lithium line in the spectrum is also an indication that it might be of that type. The astronomer now decided to give the new object the name KELU-1 ; this word means `red' in the language of the Mapuche people, the ancient population in the central part of Chile. Its visual magnitude is 22.3, i.e. more than 3 million times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. In early April, additional infrared observations with the UKIRT (UK Infrared Telescope) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) by Sandra K. Leggett (Joint Astrophysical Centre, Hilo, Hawaii, USA) confirmed the Brown Dwarf nature of KELU-1, in particular through the unambiguous detection of Methane (CH 4 ) bands in its spectrum. The nature of Brown Dwarfs Brown Dwarfs are first of all characterised by their low mass. When a body of such a small mass is formed in an interstellar cloud and subsequently begins to contract, its temperature at the centre will rise, but it will never reach a level that is sufficient to ignite the nuclear burning of hydrogen to helium, the process that it is main source of energy in the Sun and most other stars. The Brown Dwarf will just continue to contract, more and more slowly, and it will eventually fade from view. This is also the reason that some astronomers consider Brown Dwarfs in the Milky Way and other galaxies as an important component of the `dark matter' whose presence is infered from other indirect measurements but has never been directly observed. It is assumed that the mass limit that separates nuclear-burning stars and slowly contracting Brown Dwarfs is at about 90 times the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, or 8 percent of that of the Sun. KELU-1: a great opportunity for Brown Dwarf studies Assuming that KELU-1 is identical to other known Brown Dwarfs, its measured characteristics indicate that it must be located at a distance of only 10 parsecs, that is about 33 light-years, from the solar system. Its temperature is obviously below 1700 degrees C (where TiO and VO condense as dust grains [3] so that the spectral lines of these molecules are no longer seen). Its mass can be no more than 75 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent of that of the Sun. During recent years, several Brown Dwarf candidates have been de-masked as low-mass stars and only recently a few Brown Dwarfs were identified in the Pleiades star cluster. Those Brown Dwarfs are quite young and therefore comparatively hotter and brighter. Contrarily, KELU-1 is most probably somewhat older and its unique location so close to us greatly facilitates future investigations. Moreover, it is not at all `disturbed' by the presence of other objects in its immediate surroundings, as this is the case for all other known objects of this type. It will now be important to obtain accurate measurements of KELU-1's parallax , that is, the small annual change of its position in the sky that is caused by the Earth's motion around the Sun and thus the viewing angle of an Earth-based observer. This should be possible within the next year. Moreover, high resolution spectral investigations with large telescope facilities, soon to include the ESO Very Large Telescope at the Paranal observatory in northern Chile, will now for the first time enable us to investigate the processes that take place in the relatively cold upper layers of Brown Dwarfs. For instance, the observed presence of lithium shows that its atmosphere must be different from that of low-mass stars. KELU-1 and the `Dark Matter' From the fact that KELU-1 is so faint that it was barely detectable on the ESO Schmidt plates, it is possible to estimate that the total volume so far surveyed for this type of objects by this research programme is rather small, only about 23 cubic parsecs (800 cubic light-years). A further consideration of the search statistics indicates that less than 10 percent of the Brown Dwarfs present in the surveyed volume would have been found. This translates into a local density of about 0.4 such objects per cubic parsec. Although the mass density of Brown Dwarfs derived from this estimate is insufficient to constitute all the `dark matter' in the Milky Way Galaxy, it is consistent with the most recent estimates of the local mass density, both observed and as infered from dynamical considerations of the motions of stars in the solar neighborhood. Notes: [1] This is done by means of a so-called blink-comparator , an optical device in which the two plates are placed. A tilting mirror allows to view the same sky field alternately on the two plates. Any celestial object that has changed its position will appear to `jump' back and forth and can thus be identified. [2] A proper motion in the sky of 0.25 arcsec/year corresponds to a transversal speed of about 12 km/sec if the object is located at a distance of 10 parsec, or 32.6 light-years. The largest known proper motion of an object outside the solar system is that of Barnard's Star at about 10 arcsec/year. [3] For instance, as the mineral perovskite . How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  18. Poster Session A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A.1 Lessons Learned During Eight Years of Using iTRAQ in the Proteomic Study of Pathology Mia Jullig1, Martin Middleditch1, Garth Cooper1,2 1Maurice Wilkins Centre, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2University of Manchester, UK Our research team has long held the view that proteomics holds the key to unlock pathology. During the past eight years we have increasingly used the LC-MS/MS based iTRAQ labeling approach to further our understanding of a number of pathologies in various tissues of interest. From our very first project utilizing iTRAQ, it became clear that manual processing of the LC-MS/MS output to obtain protein ratios is preferable to using the ratios automatically generated by proprietary quantitative proteomic software. For example, we have identified two relatively common amino acid patterns which generate MS/MS m/z values overlapping with those of certain iTRAQ reporter ions and, if not accounted for, may interfere with the quantitative results. Furthermore, systematically different degrees of missed tryptic cleavages between study groups may skew the results since miscleaved peptides are often less suitable for detection through LC-MS/MS. Other factors which may compromise the relative quantitation include variable success in depleting biofluids e.g. plasma of highly abundant proteins, and large change in abundance of one or more highly abundant proteins in disease. We are continually developing strategies to overcome these issues. It is however clear that each new tissue and pathology comes with its own challenges, highlighting the need for a tailored approach for each project rather than the application of a general formula. We here present our current approach to manual handling of LC-MS/MS data from iTRAQ labeled samples, along with a number of cases illustrating the potential pitfalls above and demonstrate how these can be managed. A.2 Whole Animal 15N Metabolic Pulse Chase Labeling Shows which Proteins are Built to Last Jeffrey Savas1, Brandon Toyama2, Varda Levram-Ellisman3, Roger Tsien3, Martin Hetzer2, John Yates1 1The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3HHMI and Univ. of California San Diego, CA, USA A few proteins with exceptional long lifespans have previously been recognized and shown to perform highly specialized biological functions. These extremely long lived proteins (ELLPs) have been linked to age-dependent deterioration, ranging from decreased fertility and hearing loss to functional decline of neurons. While previously recognized ELLPs such as eye lens crystallin have served as important models for the damage base theory of aging, a systematic approach to identify the extremely long-lived proteome in vivo has been lacking. We have now performed deep proteomic mass spectrometric analysis of rodent tissues metabolically pulse labeled with 15N to determine the ELLP proteome. In order to systematically search for ELLPs, we generated “heavy” rodents with a generational 15N metabolic labeling protocol and estimated labeling efficiency to be near complete. We chased these animals with 14N for 0, 3, 9, 26, 78, or 104 weeks at which time they were immediately sacrificed. These chase periods are roughly equally spaced in log (time). Tissue harvesting and fractionation was performed by standard biochemical techniques and peptides were analyzed by LCLC on Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometers. Protein identification and quantification analysis was performed with the Integrated Proteomics Pipeline (IP2, Integrated Proteomics Applications) using ProLuCID, DTASelect2, and Census. As expected, we found that nearly all proteins (>99%) in rodent tissues are recycled in less than a few days and a relatively small number of proteins are long-lived in vivo. Overall tissues possessing post mitotic cells which do not turn over possessed more ELLPs than those tissues with rapid cellular replenishment. The ELLPs could easily be grouped based on shared characteristics. Many ELLPs reside in the cell nucleus and are components of large protein complexes which include nucleosomes/chromatin and the nuclear pore complex. Interesting, we found that often the core proteins of these multi sub-unit assemblies are long lived while peripheral subunits are not. Many extracellular ELLPs have structural roles and include myelin basic protein, laminins, and collagens. The longevity of these proteins is consistent with their molecular function and may be shielded from most protein degradation machinery. We have also identified new ELLPs in brain which localize to axons and synapses and are a current and active area of investigation. By examining intermediate chase periods of a few months we found another unexpected class of ELLPs. These ELLPs are not like the others maintained in extracellular environments for the life time of the organism. Rather, they may play critical sustained functions exclusively during development. One such example are a small number of gene specific transcription factors which may be responsible for gene activation programs which could drive cell specification. Another unexpected example are transmembrane proteins which aid in the cellular patterning of the brain during development. Altogether the ELLP proteome represents an extraordinary set of proteins which may help motivate future investigations into their potential anti-aging or developmental activities. The take-away message from these efforts is that while nearly all proteins are rapidly turned over a limited number of proteins show exceptional longevity and function in essential biological processes. A.3 Protein Evolution through the Lens of the Sperm Proteome Timothy Karr Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Although it is well known that eukaryotic proteins (≈500 aa) are, on average approximately two-thirds longer compared to prokaryotic (≈300 aa), there is as yet no consensus regarding the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for these differences. The length of a given protein is determined in part by the cellular context in which it functions. Selective pressures for small efficient proteins present in high concentration (e.g., metabolic enzymes) in fast growing environments are understandable. However, the complexity of eukaryotic cells compared to prokaryotes might necessitate longer proteins carrying out specialized functions (e.g., cytoskeletal and membrane proteins). Knowledge of cell-type specific proteomes could allow deeper understanding of protein length variation at the cell level. Unfortunately, high throughput MS techniques and data analyses are only now just beginning to achieve deep coverage of the proteomes of complex diploid cells (which may contain upwards to 10,000 proteins). However, MS has proven useful for defining sperm proteomes, a cell type of lower proteome complexity. I analyzed the sperm protein lengths from a variety of species including Drosophila, mouse, rat, human and macaque and compared them to the average whole protein lengths of these species. Remarkably, and without exception, the average sperm protein length of all species analyzed were significantly longer than the whole proteome. The Dmel sperm protein length was greater than twice the average for the whole proteome length (950 aa vs. 507 aa). These datasets have also provided insights into the variation of individual cellular proteomes within a complex metazoan and possibly provides an index for the degree in which evolutionary pressures (selection) have shaped protein length. Thus, protein length evolution may have been driven by traits related to sperm functionality (i.e., motility, high axial ratios). This represents the first analysis of whole cell proteome lengths and provides a foundation for future functional, bioinformatic and evolutionary analyses of cellular proteome evolution in an organismal context. A.4 MEK and PI3K Dual-inhibition Elicits Pathway-specific and Mitochondrial Ubiquitination Daisy Bustos, Joshua Baughman, Lilian Phu, Taner Dogan, William F. Forrest, Klaus P. Hoeflich, Donald S. Kirkpatrick Genentech, So. San Francisco, CA, USA Small molecule inhibitors of MEK (GDC-0973) and PI3K (GDC-0941) have been developed for the treatment of cancer and effective at triggering tumor cell death in preclinical models. We previously demonstrated that the combination of these inhibitors in A2058 melanoma cells induced a DNA damage like response involving amplification of protein phosphorylation coincident with apoptosis (Kirkpatrick et al. PNAS 2013). These results were obtained using motif-specific immunoaffinity enrichment and label free quantitative mass spectrometry of phosphopeptides at various time points following treatment with GDC-0973 and GDC-0941. In parallel with these studies, ubiquitin substrate profiling was performed by K-GG immunoaffinity enrichment. K-GG peptides were captured using an antibody targeting the diglycine remnant (-GG) from ubiquitin, which remains covalently attached to substrate lysine (K) residues after tryptic digestion. Linear mixed effect modeling (LiME) was employed to assemble K-GG peptide data at the protein level and select top candidates for follow up analysis. Noted in these timecourse results were early responding substrates within the inhibitor targeted pathway, the DNA damage response and the cell death regulatory network, such as MEK1, PRKDC and PGAM5. Ubiquitination of MEK1 was maximally induced within the first hour following treatment, while extensive ubiquitination of PRKDC and PGAM5 occurred at later time points consistent with their posited roles in the downstream response. Concurrent with these, a marked increase in ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates such as cytochrome C, MIRO2, IMMT, and CHCH3 upon commitment to the apoptotic state. Cells treated over 8h with a 4xEC50 combination of GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 demonstrated significantly increased ubiquitination for over 25 mitochondrial substrates including metabolic regulators, structural components, and apoptotic effectors. Evaluating the sub-organellar distribution of these mitochondrial proteins, it was surprising to note that many reside natively within the intermembrane space (IMS) or mitochondrial matrix. This finding suggests that a compromised outer mitochondrial membrane and/or disruption of mitochondrial protein import during apoptosis enables the cytosolic ubiquitination machinery to access this cluster of substrates. These results illustrate how ubiquitin substrate temporal profiling can reveal the dynamic proteome in response to pathway specific inhibition and may be valuable in dissecting the pathways affected by compounds of unknown function. A.5 Preserved Proteins from Extinct Bison Latifrons Identified by Tandem Mass Spectrometry Alexander Barrett, Ryan C. Hill, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Kirk C. Hansen University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA Proteomics analysis using a simplified sample preparation procedure and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to obtain protein identifications on a sample from the extinct Bison latifrons that yielded peptide identifications mapping to over 45 bovine proteins. Our analysis resulted in extensive fibrillar collagen sequence coverage, including the identification of in vivo generated post-translational modifications. Hydroxylysine galactosylglucosylation, a modification thought to be involved in collagen fiber formation and bone mineralization, was identified for the first time in an ancient protein dataset. Meta-analyses of data from other studies indicates that this modification may be enriched in well-preserved prehistoric samples. This analysis has unearthed a potential “collagen code” that identifies post-translation modifications that may assist in the preservation of collagen over time. A.6 Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Endogenous Tau Modifications in Mice Giselle Knudsen1, Meaghan Morris2,3, Sumihiro Maeda2, Jonathan C. Trinidad4, Alexandra Ianoviciu1, Alma L. Burlingame1, Lennart Mucke2 1University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3The Johns Hopkins University Medical School, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA The microtubule-associated protein tau has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Reducing tau levels ameliorates AD-related synaptic, network and behavioral abnormalities in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice. We used mass spectrometry to characterize the post-translational modification of endogenous tau isolated from wildtype or hAPP mice. We identified six different types of tau modifications at 63 sites in wildtype mice. Tau modifications were similar between hAPP and wildtype mice, supporting the hypothesis that neuronal dysfunction in hAPP mice is enabled by physiological forms of tau. Our data provide clear evidence supporting the targeting of acetylation and ubiquitination to the same lysine residues, with select sites also targeted by lysine methylation. Our data does not support the hypothesis of extensive O-GlcNAc modification of endogenous tau. The complex post-translational modification of physiological tau suggests that tau is subject to extensive regulation by diverse pathways. A.7 Advances in Antibody-based Proteomic Analysis Matthew P. Stokes, Hongbo Gu, Charles L. Farnsworth, Jian Min Ren, Kimberly A. Lee, Jeffrey C. Silva 1Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Danvers, MA, USA Immunoaffinity purification (IAP) of proteins and peptides is a powerful tool to enrich samples for subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis. These antibody-based methods have long been used to probe for post-translationally modified (PTM) peptides that normally would not be detected due to their lower relative abundance in samples. Antibodies are generated using degenerate peptide libraries that recognize a particular PTM selectively but are agnostic to amino acids surrounding the PTM. A limited number of amino acids in addition to the modified residue can also be fixed in the library to generate antibodies that recognize a particular sequence motif, such as a consensus substrate sequence for protein kinases. The method has been successfully applied to a number of PTM's, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination. Recently, a number of advances have allowed for significantly improved performance and increased Proteome coverage using IAP methods. New antibodies have been developed to cover more PTMs, including methyl- arginine, methyl-lysine, and succinyl-lysine. Existing antibodies have also been improved, allowing identification of even more post-translationally modified peptides in a single LC-MS/MS run. These include an updated phosphotyrosine antibody, as well as a new monoclonal acetyl-lysine reagent (consisting of seven monoclonal antibodies) that provides the highest number of acetylated peptide identifications of any available acetyl-lysine antibody. PTMScan Direct, an IAP LC-MS/MS method utilizing cocktails of site-specific antibodies to phosphosites on critical signaling proteins, has been updated to include more reagents (thus covering more pathways), and to cover more proteins/sites using a single affinity reagent. The IAP LC-MS/MS protocol has also been adapted for use on robotic platforms such as the Agilent AssayMAP Bravo system, allowing automation of enrichment protocols for larger scale experiments to probe cellular signaling. A.8 Proteomics versus Transcriptomics for the Identification of Cancer Biomarkers: the Case of Brain-derived Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Matthew D. Dun1, Robert J. Chalkley2, Sheridan Keene1, Ralph A. Bradshaw2, Hubert Hondermarck1 1School of Biomedical Sciences & Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Transcriptomics and proteomics have become common approaches in the search to identify new cancer biomarkers. However, it is unclear how well cancer-associated changes in protein and mRNA expression match, as a study from the same set of cancer samples has not been reported. Here we have compared changes in the proteome versus transcriptome in the brain-derived metastatic breast cancer cell line, 231-BR, as compared to the parental line, MDA-MB-231, which is also highly metastatic but with no organ selectivity. Comparative proteomic analyses were performed by reciprocally labelling each of these cell lines with 13C6 L-lysine (SILAC analysis). Soluble and membrane extracts were sequentially digested using a trypsin/Lys-C mixture and analyzed by a Q-Exactive Plus (Thermo Fisher Scientific) with chromatography performed with an EASY-nLC ultraperformance liquid chromatography system (Thermo). Quantitative measurements were extracted from the raw data by Search Compare in Protein Prospector (UCSF) and only the peaks with a signal to noise of greater than 10 were used in the quantification. Transcriptomic data were obtained after mRNA extraction and exon based analysis with an Affymetrix GeneChip platform. About 2,500 proteins were quantified in the 231-BR/MDA-MB-231 cell comparison, generating a list of more than 169 proteins up- or down-regulated more than 2-fold (with at least two peptides and sequenced reciprocally). When this was compared with the transcriptomic data (∼9,800 transcripts), 52% of correlation was found between the changes observed at the protein level versus those seen at the mRNA level. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a pattern of changes associated with the deregulation of cell invasion and metastasis. In particular, the signaling pathways related to the neuronal guidance and survival molecule ephrinB1, the matrix metalloprotease MMP1 and the tissue transglutaminase TGM2 appeared to be associated with the implantation and development of metastatic tumor cells in the brain. Taken together, these data indicate that proteomic and transcriptomic data are complementary rather than confirmatory in the quest for new cancer biomarkers, and that multiple levels of post-transcriptional regulations are likely to be involved in the acquisition of a brain metastatic phenotype. This work was supported in part by the University of Newcastle Australia, the Hunter Cancer Research Alliance, the Biomedical Technology Research Centers program of the USPHS National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 8P41GM103481, and NIH 1S10OD016229. A.9 Evolution of Separate Predation- and Defence-evoked Venoms in Carnivorous Cone Snails Sébastien Dutertre1,2, Ai-Hua Jin1, Irina Vetter1,3, Brett Hamilton4, Kartik Sunagar5,6, Vincent Lavergne1, Valentin Dutertre1, Bryan G. Fry1,7, Agostinho Antunes5,6, Deon J. Venter4,8, Paul F. Alewood1, Richard J. Lewis1 1Institute for Molecular Bioscience; The University of Queensland, Australia; 2Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, CNRS, Université Montpellier, France; 3School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Australia; 4Pathology Department, Mater Health Services, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 5CIMAR/CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Portugal; 6Dept. de Biologia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal; 7Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Australia, 8Department of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Australia Venomous animals are thought to inject the same combination of toxins for both predation and defence, presumably exploiting conserved target pharmacology across prey and predators. Surprisingly, we have discovered that cone snails can rapidly and reversibly change their venom composition in response to predatory or defensive stimuli. In this study, predation- and defence-evoked venoms were collected from killer cone snails Conus geographus. One specimen was also dissected and the venom duct was divided into 12 sections for proteomic analysis. The underivatised venoms were analysed by standard LC-MS and MALDI imagining. Information Dependent Acquisition was performed on the reduced, reduced/alkylated and enzymatically digested venom samples. Predation- and defence-evoked venoms were fractionated and the activity of each fraction was assessed using high-throughput Ca2+ imaging assays. Here, we show that the defence-evoked venom was significantly more complex than predation-evoked venom, with limited overlap in peptide composition. The defence-evoked venom of C. geographus contains high levels of paralytic toxins that potently block neuromuscular receptors, consistent with its lethal effects on humans. In contrast, C. geographus predation-evoked venom contains prey-specific toxin mostly inactive at human targets. Predation- and defence-evoked venoms originate from the distal and proximal regions of the venom duct, respectively, explaining how different stimuli can generate two distinct venoms. A specialized defensive envenomation strategy is widely evolved across worm, mollusk and fish-hunting cone snails. We propose that defensive toxins, originally evolved in ancestral worm-hunting cone snails to protect against cephalopod and fish predation, have been repurposed in predatory venoms to facilitate diversification to fish and mollusk diets. A.10 A Standardized Scoring System for Affinity Purification/Mass Spectrometry Data Xu Li1, Benjamin White2, Rudy Guerra2, Junjie Chen1 1The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Rice University, Houston, TX, USA Studies of protein-protein interactions using affinity purification coupled with mass-spectrometry (AP/MS) have provided immense insights into protein functions. Many AP/MS-based studies have been conducted and uncovered hundreds of thousands of PPIs. However, it remains challenging to utilize these data efficiently due to the appearance of non-specific associated proteins, and the relatively low data reproducibility across different studies. Here we present a Minkowski distance-based probabilistic scoring method for label-free AP/MS data, which assigns standardized probability scores to interactions in a data-driven manner. We provide a knowledge-driven mode using available AP/MS datasets as controls, and a knowledge-free mode using customized negative controls, to deal with different types and scales of datasets. Comparing with other algorithms, it works more efficiently in both recognizing true positives and eliminating false positives in AP/MS datasets we have tested. Using this method, we filtered TAP/MS data generated by our lab and other labs and achieved high interlaboratory data reproducibility. We hope this new computational tool will be able to direct in-depth functional study of proteins more efficiently, and be helpful for building up a unified human protein interactome. A.11 Large Scale Proteomic Characterisation of Sites of Proline Hydroxylation in Human Proteins Dalila Bensaddek, Sandra C. Moser, Brian Ortmann, Sonia Rocha, Jason R. Swedlow, Angus I. Lamond Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, Dundee, Scotland, GB Proline hydroxylation is an abundant post-translational modification in humans that is catalysed by prolyl 4- and prolyl 3-hydroxylases to yield 4-hydroxyproline and 3-hydroxyproline, respectively. There are three isoforms of prolyl-4 hydroxylases, designated Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain proteins PHDs (PHD1-3 or EGLN1-3). Hydroxylation of proline residues plays a critical role in sensing molecular oxygen levels. Under normal oxygen levels (normoxia) PHDs catalyse proline hydroxylation within the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODDD) of the hypoxia inducible factor one-α (HIF1-α). This promotes its binding to the von Hippel Lindau protein (pVHL), which acts as a targeting component for an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates rapid degradation of HIF1-α by the proteasome. In addition to HIF, using targeted mass spectrometric approaches we have recently identified Cep192 as a novel PHD1 substrate*1. A critical centrosome component, Cep192, was found to be hydroxylated on proline 1717 by PHD1 and targeted for proteasomal degradation by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF/Skp2. By modulating Cep192 levels, PHD affects the processes of centriole duplication and centrosome maturation and contributes to the regulation of cell-cycle progression. Similarly, we have identified centromere protein N CENP-N as a substrate for PHD2. Hydroxylation of a specific proline residue in CENP-N is required for mitotic progression (manuscript submitted). These recent findings suggest an important link between proline hydroxylation and cell cycle regulation. We have therefore undertaken a systematic analysis of human proteins that are hydroxylated on proline residues by PHD enzymes to identify new substrates and potentially reveal new roles for proline hydroxylation in biological regulatory mechanisms. To facilitate a large- scale quantitative proteomics study of PHD substrates, it was imperative to optimise the workflow for reliable detection of hydroxyproline by mass spectrometry. Proline hydroxylation results in a small mass increment (16Da) and results in a modified amino acid that is similar in mass to both leucine and isoleucine, which presents potential technical difficulties in detection that largely accounts for why sites of hydroxyproline modification have not been widely characterised. However, hydroxylation changes the chemical properties of modified peptides, making them more hydrophilic than their unmodified counterparts. This difference in chromatographic behavior makes proline-hydroxylated peptides amenable to enrichment. We have shown that we can use Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) to enrich hydroxylated proline- (HyPro) containing peptides to increase their detection in subsequent reverse-phase LC-MS analysis. Using this approach, we carried out a large-scale quantitative analysis of PHD1–3 substrates using high-resolution mass spectrometry. We have identified over 2,000 hydroxylated proline (HyPro)-containing peptides in proteins isolated from human U2OS cell lines, corresponding to ∼ 1,000 proteins. This includes previously identified PHD substrates, such PKM2 *2 and HCLK2 *3 along with many novel substrates. Initial analyses showed that HyPro sites identified extend beyond the LXXLAP motif that was originally identified for PHD enzymes (PHD1- 3) in the oxygen dependent degradation domain (ODDD) in HIF1- α. *4 References 1. Moser, S. C. et al. PHD1 links cell-cycle progression to oxygen sensing through hydroxylation of the centrosomal protein Cep192. Developmental cell 26, 381–392, doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.06.014 (2013). 2. Luo, W. et al. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Is a PHD3-Stimulated Coactivator for Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1. Cell 145, 732–744, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2011.03.054 (2011). 3. Xie, L. et al. PHD3-dependent hydroxylation of HCLK2 promotes the DNA damage response. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 122, 2827–2836, doi:10.1172/JCI62374 (2012). 4. Epstein, A. C. R. et al. C. elegans EGL-9 and Mammalian Homologs Define a Family of Dioxygenases that Regulate HIF by Prolyl Hydroxylation. Cell 107, 43–54, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00507–4 (2001). A.12 Using the Exactive Plus EMR Mass Spectrometer for Probing Protein-ligand and Protein-protein Interactions Jonathan B. Johnston1, Žygy Roe-Žurž2, Mike Trnka1, Shenheng Guan1, Paul R. Ortiz de Montellano1, David Agard2, Alma L. Burlingame1 Depts. 1Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 2Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA The Exactive Plus EMR orbitrap mass spectrometer was employed to investigate protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. This mass spectrometer excels in these areas of bio-analytical research due to its high sensitivity and high-resolution capabilities. Data will be presented on several applications of this analytical platform to address complex biological problems involving ligand binding and higher-order protein interactions. The systems examined include: glucocorticoid receptor, cytochrome P450s, and the nucleosome. A.13 Phoxtrack - an Unbiased Approach for Deciphering Proteins that are Causative for Post-translational Modifications Sascha Sauer, Christopher Weidner, Cornelius Fischer, Magdalena Kliem Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany Physiology is largely controlled by fine-regulation of post translation modification (PTM) signaling. Analyses of the entire sets of kinases and other enzymes inducing PTM signalling can provide a holistic view of cellular states and generate unbiased hypotheses for experimental testing. Quantitative mass spectrometry allows for comprehensive analysis of PTMs, including for example the detection of several ten thousand phosphosites. However, the current data analysis tools applied for the discovery of underlying regulatory enzymes suffer from large inefficiencies. To overcome this bottleneck, we introduce PHOXTRACK (PHOsphosite-X-TRacing Analysis of Causal Kinases), a strategy and user-friendly software tool for analysing large PTM data sets. In contrast to other tools, PHOXTRACK makes use of full sets of quantitative proteomics data and applies non-parametric statistics to determine whether defined kinase-specific sets of phosphosite sequences indicate statistically significant, concordant differences between various biological conditions. Thereby, PHOXTRACK can efficiently extract posttranslational information of comprehensive proteomics datasets to dissect key regulatory proteins and to infer molecular pathways. Various case-studies for benchmarking PHOXTRACK including construction of signaling pathways will be presented. PHOXTRACK will be maintained over the next years and is freely available as an online tool for noncommercial use at http://phoxtrack.molgen.mpg.de/. Users will also find a tutorial and can additionally give feedback at: https://groups.google.com/d/forum/phoxtrack-discuss. A.14 Top Down Venom Analysis with Byonic Software Marshall Bern1, Doron Kletter1, David Fenyo2, David Morgenstern2, Beatrix Ueberheide2, Nicholas Bern1, Wilfred Tang1, Yong J. Kil1, Christopher Becker1 1Protein Metrics, San Carlos, CA, USA; 2New York University, New York, NY, USA Venom from snails, spiders, snakes, and other organisms represent a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential as drug leads and research tools. Venom poses a number of special challenges for proteomics analysis: (1) crude venom may contain 100 or more individual toxins, some of quite low abundance; (2) protein databases are often incomplete or inaccurate; (3) toxins have masses up to ∼10 kDa so it may be difficult to obtain good fragmentation coverage; (4) toxins contain multiple disulfide bonds, and in the case of marine snails, numerous posttranslational modifications; (5) venoms contain multiple sequence variants with varying potency, efficacy, and selectivity, so it is important to achieve absolute accuracy in sequence assignment. One successful data acquisition method derivitizes cysteines to increase the charge state and then employs ETD fragmentation on the highly charged precursors. This method produces complex spectra that in turn pose challenges for data analysis. Here we show how we used Byonic software in the analysis of venom from a variety of organisms. Byonic includes a number of features not found in more standard proteomics search engines: advanced ETD scoring that takes into account many ETD-specific phenomena; modification fine control, which enables large modification searches; and wildcard search, which finds unanticipated modifications and sequence variants. We used Byonic to score and annotate database sequences and both automatically and manually generated de novo candidates. We found that successful sequencing of one venom component often led to the identification of many related toxins. We also found that Byonic is especially well-suited to analyzing molecules in the 3 to 10 kDa and z=4+ to z=14+ range, which strain the standard bottom-up search engines, but are not large enough to justify the simplified scoring and search strategies in top-down search engines. Using our strategy we were able to characterize end to end over 60 sequences directly from crude venom of auger snails, spiders and scorpions ranging in size from 2 to 8 kDa. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NIH grant R43 GM103362. A.15 Treatment-induced Apoptotic Peptides as Efficacy Biomarkers in Mouse Models Julia Seaman, James A. Wells University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is an essential cellular function and conserved process throughout metazoans. Many chemotherapeutics induce apoptosis in tumor cells, and successful treatments selectively induce apoptosis in disease tissue. However, it is still difficult to predict and track treatment efficacy in the clinic. Signals of the pathway are attractive efficacy biomarker targets as apoptotic biochemical changes occur almost immediately after drug exposure. There is a great need for treatment efficacy biomarkers for diseases like lung cancer and multiple myeloma where many patients show drug resistance. The major actors in apoptosis are proteases, especially caspases, that cleave thousands of proteins leading to the dismantling of the cell. The Wells lab has developed a positive enrichment labeling method to identify apoptotic proteolytic peptides and recent data reveals thousands of cleavage events. As mice are commonly used to study cancer and drug efficacy, I will generate a mouse dataset and analyze peptides based on evolution, kinetics and drug- and cell-type patterns to reveal important apoptotic subsets with biomarker potential. I will then use the detected peptides as a basis to create a biomarker panel for treatment efficacy in mouse models, specifically focused on multiple myeloma. This study intends to discover and validate murine apoptotic related peptides, to classify them, and to create an accurate biomarker panel to predict treatment response. A.16 Extracellular Matrix Quantification of Tissue Engineered Scaffolds: Analysis of Rat Lung using the QconCAT Method Ryan Hill1, Elizabeth A. Calle2, Laura E. Niklason2, Kirk C. Hansen1 1University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) is a complex milieu of macromolecules whose structure and function plays an integral role in tissue and organ morphogenesis. Changes in ECM composition and architecture have been shown to mediate cell proliferation, differentiation, and growth, serving as a critical component of organ scaffolds for tissue engineering efforts. Efficient Re-seeding of decellularized scaffolds has been shown to be dependent on retaining native ECM structural integrity and elasticity. A critical goal of the decellularization procedure is to preserve the microarchitecture of the organ and retain tissue-specific molecular cues that guide successful recellularization. Local variations in expression of abundant proteins in the ECM scaffolding (Collagens, Laminins, Fibronectin) have been correlated to variance in cell repopulation and subsequent proliferation. It is thought that retaining ECM morphology allows cells to be directed back to a tissue specific niche during reseeding, and that small changes in abundance of these molecular cues can drastically effect the recellularization process. However, current methods used to characterize the protein composition of native and acellular tissues fail to accurately quantify ECM proteins. Thus, we developed a more complete and accurate method for protein characterization by (1) increasing proteome coverage by analyzing both the chaotrope soluble and insoluble fractions and (2) accurately quantifying protein levels using the QconCAT method. Using this method, we have absolutely quantified 210 peptides representing 102 ECM-targeted and cellular proteins. Initial results indicate that up to 70% of fibrillar protein, the main structural component of a decellularized scaffold, is being discarded using commonly accepted proteomic methods. In addition, varied decellularization procedures result in distinct profiles of ECM proteins in the lung. Our approach allows for more accurate quantification of protein levels in lung tissues used for organ engineering experiments. The accurate characterization of ECM proteins from lung samples should help advance tissue engineering efforts by yielding a readout that can be correlated with functional outcome to drive further development. A.17 Proteomic Analysis of the Role of the Translation Initiation Factor eIF4E in C. Elegans Juan Oses-Prieto1, Maria Quimis Ponce2, Qin Dong2, A. L. Burlingame1, Robert E. Rhoads2 1University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport, LA, USA Translation initiation is a multistep process in which a series of initiation factor polypeptides bind sequentially to the mRNA to build up complexes of increasing size. For most eukaryotic mRNAs, initiation is dependent on the 7-methylguanosine (m7G)-containing 5′-terminal cap structure. The cap inserts into a narrow pocket in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). When eIF4E is active in translation, eIF4G is bound to the opposite (“dorsal”) side of eIF4E, and eIF4G is bound, in turn, to the RNA helicase eIF4A, the translational poly(A)-binding protein, eIF3, and other initiation factors. When eIF4E is inactive in translation, the eIF4G-binding site is blocked by other eIF4E-binding proteins. Different eIF4E-binding proteins have been shown to regulate activity of this initiation factor in various biological systems. Five eIF4E-family members, termed IFE-1 to IFE-5, are expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans, but the physiological rationale for multiple family members is unclear. Disruption of the ife-1 gene shows that IFE-1 is required for spermatogenesis in both hermaphrodites and males, causing spermatocytes to fail in cytokinesis and producing a moderate defect in oocyte development as well. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism for this, we used affinity chromatography on m7GTP-Sepharose to purify proteins that co-purify with eIF4E and compared them between wild-type and ife-1 knockout strains, reasoning that proteins uniquely present in IFE-1-containing complexes would be depleted in the mutants. Proteins from wild-type and mutant strains were compared quantitatively with iTRAQ technology coupled to mass spectrometry. We identifed 7500 peptides coming from 900 proteins, with a false discovery rate of 0.3%. Of these, 439 proteins were quantified using at least 3 peptides. The iTRAQ data indicated that IFE-1 levels were reduced at least 8-fold in mutant extracts, but western blotting showed that IFE-1 was undetectable. The underestimation by iTRAQ is due to the well characterized compression of the quantitative ratio. All other IFE family members were unchanged between wild-type and mutant. Three proteins were depleted to the same degree as IFE-1 in mutant extracts: P granule abnormality protein 1 (PGL-1), P granule abnormality protein 2 (PGL-2), and Cid homolog 1 (CID-1), a terminal uridylate transferase (TUTase). An additional 150 proteins were changed to a lesser degree. TUTases add U residues to a variety of RNA species to initiate their degradation, the best characterized being histone mRNAs and miRNAs. Thus, CID-1 may alter the levels of mRNAs or miRNAs to either promote the germline program or suppress the somatic program during gametogenesis. For all proteins showing significant changes between the cap-binding complexes from mutant and wild-type worms, we also measured their levels in total cell extracts to determine whether these changes were due to differences in total cellular levels. For instance, IFE-1 could conceivably be involved in synthesis of some of these proteins. Since antibodies suitable for western blotting were not available for CID-1 and most of the other proteins, we used MS-based label-free quantitation by Single Reaction Monitoring (SRM) to quantify their relative levels. CID levels were not different in total protein extracts. This work was supported by NIH grants NIH NIGMS 8P41GM103481, 1S10RR026662 and R01 GM020818.