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1

New data on composition, properties and structure of deep rocks from the Kola Superdeep Borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kola Superdeep Borehole (KSDB) near Zapolyarny in Russia is the deepest borehole in the world (12,261 m), and the collection of core material recovered from the borehole (of total length 4,700 m) is unique in its completeness. By using state-of-the-art analytical techniques, the geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and physical properties of Archean (2.9-2.5 Ga) and early Proterozoic (2.4-2.0 Ga) rocks at great depth and their equivalents occurring at and near the surface were studied in frame of the UNESCO project IGCP-408 "Rocks and Minerals at Great Depth and on the Surface". The most intense Proterozoic processes in the basement were underplating of mafic-ultramafic matter, transformation in the Archean, synmetamorphic migmatization, retrograde metamorphism and the emplacement of postkinematic granites. Most Proterozoic processes were recognized to have been related to mantle sources. Seismic anisotropy and shear wave splitting appear to be important characteristics of the rocks representing the Archean basement. Velocity anisotropy and shear wave splitting observed at high confining pressure are predominantly caused by lattice preferred orientation. Taking into account the geologic-tectonic structure a geo-mechanical model has been developed to describe the anisotropic stress-deformed state of the upper and middle crust at the KSDB site area. Structural investigations of geological bodies of different ranks around the KSDB showed that anisotropy of the earth crust structure is of plural nature and reflects mainly magmatic, stratigraphic, tectonic, and metamorphic processes. Continuous monitoring of borehole water level fluctuations in the KSDB and in two more shallow boreholes in its vicinity allows to constrain the hydraulic transmissivity and the degree of bulk aquifer confinement in the crystalline rocks. Possible use of the Proterozoic and Archean rocks for isolation of radioactive wastes would require further extensive research.

Mitrofanov, F. P.; Guberman, D. M.; Kuempel, H.-J.; Gillen, C.; Gorbatsevich, F. F.; Team Of Igcp-408

2003-04-01

2

Archean rock homologs in the Kola superdeep borehole section in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt, Voche-Lambina test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean Complex homologs of the Kola superdeep borehole (SG-3) were identified in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt. Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses of the Voche-Lambina test site and metavolcanic dacite-rhyodacite rocks of the borehole SG-3 were formed at the stages of 2.97-2.82, ˜2.81, and 2.78-2.79 Ga. The Sm-Nd model ages of the studied rocks do not exceed 3.1 Ga, and their positive ?Nd(t) values vary from +0.5 to +3.34. They are characterized by Mg# = 0.20-0.44, similar concentrations (HFSE) of Zr, Nb, Y, and also Rb, Cr, and Ni, and sharply differentiated spectra of the REE distribution (Ce/Sm = 3.2-5.8; Gd/Yb = 2.6-7.1). Primary melts were formed in balance with garnetamphibole restite under P ? 15-16 kbar.

Morozova, L. N.; Mitrofanov, F. P.; Bayanova, T. B.; Vetrin, V. R.; Serov, P. A.

2012-01-01

3

Paleoclimate from Inversion of Subsurface Temperatures, Kola Peninsula (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using an extensive data set of temperature logs and thermal properties from 20 shallow boreholes (up to 1.6 km) in the immediate vicinity of the Kola super-deep borehole, we present results from inversions for ground surface temperature histories. We apply a versatile 1-D inversion technique based on a finite-difference approach in order to take into account the heterogeneity of thermal properties and their nonlinear dependence on temperature. Regularization of this generally ill-posed problem is achieved by Tikhonov regularization of variable order. The scheme is easily generalized for use with multiple boreholes. We implemented in our inversion code an enthalpy scheme dealing with latent heat effects due to freezing and thawing. However, because of the very low porosity (less than 1 %) of the crystalline bedrock in the Kola region, our calculations show that the influence of permafrost can be neglected here. We could determine GST histories back to 50 ky BP. The temperature change from the last glaciation period to the Holocene is smaller (4-5 K) than in lower latitudes, suggesting the existence of an insulating ice cover. The good database with respect to thermal conductivity (over 3400 measurements) makes it possible to extend the 1-D inversions to three dimensions by setting up a detailed 3-D model of the Kola region. This will enable us take into account effects of lateral heterogeneity and groundwater flow.

Rath, V.; Mottaghy, D.

2004-05-01

4

Fault mechanisms of induced seismicity at the superdeep German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) borehole and their relation to fault structure and stress field  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred twenty-five fault plane solutions for microearthquakes induced during a long-term fluid injection experiment at the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) boreholes (Germany) in 2000 are investigated. A predominant strike-slip mechanism is observed, partly with components of normal but also with reverse faulting. Adding 54 fault plane solutions of an earlier injection experiment at the KTB, we determine

Marco Bohnhoff; Stefan Baisch; Hans-Peter Harjes

2004-01-01

5

Vertical Variations In Heat Flow Inferred From Experiments In Deep Boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep scientific and parametric continental boreholes allow to obtain representative experimental data on combination of the geothermal parameters of the crust - temperature, temperature gradient, rock thermal properties, and, as the result, heat flow density values - which are more reliable compared to the previous data from shallow boreholes. Special advantages of the scientific boreholes include also a possibility for many repeated temperature logging during long time intervals (several years often) after a finish of the drilling that allowed (1) to determine temperatures and temperature gradient values corresponding to thermal equilibrium of the formations studied, (2) to study temporal regularities in temperature and temperature gradient behaviour within different formation layers during the formation recovery process. Scientific boreholes are drilled with numerous coring (often - with continuous coring) that provides the possibility to obtain detailed information on a distribution of rock thermal conductivity along the borehole. As a result, the scientific deep and super-deep boreholes provided the unique possibility for the determination of vertical distributions of the heat flow density that can not be reached normally in other boreholes. Experimental geothermal and petrothermal investigations performed for the super-deep boreholes Kola, Ural, Vorotilovo, Tyumen, Yen-Yakha (all - Russia), Saatly (Azerbaidzhan), and deep scientific and parametric boreholes Kolva, Timano-Pechora, Tyrnyaus, (all - Russia), Krivoy Rog (Ukraine), Muruntau (Uzbekistan), Nordlingen-72 (Germany), Yaxcopoil-1 (Mexico) allowed us to establish the following important peculiarities in geothermal parameters of the crustal blocks studied with scientific deep drilling were established from the investigations: (1) temperature gradient recovery up to undisturbed values occurs essentially faster than it was assumed earlier; (2) a rate of temperature gradient recovery was found to be different for different formation layers; (3) significant variations in rock thermal properties vary significantly along boreholes within several thousands, hundreds and dozens meters as well as along short depth intervals of 0.5-1 m; (4) conductive component of the heat flow density varies up to 70-100% along boreholes often, regular increase in heat flow density within depth intervals of several kilometers is combined with essential local variations, (5) values of a conductive component of the heat flow density established from the measurements in deep and super-deep boreholes exceeds significantly (by 30-100%) and systematically the previous experimental estimates done earlier for shallow boreholes. The mentioned regularities in behaviour of the geothermic parameters were confirmed from new experimental data for the scientific and parametric boreholes Severo-Molokovo, Vysokovo, Yarudeyskaya (Russia), Eyreville (USA) and from the revision of previous experimental geothermic data for the Moscow syneclise (the East European platform) and Ural region. The new results obtained from studying vertical variations in the heat flow density demonstrate a regular essential (30-60%) increase in the conductive component of the heat flow density with a depth within upper depth intervals up to 2000-3000 m. The results show that the determination of heat flow values from averaging the geothermal parameters within long depth intervals can lead to essential underestimation of the crustal heat flow values.

Popov, Y.; Romushkevich, R.; Gorobtsov, D.; Korobkov, D.

2012-04-01

6

Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of the German KTB superdeep well in the 4100-7100 m depth range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KTB German Superdeep Well (Germany, Windischeschenbach) has limiting depth of 9101 m. It is one of the world deepest well among the continental boreholes. A study of physical parameters including elastic ones of the massif intersected by the well allowed to represent a real pattern of changing properties and the state of crystalline rocks in upper and middle part of the Earth crust. Such a deep section enables performing analyses of large spectrum of geological and geophysical objects, such as minerals, crystalline rocks, geological strata, formation complexes et al. Recently obtained results permit to get a general idea of elastic-anisotropic properties of crystalline rocks extracted from great depths. A study of properties and state of rocks along the KTB section will make it possible to most precisely determine regular changes of the Earth's rock properties within a large range of depths. Below are the results of investigation of elastic-anisotropic properties for 13 core samples of the KTB rocks in the range of 4.1 to 7.1 km. In this interval the well has penetrated metamorphosed rocks [1]. The measurements have been done by an acoustopolarization method with recent improvements and with devices for determination of sample elastic properties [2 3]. The data obtained are the result of extended study into the KTB rock samples by the method [4]. Study of rock samples from the KTB Superdeep Well in the 4100-7100 m depth range showed that they all are elastic anisotropic and pertain to a orthorhombic symmetry type. Virtually the degree of linear acoustic anisotropic absorption (LAAA) effect has been detected in all samples. Its appearance is likely related to directional orientation of mineral grains as well as to the generation of microcracks during drilling and lithostatic stress release. The several samples showed an angular unconformity between the LAAA orientation and elastic symmetry elements. The shear waves depolarization (DSW) effect was detected in garnet amphibolites samples. There was observed a tendency to persistence in propagation rate of compression and shear wave velocities. The pattern of change in anisotropy factors for compression and shear waves in depth shows itself in a similar way. There is an inverse correlation between density and anisotropy. R E F E R E N C E S 1. Emmermann R., Althaus E., Giese P., Stockhert B.. KTB Hauptbohrung. Results of Geoscientific Investigation in the KTB Field Laboratory. Final Report: 0-9101m. KTB Report 95-2. Hannover. 1995. 2. Gorbatsevich F.F. Acoustopolariscopy of rock forming minerals and crystalline rocks. Apatity, Kola Science Centre RAS, 2002, p. 140. (In Russian) 3. Kovalevskiy M.V. Automated hardware-software complex Acoustpol: Tutorial: Apatity, «K & M» Publ., 2009. 54p. (In Russian). 4. Kovalevsky M.V., Gorbatsevich F.F., Harms U., Dahlheim H.-A. Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of German KTB Superdeep Well // Geophysical magazine.- Geophysics Institute of NAS of Ukraine. -2012.- Issue 34.-#2.-P. 36-48. (In Russian)

Kovalevskiy, Mikhail

2013-04-01

7

Kimberlitic sources of super-deep diamonds in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Juina diamond field, in the 1970-80s, was producing up to 5-6 million carats per year from rich placer deposits, but no economic primary deposits had been found in the area. In 2006-2007, Diagem Inc. discovered a group of diamondiferous kimberlitic pipes within the Chapadão Plateau (Chapadão, or Pandrea cluster), at the head of a drainage system which has produced most of the alluvial diamonds mined in the Juina area. Diamonds from placer deposits and newly discovered kimberlites are identical; they have super-deep origins from the upper-mantle and transition zone. Field observations and petrographic studies have identified crater-facies kimberlitic material at seven separate localities. Kimberlitic material is represented by tuffs, tuffisites and various epiclastic sediments containing chrome spinel, picroilmenite, manganoan ilmenite, zircon and diamond. The diamond grade varies from 0.2-1.8 ct/m 3. Chrome spinel has 30-61 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Picroilmenite contains 6-14 wt.% MgO and 0.2-4 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Manganoan ilmenite has less than 3 wt.% MgO and 0.38-1.41 wt.% MnO. The 176Hf/ 177Hf ratio in kimberlitic zircons is 0.028288-0.28295 with ?Hf = 5.9-8.3, and lies on the average kimberlite trend between depleted mantle and CHUR. The previously known barren and weakly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Juina area have ages of 79-80 Ma. In contrast, zircons from the newly discovered Chapadão kimberlites have a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 93.6 ± 0.4 Ma, corresponding to a time of magmatic activity related to the opening of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The most likely mechanism of the origin of kimberlitic magma is super-deep subduction process that initiated partial melting of zones in lower mantle with subsequent ascent of proto-kimberlitic magma.

Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Belousova, Elena A.; Andreazza, Paulo; Tremblay, Mousseau; Griffin, William L.

2010-01-01

8

Microbiology of the Gut of the Kola Nut Weevil, Balanogastris kolae  

PubMed Central

Reports have shown that many insects have microbes in their gut system. Gut microbes are very important for insect vitality and much of their nutrition is derived from products of microbial metabolism. The habitat of Balanogastris kolae (Desbrocher des Loges) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggests that they possess the ability to digest varieties of sugars particularly starch and protein materials present in the kola nut, Cola nitida Schott & Endlicher (Malvales: Malvaceae). The aim of this study was to characterize the gut bacterial communities of the kola weevil, B. kolae. To ascertain this, the gut bacterial community of a kola nut-feeding weevil, B. kolae was characterized using culture-dependent methods. The bacterial counts in the foregut, midgut and hindgut were 7.14 ± 0.11 × 106cfu ml-1, 2.68 ± 0.13 × 107 cfu ml-1 and 1.43 ± 0.20 × 106 cfu ml-1 respectively. There were no significant differences in the total bacterial count of the foregut, midgut and hindgut. The bacterial species were identified to be Fusobacterium nucleatum, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium fascians, Arthrobacter globiformis, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus brevis, Vibrio haemolyticus and Flavobacterium breve. The majority of these isolates were demonstrated to have both proteolytic and amylolytic activities. PMID:23421598

Femi-Ola, T. O.; Babalola, A. G.

2012-01-01

9

Superdeep vertical seismic profiling at the KTB deep drill hole (Germany): Seismic close-up view of a major thrust zone down to 8.5 km depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lowermost section of the continental superdeep drill hole German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) (south Germany) has been investigated for the first time by vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The new VSP samples the still accessible range of 6-8.5 km depth. Between 7 and 8.5 km depth, the drill hole intersects a major cataclastic fault zone which can be traced back to the Earth's surface where it forms a lineament of regional importance, the Franconian line. To determine the seismic properties of the crust in situ, in particular within and around this deep fault zone, was one of the major goals of the VSP. For the measurements a newly developed high-pressure/high-temperature borehole geophone was used that was capable of withstanding temperatures and pressures up to 260°C and 140 MPa, respectively. The velocity-depth profiles and reflection images resulting from the VSP are of high spatial resolution due to a small geophone spacing of 12.5 m and a broad seismic signal spectrum. Compared to the upper part of the borehole, we found more than 10% decrease of the P wave velocity in the deep, fractured metamorphic rock formations. P wave velocity is ˜5.5 km/s at 8.5 km depth compared to 6.0-6.5 km/s at more shallow levels above 7 km. In addition, seismic anisotropy was observed to increase significantly within the deep fracture zone showing more than 10% shear wave splitting and azimuthal variation of S wave polarization. In order to quantify the effect of fractures on the seismic velocity in situ we compared lithologically identical rock units at shallow and large depths: Combining seismic velocity and structural logs, we could determine the elastic tensors for three gneiss sections. The analysis of these tensors showed that we need fracture porosity in the percent range in order to explain seismic velocity and anisotropy observed within the fault zone. The opening of significant pore space around 8 km depth can only be maintained by differential tectonic stress combined with intense macroscopic fracturing. VSP reflection imaging based on PP and PS converted reflected waves showed that the major fault system at the KTB site is wider and more complex than previously known. The so-called SE1 reflection previously found in two- and three-dimensional surface seismic surveys corresponds to the top of an ˜1 km wide fault system. Its lower portion was not illuminated by surface seismic acquisition geometry. VSP imaging shows that the fault zone comprises two major and a number of smaller SE dipping fault planes and several conjugate fracture planes. The previously recognized upper fault plane is not associated with a strong velocity anomaly but indicates the depth below which the dramatic velocity decrease starts. Regarding the complexly faulted crustal section of the KTB site as a whole, we found that fluctuation spectra of rock composition and seismic velocity show similar patterns. We could verify that a significant amount of P wave energy is continuously converted into shear energy by forward scattering and that multipathing plays an important role in signal formation. The media behaves effectively smoothly only at wavelength larger than 150 m. It was shown by moving source profiling that the media is orthorhombic on a regional scale. The tilt of the symmetry axes of anisotropy varies with depth following the dip of the geological structure.

Rabbel, W.; Beilecke, T.; Bohlen, T.; Fischer, D.; Frank, A.; Hasenclever, J.; Borm, G.; Kück, J.; Bram, K.; Druivenga, G.; Lüschen, E.; Gebrande, H.; Pujol, J.; Smithson, S.

2004-09-01

10

Experimental technique and new temperature and heat flow measurements in the deep boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the outstanding problems for the modern prospect geophysics is the following, whether permeable zones and commercial petroleum concentrations exist in deep crystalline basement. Temperature measurements allow us to more accurately determine the permeable layers and reservoirs in the basement. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes include a set of deep instruments, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. We made temperature measurements by the specially developed measurement technique that gives high accuracy and validity. The temperatures were measured downwards into the borehole, precluding additional fluid mixing in the hole. The thermometer lowering rate was minimised with 200 meter per hour. Measurements were made in deep and superdeep boreholes having steady-state temperature regime. Temperature was measured up to a depth of 5800 m with a sampling interval of 10 cm to 5 m. Measurements were made in the open hole and in the drill string. Temperature measurements give evidence for the existence of anomalous zones potentially corresponding to permeable layers. Unconsolidated zones occur at great depths in the granite-gneiss layer and their thickness and magnitude increase with increasing depth. The studies indicate that fluid injection anomalies, gas anomalies, sheet flow and overflow zones can be detected by temperature measurements. The drilling in the hole revealed heavily shattered rocks (fault breccia) at these depths. New temperature measurements in the deep boreholes that stood idle for 3 to 9 years after the drilling suggest permanent migration of gas from greater depths.

Khristoforova, M.

2003-04-01

11

Borehole compensated KUT log  

SciTech Connect

A method of logging earth formations to ascertain relative elemental abundances of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (T) is disclosed. A natural gamma ray spectrum of an unknown borehole is compared with individual standard gamma ray spectra of potassium, uranium and thorium in at least four energy ranges or bands. Decay peaks of the three elements are encompassed by three of the energy bands and at least one other energy band is used to monitor the changes in shape of the unknown spectrum caused by borehole conditions differing from that of the standard or calibration boreholes. A function derived from the gamma ray count rates in the four bands is used to compensate the elemental abundances of the three elements to be detected in the unknown spectrum for the effects of differing borehole conditions in the unknown borehole from the standard borehole conditions.

Arnold, D.M.; Schultz, W.E.; Smith, H.D. Jr.

1984-03-13

12

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

13

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

14

Threat to Norway from potential accidents at the Kola nuclear power plant. Climatological trajectory analysis and episode studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the experiences after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, Norwegian Authorities regard the effects from accidental releases at nuclear installations in neighboring countries to be among the greatest environmental threats in the coming years. One of these nuclear installations is the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (Kola NPP). The unsatisfactory safety at the Kola NPP has been of major concern and

Jørgen Saltbones; Anstein Foss; Jerzy Bartnicki

2000-01-01

15

This is the Kunijok Valley in the north of Khibiny Low Mountains (central Kola  

E-print Network

This is the Kunijok Valley in the north of Khibiny Low Mountains (central Kola Peninsula in Arctic pines (Pinus sylvestris) from the Khibiny Mountains on the Kola Peninsula, situated between the Arctic, pine and birch. The samples came from three locations in the Khibiny Mountains close to recent

16

Borehole Resistivity Inversion  

E-print Network

In this paper we perform the inversion of borehole resistivity data using the software package developed by Western Atlas Logging Services, Houston, TX. Direct current resistivity methods, namely lateral sounding and ...

Garipova, Yulia V.

1997-01-01

17

Borehole induction coil transmitter  

DOEpatents

A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

Holladay, Gale (Livermore, CA); Wilt, Michael J. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01

18

Borehole seismic unit  

SciTech Connect

Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. Reported herein is a description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task.

Seavey, R.W.

1982-05-01

19

Airborne contamination by heavy metals and aluminum in the freshwater ecosystems of the Kola Subarctic region (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne contamination by heavy metals and aluminum in freshwater ecosystems of the Kola Peninsula in subarctic Russia has resulted from smoke emissions from large plants such as the Severonikel and Pechenganikel smelters and the Kandalaksha aluminum plant. Negative effects are intensified by acidic precipitation. Nickel is a primary technogenic effluent in surface waters of the Kola North. The area of

T. I. Moiseenko; L. P. Kudryavtseva; I. V. Rodyushkin; V. A. Dauvalter; A. A. Lukin; N. A. Kashulin

1995-01-01

20

Ice-Borehole Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-data-transmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At thime of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes

Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

2006-01-01

21

30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tamped to fill the entire cross sectional area of the borehole. (c) Stemming material shall contact the explosive cartridge nearest the collar of the borehole. (d) Each borehole 4 or more feet deep shall be stemmed for at...

2010-07-01

22

Side hole drilling in boreholes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

23

A Feasibility Study to Develop Local and Regional Use of Wind Energy on the Kola Peninsula, Murmansk Region, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Summary The possibilities for wind energy production on the Kola peninsula in north-western Russia were studied in an extensive feasibility study. The Kola peninsula constitutes the Murmansk oblast, i.e. a region with some autonomous features, within the Russian federation. The wind resources in the region are very good, with annual mean speeds up to 10 m\\/s on the coast

Gerhard J. Gerdes; Jonas Wolff

24

Comparative study on the efficacy of Garcinia kola in reducing some heavy metal accumulation in liver of Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garcinia kola is regarded as an antidote and anti-hepatotoxic agent. We examined its protection ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. The ground seed was mixed with rat feed (5%, w\\/w) and fed to rats while Hg (10ppm), Cd (200ppm) and Pb (100ppm) was given in drinking water. Garcinia kola was administered either at

C. R. Nwokocha; D. U. Owu; C. S. Ufearo; M. O. E. Iwuala

2011-01-01

25

Good News for Borehole Climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the investigation of observed borehole temperatures has proved to be a valuable tool for the reconstruction of ground surface temperature histories, there are many open questions concerning the significance and accuracy of the reconstructions from these data. In particular, the temperature signal of the warming after the Last glacial Maximum (LGM) is still present in borehole temperature profiles. It influences the relatively shallow boreholes used in current paleoclimate inversions to estimate temperature changes in the last centuries. This is shown using Monte Carlo experiments on past surface temperature change, using plausible distributions for the most important parameters, i.e.,amplitude and timing of the glacial-interglacial transition, the prior average temperature, and petrophysical properties. It has been argued that the signature of the last glacial-interglacial transition could be responsible for the high amplitudes of millennial temperature reconstructions. However, in shallow boreholes the additional effect of past climate can reasonably approximated by a linear variation of temperature with depth, and thus be accommodated by a "biased" background heat flow. This is good news for borehole climate, but implies that the geological heat flow values have to be interpreted accordingly. Borehole climate reconstructions from these shallow are most probably underestimating past variability due to the diffusive character of the heat conduction process, and the smoothness constraints necessary for obtaining stable solutions of this ill-posed inverse problem. A simple correction based on subtracting an appropriate prior surface temperature history shows promising results reducing these errors considerably, also with deeper boreholes, where the heat flow signal can not be approximated linearly, and improves the comparisons with AOGCM modeling results.

Rath, Volker; Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco, J.; Goosse, Hugues

2010-05-01

26

Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines. Some factors were observed enabling or disabling first (tropospheric) arrivals of such signals depending on weather conditions. Systematic backazimuth deviations for stratospheric arrivals have been observed caused by strong stratospheric winds. In 2009 mobile infrasound arrays were developed in KRSC. Each array comprises 3 low-frequency microphones, GPS, digitizer and PC with data acquisition system. Aperture of such arrays is about 250 m, deployment time is less than 1 hour. These arrays are used in experimental work with Roskosmos space agency to search space debris reentering places. In 2012 a wireless version of such mobile array was created. Each acquisition point comprises a microphone, GPS and ADC chips, microcontroller and radio modem to send data to a central unit. This enabled us to increase aperture (up to 500 m) and decrease deployment time.

Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

2013-04-01

27

Vertical variation in heat flow on the Kola Peninsula: palaeoclimate or fluid flow?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following earlier studies, we present forward and inverse simulations of heat and fluid transport of the upper crust using a local 3-D model of the Kola area. We provide best estimates for palaeotemperatures and permeabilities, their errors and their dependencies. Our results allow discriminating between the two mentioned processes to a certain extent, partly resolving the non-uniqueness of the problem. We find clear indications for a significant contribution of advective heat transport, which, in turn, imply only slightly lower ground surface temperatures during the last glacial maximum relative to the present value. These findings are consistent with the general background knowledge of (i) the fracture zones and the corresponding fluid movements in the bedrock and (ii) the glacial history of the Kola area.

Vogt, C.; Mottaghy, D.; Rath, V.; Marquart, G.; Dijkshoorn, L.; Wolf, A.; Clauser, C.

2014-11-01

28

Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic

E. A. Kasatkina; O. I. Shumilov; M. Timonen; K. Mielikainen; S. Helama; A. G. Kanatjev; I. Yu. Kirtsideli

2010-01-01

29

Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles  

SciTech Connect

This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

Robert Marvinney

2013-11-06

30

30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cartridge in each borehole shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge...loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall be the first cartridge...back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives...

2012-07-01

31

30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cartridge in each borehole shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge...loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall be the first cartridge...back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives...

2011-07-01

32

30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of the borehole; and (2) The explosive...the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator is inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and...

2010-07-01

33

Threat to Norway from potential accidents at the Kola nuclear power plant. Climatological trajectory analysis and episode studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the experiences after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, Norwegian Authorities regard the effects from accidental releases at nuclear installations in neighboring countries to be among the greatest environmental threats in the coming years. One of these nuclear installations is the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (Kola NPP). The unsatisfactory safety at the Kola NPP has been of major concern and a `Norwegian Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety' has been worked out ( Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1995. Plan of action for follow-up activities to Report no. 34 to Norwegian parliament (1993-1994)). As a response to this plan, DNMI has been involved in a project called: `Consequence Analysis of Potential Accidents at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant'. DNMI's part of the project consisted of analyzing the atmospheric transport and deposition pattern resulting from potential accidents at the Kola NPP. Results based on two different methodologies are presented in this paper. (1) Trajectory analysis as a tool for describing the air pollution transport pattern and screening of a large set of meteorological data for the selection of weather situations suitable for episode studies. (2) Episode studies using DNMI's dispersion model `Severe Nuclear Accident Program' (SNAP) for the selected episodes.

Saltbones, Jørgen; Foss, Anstein; Bartnicki, Jerzy

34

The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

2000-01-01

35

Update of Horizontal Borehole Study  

E-print Network

-tube Pulled #12;Grout or Drilling Mud Borehole Wall Heat Exchanger Pipes ¾ inch TfTf Cross Section of Ground, Inc. #12;Beacon in Drilling Pipe Charles Machine Works, Inc. #12;Location of Beacon Charles Machine,wall Ts,i Rb Rs L/q T-T =R bf b L/q T-T =R i,sb s Thermal Resistances Tf Tb,wall #12;Heat Rate Tc Th Flow

36

Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

Traeger, R.K.

1984-05-01

37

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

38

A Pb isotope investigation of the Lovozero Agpaitic Nepheline Syenite, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time Pb isotope composition was established in Lovozero rocks and raremetal ores, which is important for identifying their sources. The world's largest layered intrusion of agpaitic nepheline syenite-the Lovozero alkaline massif—is located near the center of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. This superlarge complex plutonic body hosts the economically important loparite and eudiallyte deposits [1]. These deposits contain immense resources of REE, Nb, Ta, Zr, and constitute a world class mineral district. The Lovozero massif belongs to the Kola ultramafic alkaline and carbonatitic province (KACP) of Devonian age. Previous bulk rock studies have shown that the initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios of Lovozero rocks plot in the depleted mantle quadrant of Sr-Nd diagrams [2]. More recently, Hf isotope data obtained by Kogarko et al. (3) confirm that the Lovozero and Khibina massifs with ?Hf between 6 and 8 are derived predominantly from a depleted mantle source. It was shown that Sr, Nd, and Hf abundances are significantly elevated in the Kola alkaline rocks, and thus their isotopic compositions are relatively insensitive to minor contamination by the overlying crustal rocks. By contrast, Pb in the KACP rocks is a much more sensitive indicator of a crustal component. In this paper we investigate the lead isotopic signature of all resentative types of Lovozero rocks (Table 1) in order to further characterize their mantle sources. The Lovozero massif consists of four intrusive phases. Rocks of phase I (mostly nepheline syenites) comprise about 5% of the total volume, phase II (urtites, foyaite, lujavrites) forms the main portion of the massif comprising 77% in volume, and phase III (eudialyte lujavrites) contributes about 18%. Country rocks are represented by Devonian effusive rocks and Archean gneisses.

Zartman, R. E.; Kogarko, L. N.

2014-01-01

39

Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

2014-11-01

40

[Seasonal dynamics of the trematodes fauna in herring gull (Larus argentatus Pontopp.) of Kola Bay].  

PubMed

Trematode fauna of the herring gulls from Kola Bay (Barents Sea) was investigated in March, May, June, and September 2005. The data on the trematode species composition and indices of the invasion of gulls with trematodes are given for each season. It was established, that trematode species composition is increased from spring to summer, and intensity of the gulls' invasion with some trematode species is increased from summer to autumn. Ecological factors causing seasonal differences of the trematode fauna in gulls are discussed. PMID:21061591

Kuklin, V V; Kuklina, M M; Kisova, N E

2010-01-01

41

Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes.  

PubMed

Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method. PMID:24107011

Harte, Philip T

2013-01-01

42

In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

43

Holocene climatic and environmental changes inferred from midge records (Diptera: Chironomidae, Chaoboridae, Ceratopogonidae) at Lake Berkut, southern Kola Peninsula, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence from Lake Berkut in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia, was investigated by means of midge analysis in order to reconstruct the Holocene climatic and environmental history of the region. Past mean July air temperatures at the study site and hypolimnetic oxygen contents of the lake water were inferred from chironomid-based transfer functions.

Elena A. Ilyashuk; Boris P. Ilyashuk; Dan Hammarlund; Isabelle Larocque

2005-01-01

44

Long-term consequences for Northern Norway of a hypothetical release from the Kola nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal variation in radiocaesium and 90Sr doses to two population groups of the two Northernmost counties of Norway, Troms and Finnmark, following a hypothetical accident at the Kola nuclear power plant (KNPP) have been estimated using a model implemented within a geographical information system. The hypothetical accident assumes a severe loss of coolant accident at the KNPP

B. J Howard; S. M Wright; B Salbu; K. L Skuterud; K Hove; R Loe

2004-01-01

45

Comparative Analyses of the Moisture Isotherms, Proximate Compositions, Physical and Functional Properties of Dried Cola nitida and Garcinia kola Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried fruit kernels of Cola nitida and Garcinia kola were analysed and compared for proximate composition, physical, functional, and moisture isotherm characteristics. Their main differences were in appearance, fat and protein contents, carbohydrate composition as reflected in least gelation concentrations, water absorption capacity, monolayer moisture content, critical equilibrium moisture contents and the corresponding water activities for maintaining shelf-stability during storage.

Sunday S. Arogba

2000-01-01

46

Shear wave transducer for boreholes  

DOEpatents

A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

Mao, N.H.

1984-08-23

47

Trends in new particle formation in Eastern Lapland, Finland: effect of decreasing sulphur emissions from Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is the largest source of anthropogenic SO2 in the Arctic part of Eurasia and one of the largest within the Arctic domain. Due to socio-economic changes in Russia the emissions have been decreasing especially since the late 1990s resulting in decreased SO2 concentrations close to Kola in Eastern Lapland, Finland. At the same time, the frequency of new particle formation days has been decreasing distinctively at SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, especially during spring and autumn. We show that sulphur species, namely sulphur dioxide and sulphuric acid, have an important role in both new particle formation and subsequent growth and that the decrease in new particle formation days is a result of the reduction of sulphur emissions originating from Kola Peninsula. In addition to sulphur species, there are many other quantities, such as formation rate or aerosol particles, condensation sink and nucleation mode particle number concentration, which are related to the number of observed new particle formation (NPF) days and need to be addressed when linking sulphur emissions and NPF. We show that while most of these quantities exhibit statistically significant trends, the reduction in Kola sulphur emissions is the most obvious reason for the rapid decline in NPF days. Sulphuric acid explains approximately 20-50% of the aerosol condensational growth observed at SMEAR I and there is a large seasonal variation with highest values obtained during spring and autumn. We found that (i) particles form earlier after sunrise during late winter and early spring due to high concentrations of SO2 and H2SO4, (ii) several events occurred during the absence of light and they were connected to higher than average concentrations of SO2 and (iii) high SO2 concentrations could advance the onset of nucleation by several hours. Moreover, air masses coming over Kola Peninsula seemed to favour new particle formation.

Kyrö, E.-M.; Väänänen, R.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Virkkula, A.; Petäjä, T.; Asmi, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Nieminen, T.; Juhola, S.; Shcherbinin, A.; Riipinen, I.; Lehtipalo, K.; Keronen, P.; Aalto, P. P.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.

2013-11-01

48

Trends in new particle formation in eastern Lapland, Finland: effect of decreasing sulfur emissions from Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is the largest source of anthropogenic SO2 in the Arctic part of Europe and one of the largest within the Arctic domain. Due to socio-economic changes in Russia, the emissions have been decreasing especially since the late 1990s resulting in decreased SO2 concentrations close to Kola in eastern Lapland, Finland. At the same time, the frequency of new particle formation days has been decreasing distinctively at SMEAR I station in eastern Lapland, especially during spring and autumn. We show that sulfur species, namely sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid, have an important role in both new particle formation and subsequent growth and that the decrease in new particle formation days is a result of the reduction of sulfur emissions originating from Kola Peninsula. In addition to sulfur species, there are many other quantities, such as formation rate of aerosol particles, condensation sink and nucleation mode particle number concentration, which are related to the number of observed new particle formation (NPF) days and need to be addressed when linking sulfur emissions and NPF. We show that while most of these quantities exhibit statistically significant trends, the reduction in Kola sulfur emissions is the most obvious reason for the rapid decline in NPF days. Sulfuric acid explains approximately 20-50% of the aerosol condensational growth observed at SMEAR I, and there is a large seasonal variation with highest values obtained during spring and autumn. We found that (i) particles form earlier after sunrise during late winter and early spring due to high concentrations of SO2 and H2SO4; (ii) several events occurred during the absence of light, and they were connected to higher than average concentrations of SO2; and (iii) high SO2 concentrations could advance the onset of nucleation by several hours. Moreover, air masses coming over Kola Peninsula seemed to favour new particle formation.

Kyrö, E.-M.; Väänänen, R.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Virkkula, A.; Petäjä, T.; Asmi, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Nieminen, T.; Juhola, S.; Shcherbinin, A.; Riipinen, I.; Lehtipalo, K.; Keronen, P.; Aalto, P. P.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.

2014-05-01

49

30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...not to exceed 8 feet. (d) When a borehole penetrates an area that cannot be examined...1) The direction of airflow in the borehole; (2) The pressure differential between...district manager. (g) Alternative borehole patterns that provide the same...

2010-07-01

50

The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

1997-04-01

51

Nuclear assaying of mining boreholes  

SciTech Connect

This is a general introduction to quantitative methods of nuclear geophysics employed for evaluating ore grades in boreholes utilized by the mining industry - an area which has received no comprehensive treatment in English-language texts. The literature describing advances in the subject is widely scattered in journals and proceedings devoted to geophysics, nuclear geophysics, mining technology, instrumental methods of element analysis, and petroleum technology. Moreover many highly significant contributions are written in Russion in journals and reports and are not readily accessible. Such restricted access has tended to retard advances in a multidisciplinary field which has immense potential for development and manifest implications for coreless drilling practices and thus for methods of geological assessment and mine evaluation.

Wylie, A.W.

1984-01-01

52

[Parasite fauna of the perch fishes Percidae in waterbodies of the Kola Region].  

PubMed

Results of the parasitological investigation of two species of perch fisches (perch Perca fluviatilis and ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus) from Kola Region are given. 63 species of parasites were found on perch in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Myxosporea--3, Pleurostomata--1, Suctoria--2, Peritricha--21, Protozoa incertae sedis--1, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--10, Nemadota--8, Acanthocephala--4, Hirudinea--1, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--3). 33 species of parasites were found on ruff in 5 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea basin (Cyrtostomata--1, Hymenostomata--1, Peritricha--8, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--9, Nematoda--2, Acanthospehala--2, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--1). Data on the infestation of perch and ruff by different parasite species are obtained, occurrence of the parasites in the examined waterbodies is shown. PMID:16755725

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

2006-01-01

53

Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

2010-05-01

54

Surveying of a borehole for position determination  

SciTech Connect

A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

1985-04-02

55

Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver  

DOEpatents

A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

Engler, Bruce P. (Sandoval County, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Bernalillo County, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Bernalillo County, NM)

1993-01-01

56

Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver  

DOEpatents

A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

1993-02-23

57

Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993  

SciTech Connect

A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

2007-02-28

58

Numerical Simulation and Analyses of the Loss of Feedwater Transient at the Unit 4 of Kola NPP  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional numerical simulation of the loss-of-feed water transient at the horizontal steam generator of the Kola nuclear power plant is performed. Presented numerical results show transient change of integral steam generator parameters, such as steam generation rate, water mass inventory, outlet reactor coolant temperature, as well as detailed distribution of shell side thermal-hydraulic parameters: swell and collapsed levels, void fraction distributions, mass flux vectors, etc. Numerical results are compared with measurements at the Kola NPP. The agreement is satisfactory, while differences are close to or below the measurement uncertainties. Obtained numerical results are the first ones that give complete insight into the three-dimensional and transient horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics. Also, the presented results serve as benchmark tests for the assessment and further improvement of one-dimensional models of horizontal steam generator built with safety codes. (authors)

Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Stosic, Zoran V.; Kiera, Michael; Stoll, Uwe [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01

59

System for controlled drilling of boreholes along planned profile  

SciTech Connect

A system for controlled drilling of a borehole is described, comprising: means for drilling a borehole; means positioned in said borehole for storing a planned borehole path; means positioned in said borehole for obtaining instantaneous downhole information relating to the depth of said drilling means within said borehole for providing a profile of an actual drilled path of said borehole; means positioned in said borehole for comparing said actual drilled path with said planned path and for generating a correction signal representing the difference between said actual drilled path and said planned path; and means responsive to said correction signal to cause said drilling means to drill said borehole along a corrected path to cause the drilled borehole path to coincide with said planned path.

Patton, B.J.

1993-06-22

60

Hydrologic Testing in Borehole DC-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of hydraulic conductivity tests made in Borehole DC-2 on the Hanford Reservation are reported. The hydraulic conductivity of the basalt formations is one of several parameters being investigated in relation to disposal of radioactive wastes in thi...

1978-01-01

61

MICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY -PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

MICROHOLE TECHNOLOGY - PROGRESS ON BOREHOLE INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT Jim Albright j Microhole technology development is based on the premise that with advances in electronics and sensors will comprise a very low cost alternative to currently available technology for deep subsurface characterization

62

Seismo- and neotectonics in Finnmark, Kola Peninsula and the southern Barents Sea. Part 1: Geological and neotectonic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a background for assessing the seismo- and neotectonics of the Finnmark–Kola Peninsula region, emphasis has been directed towards the lineament framework, involving a careful examination of digital Landsat-TM imagery integrated with a variety of data-sets ranging from geophysics and digital elevation models to microtectonics. Based on a detailed field-structural control of many of the multiphase lineaments in this 70,000

D. Roberts; O Olesen; M. R Karpuz

1997-01-01

63

Paleoclimate and Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions on the North Kola Peninsula during the Past 2000 Years According Pollen Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen data and radiocarbon data have enabled to reconstruct the periods of vegetation that depended on the climate changes. Records from different types of deposits allow to receive more information and to make paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake and bog sediments are the best sources for palaeoreconstruction. Palaeoclimatic changes, tectonic and coastline movement during Late Holocene caused vegetation changes on the North Kola Peninsula. Our data from pollen records from different sites on the north coast of the Kola Peninsula covers the Late Holocene about last 2000 years. We studied different types of sediment cores in the area between 69° N and 70° N, 31°12' E and 35° E. We have studied peat deposits, small lake sediments and archaeological site on the Bolshoy Oleniy Island in Kola fjord, Barents Sea, and peat bog deposits in the Teriberka area. All the cores are studied by different methods where the core was pollen analysis. It has allowed tracking the periods of vegetation history in the tundra zone. Pollen reconstructions are confirmed by radiocarbon data. Our data was compared with other researches and we made correlations between pollen records from different lake deposits. Modern vegetation presents south tundra type of associations. Teriberka area is unique: almost existing types of tundra landscapes are presented here in small territory, including "typical tundra" with subshrubs formations. For paleoclimate reconstructions we have studied surface samples by pollen analysis. Samples were collected in 3 regions of Kola Peninsula. Samples have been taken on the Sredniy and Rybachiy Peninsulas (Murman region) in the south tundra with rich associations and boreal species of herbs. In the Olenegorsk region we selected vegetation associations not damaged by human and we collected surface samples on the border of forest tundra and northern taiga. In Apatity region we studied pollen records in North taiga landscapes. This data characterize regional and local conditions of vegetation development, which are very important to take into account in paleoenvironmental reconstruction and regional correlation.

Nosevich, Ekaterina; Sapelko, Tatjana; Anisimov, Mikhail

2014-05-01

64

Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3) at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

Sorensen, James P R; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K; Lapworth, Daniel J; Read, Daniel S; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Townsend, Barry R; Williams, Peter J

2013-01-01

65

Evaluation of the protective and ameliorative properties of Garcinia kola on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Background: Garcinia kola is popularly used in African traditional medicine for the relief of acute bronchoconstrictive episodes. Objective: In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic and morphological effects of the ethanol extract of G. kola in animal model. Materials and Methods: Guinea pigs were sensitized with ovalbumin and then given doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg/day for 21 consecutive days. Theophylline (10 mg/kg/day) was used as a standard. At the end of the exposure, the animals were exposed to 0.2% histamine aerosol in a chamber. Lymphocyte count, bronchial histology and morphometry were done. Results: Compared with non-sensitized controls, 200 mg/kg/day dose of the extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time taken for onset of preconvulsive dyspnea while the dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bronchial wall thickness. Lymphocytes counts were not significantly affected but the bronchi of extract-treated animals were histologically clearer of lesions visible in the sensitized. Conclusion: These protective and ameliorative properties lend credence to the use of G. kola in ethnomedicine. PMID:23225963

Ibulubo, Mina T.; Eze, Gerald I.; Ozolua, Raymond I.; Baxter-Grillo, Doroteo; Uwaya, Dickson O.

2012-01-01

66

SCIMPI: a new borehole observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters in-situ (SCIMPI) is a new borehole observatory instrument designed to study dynamic processes below the seafloor. SCIMPI performs time series measurements of temperature, pressure and electrical resistivity at a series of depths, tailored for site-specific scientific objectives. SCIMPI's modular design enables tailoring of the type, depth distribution, and frequency of measurements based on the study goals and sediment characteristics. The first prototype is designed for 300 m below the seafloor in soft sediment and 1500 m b.s.l. However, SCIMPI could be tailored for deeper goals. The instrument can be configured for autonomous or cabled observatory deployments and has successfully undergone a number of tests, including pressure, communications, battery life, and interfacing with other drill-ship equipment. Here we discuss the design of the instrument, its capabilities, and the testing process it has passed through during four years of development. SCIMPI was successfully deployed on the Cascadia margin within the NEPTUNE Canada observatory network during IODP Expedition 341S in May 2013.

Lado-Insua, T.; Moran, K.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J. B.

2013-11-01

67

Borehole survey system utilizing strapdown inertial navigation  

SciTech Connect

A signal processing method is described for use in borehole surveys, consisting of: (a) transforming the acceleration signals in the first coordinate system to obtain inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in a second coordinate system that is fixed relative to the earth, the inertial signals in the second coordinate system including probe velocity signals; (b) generating a signal representative of the amount of cable being fed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (c) processing the signal representative of the amount of cable being feed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (d) transforming the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system into inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system; (e) combining the signal representative of the progress of the probe along the borehole with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system to obtain error signals; (f) transforming the error signals into the second coordinate system to obtain error correction signals; (g) combining the error correction signals with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system to obtain corrected probe velocity signals; and (h) integrating the corrected probe velocity signals to obtain signals representative of the course of the borehole relative to the second coordinate system.

Hulsing, R.H.

1989-03-14

68

Heavy metals in surface lake sediments on the Kola Penninsula as an index of air quality  

SciTech Connect

The investigations of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg) distribution in sediments of more than 100 lakes were carried out between 1989 and 1994. The study lakes are situated at different distances from two main heavy metal pollution sources of the Kola Peninsula-smelters of the Pechenganickel and Severonickel Companies. To assess the pollution extent of investigated lakes, values of factor and degree of contamination were calculated according to the method suggested by Hakanson (1980). Heavy metal contamination factor (C{sub f}) for each heavy metal was calculated as the quotient of concentration from the uppermost (0-1 cm) sediment to the mean preindustrial background value (concentrations from 20-30 cm sediment layers) for the investigated region. Degree of contamination (C{sub d}) was defined as the sum of all contamination factors for studied heavy metals. To quantitatively express the potential ecological risk of given contaminants created for ecosystems, risk factor (Er) for each heavy metal has been calculated. Er takes into account the toxicity of a heavy metal and bioproduction index (BPI) of a lake. Risk index (RI) was determined as the sum of all ecological risk factor for studied heavy metals.

Dauvalter, V. [Institute of the North Industrial Ecology Problems, Murmansk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

69

Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass surrounding the borehole array. ?? 1993.

Paillet, F.L.

1993-01-01

70

Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer  

SciTech Connect

Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

1983-08-01

71

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09

72

Characterization of HANARO neutron radiography facility in accordance with ASTM standard E545-91/E803-91 for KOLAS/ISO17025.  

PubMed

As neutron radiography is even more in demand for industrial applications of aircraft, turbine blade, automobile, explosive igniters, etc, it is necessary to review the standards which are the most appropriate for preparing the procedures for setting up the QA system. Recently, Korea Of Lab Accreditation Scheme (KOLAS) was originated from ISO 17025. It is widely recognized by research peer groups for conducting valid tests. The neutron radiography facility (NRF) of High Flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO), which started ion 1996, is the preliminary stages of KOLAS. The HANARO NRF is not only characterized using ASTM standards E545-91/E803-91 to satisfy the requirements of KOLAS, but in the design phase of the tomography system. PMID:15246410

Cheul-Muu, Sim; Ki-Yong, Nam; In-Cheol, Lim; Chang-Hee, Lee; Ha-Lim, Choi

2004-10-01

73

Resolving Terrain Effects in Borehole Temperature Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic hypothesis of borehole paleoclimatology is that radiative heating and heat exchange between the ground and the air directly control the ground surface temperature (GST). Time-transient changes in the GST diffuse into the subsurface by conduction creating a disturbance in the T-z profile which can be inverted to determine the timing and magnitude of changes in the GST. During recent years, the collaborative efforts of a number of researchers have provided a global scale pattern of climate change that generally agrees with paleoclimate reconstructions by other methods for the past 500 y. Although the results of this research are encouraging, we find that at least 25 percent of the T-z profiles in the paleoclimate data set from the US have thermal noise due to various terrain effects. The consequence of these effects is to yield inaccurate paleoclimate reconstructions for those boreholes. Although the terrain effects distort the T-z profiles, we have tested a procedure for removing the effects so that the paleoclimate reconstruction is accurate. We focused on boreholes that have obvious terrain related disturbances and that have been logged at least twice over a period of one or more decades. We used an ensemble of climate data from sites nearest the boreholes to determine the climate change during the period between borehole loggings. This provided a test of coupling between air and ground at the borehole sites. We used an ensemble of climate data from the USHCN that extends from 1895 to present to generate a synthetic T-z profile for comparison to the observed T-z profile. We tested whether the difference between the synthetic profile and the observed profile can be accounted for by constructing 2-D numerical models of the subsurface that include the terrain effect.

Gosnold, W.; Heinle, S.

2006-12-01

74

Effect of borehole stress concentration on compressional wave velocity measurements  

E-print Network

Formation elastic properties near a borehole may be altered from their original state due to the stress concentration around the borehole. This could lead to a biased estimation of formation elastic properties measured ...

Fang, Xinding

2013-01-01

75

Predicting stress-induced anisotropy around a borehole  

E-print Network

Formation elastic properties near a borehole may be altered from their original state due to the stress concentration around the borehole. This could result in a biased estimation of formation properties but could provide ...

Fang, Xinding

2012-01-01

76

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

...2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2014-07-01

77

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2011-07-01

78

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2012-07-01

79

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2013-07-01

80

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75.1315 ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired...

2010-07-01

81

Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole  

DOEpatents

A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

Burklund, P.W.

1984-01-20

82

Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole  

DOEpatents

A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

Burklund, Patrick W. (Livermore, CA)

1985-10-22

83

Deepest Ocean Borehole to Plumb Earthquakes, Tsunamis  

E-print Network

Deepest Ocean Borehole to Plumb Earthquakes, Tsunamis A grand challenge for Earth Sciences is to understand earthquake dynamics. Subduction zones generate about 90% of the Earth's seismicity, resulting the portion of the fault capable of generating magnitude 8.0 earthquakes. By gaining access to the birthplace

Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

84

BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

85

BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

86

Resolving Terrain Effects in Borehole Temperature Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic hypothesis of borehole paleoclimatology is that radiative heating and heat exchange between the ground and the air directly control the ground surface temperature (GST). Time-transient changes in the GST diffuse into the subsurface by conduction creating a disturbance in the T-z profile which can be inverted to determine the timing and magnitude of changes in the GST. During

W. Gosnold; S. Heinle

2006-01-01

87

California Fault Zone Orphan Borehole Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California is tectonically active and has many abandoned boreholes across the state. With information on these boreholes provided by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), we have been able to create several interactive maps on Google Earth for a public website and database accessible at: http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/ . These maps locate abandoned and adoptable wells near active quaternary fault traces and are linked to relevant subsurface information. The links on the website include complete histories, logs, lithologies, stratigraphic columns, and casing information (when available). Earthquake scientists may utilize these wells for monitoring subsurface changes prior, during, and after an earthquake in California. The boreholes could be used for the measurements of several subsurface observables, including: repeat temperature logs, stress measurements, geophysical logging, repeat active-source seismic experiments, sampling of mud/ gas/ fluids, long-term monitoring of temperature and pore fluid pressure, passive seismicity, etc. The “Adopt a Well Program” with DOGGR allows the orphaned well to be tested for 90 days without liability then purchased upon approval. With the science of seismology expanding its limits, these boreholes offer the depth necessary to have accurate subsurface data in order to make informed implications about what occurs deep beneath the surface.

Avila, J.; Brodsky, E. E.

2009-12-01

88

USGS Training on Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS hydrologist holds an electromagnetic induction borehole logging tool while the tool is calibrated. The hydrologist was participating in a USGS class on how to use electromagnetic induction geophysical methods for groundwater investigations, conducted by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch o...

2009-05-01

89

Borehole tilt measurements from Charlevoix, Québec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three borehole tiltmeters near Québec City in eastern Canada is designed to study the tidal and secular response of the crust in the Charlevoix seismic zone. The objectives of this study of the first year of data from two boreholes of the array are to investigate the spatial coherency of the tidal observations and determine whether there are time variations in the tidal amplitudes and phases and to describe the main features of the secular tilt signal. The tidal analysis was done using a modified version of the HYCON harmonic analysis program with which the time-varying tidal amplitudes and phases were determined by the sequential analysis of overlapping 2-monthly subsets of the data. The admittance observed for the major semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) constituents varies by up to 10 and 30%, respectively, and is strongly correlated between boreholes. Comparison with admittance variations determined from two nearby tide gauges indicates a strong correlation in the amplitude fluctuations, pointing to a predominantly marine loading source for the time-varying tilt admittance. Differences of up to 20% in amplitude and 5° in phase were found between the mean M2 results determined from boreholes 1 and 2, located only 80 m apart, indicating small-scale distortion of the local tilt field by lateral inhomogeneities. The secular tilt from both boreholes correlates strongly with transient and seasonal water table fluctuations, suggesting the dominant influence of pore pressure effects on the nontidal tilt. A preliminary estimate of the detectability of long-term regional trends in tilt is 0.4 ?rad/yr.

Peters, John; Beaumont, Christopher

1985-12-01

90

Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole  

DOEpatents

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Schenkel, Clifford (Walnut Creek, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

2000-01-01

91

BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

1987-01-01

92

Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling  

SciTech Connect

The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

A.A. Lipin [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch

2005-03-15

93

Identifying groundwater threats from improperly abandoned boreholes  

SciTech Connect

The University of Wyoming has investigated techniques to determine the status of plugged and abandoned wells. Proper abandonment requires that cement plugs be carefully positioned within the borehole to prevent contamination of aquifers by toxic fluids from adjacent rock formations. The plugs seal off aquifer layers and prevent transmission of fluids through the borehole between formations. Such techniques may eventually be used in wellhead protection programs to determine whether abandoned wells require mitigation, and by enforcement agencies to verify compliance of regulations. In this approach, a down-going acoustic pulse produces reflections at plug boundaries. Up-going reflection energy is detected by surface acoustic sensors and used to estimate plug size and location. Initial experiments used an artificial borehole constructed horizontally on the ground using well casing. Computer modeling has been used to help interpret reflection signals. Field experiments were conducted during the summer of 1996 on a variety of plugged and unplugged wells. Initial results have been mixed. In some cases, possible reflections are seen from the bottom of the surface plug and the top of the next deeper plug. However, determining whether acoustic events are actual plug reflections or due to other acoustic sources is difficult.

Kubichek, R.; Cupal, J.; Choi, S.; Morris, M. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Iverson, W. [Subsurface Engineering, Renton, WA (United States)

1997-12-31

94

Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole  

DOEpatents

Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

2005-06-28

95

Computer simulation of borehole ground heat exchangers for geothermal heat pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation of borehole ground heat exchangers used in geothermal heat pump systems was conducted using three-dimensional implicit finite difference method with rectangular coordinate system. Each borehole was approximated by a square column circumscribed by the borehole radius. Borehole loading profile calculated numerically based on the prescribed borehole temperature profile under quasi-steady state conditions was used to determine the ground

C. K. Lee; H. N. Lam

2008-01-01

96

Automated analysis of ice properties from glacier borehole images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical televiewing provides a continuous, true-colour, orientated 360° optical image of a borehole wall. The recent application of this technology in ice boreholes has yielded far more detail relating to the internal structure of ice masses than has been previously available using traditional borehole TV video or acoustic televiewers. From the optical televiewer logs, which are allied to true orientation, the dip and strike of each planar structure that intersects the borehole can be calculated. We present a number of methods which aid the user in the annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images by automatically detecting layers and inclusions present in borehole image logs. The techniques used include a modified version of the Canny Edge Detector to highlight edges in the image, and a number of edge processing and fitting algorithms to extract sinusoidal layers from these edges. Active Contours have also been used to provide a semi-automatic inclusion detection tool. These techniques have been implemented as part of a software tool designed to allow the manual and automatic annotation of borehole features. A Genetic Algorithm has also been developed as part of a separate tool which allows for the fine tuning of parameters in the above algorithms. Results to date have shown good correspondence with manual operators in terms of layering and inclusions present in borehole images from a number of ice masses including Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica; the NEEM deep borehole, Greenland; Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard; and Tsanfleuron Glacier, Switzerland.

Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

2013-04-01

97

Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

98

New Aspects of Structure of Earth Crust (Based on Data of Super Deep Wells Kola and Saatly)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure the sustainability of Planet Earth the latest information regarding the structure of the Earth is necessary. It common accepted that Earth Crust consists of 2 layers: granite and basalt. Unique depth 12 600 meter have been reached by unique drills Kola located on the Arhenian Baltic plate. But haven't passed/reached border of Conrad that expected to be on the 4 000 meters. In additions corroborate this fact Saatly super deep well haven't come out from basalt in spite of unique depth 8 600 meter in Kura rift Alpine geosynclinals belts. These facts from conversely different tectonic regions let to build new model structure of Earth Crust. Based on the seismic interpretations and the geological data analysis obtained from super deep drills Kola (12 600meters) and Saatly (8 280 meters), the comprehensive 1 layer geologic -geotectonic-geochemical model interruption-blocks structure of the Earth Crust has been created. Such model is leading to following reasoning. Geologic aspect: 1) Earth Crust on lateral. consists of separated blocks/domain of Granite and separated blocks/domain Basalt, lies directly on mantle.Tectonical aspects: 2) There is no subduction, 3) There is thrust 4) Earth Crust has separated into granite and basalts domains/blocks. Geochemical aspect: 5) Distribution of acid components in Earth Crust n prevailing on base components. 6) Power intensity degassation the depth increasing on old structure. Paleo- aspect: 7) Forming Earth crust began from forming the granites. Societal aspect: 8) Let us to build a new model of forming and development of atmosphere, hydrosphere and mineral fields.

Galant, Yuri

2013-04-01

99

In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

100

Borehole survey instrumentation development for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

The creation and subsequent study of hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs requires sophisticated tools and instruments that can function for relatively long periods of time in the hostile downhole environment. Detection of fracture dimensions and orientation of the geothermal reservoir is critical for the successful completion of the hot dry rock energy extraction system. The development of downhole instrumentation capable of characterizing the hydraulic-fracture systems must emphasize reliability of measuring devices and electro-mechanical components to function properly at borehole temperature exceeding 275/sup 0/C and pressures of 69 MPa (10,000 psi).

Dennis, B.R.

1980-01-01

101

A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the polyvinyl chloride-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it.

Tseng, H. -W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M. J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

1998-01-01

102

The Role of Active Fractures on Borehole Breakout Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of georeservoirs are strongly related to the stress field and their interpretation is a major target in geotechnical management. Borehole breakouts are direct indicators of the stress field as they develop due to the concentration of the highest compressional stress toward the minimum horizontal stress direction. However, the interaction with fractures might create local perturbations. Such weakened zones are often observed by localized anomalies of the borehole breakout orientation. We examined high-quality acoustic borehole televiewer (UBI) logs run in the entire granite sections at the deep well GPK4 at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The borehole is moderately inclined (15° - 35°) in its middle section. Detailed analysis of 1221 borehole elongation pairs in the vicinity of 1871 natural fractures observed in GPK4 well is used to infer the role of fractures on the borehole breakouts shape and orientation. Patterns of borehole breakout orientation in the vicinity of active fractures suggest that the wavelength of the borehole breakout orientation anomalies in this granite rock depend on the scale of the fracture while the rotation amplitude and direction is strongly influenced by the fracture orientation. In the upper and middle part of the well even a linear trend between fracture and breakout orientations could be established. In addition to the rotation, breakouts typically are found to be asymmetrically formed in zones of high fracture density. We find that major faults tend to create a systematic rotation of borehole breakout orientation with long spatial wavelength while abrupt changes are often observed around small fractures. The finding suggest that the borehole breakout heterogeneities are not merely governed by the principal stress heterogeneities, but that the effect of mechanical heterogeneities like elastic moduli changes, rock strength anisotropy and fracturing must be taken into account. Thus, one has to be careful to infer the principal stress orientation from borehole breakout data observed in fractured rock.

Sahara, D.; Kohl, T.; Schoenball, M.; Müller, B.

2013-12-01

103

RESEARCH PAPER Compaction bands induced by borehole drilling  

E-print Network

-field stresses simulating real in situ conditions often result in localized failure around the created borehole Introduction Boreholes drilled into the Earth's crust for facilitating the extraction of water, oil, natural gas, geothermal steam, or for enabling geophysical observations, can reach depths of several

Einat, Aharonov

104

Eco-friendly corrosion inhibitors: inhibitive action of ethanol extracts of Garcinia kola for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the inhibitive effect of ethanol extracts of Garcinia kola (EXG) for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 solutions. The study is another trial to find a cheap and environmentally safe inhibitor for mild steel corrosion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The inhibition efficiency has been evaluated using the hydrogen evolution technique at 30-60°C. The mechanism

P. C. Okafor; V. I. Osabor; E. E. Ebenso

2007-01-01

105

An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia  

PubMed Central

Abstract 64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft. PMID:24194655

Disney, R. H. L.

2013-01-01

106

An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia.  

PubMed

64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft. PMID:24194655

Disney, R H L

2013-01-01

107

Borehole-to-borehole geophysical methods applied to investigations of high level waste repository sites  

SciTech Connect

This discussion focuses on the use of borehole to borehole geophysical measurements to detect geological discontinuities in High Level Waste (HLW) repository sites. The need for these techniques arises from: (a) the requirement that a HLW repository's characteristics and projected performance be known with a high degree of confidence; and (b) the inadequacy of other geophysical methods in mapping fractures. Probing configurations which can be used to characterize HLW sites are described. Results from experiments in which these techniques were applied to problems similar to those expected at repository sites are briefly discussed. The use of a procedure designed to reduce uncertainty associated with all geophysical exploration techniques is proposed; key components of the procedure are defined.

Ramirez, A.L.

1983-01-01

108

The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

Nitkina, Elena

2013-04-01

109

Borehole transmission tomography for velocity plus statics  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of velocity tomograms reconstructed from borehole transmission traveltime data is highly sensitive to traveltime statics. The authors present a least-squares tomography algorithm that includes a traveltime static term. The algorithm solves for both the velocity field and the traveltime statics simultaneously. This enables us to separate traveltime signal from traveltime noise, reducing the tomographic velocity artifacts caused by the statics. The incorporation of a priori constraints on the poorly determined spectral components of the velocity field further improves accuracy by reducing velocity artifacts as a result of uneven ray coverage. Application of the algorithm to numerical crosswell data results in velocity and statics' estimates that are accurate to within 1%. Application of the algorithm to Exxon's Friendswood tomography data results in velocity and statics' estimates that correlate with independent data.

Squires, L.J.; Stoffa, P.L. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Cambois, G. (Compagnie Generale de Geophysique, Massy (France))

1994-07-01

110

Borehole plugging materials development program, report 2  

SciTech Connect

The data for 2 yr of grout mixtures durability studies developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are reported. In addition, data for 1 yr of durability studies of grout mixture field samples used to plug the ERDA No. 10 exploratory drill hole near the WIPP site are included. The grout samples and the data do not show any evidence of deterioration during the durability studies that include exposure to brine at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The data include strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus, expansion, weight change, porosity, permeability, bond strength, chemical analysis of cements, and petrographic examinations. The work was performed at the Concrete Division of the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiments Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The work is continuing at WES.

Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Walley, D.M.; Buck, A.D.

1980-02-01

111

Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer  

DOEpatents

A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

Frank, Donald N. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

112

Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

1997-04-01

113

Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

Cutler, R.P.

1998-04-01

114

Analysis and Interpretation of Borehole Hydraulic Tests in Deep Boreholes: Principles, Model Development, and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the literature on hydraulic testing and interpretive methods, particularly in low-permeability media, indicates a need for a comprehensive hydraulic testing interpretive capability. Physical limitations on boreholes, such as caving and erosion during continued drilling, as well as the high costs associated with deep-hole rigs and testing equipment, often necessitate testing under nonideal conditions with respect to antecedent pressures and temperatures. In these situations, which are common in the high-level nuclear waste programs throughout the world, the interpretive requirements include the ability to quantitatively account for thermally induced pressure responses and borehole pressure history (resulting in a time-dependent pressure profile around the borehole) as well as equipment compliance effects in low-permeability intervals. A numerical model was developed to provide the capability to handle these antecedent conditions. Sensitivity studies and practical applications are provided to illustrate the importance of thermal effects and antecedent pressure history. It is demonstrated theoretically and with examples from the Swiss (Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle) regional hydrogeologic characterization program that pressure changes (expressed as hydraulic head) of the order of tens to hundreds of meters can result from 1° to 2°C temperature variations during shut-in (packer isolated) tests in low-permeability formations. Misinterpreted formation pressures and hydraulic conductivity can also result from inaccurate antecedent pressure history. Interpretation of representative formation properties and pressures requires that antecedent pressure information and test period temperature data be included as an integral part of the hydraulic test analyses.

Pickens, J. F.; Grisak, G. E.; Avis, J. D.; Belanger, D. W.; Thury, M.

1987-07-01

115

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

116

Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT): A program for the automatic and manual annotation of glacier borehole images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stand-alone software platform, Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT), for the examination, annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images. This tool aids in the lengthy and often subjective process of annotating layers and other features in optical and acoustic glacier borehole televiewer logs. Since these view 360° around the full circumference of an exploratory borehole, intersecting planes are reconstructed on the televiewer image as sinusoids, the amplitude and phase of which can be used to calculate, respectively, the dip and direction of dip of each of these planes. The program suite aids in the annotation and examination of such planes, as well as a number of other features, including clusters and inclusions. BIFAT also provides an automatic layer detection option to aid and speed up the often lengthy process of identifying planar features in glacier borehole images, and a semi-automatic inclusion detection tool. The software shows promising results in rock borehole images and in the detection of planar layers in line-scan ice core images. We describe the capability and operation of BIFAT, and illustrate its application with reference to the automatic identification and annotation of sections from optical televiewer (OPTV) borehole logs from a variety of ice masses including Roi Baudouin, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and Tsanfleuron Glacier, Switzerland. The software is freely available for download from http://users.aber.ac.uk/byh/iceoptv.

Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

2013-04-01

117

Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT): A program for the automatic and manual annotation of glacier borehole images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stand-alone software platform, Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT), for the examination, annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images. This tool aids in the lengthy and often subjective process of annotating layers and other features in optical and acoustic glacier borehole televiewer logs. Since these view 360° around the full circumference of an exploratory borehole, intersecting planes are reconstructed on the televiewer image as sinusoids, the amplitude and phase of which can be used to calculate, respectively, the dip and direction of dip of each of these planes. The program aids in the annotation and examination of such planes, as well as a number of other features, including clusters and inclusions. BIFAT also provides an automatic layer detection option to aid and speed up the often lengthy process of identifying planar features in glacier borehole images. The software also shows promising results in rock borehole images and in the detection of planar layers in line-scan ice core images. We describe the capability and operation of BIFAT, and illustrate its application with reference to the automatic identification and annotation of sections from an optical televiewer (OPTV) borehole log from Roi Baudouin, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The software is freely available for download from http://users.aber.ac.uk/byh/iceoptv.

Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

2013-02-01

118

Emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula and at Noril'sk, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Published estimates for base metal emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula are re-examined in the light of (a) chemical data on the composition of the ores; (b) official emission figures for 1994; and (c) modelled emissions based on dry and wet deposition estimates derived from data for snow and rain samples collected in 1994. The modelled emissions, official emission figures and chemical data are mutually compatible for Ni, Cu and Co and show that previously published figures underestimated the emissions of the major elements, Ni and Cu (though within the same order of magnitude) and overestimated the emissions of As, Pb, Sb and Zn by up to several orders of magnitude, in some cases exceeding the calculated total input to the plants. Published estimates have neglected information on the nature and chemistry of the ores processed in metallurgical industries in the Noril'sk area of Siberia and the Urals. Revised emission estimates for 1994, using knowledge of the chemistry of the ores, are proposed: taken with published information on total emissions up to 2000 these data give an indication of emission levels in more recent years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Boyd, R.; Barnes, S.-J.; De Caritat, P.; Chekushin, V.A.; Melezhik, V.A.; Reimann, C.; Zientek, M.L.

2009-01-01

119

Holocene climate variability on the Kola Peninsula, Russian Subarctic, based on aquatic invertebrate records from lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary records of invertebrate assemblages were obtained from a small lake in the Khibiny Mountains, Kola Peninsula. Together with a quantitative chironomid-based reconstruction of mean July air temperature, these data provide evidence of Holocene climate variability in the western sector of the Russian Subarctic. The results suggest that the amplitude of climate change was more pronounced in the interior mountain area than near the White Sea coast. A chironomid-based temperature reconstruction reflects a warming trend in the early Holocene, interrupted by a transient cooling at ca. 8500-8000 cal yr BP with a maximum drop in temperature (ca. 1°C) around 8200 cal yr BP. The regional Holocene Thermal Maximum, characterized by maximum warmth and dryness occurred at ca. 7900-5400 cal yr BP. During this period, July temperatures were at least 1°C higher than at present. The relatively warm and dry climate persisted until ca. 4000 cal yr BP, when a pronounced neoglacial cooling was initiated. Minimum temperatures, ca. 1-2°C lower than at present, were inferred at ca. 3200-3000 cal yr BP. Faunal shifts in the stratigraphic profile imply also that the late-Holocene cooling was followed by a general increase in effective moisture.

Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Kolka, Vasily V.; Hammarlund, Dan

2013-05-01

120

Benz(a)pyrene in soils and berries in an area affected by jets over the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal-combustion engines especially jets are known to be important industrial sources of benz(a)pyrene (BaP) to the environment. Over 30 years, jet aircraft have been operating in the vicinity of the town Monchegorsk, situated far north of Russia (Kola peninsula, 68°N and 33°E). The jet aircrafts take off from the military aerodrome located 4 km from the town. The takeoff path is over the inhabited territory of the town. It has been determined that the content of BaP in the upper organic soil layer varied from 200 to 30 ppb along the main path of the takeoff. These concentrations of BaP are 40-6 times larger than background levels and are 10-1.5 times larger than the accepted threshold concentration. The polluted zone correlates with the trajectory of the plane takeoff. The concentration of BaP in the berries of Vaccinium Vitis-idaea and Empetrum Hermaphroditum seems to be independent of B(a)P concentration in soil.

Barcan, Valery; Kovnatsky, Eugene; Shylina, Augusta

121

Emission of CO2 by soils in the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter in the Kola subarctic region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of the in situ soil respiration in the background northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola subarctic region reaches 120-290 mg C-CO2/m2 per h. In the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter, it decreases to 90-140, 30, and 15-30 mg C-CO2/m2 per h at the stages of spruce defoliation, spruce-birch woodland, and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. For the first time, the impact of the industrial pollution on root respiration has been assessed, and the dependences of the CO2 emission, the contribution of mineral soil horizons to this process, the microbial biomass, and root respiration on the concentrations of available nickel and copper compounds have been determined. The efficiency of two remediation technologies applied to technogenic barrens near the smelter has been evaluated on the basis of four parameters of the soil biological activity. The results indicate that remediation with the creation of a new filled soil layer is more efficient than chemical and phytoremediation methods.

Kadulin, M. S.; Koptsik, G. N.

2013-11-01

122

Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite massif is considered, including localization of low-sulfide PGE mineralization and its mineralogy. The Volchetundra massif 24 km long and 0.5-4.0 km wide occupies the middle part of the Main Range complex, which extends for 75 km in the nearly meridional direction. The main and marginal zones are distinguished in the massif. The marginal zone 20-400 m wide extends along the entire eastern contact of the massif and is primarily composed of mediumgrained meso- and leucocratic norite, gabbronorite, plagioclasite, and less fequent orthopyroxenite. The main zone consists of coarse-grained leucogabbro and gabbronorite with an anorthosite zone in the axial part of the massif. The PGE mineralization of the Volchetundra massif is distinctly subdivided into two types substantially differing in localization, mineralogy, geochemistry, and economic importance. Mineralization of the first type is localized in the marginal zone and characterized by the highest resource potential. Mineralization hosted in the main zone belongs to the second type. The PGE ore of marginal zone is spatially and genetically related to the pyrite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite sulfide mineralization (1-5%) in the form of fine inequigranular interstitial disseminations, and less frequent larger grains and pockets localized within two ore zones each up to 2 km in extent. The thickness of separate mineralized layers varies from 0.5 to 3.0 m and up to 45 m in bulges. The average Pt + Pd grade is 1.37 gpt at Pd/Pt = 3.1. The mineralization of the second type has been penetrated by boreholes. Separate intersections do not correlate with one another and are limited in extent both along the strike and down the dip. The PGE mineralization is related to finely dispersed pentlandite-pyrite-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite sulfides, sulfide emulsions, and less abundant stringer-disseminated sulfide ore. The orebodies vary from 2 to 7 m in thickness. The average Pt + Pd grade is 1.61 gpt; Pd/Pt = 1.3. The PGE mineralization includes 22 mineral species. PGE sulfides (cooperite-braggite-vysotskite; laurite and erlichmanite in insignificant amounts) are predominant. Bismuthotellurides (moncheite-kotulskite-merenskyite) and arsenides (sperrylite, palladoarsenite, arsenopalladinite, atheneite) are subordinate in abundance. In addition, sulfoarsenides (platarsite, hollingworthite), tellurides (telargpalite, sopcheite, keithconnite, melonite, hessite), paolovite, and Pt-Fe alloy have been identified. An admixture of native gold and electrum occur constantly.

Chashchin, V. V.; Petrov, S. V.

2013-09-01

123

A drop-in-concept for deep borehole canister emplacement  

E-print Network

Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock (i.e., "granite") is an interesting repository alternative of long standing. Work at MIT over the past two decades, and more recently ...

Bates, Ethan Allen

2011-01-01

124

Canister design for deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas, and geothermal drilling ...

Hoag, Christopher Ian

2006-01-01

125

Minor actinide waste disposal in deep geological boreholes  

E-print Network

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a waste canister design suitable for the disposal of vitrified minor actinide waste in deep geological boreholes using conventional oil/gas/geothermal drilling technology. ...

Sizer, Calvin Gregory

2006-01-01

126

Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Schimschal, U.; Nelson, P.H.

1991-05-01

127

Detection of contaminants along boreholes with prompt gamma spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical borehole logging techniques are used for estimating subsurface physical, chemical, geological, and hydrological parameters. Nuclear borehole logging techniques have advantages and disadvantages that tend to be complementary to those of physical sampling and these in situ measurements can help address the drawbacks of physical sampling, including high costs, lengthy delays in obtaining results of analyses from laboratories/under sampling, sample handling problems, and ambiguity in long-term monitoring. As part of an effort to reduce environmental restoration costs, we are evaluating in-situ neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy (multispectral) measurements in boreholes to map environmental contaminants. It has been known for some time that this technology is capable of identifying many elements, but earlier borehole equipment was not very sensitive.

Conaway, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); George, D. [Rust Geotech, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Mikesell, J. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-02-01

128

Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole  

DOEpatents

Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

2003-05-13

129

Climate Model Driven Simulation and Inversion of Borehole Temperature Profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient integrations for the last 1000 years produced with the ECHO-g ocean-atmosphere global climate model are used to simulate deep soil temperature perturbation profiles. For this purpose, a heat conduction forward model is driven with surface thermal conditions provided by the ECHO-g integrations. An inversion model is subsequently used to return ground surface temperature histories for comparison with simulated surface air temperature, thus mimicking the borehole approach to climate reconstrution. Results support the sensitivity of inversion methods to derive the long term trends in the climate model simulations and the robustness of using the present distribution of deep soil temperature profiles for estimating terrestrial SAT variations. The procedure is also used to illustrate the effects of other uncertainties affecting borehole climatology (surface coupling, different dating and depth of borehole profiles ...). These are discussed in terms of the potential and limitations of borehole climate reconstructions and model simulations to understand climate variability and changes through the last millennium.

Beltrami, H. J.; Zorita, E.; von Storch, H.; Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.

2005-12-01

130

Cross-Borehole Flowmeter Testing to Define Fracture-Flow Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conventional borehole-flow profiles routinely are used to estimate the distribution of hydraulic conductivity along boreholes in heterogeneous formations, these estimates apply only to the immediate vicinity of the borehole. Numerous studies in fractured-rock aquifers demonstrate that fracture-network connectivity is more important than local fracture permeability in determining the hydraulic conductivity of fracture rocks. Cross-borehole flow experiments, where one borehole

R. H. Morin; F. L. Paillet; J. H. Williams

2001-01-01

131

Acoustic evidence of mechanical damage surrounding stressed boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments demonstrate that acoustic waveforms recorded in a borehole provide evidence of stress-induced mechanical damage in surrounding rock. In the experiments, external uniaxial stress was applied perpendicular to the borehole. Stress concentrations near the borehole wall caused velocities of refracted compressional-wave to vary with azimuth. Low velocities occurred in zones of tensile stress, and high velocities occurred in zones of compressive stress. Velocity variations are on the order of 10%. At high values of externally applied uniaxial stress, rock exceeded its yield strength and permanent damage developed. This damage decreased the measured velocities by approximately 10%, especially in the zones of compressive stress concentration. The heterogeneous nature of the velocities surrounding the borehole resulted in low-velocity channels parallel to the borehole wall, caused either by tensile stress concentrations or by mechanical damage. These low-velocity channels may be responsible for high-amplitude bright-spots that appear on variable density plots of azimuthal waveform scans. The amplitude increases can be on the order of 500% and are associated with low-velocity zones, not with decreased attenuation. The hypothesized mechanism is acoustic focusing, whereby velocity gradients refract acoustic waves back towards the borehole.

Winkler, K.W. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)] [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)

1997-01-01

132

Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, F.L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

1997-01-01

133

Platinum-group elements (Rh, Pt, Pd) and Au distribution in snow samples from the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 1996 snowpack samples were collected from the surroundings of the ore roasting and dressing plant at Zapoljarnij and the nickel smelters at Nikel and Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. In the laboratory, filter residues of snowpack samples (fraction>0.45 ?m) from 15 localities (close to the nickel processing centres) were chemically for precious metals (Rh, Pt, Pd, Au) and Te by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) analysis, and for Cu and Ni by ICP-MS. Values up to 2770 ng/l Pd, 650 ng/l Pt and 186 ng/l Au were found in the filter residues. Additionally, platinum-group elements (PGE) and Au contents in ore samples from Noril'sk , as well as in technogenic products ("Cu-Ni-feinstein" and copper concentrate) processed at the Monchegorsk smelter complex, were analysed using flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) for comparison with results obtained from snow. Rh, Pt, Pd and Au distribution data show the presence of two ore components (Noril'sk and Pechenga). Concentrations of these metals decrease with distance from the industrial sources and with the prevailing wind direction (generally north-south). Microscopic investigations and electron microprobe analysis of polished sections of snow filter residues (>0.45 ?m) also reveal differences between particles from the two sources. To avoid confusion the term "Noril'sk" is used throughout the paper to denote material and/or data from the Noril'sk area and its sub-district, Noril'sk while Pechenga relates to the local ore.

Gregurek, Dean; Melcher, Frank; Niskavaara, Heikki; Pavlov, Vladimir A.; Reimann, Clemens; Stumpfl, Eugen F.

134

Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.

1994-01-01

135

Acoustic waves in pressurized boreholes: A finite difference formulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A velocity-stress, finite difference formulation of acoustic waves in a fluid-filled, pressurized borehole yields synthetic waveforms for monopole or dipole sources before and after borehole pressurization. Processing of these waveforms using a variation of Prony's procedure isolates dominant arrivals in the full wave field. Differences between the slownesses of individual arrivals before and after pressurization provide stress-induced changes in propagation characteristics that are of importance in estimating mechanical properties of the formation. The borehole pressurization in an isotropic formation produces insignificant changes in the compressional head wave slownesses; and small changes in the shear head wave slownesses. The most significant changes occur in the Stoneley and flexural slownesses at relatively higher frequencies in the range of 5-10 kHz for a borehole of diameter 20.32 cm (8 inches). These differences in the Stoneley and flexural slowness dispersions for a known increase in the borehole pressure can be used to calculate the acoustoelastic coefficients of the formation. These coefficients are measures of nonlinear elastic parameters of the formation that are generally larger for poorly consolidated slow formations than those of tightly consolidated fast formations.

Sinha, Bikash K.; Liu, Qing-Huo; Kostek, Sergio

1996-11-01

136

Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector  

SciTech Connect

A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector. 5 figures.

Owen, T.E.

1994-04-12

137

Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector  

DOEpatents

A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX)

1994-01-01

138

The Kola Alkaline Province of the CIS and Finland: Precise Rb?Sr ages define 380-360 Ma age range for all magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-one new Rb?Sr mineral and biotite-whole rock isochrons are presented for intrusive rock complexes of the Palaeozoic Kola Alkaline Province in the CIS and Finland. Samples from the ultrabasic-alkaline and nepheline-syenite complexes Khibina, Lovozero, Afrikanda, Turiy Mys, Ozernaya Varaka, Sokli and Iivaara all yield ages in the very narrow range from 361.7 to 377.3 Ma, i.e. late Middle Devonian to Upper Devonian. These data represent crystallization rather than intrusion ages, but are nevertheless argued as marking very closely the time of intrusion. There is no indication of bimodal age distribution. The emplacement of the alkaline magmas is related temporally to the subsidence of the Kontozero Graben of the Central Kola Peninsula. Sr initial ratios of the agpaitic nepheline-syenites of the giant Khibina and Lovozero intrusions scatter between 0.703 and 0.704. Because of high {Rb}/{Sr} ratios of the rocks, these isotope ratios exclude long-term pre-enrichment of alkalis in the sources of the magmas prior to segregation and intrusion, and thus episodic enrichment during earlier rifting events in the northern Baltic Shield. The magma formation may be related to wrench movements in the surroundings of the major Trollfjord-Komagelv Fault, which forms part of the Late Caledonian Arctic—North Atlantic Megashear System.

Kramm, U.; Kogarko, L. N.; Kononova, V. A.; Vartiainen, H.

1993-04-01

139

Flow to a heated borehole in porous, thermoelastic rock: Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Exact solutions are obtained for fluid flow induced by the heating of a borehole. The rock is modeled as a fluid-saturated, porous, thermoelastic medium. The temperature and pore pressure fields are governed by a pair of diffusion equations, which are coupled through a source term in the pressure equation proportional to the temperature rate. The pressure profile exhibits a maximum that grows in magnitude and propagates away from the borehole. For a constant heat flux applied as an instantaneous step, the fluid flux to the borehole takes a finite initial value, and decays monotonically. When the heat flux exhibits a finite rise time, the fluid flux is initially zero, rises to a maximum, and then decays. At late time, the inverse of the fluid flux is linear in ln t; this observation can be exploited to estimate the permeablilty and fluid diffusivity of low-permeability rock. Sample calculations are shown for Westerly granite.

McTigue, D.F. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-08-01

140

Apparatus for generating seismic vibration energy in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

A signal generating apparatus is described for use in fluid-filled boreholes, comprising: a frame for suspension in the borehole; a tube having first and second ends and disposed in the frame a first acoustic energy source mounted in the first end to direct energy to a central point; a second acoustic energy source mounted in the second end to direct energy to the central point; an energy deflector plate disposed at 45 degrees to and along the axis of the tube central point at an equal angle to each means for energizing the first and second acoustic energy sources.

Benzing, W.M.

1986-12-30

141

Cross borehole induced polarization to detect subsurface NAPL at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina  

E-print Network

Spectral induced polarization measurements were acquired in six cross-borehole panels within four boreholes at the Savannah River Site. The investigation was performed to delineate the presence of dense non-aqueous phase ...

Lambert, Michael B. (Michael Brian), 1980-

2003-01-01

142

An approach for predicting stress-induced anisotropy around a borehole  

E-print Network

Formation elastic properties near a borehole may be altered from their original state due to the stress concentration around the borehole. This could result in a biased estimation of formation properties but could provide ...

Fang, Xinding

143

An approach for predicting stress-induced anisotropy around a borehole  

E-print Network

Formation elastic properties near a borehole may be altered from their original state due to the stress concentration around the borehole. This could result in a biased estimation of formation properties but could provide ...

Fang, Xinding

2012-01-01

144

30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1319 Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous...

2010-07-01

145

30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1319 Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous...

2011-07-01

146

30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1319 Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous...

2014-07-01

147

30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1319 Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous...

2013-07-01

148

30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1319 Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous...

2012-07-01

149

Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.  

PubMed

Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus reducing atmospheric C concentration), as well as to select more appropriate species during forestation plan management at least in the north of Iran. PMID:22836390

Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

2012-09-01

150

Borehole-to-surface electromagnetic methods -- System design and field examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) methods are an attractive alternative to Surface-based EM methods for a variety of environmental and engineering applications. They have improved sensitivity to the subsurface resistivity distribution because of the closer proximity to the area of interest offered by the borehole for the source or the receiver. For the borehole-to-surface measurements the source is in the borehole and

L. C. Bartel; M. J. Wilt; H. W. Tseng

1995-01-01

151

Sonde with rotatable pad for carrying out logging measurements in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

The sonde comprises a measuring wheel carried by an arm which holds it in contact with the borehole wall and rotates it around the sonde axis so that the measuring wheel follows a helical path on the borehole wall as the sonde is raised in the borehole.

Desbrandes, R.; Norel, G.

1981-09-15

152

Diurnal fluctuations in borehole water levels: configuration of the drainage system beneath Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water levels were measured in boreholes spaced along the entire length of Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA, for a period in excess of 2 years. Instrumented boreholes were arranged as nine pairs along the center line of the glacier and an orthogonal grid of 16 boreholes in a 3600 m2 region at the center of the ablation area. Diurnal fluctuations of the water levels were found to be restricted to the late melt season. Pairs of boreholes spaced along the length of the ablation area often exhibited similar fluctuations and diurnal changes in water levels. Three distinct and independent types of diurnal fluctuations in water level were observed in clusters of boreholes within the grid of boreholes. Head gradients suggest water did not flow between clusters, and a single tunnel connecting the boreholes could not explain the observed pattern of diurnal water-level fluctuations. Inter-borehole and borehole-cluster connectivity suggests the cross-glacier width of influence of a segment of the drainage system connected to a borehole was limited to tens of meters. A drainage configuration whereby boreholes are connected to a somewhat distant tunnel by drainage pipes of differing lengths, often hundreds of meters, is shown with a numerical test to be a plausible explanation for the observed borehole behavior.

Fudge, T. J.; Humphrey, Neil F.; Harper, Joel T.; Pfeffer, W. Tad

153

Borehole and Ground Surface Temperatures and Their Relationship to Meteorological Conditions in the Swiss Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Switzerland, several boreholes are monitored within the framework of the Permafrost Monitoring Switzerland (PERMOS). Three of these boreholes, at Murtèl, at Schilthorn, and at Stockhorn, are at least 60 m deep. In addition, a number of shorter boreholes (c. 6 m deep) were drilled in other projects and have been continuously observed over several years. Results on long- and

Martin Hoelzle

154

A review of methods to evaluate borehole thermal resistances in geothermal heat-pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system, the heat transfer from the fluid to the ground is influenced by the thermal borehole resistance between the fluid and the borehole surface and also by the interference resistance between the two (or four) pipes inside the borehole. Several authors have proposed empirical and theoretical relations to evaluate these resistances

Louis Lamarche; Stanislaw Kajl; Benoit Beauchamp

2010-01-01

155

Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

Stromswold, D.C.

1994-04-01

156

Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data  

SciTech Connect

Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

Burkhard, N.R.

1991-09-01

157

Orienting drill core using borehole-wall image correlation analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for orienting drill core is proposed that correlates measurements of planar structures in drill core with those observed in spatially referenced images of borehole walls. The drill core orientation is expressed in terms of a transformation between the geographic coordinate system and the drill core coordinate system, using the Euler angles ?, ?, and ?. The angles ? and ? are the azimuth (trend) and the plunge of the inclined borehole, respectively. The angle ? is the rotation angle about the drill core axis and is determined through correlation analyses of planar structures in the drill core with those observed in the borehole wall images. Orientations of planar structures in the drill core are measured in terms of a reference line that is drawn along the length of the drill core in an arbitrary position. The proposed method is applied to drill core samples recovered from a borehole that penetrates the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) at Matsusaka-Iitaka (ITA), eastern Kii Peninsula, Japan. The results suggest that the accuracy of the determination of ? is about ±5°.

Shigematsu, Norio; Otsubo, Makoto; Fujimoto, Koichiro; Tanaka, Nobuaki

2014-10-01

158

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

159

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

DOEpatents

An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

1999-06-22

160

New Insights into Crustal Attenuation from Deep Borehole Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleseismic and regional attenuation studies commonly find that S-waves are more attenuated than P-waves. Four recent studies that have estimated Q as part of the process of determining local earthquake source parameters using data recorded in deep boreholes (800 m to 2500 m), however, find the opposite result for ray paths that sample the seismogenic crust: P-waves are more strongly attenuated than S-waves. The difference in Qs/Qp between the borehole, regional, and teleseismic studies reflects the depth dependence of attenuation in the crust. In this presentation, we summarize attenuation measurements from the SAFOD Pilot Hole in Parkfield, California, the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) in eastern California; the Cajon Pass borehole in southern California; and the Ontake borehole in western Nagano, Japan, and we discuss the implications these measurements have for physical properties of the seismogenic crust. The seismometers in all four boreholes were installed well below the water table in competent basement rock and were used to observe nearby earthquakes with focal depths from 2 to 10 km. At all sites S-waves are less attenuated than P-waves (Qs/Qp = 1.2-2). The ratio Qs/Qp does not vary systematically with the overall degree of attenuation; at Cajon Pass Qp ˜900 and at SAFOD Qp ˜250, yet Qs/Qp = 1.2 in both areas. In the case of Ontake, the only site where frequency dependent attenuation was estimated, Qs/Qp also does not vary with frequency. Furthermore, at all sites, neither Qp nor Qs varies systematically with corner frequency, as it would were Q to have a strong frequency dependence. Because these four boreholes are located in widely varying tectonic and lithologic environments, Qs>Qp may be a common property of the Earth's crust in the 1-10 km depth range. The two boreholes in geothermally active provinces that we have studied have higher Qs/Qp ratios than the other sites (LVEW Qs/Qp ˜2 and western Nagano Qs/Qp ˜1.7 versus Cajon Pass and SAFOD Qs/Qp ˜1.2). Theoretical calculations and laboratory rock mechanics experiments suggest that Qs/Qp reaches a maximum of 2-2.5 when pore spaces are 70-90% saturated (see Winkler and Nur, Geophysics, 1995 V. 47, p.1 for summary). Although it is not clear if these rock-physics observations are applicable to the crust at seismogenic depths, they suggest that pore spaces are not fully saturated. Particularly high Qs/Qp in Long Valley Caldera and Ontake might reflect the presence of a steam phase trapped in pore spaces.

Prejean, S. G.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Imanishi, K.; Ito, H.; Stork, A.

2003-12-01

161

A new matlab® library to interactively analyze logging data and borehole wall images and to recenter borehole acoustic images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations acquired downhole are basically of two types : standard logs and borehole wall images, i.e. scalars versus depth and images versus depth. While many freeware programs can deal with standard logs, very few are able to treat simultaneously and interactively both scalars and images, including standard treatments commonly applied to such data. The developed matlab library offers such a

P. Pinettes

2003-01-01

162

Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the pressure-tightness and the functionality of the hydraulic system components of the borehole device. To monitor the prototype four cameras and several moisture sensors were installed along the source and receiver units close to the extendable coupling stamps where an infiltration of fluid is most probably. The tests lasted about 48 hours each. It was possible to extend and to retract the coupling stamps of the prototype up to a depth of 2100 m. No infiltration of borehole fluids in the SPWD-tool was observed. In preparation of the acoustic calibration measurements in the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg seismic sources and receivers as well as the recording electronic devices were installed in the SPWD-wireline prototype at the GFZ. Afterwards, the SPWD-borehole device was transported to the GFZ-Underground-Lab and preliminary test measurements to characterize the radiation pattern characteristics have been carried out in the newly drilled vertical borehole in December 2013. Previous measurements with a laboratory borehole prototype have demonstrated a dependency of the radiated seismic energy from the predefined amplification direction, the wave type and the signal frequencies. SPWD is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry

Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

2014-05-01

163

Transformation of the chemical composition of the waters of small lakes on Kola Peninsula owing to a decrease in technogenic air pollution and to climate warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of sulfur dioxide and metals from copper-nickel melting plants on Kola Peninsula (Russia) decreased pronouncedly over the last two decades. The decrease in the sulfate content and increase in the acid-neutralizing capability of waters were proven on the basis of the data of surveys on 75 small lakes repeated once every five years from 1990 to 2010. The variations of other parameters of the chemical composition of the waters of small lakes depend on the geological and landscape conditions of the formation of waters. The alkalinity and pH values increased in 46% of the lakes; 24% of them showed a further decrease of these parameters; and no reliable changes were traced in 31% of the lakes. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in the lacustrine water decreased 5-to 10-fold over the last two decades.

Moiseenko, T. I.; Bazova, M. M.; Efimova, L. E.

2014-05-01

164

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

165

Late pleistocene and holocene history of the lakes in the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and the North-Western part of the East European plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reviews the work on paleolimnology in parts of the FSU over the last 40 years. It presents a short review of The History of the Lakes of the East European Plain, one of the books of the series The History of Lakes published by the Institute of Lake Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It describes the Late Pleistocene and Holocene history of these lakes based mainly on the study of lacustrine sediments. Amongst the samples Lake Nero near Moscow which is located near the marginal zone of the last glaciation, and includes records that go back as early as 190,000 BP. The main elements of lake evolution are shown in different territories: Byelorussia; Baltic countries; Karelia; and the Kola Peninsula. Special attention is given to palaeolimnological data because its use for Holocene and Late Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstructions.

Davydova, N.; Servant-Vildary, S.

166

PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

Lee, M.W.

1987-01-01

167

Isotope-geochemical Sm-Nd, ENd and TDM data of the layered paleoproterozoic PGE massif Monchetundra (Kola peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monchetundra massif is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula and it is the south-eastern part of the Main Ridge Intrusion. The massif is subdivided into two up to five syngenetic zones by different researchers (Nazimova, Rayan, 2008, Nerovich et. al. 2009, Layered intrusions…p.1, 2004). According the isotope-geochronological and isotope-geochemical data it can identify at least four groups of rocks distinguishing by ages. The aim of this study is to identify the isotope-geochemical Sm-Nd (ENd and TDM) data of the mafic rocks of the massif Monchetundra. For the interpretation of these data it was selected 40 analyzes of rocks sampled during field works within Monchetundra massif in 2011-2012 and from the published data (Nerovich et. al., 2009, Bayanova et. al., 2010, Layered intrusions…p.2, 2004). The earliest group of rocks is dated by U-Pb zircon in 2521 ± 8 Ma (Bayanova et. al., 2010). It consist of metagabbroids of wide composition range from anorthosite up to gabbro, which also called «amphibole-plagioclase rocks» (Nerovich et. al., 2009) due to their strong metamorphic changes. These rocks are characterized by ENd values from -0.02 up to -2.23 (at the time of rocks formation) as well as mesoarchean and paleoarchean values of model ages. The second group of rocks is composed of medium- grained and coarse-grained mesocratic gabbronorites of trachytoid texture and their amphibolized varieties. The rocks of this group were dated in 2505 ± 6 Ma and 2501 ± 8 Ma (Layered intrusions…p.1., 2004). Values of ENd for these rocks vary from -1.70 up to +1.42, model ages correspond to the range from 2.7 up to 3.5 Ga. Leucocratic gabbronorites, gabbronorite-anorthosites of massive texture and their metamorphosed varieties with garnet and amphibole constitute the third group of Monchetundra massife rocks. The formation age of these rocks has been determined on zircon and baddeleyite by U-Pb method and it is 2471 ± 9 Ma, 2476 ± 17 Ma, 2456 ± 5 Ma and 2453 ± 4 Ma (Bayanova et. al., 2010, Mitrofanov et. al., 1993). Value of ENd for this group rocks vary from -3.38 to +2.08, and the values of the model ages range between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. Dyke-shaped bodies of melanocratic troctolites are found within the southeastern slope of Monchetundra massif. These rocks are characterized by positive values of ENd varying from +2.01 to +3.28, and the values of model ages are close to 2.7 Ga. Gabbro-pegmatites occur at the upper part of the Monchtundra massif and are characterized by negative ENd values from -1.26 up to -0.63, and model ages of protolith range from 3.0 to 3.2 Ga. Isotope-geochemical Sm-Nd (ENd and TDM) data indicate the origining of gabbro massif from EM-1 mantle plume reservoir and this fact is confirmed by the ENd-ISr diagrams in accordance with published data (Bayanova et. al., 2009). The research is conducted with the financial support of RFBR 13-05-00493, OFI-M 13-05-12055, 14-05-93965 and 14-05-00484.

Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Borisenko, Elena; Serov, Pavel

2014-05-01

168

Kyanoxalite, a new cancrinite-group mineral species with extraframework oxalate anion from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kyanoxalite, a new member of the cancrinite group, has been identified in hydrothermally altered hyperalkaline rocks and pegmatites of the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It was found at Mount Karnasurt (holotype) in association with nepheline, aegirine, sodalite, nosean, albite, lomonosovite, murmanite, fluorapatite, loparite, and natrolite and at Mt. Alluaiv. Kyanoxalite is transparent, ranging in color from bright light blue, greenish light blue and grayish light blue to colorless. The new mineral is brittle, with a perfect cleavage parallel to (100). Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. The measured and calculated densitiesare 2.30(1) and 2.327 g/cm3, respectively. Kyanoxalite is uniaxial, negative, ? = 1.794(1), ? = 1.491(1). It is pleochroic from colorless along E to light blue along O. The IR spectrum indicates the presence of oxalate anions C2O{4/2-} and water molecules in the absence of CO{3/2-} Oxalate ions are confirmed by anion chromatography. The chemical composition (electron microprobe; water was determined by a modified Penfield method and carbon was determined by selective sorption from annealing products) is as follows, wt %: 19.70 Na2O, 1.92 K2O, 0.17 CaO, 27.41 Al2O3, 38.68 SiO2, 0.64 P2O5, 1.05 SO3, 3.23 C2O3, 8.42 H2O; the total is 101.18. The empirical formula (Z = 1) is (Na6.45K0.41Ca0.03)?6.89(Si6.53Al5.46O24)[(C2O4)0.455(SO4)0.13(PO4)0.09(OH)0.01]?0.68 · 4.74H2O. The idealized formula is Na7(Al5-6Si6-7O24)(C2O4)0.5-1 · 5H2O. Kyanoxalite is hexagonal, the space group is P63, a = 12.744(8), c = 5.213(6) -ray powder diffraction pattern are as follows, [ d, [A] ( I, %)( hkl)]: 6.39(44) (110), 4.73 (92) (101), 3.679 (72) (300), 3.264 (100) (211, 121), 2.760 (29) (400), 2.618 (36) (002), 2.216, (29) (302, 330). According to the X-ray single crystal study ( R = 0.033), two independent C2O4 groups statistically occupy the sites on the axis 63. The new mineral is the first natural silicate with an additional organic anion and is the most hydrated member of the cancrinite group. Its name reflects the color (????go?? is light blue in Greek) and the species-forming role of oxalate anions. The holotype is deposited at the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, registration no. 3735/1.

Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Olysych, L. V.; Massa, W.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Vigasina, M. F.

2010-12-01

169

Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

2007-01-01

170

Acoustic measurements of rock formations in oilfield boreholes.  

PubMed

Once a borehole is drilled into a rock formation as a potential oil or gas well the environment needs to be characterized by a variety of physical measurements so that e.g. one may know at what depths the hydrocarbon, if any, is located. In this talk I will outline some techniques for measuring, in situ, the compressional and shear speeds of sound in a rock formation as a function of depth. Here the "difficult and challenging conditions" are that the measuring instrument is inside the sample (rather than the other way around), the temperatures may reach 175 °C, and the pressure in the borehole may reach as high as 1000 atmospheres. PMID:25235508

Johnson, David L

2014-04-01

171

Heat transfer analysis of boreholes in vertical ground heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ground heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from\\/into the ground. Bearing strong impact on GHE performance, the borehole thermal resistance is defined by the thermal properties of the construction materials and the arrangement of flow channels of the GHEs. Taking the fluid axial convective heat transfer and thermal “short-circuiting” among U-tube legs into

Heyi Zeng; Nairen Diao; Zhaohong Fang

2003-01-01

172

Borehole stability analysis at the Coporo-1 well, Colombia  

E-print Network

year of drilling operations. The stability problems included hole-cleaning problems, frequent stuck-pipe incidents and poor cementing jobs. Furthermore, hole rugosity at Coporo-1 made running casing, logging, and tripping problematic. Fig. 1. 1... instability problems was hole cleaning that caused frequent pack-off incidents, stuck pipe, and one sidetrack aller the core barrel got stuck at 17, 305 ft in the Los Cuervos formation. Furthermore, severe borehole rugosity caused by sand/shale sequences...

Arias, Henry

2012-06-07

173

Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes  

DOEpatents

A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

Mao, Nai-Hsien (Castro Valley, CA)

1987-01-01

174

Further Analysis of Borehole Flow-Meters in Granular Aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The borehole flow-meter has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying conductive fractures in fractured rock aquifers and intermediate-scale heterogeneities in hydraulic conductivity (K) distributions in granular aquifers [Hess, Canadian Geotechnical J., 23, 69, 1986; Molz et al., Water Resour. Res., 25, 1677, 1989]. A common analysis technique applied to flow-meter data [Molz and Young, The Log Analyst, 3, 13,

S. A. Crisman; F. J. Molz

2001-01-01

175

Low-order state space models for borehole heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of optimal model based control strategies for borefield thermal energy storage systems requires a low-order dynamic model of the borefield. This article investigates two approaches to obtain a low-order state space description of a borehole heat exchanger(BHE): (1) model reduction (MR) of a one-dimensional finite-difference model (1D-FDM) and (2) parameter estimation (PE). The resulting models are compared to

Clara Verhelst; Lieve Helsen

2011-01-01

176

Seismic borehole tomography - Measurement system and field studies  

SciTech Connect

A system for seismic tomographic measurements is presented, and both hardware and software are described. The system is intended to operate in the distance range 100-1000 m. An explosive source is used to generate signals which are picked up by receivers at the surface and in boreholes. Tomographic results from two field experiments are presented. The first experiment concerns mapping of an ore body in a mine, whereas the second concerns rock quality determination.

Gustavsson, M.; Ivansson, S.; Moren, P.; Pihl, J.

1986-02-01

177

Tsunami Signals Recorded By Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the US National Science Foundation funded Earthscope program, is designed to capture the continuous three-dimensional deformation field across the western United States plate boundary. Installed and maintained by UNAVCO, the observatory currently consists of over 1100 continuous GPS sites, 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters and 75 borehole strainmeters. PBO borehole strainmeters have recorded the arrival of tsunamis generated by the 2009 M8.0 Samoa, 2010 M8.8 Chile and 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquakes on the Pacific coast of North America. In our analysis of the strain data we find the following: the tsunami arrival times recorded by the strainmeters are consistent with those recorded by nearby tide-gauges, the data are of sufficient quality to compare the frequency content of the tidal signal in the days before and after the tsunami and, the strain measurements are comparable with those predicted by theory. In each case the strain measurements can be translated to water height estimates which are within centimeters of those recorded by tide gauges. It is possible that borehole strainmeters could play a role in providing a land-based, continuous, high-rate tsunami measurement system.

Hodgkinson, K.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A.; Henderson, B.; Johnson, W.

2012-04-01

178

Borehole paleoclimatology and the COSC scientific drilling project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific deep drilling projects offer unique opportunities to measure geothermal gradients well below ground surface, where disturbances related to both recent climatic changes and fluid circulation through the bedrock are significantly damped, in particular in areas of tectonic quiescence. Geothermal gradients contain invaluable information on deep, shallow and surface processes but only their study in deep boreholes allows for accurate quantification of these processes. The quality of the temperature data gathered in deep boreholes allows for estimating (1) the thermal state of the lithosphere, (2) the amplitude and timing of surface temperature changes and (3) the volume of fluids circulating in the subsurface. In brief, geothermal studies in connection to deep drilling projects address a variety of scientific problems relevant for disciplines as diverse as climate science and geodynamics. Two 2.5 km-deep holes are planned to be drilled in Central Sweden in the framework of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project (www.sddp.se/cosc), supported by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). The drilling of the first borehole, COSC1, is scheduled for summer 2013. Among other geoscientific aspects, the COSC project addresses the geothermal conditions of the Fennoscandian cratonic lithosphere, studying its present state as well as the signatures of past climatic change. The purpose of the present contribution is to give an overview of the planned geothermal research with particular emphasis to paleoclimate research in the framework of the COSC project.

Pascal, Christophe

2013-04-01

179

Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

1996-03-01

180

Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

Khristoforov, A.

181

Brine resistance of window materials for a Borehole Televiewer tool  

SciTech Connect

The Borehole Televiewer is a data logging tool that was developed to inspect boreholes and evaluate geological formations. Window failures were observed after the manufacturer of the tool replaced the elastomeric windows with windows made from polyimide (Vespel), a plastic material noted for its high thermal stability. In this work, it was demonstrated that while Vespel was quite stable thermally at 250/sup 0/C in an inert environment (argon), stress cracking occurred in the presence of brine at these temperatures over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Somewhat longer exposures to brine (24 hours) at 260/sup 0/C and 20.7 MPa resulted in extensive chemical reversion of polyimides. Acids and amines were detected by infrared analysis. In contrast, the mechanical and chemical properties of Teflon (poly(tetrafluorethylene)) were unaffected after exposure to brine under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, it was recommended that acoustic windows for the Borehole Televiewer be made of Teflon. It was also recommended that the configuration of the window be modified to allow for the tendency of Teflon to flow under stress.

Arnold, C. Jr.

1982-02-01

182

Borehole Geologic Data for the 216-Z Crib Facilities, A Status of Data Assembled through the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assembling existing borehole geologic information to aid in determining the distribution and potential movement of contaminants released to the environment and to aid selection of remedial alternatives. This information is being assembled via the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS), which is being developed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, managed

George V. Last; Rob D. Mackley; David C. Lanigan

2006-01-01

183

Studies and developments of the Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Resources of the Kola Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, in the field of materials science for the solution of special technical problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Resources of the Kola Research Center, Russian Academy\\u000a of Sciences, has published the results of studies and developments in the field of materials science for the solution of special\\u000a technical problems; presented the technological schemes for the production of some rare metal powders by hydrogenation-dehydrogenation,\\u000a agglomerated capacitor powders, and

V. T. Kalinnikov; A. G. Kasikov; V. M. Orlov; N. N. Grishin; B. M. Freidin

2010-01-01

184

Phosphoinnelite, Ba 4 Na 3 Ti 3 Si 4 O 14 (PO 4 ,SO 4 ) 2 (O,F) 3 , a new mineral species from peralkaline pegmatite of the Kovdor pluton, Kola Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphoinnelite, an analogue of innelite with P > S, has been found in a peralkaline pegmatite vein crosscutting calcite carbonatite\\u000a at the phlogopite deposit, Kovdor pluton, Kola Peninsula. Cancrinite (partly replaced with thomsonite-Ca), orthoclase, aegirine-augite,\\u000a pectolite, magnesioarfvedsonite, golyshevite, and fluorapatite are associated minerals. Phosphoinnelite occurs as lath-shaped\\u000a crystals up to 0.2 × 1 × 6 mm in size, which are

I. V. Pekov; N. V. Chukanov; I. M. Kulikova; D. I. Belakovsky

2007-01-01

185

Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other as a receiver (Rx) and they were lowered into the holes opposite each other. The Tx was operated in single shot mode, where an electromagnetic pulse was propagated and the time it took to penetrate the soil matrix and be detected by the Rx was measured. To allow for tomographic reconstruction of the vertical roots, a series of vectors were created by raising and lowering the antennas at intervals of 5 cm. Then the antennas were moved to opposite holes and the process was repeated creating 3200 unique travel-paths per tree. Borehole to surface measures were collected in a similar fashion, though the Rx was moved across the soil surface (10 cm interval) and the Tx was manipulated below ground (5 cm interval), generating 2400 unique travel-paths per tree. This is the first report of using borehole radar to study vertical tree roots. Cross-hole tomography provided excellent information on the depth of tree roots, but was less useful for imaging near surface features. Borehole to surface measures provided the best information on the near surface, where the bulk of roots are found (0-0.3 m). Cross-hole and borehole to surface data may be combined to further define vertical roots systems. Analysis of root mass and projected root mass is ongoing.

Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikström, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

2004-12-01

186

Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

2008-01-01

187

MoM Analysis of Dipole Antennas in Crosshole Borehole Radar and Field Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method-of-moments (MoM) analysis that includes the borehole effects on crosshole borehole radar, and we verify that the MoM represents the crosshole borehole radar data correctly. We derive the far-field approximation of an electric field radiated by an electric point source. In this derivation, we assume that the point source is in a cylindrically layered

Satoshi Ebihara; Yuuki Hashimoto

2007-01-01

188

A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-04-01

189

Effect of a mudcake on the propagation of stoneley waves in a borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of detecting a permeable stratum blocked by a mudcake with the help of acoustic measurements inside a borehole is considered. Different physical models of the mudcake are compared: in the form of a highly viscous liquid layer, in the form of a soft elastic shell, and in the form of an elastic shell fixed in an arbitrary way to the borehole walls. Numerical calculations are presented for the wave field in a borehole.

Maximov, G. A.; Merkulov, M. E.

2002-03-01

190

A numerical investigation of head waves and leaky modes in fluid- filled boreholes.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although synthetic borehole seismograms can be computed for a wide range of borehole conditions, the physical nature of shear and compressional head waves in fluid-filled boreholes is poorly understood. Presents a series of numerical experiments designed to explain the physical mechanisms controlling head-wave propagation in boreholes. These calculations demonstrate the existence of compressional normal modes equivalent to shear normal modes, or pseudo-Rayleigh waves, with sequential cutoff frequencies spaced between the cutoff frequencies for the shear normal modes.-from Authors

Paillet, F. L.; Cheng, C. H.

1986-01-01

191

Diurnal Fluctuations in Borehole Water Levels: Configuration of the Drainage System Beneath Bench Glacier, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water levels were measured in boreholes spaced along the entire length of Bench Glacier, Alaska for a period in excess of two years. Instrumented boreholes were arranged as 9 pairs along the centerline of the glacier and an orthogonal grid of 16 boreholes at the center of the ablation area. Diurnal fluctuations of the water levels were found to be unique to the melt season. Pairs of boreholes along the length of the ablation area regularly had similar water levels and fluctuations. In the grid of boreholes, three independent types of diurnal fluctuations in water were observed - the magnitudes and base levels of the fluctuations were distinct with each type. Therefore, water was not flowing between boreholes of separate sets and a single tunnel connecting the boreholes could not explain the observed diurnal water level fluctuations. A drainage configuration whereby boreholes are connected to a low-pressure tunnel by drainage pipes of differing lengths was shown with a numerical test to be a plausible alternative. The cross glacier width of influence of a borehole was determined to be no greater than 70 meters in a cross glacier direction. The grid water level records also showed that no uniform basal pressure exists during summer over even a small area of the bed.

Humphrey, N. F.; Harper, J. T.; Pfeffer, W. T.

2006-12-01

192

Stress Analysis in the Nankai Accretionary Prism from Borehole Breakouts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 196, Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) data were collected at two sites spanning the deformation front of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. Site 1173 penetrated ~750 m of sediment of the Shikoku Basin, about 10 km seaward of the prism, and Site 808 penetrated to the basal decollement several km landward of initial thrust formation. Resistivity-At-Bit (RAB) data provide 360° imaging of the borehole wall. At Site 808, well-developed borehole breakouts of consistent orientation were imaged over hundreds of meters, spanning the main frontal thrust splay and persisting downhole to the decollement at 960 meters below sea floor (mbsf). The breakouts are best developed in a zone from 270 to 530 mbsf, coinciding with a relatively coarse-grained turbidite-rich lithology, suggesting lithologic control of breakout formation. This dependence may be due to brittle shear strength variations. Breakout azimuth is tightly clustered about 45° and 225°, interpreted to indicate a maximum horizontal stress oriented 315°. This azimuth agrees well with published plate motion calculations. Detailed analysis suggests no rotation of azimuth near the major faults, suggesting that the frontal thrust is strongly coupled. Weakly developed breakouts are also observed at reference Site 1173. Constraints on stress magnitude (Shmax - Shmin) can in theory be computed from breakout width if cohesive strength and coefficient of friction are known, assuming breakouts are Coulomb shear failures produced by circumferential stress at the borehole wall. In the zone of best-developed breakouts at Site 808, mean width is 72°, suggesting a very low coefficient of friction. Applicability of this Coulomb failure assumption to breakouts in these weakly consolidated sediment is uncertain, as these very wide breakouts yield an unreasonably large calculated value of the horizontal differential stress.

Tobin, H. J.; McNeill, L.; Ienaga, M.

2002-12-01

193

Stochastic Bayesian inversion of borehole self-potential measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a mechanistic model to compute and to invert self-potential log data in sedimentary basins and for near-surface geophysical applications. The framework of our analysis is founded in a unified electrical conductivity and self-potential petrophysical model. This model is based on an explicit dependence of these properties on porosity, water saturation, temperature, brine salinity, cementation and saturation (Archie) exponents and the volumetric charge density per unit pore volume associated with the clay fraction. This model is consistent with empirical laws widely used to interpret self-potential logs according to the two limiting cases corresponding to a clean sand and a pure shale. We present a finite element calculation of the self-potential signal produced by sand reservoirs interstratified with shale layers. For layered strata normal to the well, we demonstrate that the 3-D Poisson equation governing the occurrence of self-potentials in a borehole can be simplified to a 2-D axisymmetric partial differential equation solved at each depth providing a common self-potential reference can be defined between these different depths. This simplification is very accurate as long as the vertical salinity gradients are not too strong over distances corresponding to the borehole diameter. The inversion of borehole data (self-potential, resistivity and density well logs, incorporating information derived from neutron porosity and gamma-ray log data) is performed with the Adaptive Metropolis Algorithm (AMA). We start by formulating an approximate analytical solution for the six model parameters (water saturation, porosity, the two Archie's exponents, the pore water conductivity and the volumetric charge density of the diffuse layer). This solution is used for the AMA algorithm to converge in less than 60 iterations at each depth for the real case study. The posterior probability distributions are computed using 50-60 additional realizations. Our approach is applied to a case study concerning a small sedimentary sequence in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, in a series of tight gas reservoirs.

Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Jardani, A.; Nummedal, D.; Cumella, S.

2010-11-01

194

The PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Data Availability, Access And Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthscope is a U.S. NSF funded program designed to provide seismic, GPS, strainmeter, fault core, LiDAR, and InSAR data to the scientific community to research the evolution and structure of the North American continent. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, is the geodetic component of the program. PBO consists of over 1100 continuous GPS sites in the western U.S. and Alaska, 6 long baseline laser strainmeters and 75 co-located borehole strainmeters and seismometers distributed in arrays along the western U.S. Pacific-North American plate boundary. In this presentation we describe how UNAVCO makes the borehole data sets available to the community and details the generation of higher-level PBO strainmeter data products. PBO borehole data flow in either real time or with a few hours delay to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) where they are immediately available in SEED format. Archiving the various data sets using the same, well-known format facilitates the integrated analysis of complementary data sets. Processed strain time-series, earth tide models, barometric pressure response coefficients, long-term borehole trends, data quality information and calibration matrices for each strainmeter are generated by UNAVCO and can accessed in XML format from the DMC and NCEDC or, as ASCII files from UNAVCO. Both formats contain the information required to regenerate the processed time-series from the raw data thus meeting an Earthscope goal of repeatability of processed data sets. UNAVCO is guided by the scientific community in determining the best data formats, archiving, access methods and data products to generate. Recommendations for future data products made in an October 2012 workshop hosted by UNAVCO include: a noise assessment of each strainmeter site, development of a physical model for long-term trends in strainmeter data and the release of high-rate processed data in a seismic data format. UNAVCO's goal is to provide researchers not only with a strain time-series but also with the data products and metadata required to meet their research goals and enable scientific discovery.

Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Philips, David; Fox, Otina; Henderson, Brent; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen

2013-04-01

195

Induced temperature gradients to examine groundwater flowpaths in open boreholes.  

PubMed

Techniques for characterizing the hydraulic properties and groundwater flow processes of aquifers are essential to design hydrogeologic conceptual models. In this study, rapid time series temperature profiles within open-groundwater wells in fractured rock were measured using fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS). To identify zones of active groundwater flow, two continuous electrical heating cables were installed alongside a FO-DTS cable to heat the column of water within the well and to create a temperature difference between the ambient temperature of the groundwater in the aquifer and that within the well. Additional tests were performed to examine the effects of pumping on hydraulic fracture interconnectivity around the well and to identify zones of increased groundwater flow. High- and low-resolution FO-DTS cable configurations were examined to test the sensitivities of the technique and compared with downhole video footage and geophysical logging to confirm the zones of active groundwater flow. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of this new technique for rapid characterization of fracture zones in open boreholes. The combination of the FO-DTS and heating cable has excellent scope as a rapid appraisal tool for borehole construction design and improving hydrogeologic conceptual models. PMID:24475970

Banks, Eddie W; Shanafield, Margaret A; Cook, Peter G

2014-11-01

196

Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

1998-03-01

197

Borehole inclinometer monument for millimeter horizontal geodetic control accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geodetic monument is described whose horizontal position may be monitored relative to points 30 m deep to an accuracy of 0.5 mm, and to points more than 2 km to a potential accuracy of 2 mm. The monument incorporates a 7 cm diameter borehole lining equipped with orthogonal alignment grooves that guide a portable inclinometer during measurements. The inclinometer is raised incrementally from the base of the hole to measure the tilt of contiguous 0.5-m-long segments of the borehole prior to geodetic occupation. Integrating the results yields a measure of the surface monument's position. Random errors increase with the square root of the number of downhole measuremnts N as 0.03 square root of N mm (N=2d for d-m-deep hole). Systematic errors are approximately 0.02% of the lateral offset of the base of the hole relative to the surface monument. Unlike previous monuments the inclinometer-based system permits surface and subsurface instability to be characterized, and the effectiveness of the monument to be monitored.

Bilham, Roger

1993-10-01

198

Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt  

SciTech Connect

Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} (10{sup {minus}4} darcy to 10{sup {minus}6}). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ``heal`` or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required.

Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daemen, J.J.K. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

1994-05-01

199

Recording and interpretation\\/analysis of tilt signals with five ASKANIA borehole tiltmeters at the KTB  

Microsoft Academic Search

In June 2003, a large scale injection experiment started at the Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB) in Germany. A tiltmeter array was installed which consisted of five high resolution borehole tiltmeters of the ASKANIA type, also equipped with three dimensional seismometers. For the next 11 months, 86 000 m3 were injected into the KTB pilot borehole 4000 m deep. The

André Gebauer; Thomas Jahr; Gerhard Jentzsch

2007-01-01

200

Tidal and non-tidal signals in groundwater boreholes in the KTB area, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tides and barometric pressure variations cause pore pressure changes in the solid earth. In boreholes which are hydraulically connected to confined aquifers these pore pressure changes can be observed as water level variations. In case of confined aquifers boreholes can be regarded as volumetric strainmeters. From June 2004 until May 2005 a large scale injection experiment was realised in the

Stefanie Zeumann; Adelheid Weise; Thomas Jahr

2009-01-01

201

Status of the crustal stress in Egypt as inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent stress field has been investigated by the analysis of the directions of maximum horizontal stress (?H) as derived from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts in Egypt. The results indicate that, in the southern part of the Gulf of Suez, the shallow (borehole breakouts) stress directions are not consistent with the deep (earthquakes focal mechanisms) stress directions. Analysis

Ahmed Badawy

2001-01-01

202

Basic data report for borehole DOE1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project, Southeastern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole DOE-1 is one of several exploratory boreholes drilled at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site for the purpose of gathering stratigraphic, hydrologic and structural data. DOE-1 is located in Zone III about 1.25 miles to the southeast of the exploratory shaft location. This project was undertaken for several reasons: to investigate the presence of an anticlinal structure in

Freeland

1982-01-01

203

Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for;\\u000adislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of;\\u000aradioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner;\\u000atechnology.

CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

1998-01-01

204

Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole  

DOEpatents

In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

2013-10-08

205

Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

2011-01-01

206

Corrections and Design Studies of Borehole Logging Tools with the help of Monte Carlo Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole logging tools are used for measuring a detailed record of a geological formation that is penetrated by a borehole. Values of interest of a geological formation are for example its density, chemical composition and porosity. Density of a formation can be measured using tools based on a chemical CS-137 gamma ray source. Porosity can be measured using a chemical AmBe neutron source. The resulting measurement of the tool, for example the density of a formation, has to be corrected for borehole influences such as borehole fluid or borehole size. These corrections depend on the individual tool design. The best way to calculate this vast number of corrections is using Monte-Carlo simulations. The software of choice is the MCNP5 package(1) . At Antares Datensysteme simulations are further used in pre design studies, to get the best physical layout of a tool.

Reinhardt, Heiko

2014-06-01

207

Low-frequency radiation from point sources in a fluid-filled borehole.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Far-field displacement fields have been derived for an impulsive point force acting on a fluid-filled borehole wall under the assumption that the borehole diameter is small compared to the wavelength involved. The displacements due to an arbitrary source can be computed easily by combining the solutions for the impulsive sources. In general, the borehole source generates not only longitudinal and vertically polarized shear waves, but also horizontally polarized shear waves. This study also indicates that only the axisymmetric motion around the borehole due to normal stress is affected by the fluid in the borehole. In the long-wavelength limit, the presence of the fluid does not affect the radiation from tangential sources into the surrounding medium. -Author

Lee, M.W.

1986-01-01

208

The influence of boreholes on the regional scale groundwater flow in a fractured rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep geological disposal is one of the preferred options for high level radioactive waste because it can isolate effectively the waste from the biosphere for its low permeability. To evaluate the safety and/or performance of a repository in a deep geologic condition, the groundwater flow system of a site is characterized through several installed boreholes and is conceptualized based on the characterization results. Although the groundwater flow system can be disturbed by the installed boreholes which can act as conduits for groundwater in an impermeable geologic medium, it is common to conceptualize the system, especially the regional-scale one, without considering their influences. In this study, we discussed the necessity of consideration of boreholes in modeling regional-scale groundwater flow in a fractured rock by examining the disturbance of a regional groundwater flow system by installed boreholes. We simulated the regional-scale groundwater flow in the natural and long-term pumping conditions at the Olkiluoto site, which is the candidate site for a radioactive waste repository in Finland, through the Hybrid approach combining equivalent porous medium and discrete fracture network approaches. 1-D elements were used to consider the boreholes, and the recharge rate and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil zone were calibrated using the observed heads at the boreholes. To examine the influences of boreholes, two cases were simulated using the calibrated groundwater flow model. For case 1, the sizes of the fractured zones were extended to maximize the connectivity among the fractured zones. For case 2, the boreholes were ignored. The results show that the effect of boreholes are as sensitive as the sizes of the fractured zones, especially in the pumping condition, and it is necessary to consider the boreholes when the groundwater flow system in a fractured rock is modeled although it is a regional-scale one.

Ji, S.; Ko, N.; Koh, Y.; Choi, J.

2010-12-01

209

Short time-step performances of coaxial and double U-tube borehole heat exchangers: Modeling and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have investigated the long time-step performance of borehole heat exchangers. In that time scale, the borehole thermal capacitance is generally neglected, since the time span of interest is on the order of months or years. The borehole thermal capacitance consists both of grouting material and heat carrier fluid, and it mostly affects the short time-step behavior, when hourly

Angelo Zarrella; Massimiliano Scarpa; Michele De Carli

2011-01-01

210

Borehole Optimisation System (BOS) - A GIS based risk analysis tool for optimising the use of urban groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban groundwater is generally an underused resource, partially due to the perceived risk of pollution and the strategic difficulties in placing boreholes in built-up areas. The development of a probabilistic risk based management tool that predicts groundwater quality at potential new urban boreholes is beneficial in determining the best sites for future resource development. The Borehole Optimisation System (BOS) is

Nigel G. Tait; Ruth M. Davison; J. J. Whittaker; Stephen A. Leharne; David N. Lerner

2004-01-01

211

Imaging an Orebody Ahead of Mining Using Borehole Radar at the Snap Lake Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole radar is a proven geophysical technology that can be used to map an orebody ahead of mining. This paper will present a case study, where borehole radar is being used within the mining cycle to map out orebody blocks, both as a strategic and tactical tool. Refined equipment and procedures now enables a slimline borehole radar tool to be

C Kemp; K Smith; A Bray; I Mason; T Sindle

2009-01-01

212

Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples from borehole USGS 136 indicated that concentrations of tritium, sulfate, and chromium were affected by wastewater disposal practices at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex. Depth-discrete groundwater samples were collected in the open borehole USGS 136 near 965, 710, and 573 ft BLS using a thief sampler; on the basis of selected constituents, deeper groundwater samples showed no influence from wastewater disposal at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex.

Twining. Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

2012-01-01

213

LWD borehole images/dips aid offshore California evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative, fullbore, azimuthal resistivity images of the borehole wall, acquired while drilling, can reveal large-scale structural bedding, fractures, faults, unconformities and other useful geologic events. While these images cannot resolve fine structural features or stratigraphic details, they can help identify those intervals requiring higher resolution wireline logging after drilling, and can be used to calculate general structural dips prior to wireline image/dipmeter runs. These images and dips have proven useful for time-critical drilling decisions and for subsequent geological interpretation and formation evaluation. This article presents discussions on: data acquisition at the bit with the Resistivity-at-the-Bit (RAB) tool, including tool functions and depth control, specific benefits derived from while-drilling resistivity images in two offshore California wells, and a favorable RAB outlook including a new RAB method for calculating high angle dips.

Young, R.A. [Schlumberger Wireline and Testing, Montrouge (France); Lovell, J.R.; Rosthal, R.A.; Buffington, L.; Arceneaux, C. Jr.

1996-04-01

214

Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

2010-12-01

215

Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

Paillet, F. L.

2002-01-01

216

Results of rock property measurements made on core samples from Yucca Mountain boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; Part 1, Boreholes UE25A-4, -5, -6, and -7; Part 2, Borehole UE25PNo.1  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory measurements of resistivity, bulk and grain density, porosity, compressional sonic velocity, water permeability, magnetic susceptibility, and remanent magnetization were made on core samples from Yucca Mountain boreholes located in Drill Hole Wash at the Nevada Test Site. The samples are representative of lithologic variations to be found in the Tiva Canyon, Yucca Mountain, Pah Canyon, and the upper Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff. Boreholes penetrated to a depth of approximately 152 meters (500 ft.). The Paintbrush Tuff consists primarily of nonwelded to densely welded rhyolitic ash-flow tuff with relatively thin beds of ash-fall tuff typically separating each Member. Resistivity and bulk density measurements were made on samples containing natural pore waters and repeated following resaturation with local tap water. Density comparisons indicate the samples to be undersaturated in their natural environment as expected in that the boreholes did not intersect the water table.

Anderson, L.A.

1991-12-31

217

Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.  

SciTech Connect

During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

2007-02-01

218

Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T

1982-03-01

219

Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the boreholes, the foliation strikes predominantly to the northwest and dips to the northeast. Although small-scale faults and lithologic discontinuities were observed in the OTV data, no large-scale faults were observed that appear on regional geologic maps. Fractures were located and characterized through the use of conventional geophysical, OTV, acoustic-televiewer (ATV), and borehole-radar logs. The orientation of fractures varies considerably across the site; some fractures are parallel to the foliation, whereas others cross-cut the foliation. Many of the transmissive fractures in the bedrock boreholes strike about N170?E and N320?E with dips of less than 45?. Other transmissive fractures strike about N60?E with dips of more than 60?. Most of the transmissive fractures in the domestic wells strike about N60?E and N22?E with dips of more than 45?. The strike of N60?E is parallel to the trend of a thrust fault that appears on regional geologic maps. Vertical flow in the boreholes was measured with the heat-pulse flowmeter under ambient and (or) pumping conditions. Results of ATV, OTV, and conventional logs were used to locate specific zones for flowmeter testing. Ambient downflow was measured in three boreholes, ambient upflow was measured in two other boreholes, and both ambient downflow and upflow were measured in a sixth borehole. The other five bedrock boreholes and domestic wells did not have measurable vertical flow. The highest rate of ambient flow was measured in the background borehole in which upflow and downflow converged and exited the borehole at a fracture zone near a depth of 62 feet. Ambient flow of about 340 gallons per day was measured. In the other five wells, ambient flow of about 20 to 35 gallons per day was measured. Under low-rate pumping (0.25 to 1 gallon per minute), one to six inflow zones were identified in each well. Usually the fractures that are active under ambient conditions contribute to the well under pumping conditions. To prevent

Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F. P.; Lane, John W., Jr.; White, Eric A.

2002-01-01

220

Breakthroughs in Seismic and Borehole Characterization of Basalt Sequestration Targets  

SciTech Connect

Mafic continental flood basalts form a globally important, but under-characterized CO2 sequestration target. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the northwestern U.S. is up to 5 km thick and covers over 168,000 km2. In India, flood basalts are 3 km thick and cover greater than 500,000 km2. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the CRBG and other basalts react with formation water and super critical (sc) CO2 to precipitate carbonates, thus adding a potential mineral trapping mechanism to the standard trapping mechanisms of most other types of CO2 sequestration reservoirs. Brecciated tops of individual basalt flows in the CRBG form regional aquifers that locally have greater than 30% porosity and three Darcies of permeability. Porous flow tops are potential sites for sequestration of gigatons of scCO2 in areas where the basalts contain unpotable water and are at depths greater than 800 m. In this paper we report on the U.S. DOE Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership surface seismic and borehole geophysical characterization that supports a field test of capacity, integrity, and geochemical reactivity of CRBG reservoirs in eastern Washington, U.S.A. Traditional surface seismic methods have had little success in imaging basalt features in on-shore areas where the basalt is thinly covered by sediment. Processing of the experimental 6.5 km, 5 line 3C seismic swath included constructing an elastic wavefield model, identifying and separating seismic wave modes, and processing the swath as a single 2D line. Important findings include: (1) a wide variety of shear wave energy modes swamp the P-wave seismic records; (2) except at very short geophone offsets, ground roll overprints P-wave signal; and (3) because of extreme velocity contrasts, P-wave events are refracted at incidence angles greater than 7-15 degrees. Subsequent removal of S-wave and other noise during processing resulted in tremendous improvement in image quality. The application of wireline logging to onshore basalts is underexploited. Full waveform sonic logs and resistivity-based image logs acquired in the 1250 m basalt pilot borehole provide powerful tools for evaluating geomechanics and lithofacies. The azimuth of the fast shear wave is parallel to SH and records the changes through time in basalt flow and tectonic stress tensors. Combined with image log data, azimuthal S-wave data provide a borehole technique for assessing basalt emplacement and cooling history that is related to the development of reservoirs and seals, as well as the orientation of tectonic stresses and fracture systems that could affect CO2 transport or containment. Reservoir and seal properties are controlled by basalt lithofacies, and rescaled P- and S- wave slowness curves, integrated with image logs, provide a tool for improved recognition of subsurface lithofacies.

Sullivan, E. C.; Hardage, Bob A.; McGrail, B. Peter; Davis, Klarissa N.

2011-04-01

221

Surface and borehole electromagnetic imaging of conducting contaminant plumes  

SciTech Connect

Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component magnetic field detectors are deployed in other boreholes or on the surface. Sources and receivers are typically deployed in a configuration surrounding the region of interest. The goal of this procedure is to image electrical conductivity variations in the earth, much as x-ray tomography is used to image density variations through cross-sections of the body. Although such EM field techniques have been developed and applied, the algorithms for inverting the magnetic field data to produce the desired images of electrical conductivity have not kept pace. One of the main reasons for the lag in the algorithm development has been the fact that the magnetic induction problem is inherently three dimensional; other imaging methods such as x-ray and seismic can make use of two-dimensional approximations that are not too far from reality, but we do not have this luxury in EM induction tomography. In addition, previous field experiments were conducted at controlled test sites that typically do not have much external noise or extensive surface clutter problems often associated with environmental sites. To use the same field techniques in environments more typical of cleanup sites requires a new set of data processing tools to remove the effects of both noise and clutter. The goal of this project is to join theory and experiment to produce enhanced images of electrically conducting fluids underground, allowing better localization of contaminants and improved planning strategies for the subsequent remediation efforts. After explaining the physical context in more detail, this report will summarize the progress made in the first 18 months of this project: (1) on code development and (2) on field tests of these methods. We conclude with a brief statement of the research directions for the remainder of this three year project.

Berryman, J. G., LLNL

1998-07-01

222

Pressure drop in a borehole intersecting an active fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corinth Rift, in western Greece, is one of the most active continental Rift in the world, with an opening rate of 1.5cm/yr. Its deformation process is being monitored with a broad range of sensors dispatched across the rift, near the city of Aigio, some 40km east of Patras. In particular, a set of pressure transducers has been set in a 1000m-deep borehole that intersects the active 10km long Aigio fault at a depth of 760m. Below its upper 700m deep cased section, the well has been left open and intersects two artesian aquifers. The upper aquifer is fully hydraulically decoupled from surface aquifers and is developed in tectonized platy limestone, with a 0.5MPa original pressure. Below the fault, the limestone is heavily karstified and the artesian overpressure reaches about 0.85MPa. Hence the fault supports a 0.35MPa differential pressure through the 5m thick radiolarite clay layer that has been smeared along the 150m fault offset. In September 2003, the borehole was let produce water and then was plugged with a packer set at the top of the casing resulting in a direct connection between both aquifers. The pressure is monitored by sensors set just below the packer. Tidal waves are recorded with a resolution better than 1/100. In addition a variety of pressure anomalies have been observed. A 60Pa drop in pore pressure has been recorded at the onset of the S waves generated by the Mw=7.8 Rat Island Earthquake of November, 17th 2003. It is followed by a slow recovery which lasted about 30 minutes. This anomaly, compatible with a minor movement along the fault with a seismic moment of 109Nm, is one of the farthest local effects induced by teleseismic waves ever recorded. A 80Pa pressure drop has been detected 15 minutes before a ML=4.2 earthquake that occured about 15km west of the well. It is much sharper than the coseismic drop. This precursory event exhibits a 2-step recovery that lasted 10 minutes. As seismic sensors located near the well detected no major vibration, we assume the pressure anomaly is transmitted through the karstic conduits and give insight to events close to the hypocenter.

Doan, M.; Cornet, F. H.

2004-12-01

223

Borehole Array Observations of Non-Volcanic Tremor at SAFOD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the observation of non-volcanic tremor made in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth in May, 2005 during the deployment of a multi-level borehole seismic array in the SAFOD main hole. The seismic array consisted of 80 levels of hydraulically-clamped 3-component, 15 Hz omni-directional geophones spaced 15.24 m apart along a 1200 m section of the inclined borehole between 1538 and 2363 m below the ground surface. The array was provided by Paulsson Geophysical Services, Inc. (P/GSI), and recorded at a sample rate of 4000 sps on 24-bit Geode digital recorders provided by Geometrics, Inc. More than 2 TB of continuous data were recorded during the 2-week deployment. Selected local earthquakes and explosions recorded by the array are available at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center, and the entire unedited data set is available as assembled data at the IRIS Data Management Center. Both data sets are currently in the industry standard SEG2 format. Episodes of non-volcanic tremor are common along this reach of the San Andreas Fault according to Nadeau and Dolenc [2004, DOI: 10.1126/science.1107142], with many originating about 30 km southeast of SAFOD beneath the southern end of the Parkfield segment and northern end of the Simmler segment of the fault. We identified tremor episodes using spectrograms routinely produced by the Northern California Seismic Network (http://quake.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/sgrampark.pl) on which they appear as periods of elevated noise relative to the background. A particularly strong tremor episode occurred on May 10, 2005 between 19:39 and 20:00 UTC. In SAFOD, tremor spectral levels exceed the instrumental noise floor to at least 40 Hz. The spatially unaliased recording of the tremor wavefield on the P/GSI array reveal individual phases that can be tracked continuously across the array. The wavefield is composed of both up- and down-going shear waves that form quasi-stationary interference patterns in which areas of constructive interference recur at the same locations along the array. Such a pattern could arise from a spatially stationary source radiating an extended duration time function into a complex medium.

Ellsworth, W. L.; Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

2005-12-01

224

Observation and Scaling of Microearthquakes from TCDP Borehole Seismometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microearthquakes with magnitude down to 0.5 were detected by the Taiwan Chelungpu-ault Drilling Project Borehole Seismometers (TCDPBHS). A location software (MIMO) was used to determine P- and S-wave onset times, incidence and azimuth angles for the locations of the microevents. Regardless of the large co-seismic slip of 12 m at the drill site during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, our studies show very less seismicity near the drill site from the TCDPBHS recording. The microevents clustered at a depth of 8-10 km, where the 30 degree dipping of the Chelungpu thrust fault becomes flat to a decollement of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust tectonic structure. As a continuous GPS survey did not observe post-slip at the large slip region, and as no seismicity was observed near the drill site, we suggest that the thrust belt above the decollement during the interseismic period is locked. A Fluid Injection Test (FIT) pumping high pressure fluid into hole C with hole A as observation well was carried out at the TCDP boreholes in November 2006, and January, March and April 2007. Compared with background seismicity in November 2007, the observation did not show significant correlation of the FIT related seismicity, despite the distinct observations on the arrival of gas and chemical monitoring through FIT. It is possible that the injected fluid rate of FIT experiments is too deficient to trigger microevents. The low fluid rate indicated the low permeability of the fault zone. We also examined the scaling of the source parameters of the small earthquakes in stress drops and seismic moments. The source parameters of 150 microevents were examined from the source spectra using Brune ?-2 model for a constant Q model. The scaling of the magnitude to the Brune stress drop is a significant positive correlation. However, there has been a debate that this positive relationship might be biased for without Q correction. Fortunately, we had observed 65 clusters showing similar waveforms. The path effect can be removed by Projected Landweber Deconvolution (PLD) method from the events in clusters. The PLD method analyzed source time function from larger event and smaller event by iteration technique, and the source dimension and stress drop of larger event with Q correction could be estimated.

Lin, Y.; Ma, K.; Oye, V.; Tanaka, H.

2009-12-01

225

Surface and borehole electromagnetic imaging of conducting contaminant plumes. 1998 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The source field is a magnetic field generated by currents in wire coils. This source field is normally produced in one borehole, whi...

J. G. Berryman

1998-01-01

226

New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management  

SciTech Connect

Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

Paulsson, B.N.P. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)

1997-08-01

227

Thermal Hydrology Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations. Coupled thermal-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact fluid flow and the associated migration of radionuclides. Numerical simulations of thermal hydrology in the deep borehole disposal system were carried out with waste emplaced between depths of 3 km and 5 km. The geometry of the system consisted of a disturbed zone of higher permeability within a radius of 1m from the borehole, and low permeability rock beyond the 1m radius. The simulations considered borehole spacing of 100m and 200m, and number of boreholes of 1, 9 and 25. The base case was taken to be 9 boreholes with 200m borehole spacing. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Physical, thermal, and hydrologic properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the boreholes. The results show that for all runs single phase liquid conditions persist throughout the model area due to the large hydrostatic pressures present at the specified depths. Simulated base case temperatures for fuel assemblies and vitrified waste showed peak temperature increases of about 30 °C and 180 °C, respectively. Temperatures near the boreholes peak within about 10 years of waste emplacement. Results show minimal thermal perturbations at depths above the top of the waste, for both types of radioactive waste. Axial temperature profiles are dominated by conduction, as convection is constrained by the low permeability and porosity of the host rock. Simulations with borehole spacing of 100m, and number of boreholes of 1 and 25 gave similar temperature results as the base case. For the base case, vertical flux profiles showed similar trends as the temperature profiles, peaking within about 10 years of waste emplacement due to the thermal expansion of water, followed by much lower flow rates at later times. The magnitude of peak vertical specific discharge varies along the length of the emplaced waste. Simulated peak upward vertical specific discharge values at 4000m depth (center of waste) were 3.6 mm/year and 57.0 mm/year for fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively, with fluxes of less than 1 mm/year beyond 100 years. Just as with temperature profiles, vertical upwards fluxes diminish above the depth of the top of the waste. Axial migration of fluid is constrained by the low permeability of the host rock. Simulations with borehole spacing of 100m, and number of boreholes of 1 and 25 gave similar flux results as the base case. Future simulations will model the effect of salinity on thermal hydrology of the deep borehole disposal system, as well as sensitivity studies on model geometry and rock properties.

Hadgu, T.; Arnold, B. W.

2010-12-01

228

Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

2004-01-01

229

Effects of tool positions on borehole acoustic measurements : a stretched grid finite difference approach  

E-print Network

This dissertation made three contributions to numerical simulation and borehole acoustic logging. The first one is a novel finite difference time domain algorithm that features non- uniform grid, wavelet-based difference ...

Huang, Xiaojun, 1970-

2003-01-01

230

Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994  

SciTech Connect

Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins.

Williams, B.A.

1994-12-27

231

30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241 Section 57.22241 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2010-07-01

232

30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241 Section 57.22241 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

233

30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241 Section 57.22241 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

234

Three Coal Mine Gob Degasification Studies Using Surface Boreholes and a Bleeder System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of vertical surface degasification boreholes with bleeder systems and the use of a timbered bleeder system to degasify gob areas were studied by the Bureau of Mines. This report describes three gob degasification studies conducted in the Pittsburg...

S. D. Maksimovic, F. N. Kissell

1980-01-01

235

30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241 Section 57.22241 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

236

Novel finite-element approach applied to borehole quadrupole dispersion analysis in stress-sensitive formations  

E-print Network

Near a borehole, stress concentration effects may cause a complex spatial variation of elastic anisotropy. Stress-induced sonic anisotropy results when moduli and velocities are stress dependent and the state of stress is ...

Jorgensen, Ole

237

Ultrasonic Laboratory Study of Full Waveform Acoustic Logs in Boreholes with Fractures  

E-print Network

A set of ultrasonic experiments was carried out to determine the effects of horizontal and vertical fractures on full waveform acoustic logs. Boreholes of 1 cm diameter were drilled in aluminum blocks. Measurements were ...

Toksoz, M. N.

1987-01-01

238

Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data  

DOEpatents

Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth.

Ward, Stanley H. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1989-01-01

239

Borehole Gravity Measurements In The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. The borehole gravimetric densities matched the well logs, but the surface gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected. When the borehole observations are corrected for the observed free air gradient above ground, they produce densities which are nearly uniformly higher than log densities by about 0.07 gm/cm{sup 3}. These measurements require densities in the depth range .5 to 3 km, for a radius of a few kilometers around State 2-14 to be as dense as those found in State 2-14. Combining the borehole gravity and calculated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone covers much of a broad thermal anomaly to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

1987-01-01

240

Borehole gravity measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well State 2--14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well State 2--14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2--14 in the depth range 0.5--3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The aboveground gradient was found to be 4.1 ..mu..Gal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea geothermal field. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

Kasameyer, P.W.; Hearst, J.R.

1988-11-10

241

Borehole Gravity Measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2-14 in the depth range 0.5 to 3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The above-ground gradient was found to be 4.1 {micro}gal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, they find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

1988-01-01

242

Borehole Gravity Measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2-14 in the depth range 0.5 to 3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The above-ground gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, they find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

1988-01-01

243

An evaluation of the feasibility of disposal of nuclear waste in very deep boreholes  

E-print Network

Deep boreholes, 3 to 5 km into igneous rock, such as granite, are evaluated for next- generation repository use in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high level waste. The primary focus is on the stability and ...

Anderson, Victoria Katherine, 1980-

2004-01-01

244

Regional Examples of Geological Settings for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Boreholes  

E-print Network

This report develops and exercises broad-area site selection criteria for deep boreholes suitable for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and/or its separated constituents. Three candidates are examined: a regional site in the ...

Sapiie, B.

245

Feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of US nuclear defense wastes  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes the feasibility of emplacing DOE-owned defense nuclear waste from weapons production into a permanent borehole repository drilled ~4 km into granite basement rock. Two canister options were analyzed ...

Dozier, Frances Elizabeth

2011-01-01

246

Importance of neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis in relatively dry, low-porosity rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate the importance of variations in the neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis, capture gamma-ray measurements were made in relatively dry, low-porosity gabbro of the Duluth Complex. Although sections of over a meter of solid rock were encountered in the borehole, there was significant fracturing with interstitial water leading to a substantial variation of water with depth in the borehole. The linear-correlation coefficients calculated for the peak intensities of several elements compared to the chemical core analyses were generally poor throughout the depth investigated. The data suggest and arguments are given which indicate that the variation of the thermal-to-intermediate-to-fast neutron flux density as a function of borehole depth is a serious source of error and is a major cause of the changes observed in the capture gamma-ray peak intensities. These variations in neutron energy may also cause a shift in the observed capture gamma-ray energy.

Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Philbin, P.W.; Boynton, G.R.; Wager, R.E.

1977-01-01

247

Simultaneous inversion for fast azimuth and dispersion of borehole flexural waves using cross-dipole data  

E-print Network

This paper presents an inversion algorithm for obtaining azimuthal angle and borehole flexural wave dispersion in an anisotropic formation. The technique constructs an objective function that can be minimized using standard ...

Briggs, Victoria

2002-01-01

248

Multi-scale groundwater modelling for the assessment of sustainable borehole yields under drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multi-scale groundwater modelling methodology is presented for simulating abstraction boreholes in regional groundwater models. This provides a robust tool for assessing the sustainable yield of supply boreholes, thus improving our understanding of groundwater availability during droughts. The yield of an abstraction well is dependent on a number of factors. These include antecedent recharge and groundwater conditions; the properties of a regional aquifer system; requirements on a groundwater system to maintain river flows or sites of ecological significance; the properties of an individual abstraction borehole; small-scale aquifer heterogeneity around a borehole; the rate of abstraction; and the way in which neighboring abstraction boreholes interact. These factors can all be represented in the multi-scale model, which couples a small-scale radial flow model of an abstraction borehole with a regional-scale groundwater model. The regional groundwater model, ZOOMQ3D, represents the large-scale groundwater system, including lateral and vertical aquifer heterogeneity, rivers, and spatially varying recharge. The 3D radial flow model, SPIDERR, represents linear and non-linear flow to a borehole, local vertical heterogeneity, well storage and pump location. The multi-scale model is applied to a supply borehole (operated by Thames Water) located in the Chalk aquifer within the catchment of the River Thames in southern England. Groundwater abstraction from the Chalk aquifer accounts for 40-70% of the total public water supply in this region. Drought is a recurring feature of the UK climate, and in particular the south and east of England. Since 1850, nine major groundwater droughts have occurred, all of which lasted longer than one year. The most recent occurred in 2010-2012, during which seven water supply companies introduced water usage restrictions, affecting over 20 million people. The radial flow model is initially calibrated against pumping test data from the supply borehole. It is then coupled with an existing regional groundwater model, which covers a significant part of the unconfined Chalk aquifer within the Thames Basin. The fully coupled model is run over the historic simulation period, 1971-2012, using operational abstraction rates at the supply borehole. Simulated heads at the borehole are compared with observed data over the period 2003-2012 allowing further calibration of the small-scale model. Several abstraction scenarios are then applied over the historic simulation period. Analysis of the pumped water levels allows us to develop an improved understanding of the sustainable yield of the source under drought conditions. The multi-scale model also provides a tool for assessing future changes to groundwater availability due to potential changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of droughts under climate change, and under scenarios of increasing demand.

Upton, Kirsty; Butler, Adrian; Jackson, Chris; Jones, Mike

2014-05-01

249

Towards improved 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity imaging of discrete fracture networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to better characterize discrete fractures in contaminated bedrock aquifers to determine the migration of injected remediation amendments away from boreholes. A synthetic cross-borehole electrical resistivity study was conducted assuming a discrete fracture model of an existing contaminated site with known fracture locations. Four boreholes and two discrete fracture zones, assumed to be the dominant electrical and hydraulically conductive pathways, were explicitly modeled within an unstructured tetrahedral finite-element mesh. To simulate field conditions, 5% random Gaussian noise was added to all synthetic datasets. We first evaluated different regularization constraints starting with an uninformed smoothness-constrained inversion, to which a priori information was incrementally added. We found major improvements when (1) smoothness regularization constraints were relaxed (or disconnected) along boreholes and fractures, (2) a homogeneous conductivity was assumed along boreholes, and (3) borehole conductivity constraints, which could be determined from a fluid specific-conductance log, were applied. We also evaluated the effect of including borehole packers on the fracture-zone model recovery. We found the estimated fracture-zone conductivities with the inclusion of packers were comparable to similar trials excluding the use of packers regardless of electrical potential changes. The misplacement of fracture regularization disconnects easily can be misinterpreted as actual fracture locations. Conductivities within misplaced disconnects were near the starting model value and removing smoothing between boreholes and assumed fracture locations helped in identifying incorrectly located fracture regularization disconnects. Model sensitivity structure improved when regularization disconnects were (1) applied along the boreholes and fracture zones, and (2) fracture-zone regularization disconnects were placed where actual fractures existed. A field study being conducted at a contaminated fractured rock site, the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey, is being used to validate our approach. Electrical resistance measurements, borehole geophysical logs and hydraulic tests are being acquired from seven, 10 cm (4 in.) boreholes to characterize fractures in the contaminated fractured rock and monitor time-lapse amendment injections to determine the amendment transport path at the field scale. Our findings, to be validated in a field study, demonstrate that structural constraints used after careful evaluation of a priori information are critical to improving imaging of fracture electrical conductivities, locations and orientations.

Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Johnson, T. J.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Lacombe, P.; Johnson, C. D.; Tiedeman, C. R.; Goode, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Shapiro, A. M.; Lane, J. W.

2012-12-01

250

An analysis of the lithology to resistivity relationships using airborne EM and boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the relationship between dense airborne SkyTEM resistivity data and sparse lithological borehole data. Understanding the geological structures of the subsurface is of great importance to hydrogeological surveys. Large scale geological information can be gathered directly from boreholes or indirectly from large geophysical surveys. Borehole data provides detailed lithological information only at the position of the borehole and, due to the sparse nature of boreholes, they rarely provide sufficient information needed for high-accuracy groundwater models. Airborne geophysical data, on the other hand, provide dense spatial coverage, but are only indirectly bearing information on lithology through the resistivity models. Hitherherto, the integration of the geophysical data into geological and hydrogeological models has been often subjective, largely un-documented and painstakingly manual. This project presents a detailed study of the relationships between resistivity data and lithological borehole data. The purpose is to objectively describe the relationships between lithology and geophysical parameters and to document these relationships. This project has focused on utilizing preexisting datasets from the Danish national borehole database (JUPITER) and national geophysical database (GERDA). The study presented here is from the Norsminde catchment area (208 sq. km), situated in the municipality of Odder, Denmark. The Norsminde area contains a total of 758 boreholes and 106,770 SkyTEM soundings. The large amounts of data make the Norsminde area ideal for studying the relationship between geophysical data and lithological data. The subsurface is discretized into 20 cm horizontal sampling intervals from the highest elevation point to the depth of the deepest borehole. For each of these intervals a resistivity value is calculated at the position of the boreholes using a kriging formulation. The lithology data from the boreholes are then used to categorize the interpolated resistivity values according to lithology. The end result of this comparison is resistivity distributions for different lithology categories. The distributions provide detailed objective information of the resistivity properties of the subsurface and are a documentation of the resistivity imaging of the geological lithologies. We show that different lithologies are mapped at distinctively different resistivities but also that the geophysical inversion strategies influences the resulting distributions significantly.

Barfod, Adrian A. S.; Christiansen, Anders V.; Møller, Ingelise

2014-05-01

251

Andrianovite, Na12(K,Sr,Ce)3Ca6Mn3Zr3Nb(Si25O73)(O, H2O,OH)5, a new potassium-rich mineral species of the eudialyte group from the Khibiny alkaline Pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the description of a new eudialyte-group mineral, which was named andrianovite in honor of Valerii Ivanovich Andrianov (1938-1991), a famous Russian mathematician and crystallographer, who developed the AREN software package for structural study of minerals with variable composition. The new mineral has been found in pegmatite from the Koashva open pit, Khibiny Pluton, Kola Peninsula, as rims

A. P. Khomyakov; G. N. Nechelyustov; R. K. Rastsvetaeva; K. A. Rozenberg

2008-01-01

252

Near-Surface Attenuation and Site Effects from Comparison of Surface and Deep Borehole Recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-surface attenuation and site effects are investigated using the seis- mograms of 17 local earthquakes recorded at depths of 0, 0.3, 1.5, 2.5, and 2.9 km in the Cajon Pass borehole, southern California. The borehole penetrates 500 m of Miocene sandstone and then crystalline, granitic basement rock. Previous estimates of site response have been limited to shallower holes, where the

Rachel E. Abercrombie

1997-01-01

253

Estimation Of Apparent Transmissivity From Capacity Testing Of Boreholes In Bedrock Aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several theoretical and semi-empirical studies indicate a near linear relationship between the specific capacity (F) of boreholes in bedrock aquifers and apparent transmissivity (T) of the form T=F\\/!, where !=c. 0.9. For several boreholes in Hvaler and Trondheim, Norway, the specific capacity of individual fractures has been determined by plotting QA (the yield of water from the aquifer during pumping

David Banks

1992-01-01

254

A Comparison Study of Numerical Simulations in a Borehole Heat Exchanger Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole heat exchanger (BHE) field with heat-pump was installed at the building of the Korea Earthquake Research Center in Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral (KIGAM). It consists of 28 BHEs equipped with a double U-tube and three monitoring wells. Two BHEs are equipped with optical fiber that measures temperature of the U-tube. A borehole televiewer survey was conducted in

S. Kim; G. Bae; K. Lee; B. Shim; Y. Song

2007-01-01

255

Current status of seismic and borehole measurements for HDR\\/HWR development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic and borehole measurements provide significant information about HDR\\/HWR reservoirs that is useful for reservoir development, reservoir characterization, and performance evaluation. Both techniques have been widely used during all HDR\\/HWR development projects. Seismic measurements have advanced from making passive surface measurements during hydraulic fracturing to making passive observations from multiple boreholes during all phases of HDR\\/HWR development, as well as

Hiroaki Niitsuma; Michael Fehler; Robert Jones; Stephen Wilson; James Albright; Andrew Green; Roy Baria; Kazuo Hayashi; Hideshi Kaieda; Kazuhiko Tezuka; Andy Jupe; Thomas Wallroth; François Cornet; Hiroshi Asanuma; Hirokazu Moriya; Koji Nagano; W. Scott Phillips; James Rutledge; Leigh House; Alain Beauce; Doug Alde; Richard Aster

1999-01-01

256

Challenges for Induced Polarization Measurements in Single and Cross Borehole Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induced polarization (IP) surveys have been traditionally used for mineral exploration. These surveys involve large surface arrays, cover wide areas and target strong signals from metallic minerals (e.g. sulfides). In recent years, the IP method has increasingly been used for environmental applications where smaller arrays are employed to measure smaller signals. Due to its unique sensitivity to interfacial properties, the IP method might be used to track and identify processes associated with remediation efforts, and also characterize and delineate contaminant plumes. Recent laboratory experiments have significantly advanced the IP method, improving the detection and interpretation of relatively small signals. However, IP data acquisition from a borehole, either as a vertical profile down a string of electrodes installed in a well or in a cross borehole configuration is more challenging. This is in part due to higher noise levels associated with coupling effects between wiring and earth in the borehole. In this study, we simulated borehole conditions in the laboratory and examined sources of noise during borehole IP measurements. We simulated a vertical array of electrodes, with electrodes placed around a PVC pipe, and performed measurements in a 3D tank. While in traditional single borehole configurations (e.g. Wenner, Schlumberger) the IP data were contaminated with low frequency errors associated with electrode arrangement. Modifications on the electrode configurations and the potential electrode design, led to acquisition of high quality data comparable to that obtained in the laboratory. We show that, while borehole IP measurements can be challenging, appropriate consideration of electrode placement and design permits acquisition of high quality data that can be used to sense variations in interfacial properties around a borehole.

Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Curatola, F.; Evdokimov, K.

2013-12-01

257

Borehole Radar Applied to the Characterization of Hydraulically Conductive Fracture Zones in Crystalline ROCK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the borehole radar system, RAMAC, developed within the framework of the International Stripa Project, which can be used in three different measuring modes; single-hole reflection, cross-hole reflection and cross-hole tomography. The reflection modes basically provide geometrical data on features located at some distance from the borehole. In addition the strength of the reflections indicate the contrast in

Olle Olsson; Lars Falk; Olof Forslund; Lars Lundmark; Eric Sandberg

1992-01-01

258

Response of borehole extensometers to explosively generated dynamic loads  

SciTech Connect

Commercially available, hydraulically anchored, multiple-point borehole extensometers (MPBX) were evaluated with respect to response to dynamic loads produced by explosions. This study is part of the DOE-funded Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C), currently being conducted in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. The SFT-C is an investigation of the feasibility of short-term storage and retrieval of spent nuclear reactor fuel assemblies at a plausible repository depth in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies are stored at a depth of 420 m for three to five years, and will then be retrieved. MPBX units are used in the SFT-C to measure both excavation-induced and thermally induced rock displacements. Long-term reliability of extensometers in this hostile environment is essential in order to obtain valid data during the course of this test. Research to date shows conclusively that extensometers of this type continue to function reliably even though subjected to accelerations of 1.8 g; research also implies that they function well though subjected to accelerations in excess of 100 g. MPBX survivability during the first four months of testing at ambient temperatures was about 90 percent.

Patrick, W.C.; Brough, W.G.

1980-08-25

259

Determination of residual oil saturation with the borehole gravity meter  

SciTech Connect

Use of the borehole gravity meter (BHGM) to measure remaining oil saturation is a method new to the industry. The technique is described, and its applicability to Middle East reservoirs is discussed. Results of an extensive error analysis are presented. The method, which we call log-produce-log, consists of running a base BHGM before significant production, and a later BHGM after production. The remaining oil saturation is computed from the difference of the two BHGM measured bulk densities. The Middle East oil fields are ideal for application of this method. Porosities are high, crude is light, and connate water is dense (saline). The method is independent, for all practical purposes, of hole size, rugosity, number of casing strings, shale content, and acidization. The method also has a very large radius of investigation, 50 feet plus, which enables it to sense a far larger volume of the reservoir than any other method. As reservoirs are often heterogeneous in both porosity and fluid saturations, the remaining oil saturation thus determined would be more representative of the reservoir as a whole than any other technique. The disadvantages of the method are the need for a base BHGM log prior to significant production from the zone of interest, and a poor vertical resolution of about 10 feet. Results of a comprehensive and realistic error analysis are presented and show this technique as possibly the most accurate S /SUB or/ method.

Maute, R.E.; Gournay, L.S.

1985-03-01

260

24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

Erik C. Westman

2003-10-24

261

Borehole-inclusion stressmeter measurements in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect

Sandia purchased borehole-inclusion stressmeters from a commercial supplier to measure in situ stress changes in bedded salt. However, the supplied stressmeters were difficult to set in place and gave erratic results in bedded salt. These problems were overcome with a new extended platen design. Also a straingaged transducer was designed which can be read with a conventional data logger. Due to the nonlinear behavior of bedded salt under uniaxial loading, a new empirical calibration scheme was devised. In essence, the stressmeters are calibrated as force transducers and this calibration curve is then used to determine the relationship between uniaxial stress changes in bedded salt and the gage's output. The stressmeter and calibration procedures have been applied under mine conditions and produced viable results. Future work will involve finite element analysis to calculate the observed behavior of the stressmeters. The response of the stressmeters in bedded salt is neither that of a true stressmeter or of a true strainmeter. However, repeatable calibrations make the gages very useful.

Cook, C.W.; Ames, E.S.

1980-07-01

262

Tidal Amplitude Changes over Time Observed in Borehole Strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming, by thermally expanding sea water and increasingly melting land-based ice, raises the sea level by 2-3 millimeters per year in the past few years. The solid tide, one of the most important activities of the Earth, is sensitive to the change of sea level. We carry out an analysis of tidal amplitude in the east coast of Pacific using the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeter data. We extract the tidal amplitude and meteorological effects from the data using the package BAYTAP, which uses a Bayesian modeling procedure to analyze strainmeter data. In the analysis, we first interpolate the missing data, cut off bad data, and then resample the data to 2 samples per hour. We analyze the data with a one-month moving window with a 5-hour shift, and obtain variation of tidal amplitude over time. The results show two interesting phenomena. 1) Almost all stations show an annual variation in their tidal amplitude, 2) tidal amplitudes at some stations, such as B009, B011, B057, increase over time. We will discuss implications of these variations to weather and sea level change.

Lu, Z.; Wen, L.

2013-12-01

263

Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

Smith, D. V. G.; Brown, II, P. J.

2002-01-01

264

Investigations of tilt measurements using shallow borehole tiltmeters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An array of shallow borehole tiltmeters has been operated at Pinon Flat Observatory since early in 1977. The data from this array are examined for coherence between the individual instruments and compared with the corresponding data from three 732-m laser strainmeters. In general, there is no significant coherence between the signals from the tiltmeters outside the microseismic and tidal bands even though they are spaced as closely as 10 m apart. Comparisons with the strain records show that the observed tilt noise power exceeds the strain noise power by 25-40 dB over the band from 0.000001 to 1 Hz. Analysis of the coherence estimates establishes the necessity for an unacceptably large (approximately 1000) array of instruments in order to determine the common tectonic signals. The observed secular tilt rates are from 40 to 450 times the observed secular strain rates for the same period. The theoretical noise power limit of the tilt transducer renders the instrument incapable of recording background noise at a quiet site over the band from 0.0001 to 0.1 Hz.

Wyatt, F.; Berger, J.

1980-01-01

265

Application of borehole geophysics to water-resources investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual is intended to be a guide for hydrologists using borehole geophysics in ground-water studies. The emphasis is on the application and interpretation of geophysical well logs, and not on the operation of a logger. It describes in detail those logging techniques that have been utilized within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and those used in petroleum investigations that have potential application to hydrologic problems. Most of the logs described can be made by commercial logging service companies, and many can be made with small water-well loggers. The general principles of each technique and the rules of log interpretation are the same, regardless of differences in instrumentation. Geophysical well logs can be interpreted to determine the lithology, geometry, resistivity, formation factor, bulk density, porosity, permeability, moisture content, and specific yield of water-bearing rocks, and to define the source, movement, and chemical and physical characteristics of ground water. Numerous examples of logs are used to illustrate applications and interpretation in various ground-water environments. The interrelations between various types of logs are emphasized, and the following aspects are described for each of the important logging techniques: Principles and applications, instrumentation, calibration and standardization, radius of investigation, and extraneous effects.

Keys, W. S.; MacCary, L. M.

1971-01-01

266

Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff  

SciTech Connect

Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

1986-10-01

267

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39  

SciTech Connect

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

2008-09-11

268

Insights into aquifer vulnerability and potential recharge zones from the borehole response to barometric pressure changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole water levels fluctuate in response to deformation of the surrounding aquifer caused by surface loading due to barometric pressure or strain caused by Earth and ocean tides. The magnitude and nature of this response mainly depend on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer and overlying units and borehole design. Thus water level responses reflect the effectiveness of a confining unit as a protective layer against aquifer contamination (and therefore groundwater vulnerability) and to potential aquifer recharge/discharge zones. In this study, time series of borehole water levels and barometric pressure are being investigated using time series analysis and signal processing techniques with the aim of developing a methodology for assessing recharge/discharge distribution and groundwater vulnerability in the confined/semi-confined part of the Chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK. The chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire is an important source for industrial and domestic water supply. The aquifer water quality is threatened by surface pollution particularly by nitrates from agricultural fertilizers. The confined/semi-confined part of this aquifer is covered by various types of superficial deposits resulting in a wide range of the aquifer's degree of confinement. A number of boreholes have been selected for monitoring to cover all these various types of confining units. Automatic pressure transducers are installed to record water levels and barometric pressure measurements at each borehole on 15 minutes recording intervals. In strictly confined aquifers, borehole water level response to barometric pressure is an un-drained instantaneous response and is a constant fraction of the barometric pressure changes. This static confined constant is called the barometric efficiency which can be estimated simply by the slope of a regression plot of water levels versus barometric pressure. However, in the semi confined aquifer case this response is lagged due to water movement between the aquifer and the confining layer. In this case the static constant barometric efficiency is not applicable and the response is represented by a barometric response function which reflects the timing and frequency of the barometric pressure loading. In this study, the barometric response function is estimated using de-convolution techniques both in the time domain (least squares regression de-convolution) and in the frequency domain (discrete Fourier transform de-convolution). In order to estimate the barometric response function, borehole water level fluctuations due to factors other than barometric pressure should be removed (de-trended) as otherwise they will mask the response relation of interest. It is shown from the collected borehole data records that the main four factors other than barometric pressure contribute to borehole water level fluctuations. These are the rainfall recharge, Earth tides, sea tides and pumping activities close to the borehole location. Due to the highly variable nature of the UK weather, rainfall recharge shows a wide variation throughout the winter and summer seasons. This gives a complicated recharge signal over a wide range of frequencies which must be de-trended from the borehole water level data in order to estimate the barometric response function. Methods for removing this recharge signal are developed and discussed. Earth tides are calculated theoretically at each borehole location taking into account oceanic loading effects. Ocean tide effects on water levels fluctuations are clear for the boreholes located close to the coast. A Matlab code has been designed to calculate and de-trend the periodic fluctuations in borehole water levels due to Earth and ocean tides using the least squares regression technique based on a sum of sine and cosine fitting model functions. The program results have been confirmed using spectral analysis techniques.

El Araby, Mahmoud; Odling, Noelle; Clark, Roger; West, Jared

2010-05-01

269

Maximum likelihood borehole corrections for dual-detector density logs  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Dual-detector density logs which have been used in the petroleum industry for years. The tool was designed with a second detector to allow compensation for the effect of a layer of mudcake between the tool and the formation being measured. The compensation algorithm commonly used calculates the correction to apply to the density measured by the long-spaced detector as proportional to the difference in the densities measured by the two detectors. The coefficient of proportionality is determined from experimental data taken with the tool in a fluid-filled hole of 15 to 40 cm diameter, with uniform thickness sheets of various materials simulating the mudcake. In applying this technology for the Containment program at the Department of Energy Nevada Test Site (NTS) we have discovered two problems. First, we frequently log in air-filled holes much larger than 40 cm. Second, the gap, or layer, is rarely uniform with depth or vertical position on the face of the tool. We have developed a method to determine the proper amount of correction dynamically. No experimental data on the gap effect are needed as long as the two detectors are calibrated to read the proper density when the gap is zero. The method assumes that the form of the equation used in the standard algorithm is correct, but uses the variation of the two density signals with depth to determine the appropriate value of the coefficient, assuming true density varies more slowly than the gap effects. This new, maximum likelihood, method appears to work better than the standard method in both fluid and air-filled holes where the borehole wall is rough and no mudcake is present. It cannot, however, correct for a uniform mudcake or air gap, and so complements but does not replace the standard method.

Carlson, R.C.

1993-10-01

270

Multimode Rayleigh wave profiling by hybrid surface and borehole methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the accuracy of shallow seismic shear wave velocity profiling, we propose a minimally invasive hybrid surface-and-borehole method that enhances the detection of higher modes of Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The new method combines techniques from the multichannel analysis of surface waves and multichannel simulation with one receiver (MSOR) methods to record components of Rayleigh wave motion at the surface as well as at shallow depths within the soil mass. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through computational and experimental studies. We show that individual modes of Rayleigh waves can exhibit different dominant depths at which their motion is most significant. This is demonstrated through a numerical study of eigenvectors of layered soil profiles via the stiffness matrix method, and confirmed by a finite element simulation of the apparent dispersion trends recorded at shallow depths using MSOR. Upon superimposing dispersion data recorded via the receivers at various depths, the resulting multimode dispersion data is used in a multi-objective inverse analysis, for which the difference between experimental and theoretical dispersive phase-velocity spectra are minimized for multiple modes simultaneously. In the numerical study, we demonstrate that the resulting inverted profiles and theoretical dispersion data have improved accuracy relative to single-mode inversion. Preliminary field tests are performed using the new hybrid method, and the results are shown to support the conclusions of the numerical study and confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique. Although the use of multiple modes in surface wave testing is not new, the proposed hybrid method can provide more accurate and complete multimodal dispersion data than achieved with surface-only Rayleigh wave methods. As a result, errors because of misidentification or partial measurement of higher modes may be minimized, thus reducing statistical uncertainty in the inverted profiles.

Lin, Shibin; Ashlock, Jeramy C.

2014-05-01

271

Borehole dilatometer installation, operation, and maintenance at sites in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other instrumentation. These instruments are capable of providing continuous monitoring of the magma movement under Mauna Loa. Each site was planned to provide multi-parameter monitoring of volcanic activity. In June of 2000, a contract was let for the core drilling of three of these four sites. They are located at Hokukano (west side of Mauna Loa) above Captain Cook, Hawaii; at Mauna Loa Observatory (11,737 feet near the summit), and at Mauna Loa Strip Road (east side of Mauna Loa). Another site was chosen near Halema'uma u' and Kilauea's summit, in the Keller deep well. (See maps). The locations of these instruments are shown in Figure 1 with their latitude and longitude in Table 1. The purpose of this network is to monitor crustal deformation associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. This report describes the methods used to locate sites, install dilatometers, other instrumentation, and telemetry. We also provide a detailed description of the electronics used for signal amplification and telemetry, plus techniques used for instrument maintenance. Instrument sites were selected in regions of hard volcanic rock where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of earthquakes with magnitude 4 or greater is large. At each location, an attempt was made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources for each instrument type.

Myren, G. D.; Johnston, M. J. S.; Mueller, R. J.

2006-01-01

272

Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization, volume of investigation, extraneous effects, and interpretation and applications.

Keys, W.S.

1990-01-01

273

Enhanced Observations with Borehole Seismographic Networks. The Parkfield, California Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The data acquired in the Parkfield, California experiment are unique and they are producing results that force a new look at some conventional concepts and models for earthquake occurrence and fault-zone dynamics. No fault-zone drilling project can afford to neglect installation of such a network early enough in advance of the fault-zone penetration to have a well-defined picture of the seismicity details (probably at least 1000 microearthquakes--an easy 2-3 year goal for the M<0 detection of a borehole network). Analyses of nine years of Parkfield monitoring data have revealed significant and unambiguous departures from stationarity both in the seismicity characteristics and in wave propagation details within the S-wave coda for paths within the presumed M6 nucleation zone where we also have found a high Vp/Vs anomaly at depth, and where the three recent M4.7-5.0 sequences have occurred. Synchronous changes well above noise levels have also been seen among several independent parameters, including seismicity rate, average focal depth, S-wave coda velocities, characteristic sequence recurrence intervals, fault creep and water levels in monitoring wells. The significance of these findings lies in their apparent coupling and inter-relationships, from which models for fault-zone process can be fabricated and tested with time. The more general significance of the project is its production of a truly unique continuous baseline, at very high resolution, of both the microearthquake pathology and the subtle changes in wave propagation.

McEvilly, T.V.; Karageorgi, E.; Nadeau, R.M.

1997-01-02

274

Multiple-aquifer characterization from single borehole extensometer records.  

PubMed

Measurement and analysis of aquifer-system compaction have been used to characterize aquifer and confining unit properties when other techniques such as flow modeling have been ineffective at adequately quantifying storage properties or matching historical water levels in environments experiencing land subsidence. In the southeastern coastal plain of Virginia, high-sensitivity borehole pipe extensometers were used to measure 24.2 mm of total compaction at Franklin from 1979 through 1995 (1.5 mm/year) and 50.2 mm of total compaction at Suffolk from 1982 through 1995 (3.7 mm/year). Analysis of the extensometer data reveals that the small rates of aquifer-system compaction appear to be correlated with withdrawals of water from confined aquifers. One-dimensional vertical compaction modeling indicates measured compaction is the result of nonrecoverable hydrodynamic consolidation of the fine-grained confining units and interbeds, as well as recoverable compaction and expansion of coarse-grained aquifer units. The calibrated modeling results indicate that nonrecoverable specific storage values decrease with depth and range from 1.5 x 10(-5)/m for aquifer units to 1.5 x 10(-4)/m for confining units and interbeds. The aquifer and Potomac system recoverable specific storage values were all estimated to be 4.5 x 10(-6)/m, while the confining units and interbeds had values of 6.0 x 10(-6)/m. The calibrated vertical hydraulic conductivity values of the confining units and interbeds ranged from 6.6 x 10(-4) m/year to 2.0 x 10(-3) m/year. These parameter values will be useful in future management and modeling of ground water in the Virginia Coastal Plain. PMID:14763616

Pope, Jason P; Burbey, Thomas J

2004-01-01

275

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01

276

Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging tool are presented. This borehole NMR logging tool was developed for economical NMR logging of 100- to 200-mm-diameter boreholes, and specifically for characterizing hydraulic properties in the top 200 m of the subsurface. The tool has a vertical resolution of 0.5 m, a minimum echo spacing of 2.0 ms, and a radial depth of investigation of 178 to 203 mm, which typically is beyond the annulus of observation wells. It takes about 15 minutes to collect a data sample for each 0.5-m interval. The borehole NMR logging tool was field tested during spring 2010, in PVC-cased wells at sites in East Haddam and Storrs, Connecticut; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Lexington, Nebraska; Lawrence, Kansas; and Rifle, Colorado. NMR logging yielded estimates of bound water, free water, and total-water content, as well as continuous distributions of water content versus transverse relaxation time (T2) at all depth levels. The derived water-content data were compared to the available ground-truth hydrogeologic data from each well, including drilling logs, neutron and other geophysical logs, and direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate that the borehole NMR logging tool provides information on porosity, pore-size distribution, and estimated hydraulic conductivity that cannot be duplicated by any other single geophysical logging tool.

Walsh, D.; Turner, P.; Frid, I.; Shelby, R.; Grunewald, E. D.; Magnuson, E.; Butler, J. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Woodward, D. A.; Williams, K. H.; Lane, J. W.

2010-12-01

277

Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, March 1994 to June 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes lithologic logging of core from boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conducted from March 1994 to June 1994. Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium and colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, and Tertiary Calico Hills Formation. Logging results are presented in a table of contact depths for core from unsaturated zone neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphic lithologic logs for core from north ramp geology (NRG) boreholes.

Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.

1995-04-01

278

Simulation on the cyclic operation of an open borehole thermal energy storage system under regional groundwater flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled hydrogeological-thermal simulation is performed to analyze the effect of the configuration of boreholes and operation\\u000a schedule on the performance of the borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) system. This paper presents numerical investigations\\u000a and thermohydraulic evaluation on the cyclic flow regime operation of open borehole thermal energy storage system under the\\u000a effects of regional groundwater flow. A three-dimensional numerical model

Kun Sang Lee

2010-01-01

279

Development of a web-based Geographic Information System for the management of borehole and geological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to develop a prototype model of Web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application for efficient management of borehole and geological data. More than 10,000 boreholes and other geological data were archived into the database and Web-based GIS system was implemented for a local urban area of Seoul in Korea. A standard form of borehole

Yoon-Seop Chang; Hyeong-Dong Park

2004-01-01

280

Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

2012-01-01

281

Drag-out effect of piezomagnetic signals due to a borehole: The Mogi source as an example  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We show that using borehole measurements in tectonomagnetic experiments allows enhancement of the observed signals. New magnetic dipoles, which vary with stress changes from mechanical sources, are produced on the walls of the borehole. We evaluate such an effect quantitatively. First we formulate a general expression for the borehole effect due to any arbitrary source models. This is valid everywhere above the ground surface as well as within the cylindrical hole. A first-order approximate solution is given by a line of horizontal dipoles and vertical quadrupoles along the central axis of the borehole, which is valid above the ground surface and a slightly away (several tens of cm) from the top of the borehole. Selecting the Mogi model as an example, we numerically evaluated the borehole effect. It turned out that the vertical quadrupoles produce two orders of magnitude more intense magnetic field than the horizontal dipoles. The borehole effect is very local, i.e. detectable only within a few m from its outlet, since it is of the same order or more than the case without a borehole. However, magnetic lines of force cannot reach the ground surface from a deeper portion (> 10 m) of a borehole.

Sasai, Y.; Johnston, M. J. S.; Tanaka, Y.; Mueller, R.; Hashimoto, T.; Utsugi, M.; Sakanaka, S.; Uyeshima, M.; Zlotnicki, J.; Yvetot, P.

2007-01-01

282

Mapping permeable fractures at depth in crystalline metamorphic shield rocks using borehole seismic, logging, and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of major fluid pathways in subsurface exploration can be identified by understanding the effects of fractures, cracks, and microcracks in the subsurface. Part of a feasibility study of geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of the investigation of subsurface fluid pathways in the Precambrian basement rocks. One of the selected sites for this study is in the Fort McMurray area, where the deepest well drilled in the oilsands region in Northeastern Alberta is located. This deep borehole has a depth of 2.3 km which offers substantial depth coverage to study the metamorphic rocks in the Precambrian crystalline basement of this study area. Seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the borehole reveal NW-SE dipping reflectors within the metamorphic shield rocks some of which appear to intersect the wellbore. An extensive logging and borehole seismic program was carried out in the borehole in July, 2011. Gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, acoustic televiewer, electrical resistivity, and full-waveform sonic logs were acquired to study the finer scale structure of the rock formations, with vertical resolutions in the range of 0.05 cm to 80 cm. These logs supplement earlier electrical microscanner images obtained by the well operator when it was drilled. In addition, we are also interested in identifying other geological features such as zones of fractures that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The interpretation of the borehole logs reveals a highly conductive 13 m thick zone at 1409 m depth that may indicate communication of natural brines in fractures with the wellbore fluid. The photoelectric factor and magnetic susceptibility also appear anomalous in this zone. Formation MicroImager (FMI) log was used to verify the presence of fractures in the borehole in this conductive zone. This fracture zone may coincide with the dipping seismic reflectors in the reflection profile. To better understand the velocity structure and to look for the effects of fractures, a high resolution zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was conducted to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. VSP data can be used to delineate the structural and stratigraphic features surrounding the borehole that could not otherwise be resolved from surface seismic reflection data. A comparison of VSP data with borehole logging data is expected to provide information on the local lithological changes, mineral composition of rocks and on the presence of fractures.

Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

2012-04-01

283

Initial Borehole Accelerometer Array Observations Near the North Portal of the ESF  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses observed ground motions at the site of the proposed surface facilities associated with the designated repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In 2003 an accelerometer array was installed at three boreholes on the pad of the north portal of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, by the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL). These boreholes, roughly 150 m apart and initially used for extensive geological and geophysical surveys, were ideal locations to measure the subsurface ground motions at the proposed site of surface facilities such as the Waste Handling Building. Such measurements will impact the design of the facilities. Accelerometer emplacement depths of approximately 15 m from the surface and then at the bottom of the boreholes, roughly 100 m, were chosen. Accelerometers were also placed at the surface next to the boreholes, for a total of nine accelerometers, all three-component. Data recording was accomplished with onsite recorders, with the onsite data transmitted to a central computer at a trailer on the pad. All requirements were met to qualify these data as ''Q''. Due to the lack of significant recordings during 2003, several low signal-to-noise (S/N) quality events were chosen for processing. The maximum horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded at the pad was approximately 1 cm/s2 in 2003; the corresponding peak ground velocity (PGV) was approximately 0.01 cm/s. PGA and PGV were obtained at all nine accelerometers for most of these events, and spectra were computed. Ground motion amplitudes varied significantly across the boreholes. Higher ground amplifications were observed at the surface for the two boreholes that penetrated a thick amount ({approx} 30 m) of fill and Quaternary alluvium compared to the one that had less than 2 m of such. Additionally, surface-to-deep recordings showed as much as a factor of five amplification at these two boreholes. Signal correlation with inter-borehole distance agrees with basic scattering theory, and the recorded signals across the wavefront correlate more strongly than those along the propagation path. Transfer functions computed from layered models for each borehole reflect some of the actual signal attributes fairly well, but many more signals need to be recorded and used to provide a good basis of comparison.

David von Seggern

2005-08-17

284

In situ capture gamma-ray analysis of coal in an oversize borehole  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In situ capture gamma-ray analysis in a coal seam using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in a close-fitting borehole has been reported previously. In order to check the accuracy of the method under adverse conditions, similar measurements were made by means of a small-diameter sonde in an oversize borehole in the Pittsburgh seam, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The hole was 5 times the diameter of the sonde, a ratio that substantially increased the contribution of water (hydrogen) to the total spectral count and reduced the size of the sample measured by the detector. The total natural count, the 40K,count, and the intensities of capture gamma rays from Si, Ca, H, and Al were determined as a function of depth above, through, and below the coal seam. From these logs, the depth and width of the coal seam and its partings were determined. Spectra were accumulated in the seam for 1 h periods by using neutron sources of different strengths. From the spectra obtained by means of several 252Cf neutron sources of different sizes, the ultimate elemental analysis and ash content were determined. The results were not as good as those obtained previously in a close-fitting borehole. However, the results did improve with successively larger source-to-detector distances, i.e.,as the count contribution due to hydrogen in the water decreased. It was concluded that in situ borehole analyses should be made in relatively close-fitting boreholes. ?? 1983.

Mikesell, J.L.; Dotson, D.W.; Senftle, F.E.; Zych, R.S.; Koger, J.; Goldman, L.

1983-01-01

285

The diagnosis of seventy municipal water supply boreholes in Lima, Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole diagnoses were carried out in the wake of declining yields and falling water table in the Lima aquifer. The objective was to evaluate, from a representative sample, the rehabilitation that would be required to restore yields and supply increasing demands. Rehabilitation methods are well described in literature. However, the selection and evaluation of techniques, appropriate in a given hydrogeological context, are not well known. This paper describes the current status of the Lima aquifer and the investigations performed in selecting appropriate rehabilitation. It is a case history of comprehensive diagnosis in 70 boreholes. Seven items of field tests were carried out on each borehole, including pumping tests, downhole closed-circuit TV (CCTV) survey, detailed hydrochemical analyses and pump inspection. Rehabilitation needs were evaluated from standardized analyses of hydrogeological and electrical-mechanical data. An effective plan for ongoing rehabilitation, formulated to sustain future supplies was based on the diagnosis. Rehabilitation, aimed at reducing well losses, increasing the length of water column in the borehole and improving the operating efficiency of pumps are the main recommendations of diagnosis. Yield improvement by 56% and increase of the useful life of boreholes by 10 years has been projected from the diagnosis. The programme of rehabilitation is to be implemented.

Puri, S.; Petrie, J. L.; Flores, C. Valenzuela

1989-04-01

286

Influence of natural convection in a porous medium when producing from borehole heat exchangers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection currents in a porous medium form when the medium is subject to sufficient heating from below (or equivalently, cooling from above) or when cooled or heated from the side. In the context of geothermal energy extraction, we are interested in how the convection currents transport heat when a sealed borehole containing cold fluid extracts heat from the porous medium; also known as a borehole heat exchanger. Using pseudospectral methods together with domain decomposition, we consider two scenarios for heat extraction from a borehole; one system where the porous medium is initialized with constant temperature in the vertical direction and one system initialized with a vertical temperature gradient. We find the convection currents to have a positive effect on the heat extraction for the case with a constant initial temperature in the porous medium, and a negative effect for some of the systems with an initial temperature gradient in the porous medium: Convection gives a negative effect when the borehole temperature is close the initial temperature in the porous medium, but gradually provides a positive effect if the borehole temperature is decreased and the Rayleigh number is larger.

Bringedal, C.; Berre, I.; Nordbotten, J. M.

2013-08-01

287

Expert modelling of a geological cross-section from boreholes: sources of uncertainty and their quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a designed experiment to quantify sources of uncertainty in the expert interpretation of a geological cross-section. A group of 28 geologists participated in the experiment. Each interpreted borehole records which included three Palaeogene bedrock units, including the target unit for the experiment: the London Clay. The set of boreholes was divided into batches from which validation boreholes had been withheld; as a result we obtained 129 point comparisons between the interpreted elevation of the base of the London Clay and its observed elevation in a borehole not used for that particular interpretation. Analysis of the results showed good general agreement between the observed and interpreted elevations, with no evidence of systematic bias. Between-site variation of the interpretation error was spatially correlated, and the variance appeared to be stationary. The between-geologist component of variance was smaller overall, and depended on distance to the nearest borehole. There was also evidence that the between-geologist variance depends on the degree of experience of the individual. We used the statistical model of interpretation error to compute confidence intervals for any one interpretation of the base of the London Clay on the cross-section, and to provide uncertainty measures for decision support in a hypothetical route-planning process. The statistical model could also be used to quantify error-propagation in a full 3-D geological model produced from interpreted cross sections.

Lark, R. M.; Thorpe, S.; Kessler, H.; Mathers, S. J.

2014-07-01

288

Perturbations to Subglacial Water Storage through Integrated Borehole Impulse Testing: Western Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier boreholes provide one of the few avenues to actively measure properties relating to the subglacial hydrologic drainage network. Here we present results from a suite of impulse tests in boreholes drilled near the margin of Isunnguata Sermia, a terrestrially terminating outlet glacier in western Greenland. In June, 2010, we drilled 11 boreholes using hot water methods which intersected the glacier bed at shallow depths near the ice sheet margin. Throughout the drilling process we monitored borehole water levels to identify changes associated with englacial feature and glacier bed intersection. In addition to the 11 drilling tests, we performed 21 hydrologic slug tests over 13 days to investigate hydraulic connectivity between boreholes and transience between connections. In order to explore the response of the subglacial drainage network to a longer term hydraulic perturbation, we also performed two constant discharge injection tests. Perturbations associated with these three impulse methods are all accommodated by the subglacial drainage network, although the character of the response and recovery time show significant variability in time and space. Results highlight the ability of deep englacial features to not only establish connections to the basal system, but also to induce basal connections to previously isolated regions. This suggests that the deep englacial system is tightly coupled to the basal drainage network, providing an additional means of water transport and increasing basal storage capacity.

Meierbachtol, T. W.; Harper, J. T.; Humphrey, N. F.

2010-12-01

289

Combined simulation-optimization of borehole heat exchanger fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, far more than one million ground-source heat pump systems are installed in Europe for space heating of buildings. Most of these are single, closed, vertical systems, with borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) that penetrate shallow aquifers down to a depth of about 100-200 m. Multiple BHE fields that are implemented for large-scale geothermal energy supply of buildings or district heating systems are of increasing importance. In comparison to the straightforward design of single BHE systems, concerted operation of several BHEs is more challenging. Multiple adjacent BHEs can interact and affect each other. Large-scale, non-uniform thermal anomalies are potentially generated in the ground. Mutual interaction among BHEs could have an influence on the overall system's performance and therefore, should be either circumvented or integrated in the operation strategy. However, so far strategic tuning of energy extraction rates of the individual BHEs in space and time has not been considered in practice. In our presentation, a combined simulation-optimization approach is presented to regulate the individual operation of BHEs. The BHE field is simulated analytically, by temporally and spatially superimposed line source equations, as well as in more detail in numerical models. Both conditions with and without horizontal groundwater flow are studied. Groundwater flow means an additional advective energy supply, which is advantageous but also complicates apposite multiple BHE adjustment. The optimization task is formulated in an objective function to minimize the thermal impact in the ground, to avoid extreme temperature anomalies, and by this, enhance heat pump performance. We select linear programming to optimize the time-dependent loads in a computationally efficient way. Evolutionary algorithms are utilized when the BHE positions are adjusted. In different hypothetical applications with given seasonal changing load profiles and variable BHE configurations we show that either individual BHE heat extraction or position optimization is sufficient, and that only little improvement potential exists for joint optimization of both aspects. It is also demonstrated that groundwater flow direction and velocity has substantial influence on the identified ideal BHE operation patterns. Increase of groundwater flow velocity means more energy supply, and thus a better thermal recovery for given energy extraction rates. As a consequence, this mitigates the benefit from optimized BHE operation.

Bayer, Peter; Beck, Markus; Hecht-Mendez, Jozsef; de Paly, Michael

2013-04-01

290

Determination of thermal dispersivity using a borehole heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow geothermal energy is a popular option for the heating and air-conditioning of buildings, because it is a regenerative energy and modern heat-pump-based low-enthalpy geothermal systems are often economically advantageous to alternative technologies. Geothermal systems extract heat from the ground, or inject waste heat. This may cause temperature anomalies in the subsurface, and when shallow aquifers exist, these anomalies can be observed in the groundwater. To ensure an efficiently operating, and in the long-run, sustainable, geothermal system, a precise knowledge of the evolving temperature anomaly is desirable. When planning a system, among the subsurface heat transport processes, advection due to flowing groundwater is not often considered. Accordingly, the role of thermal dispersion is rarely inspected. To determine the thermal dispersion influencing the temperature plume around a borehole heat extractor (BHE), a geothermal lab experiment is performed in an artificial aquifer. The size of the aquifer is 9 m × 6 m × 4.5 m, it is heterogeneous and composed of five different sand layers. In the lab, a specific hydraulic gradient is imposed. A BHE is installed in this aquifer, and the exact size and temporal evolution of the induced temperature anomaly is measured by a monitoring network of over 100 temperature sensors. Based on the known hydraulic and thermal properties of the different sand layers, a high-resolution finite element model is built, which simulates the transient conditions during the experiment. This model contains a fully discretized BHE, with an integrated heat carrier fluid flow inside the U-pipes, located inside the BHE. Therefore, the model is able to consider the coupled processes between the temperature development of the heat carrier fluid and the heat propagation in the subsurface. Except the longitudinal and transversal dispersivity, all material properties and boundary conditions are known, thus the dispersivities can be determined by parameter estimation. The results confirm previous findings that the effect of longitudinal and transversal dispersion should be considered for the temperature plume calculation caused by BHEs in advection influenced systems.

Wagner, V.; Bayer, P.; Bisch, G.; Braun, J.; Klaas, N.; Blum, P.

2012-04-01

291

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite (Mg,Mn2+)5(Ba, Sr)(PO4)4·8H2O from Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied aspect of the molecular structure of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite from Zheleznyi iron mine, Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, using SEM with EDX and vibrational spectroscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis shows a homogeneous phase, composed by P, Mg, Ba, Mn and Ca. Small amounts of Si were also observed. An intense Raman peak at 975 cm-1 is assigned to the PO43- ?1 symmetric stretching mode. The Raman band at 964 cm-1 is attributed to the HPO42- ?1 symmetric stretching vibration. Raman bands observed at 1016, 1035, 1052, 1073, 1105 and 1135 cm-1 are attributed to the ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations of the HPO42- and PO43- units. Complexity in the spectra of the phosphate bending region is observed. The broad Raman band at 3272 cm-1 is assigned to the water stretching vibration. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects on the molecular structure of rimkorolgite to be undertaken.

Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Federick L.; Aarão, Guilherme Marcos; Scholz, Ricardo

2014-11-01

292

Physical and chemical changes to rock near electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax  

SciTech Connect

Sections of Climax Stock quartz monzonite taken from the vicinity of two electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy for signs of changes in crack structure and in mineralogy resulting from operations at SFT-C. The crack structure, as measured by density of cracks and average crack lengths was found not to have changed as a result of heating, regardless of distance from the heater hole. However, rock near the heater borehole sampled in the north heater drift was found to be more cracked than rock near the borehole sampled in the south heater drift. Mineralogically, the post-test samples are identical to the pre-test samples. No new phases have been formed as a result of the test. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Beiriger, J.M.; Durham, W.B.; Ryerson, F.J.

1985-01-01

293

Acoustic reverberation in a logging tool-borehole-saturated porous medium system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the elastic and hydrodynamic properties of a rock on the time attenuation coefficient of an acoustic wave, which is reflected from the borehole wall, is considered using the methods of the mechanics of saturated porous media. The calculations were performed for a system consisting of an acoustic logging tool of a finite with a finite diameter, a fluid-filled borehole, and a porous permeable rock. The performed simulation showed that in rocks with a low hydrodynamic permeability, the acoustic-reverberation time is determined by the acoustic impedance of the borehole wall (product of the rock density and the longitudinal-wave velocity in it). In the case of rocks with a permeability of about several hundred millidarcy, the time signal's attenuation coefficient substantially depends on the rock's permeability.

Markov, A. M.; Markov, M. G.; Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Sadovnychiy, S. N.

2014-03-01

294

High-density support matrices: Key to the deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep (4-5 km) boreholes are emerging as a safe, secure, environmentally sound and potentially cost-effective option for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, including plutonium. One reason this option has not been widely accepted for spent fuel is because stacking the containers in a borehole could create load stresses threatening their integrity with potential for releasing highly mobile radionuclides like 129I before the borehole is filled and sealed. This problem can be overcome by using novel high-density support matrices deployed as fine metal shot along with the containers. Temperature distributions in and around the disposal are modelled to show how decay heat from the fuel can melt the shot within weeks of disposal to give a dense liquid in which the containers are almost weightless. Finally, within a few decades, this liquid will cool and solidify, entombing the waste containers in a base metal sarcophagus sealed into the host rock.

Gibb, F. G. F.; McTaggart, N. A.; Travis, K. P.; Burley, D.; Hesketh, K. W.

2008-03-01

295

Understanding the relationship between audiomagnetotelluric data and models, and borehole data in a hydrological environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data and resulting models are analyzed with respect to geophysical and geological borehole logs in order to clarify the relationship between the two methodologies of investigation of a hydrological environment. Several profiles of AMT data collected in basins in southwestern United States are being used for groundwater exploration and hydrogeological framework studies. In a systematic manner, the AMT data and models are compared to borehole data by computing the equivalent one-dimensional AMT model and comparing with the two-dimensional (2-D) inverse AMT model. The spatial length is used to determine if the well is near enough to the AMT profile to quantify the relationship between the two datasets, and determine the required resolution of the AMT data and models. The significance of the quality of the borehole data when compared to the AMT data is also examined.

McPhee, D. K.; Pellerin, L.

2008-01-01

296

Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

Nelson, P.H. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Schimschal, U. [Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

1993-05-01

297

Borehole guided waves in a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The property of acoustic guided waves generated in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous formation with a permeable wall is investigated. The influence of non-Newtonian effects on acoustic guided waves such as Stoneley waves, pseudo-Rayleigh waves, flexural waves, and screw waves propagations in a fluid-filled borehole is demonstrated based on the generalized Biot-Tsiklauri model by calculating their velocity dispersion and attenuation coefficients. The corresponding acoustic waveforms illustrate their properties in time domain. The results are also compared with those based on generalized Biot's theory. The results show that the influence of non-Newtonian effect on acoustic guided wave, especially on the attenuation coefficient of guided wave propagation in borehole is noticeable.

Cui, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Jin-Xia; Yao, Gui-Jin; Wang, Ke-Xie

2010-08-01

298

Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.

Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

2013-10-01

299

Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in borehole USW G-2, 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Borehole USW G-2 is located north of Yucca Mountain in a large-hydraulic-gradient area. Two single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in the borehole during 1996. A 54.9-hour pumping period was conducted February 6--8, 1996, and a 408-hour pumping period was conducted April 8--25, 1996. The purpose of testing was to obtain estimates of the aquifer-system transmissivity and to determine if perched water was affecting the observed water level in borehole USW G-2. This report presents and analyzes data collected between February 6 and December 17, 1996. Analysis of the aquifer-test data indicated that fracture flow, dual-porosity flow, and boundary-affected flow conditions were observed in the drawdown and recovery data. Transmissivity estimates ranged from 2.3 to 12 meters squared per day. The most representative transmissivity estimate for the interval tested is the early-time mean transmissivity of 9.4 meters squared per day. The Calico Hills Formation was the primary formation tested, but the top 3 meters of the nonpumping water column was within the overlying Topopah Spring Tuff. Persistent residual drawdown following pumping more than 6 million liters of water during aquifer testing may indicate that the bore-hole intersected a perched water body. After 236 days of recovery, residual drawdown was 0.5 meter. The quantitative effect of the perched water on the observed water level in borehole USW G-2, however, cannot be determined with the available data.

O`Brien, G.M.

1998-08-01

300

Superposition of borehole-to-surface voltage residuals for Vadose Zone plume delineation.  

PubMed

An injected tracer field experiment was conducted at the University of Idaho Ground Water Field Laboratory to evaluate the application of borehole-to-surface voltage measurements for delineation of the tracer distribution in partially saturated, fractured basalt. A tap water tracer was injected into a fracture-dominated, salt-water plume formed during a previous salt-water injection experiment. The tap water tracer was injected into a central injection well under constant hydraulic head for 34 days. The injection well was surrounded by seven test boreholes. Each borehole contained several copper wire electrodes for borehole-to-surface potential measurements between a surface grid of 224 copper sulfate, porous pot electrodes. Eight pole-pole, borehole-to-surface voltage data sets were acquired during each measurement period by energization of a selected electrode in each of the eight boreholes. Predicted voltages for a uniform earth (homogeneous and isotropic) potential model (finite difference) were subtracted from each data set (for its respective current source location), and the voltage residuals superposed to create new data sets with greater measurement sensitivity and coverage, to aid in interpretation. These data sets were collected over four measurement periods during tap water injection and four measurement periods during the subsequent 64-day drainage phase. The data were interpreted with the use of three-dimensional models and by comparisons with other electrical and hydrological observations. Results indicate that superposition of multiple data sets of voltage residuals significantly improved the lateral resolution of subsurface bulk resistivity changes that occurred over time. PMID:16298016

Osiensky, James L; Belknap, Willard J; Donaldson, Paul R

2006-01-10

301

Mantle sources and origin of the Middle Paleoproterozoic Jatulian Large Igneous Province of the Fennoscandian shield: evidence from isotope geochemical data on the Kuetsjarvi volcanics, Kola Craton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoproterozoic is one of the most important stages in the Earth's evolution as marking a cardinal change in a style of tectonomagmatic processes at 2.2-2.0 Ga, which corresponds to the formation of the Jatulian Large Igneous Province at the Fennoscandian Shield. The fragment of this province is represented by the volcanics of the Kuetsjarvi Group in the Kola Craton. These rocks differ in the extremely wide rock diversity and prominent role of alkaline rocks, the extremely rare rocks in the Precambrian. The rocks of the group are subdivided into the alkaline and tholeiitic basaltic series. The tholeiites are highly fractionated (mg# 38) high-Ti rocks enriched in HFSE. The alkaline series show wider mg# variations (32-52), which is inconsistent with a single fractionation sequence of these series. All rocks have high HFSE, at extremely wide LILE variations. Tholeiites show moderate LREE fractionation pattern at practically flat HREE: La/YbN = 3.6-4.5; La/SmN = 2.2-2.4, Gd/YbN = 1.5-1.7 and slight Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.80-0.85). The alkaline rocks display much more fractionated LREE and fractionated HREE (La/YbN = 43.9-5.8; La/SmN = 2.2-2.4, Gd/YbN = 2.04-3.92) patterns at Eu anomaly varying from 0.53 to 1. The spidergrams of both series reveal negative Nb and Sr anomalies at sign-variable Ti anomaly. The alkaline rocks are enriched relative to tholeiites in U, Th, and Nb. Examination of behavior of incompatible trace elements offers an opportunity to compare the conditions of generation of parental mantle magmas of the studied series. In particular, the tholeiitic basalts have higher Zr/Nb ratios than the alkaline rocks, which in combination with their lower La/Yb ratios indicates their formation under the higher melting degree of mantle source as compared to the alkaline rocks. Simultaneous increase in Ce/Y ratio in the alkaline rocks may indicate their formation at greater depths. Tholeiitic basalts have lower Nb/U ratio, which testifies some crustal contamination of the melts. In addition, they have low Ti/Y (323-449) ratios and high Lu/Hf (0.11-0.16), which is typical of the rocks formed by melting of spinel peridotites. The alkaline basalts were derived from a deeper garnet-bearing mantle source (Ti/Y = 640-1140, Lu/Hf = 0.03-0.05). Isotope-geochemical study showed that these rocks have very similar Nd isotope composition ((eNd (2200) = +1.5 in the alkaline basalt and +1.9 in the tholeiites). It was found that the studied alkaline rocks are similar in composition to the OIB-type Tristan da Kunha basalts, while tholeiites are closer to the high-Ti rocks of the Parana plateau, which experienced significant lithospheric contribution. Obtained data confirm the within-plate setting at the Jatulian stage of the Fennoscandian Shield. The Kutesjarvi Group consists of two rock types: OIB-type alkaline and E-MORB-type tholeiitic, which is typical of most Phanerozoic large igneous provinces. However, unlike the latters, the rocks of this area were too much tectonized and eroded to compile a systematic sequence. But, the Kuetsjarvi Group may be considered as the fragment of the oldest large igneous province.

Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Chistyakov, Alexeii; Evgenii, Sharkov

2014-05-01

302

Yegorovite, Na4[Si4O8(OH)4]·7H2O, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mineral, yegorovite, has been identified in the late hydrothermal, low-temperature assemblage of the Palitra hyperalkaline pegmatite at Mt. Kedykverpakhk, Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is intimately associated with revdite and megacyclite, earlier natrosilite, microcline, and villiaumite. Yegorovite occurs as coarse, usually split prismatic (up to 0.05 × 0.15 × 1 mm) or lamellar (up to 0.05 × 0.7 × 0.8 mm) crystals. Polysynthetic twins and parallel intergrowths are typical. Mineral individuals are combined in bunches or chaotic groups (up to 2 mm); radial-lamellar clusters are less frequent. Yegorovite is colorless, transparent with vitreous luster. Cleavage is perfect parallel to (010) and (001). Fracture is splintery; crystals are readily split into acicular fragments. The Mohs hardness is ˜2. Density is 1.90(2) g/cm3 (meas) and 1.92 g/cm3 (calc). Yegorovite is biaxial (-), with ? = 1.474(2), ? = 1.479(2), and ? = 1.482(2), 2 V meas > 70°, 2 V calc = 75°. The optical orientation is X ? a ˜ 15°, Y = c, Z = b. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition determined using an electron microprobe (H2O determined from total deficiency) is (wt %): 23.28 Na2O, 45.45 SiO2, 31.27 H2Ocalc; the total is 100.00. The empirical formula is Na3.98Si4.01O8.02(OH)3.98 · 7.205H2O. The idealized formula is Na4[Si4O8(OH)4] · 7H2O. Yegorovite is monoclinic, space group P21/ c. The unit-cell dimensions are a = 9.874, b= 12.398, c = 14.897 Å, ? = 104.68°, V = 1764.3 Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å ( I, %)([ hkl]) are 7.21(70)[002], 6.21(72)[012, 020], 4.696(44)[022], 4.003(49)[211], 3.734(46)[ bar 2 13], 3.116(100)[024, 040], 2.463(38)[ bar 4 02, bar 2 43]. The crystal structure was studied by single-crystal method, R hkl = 0.0745. Yegorovite is a representative of a new structural type. Its structure consists of single chains of Si tetrahedrons [Si4O8(OH)4]? and sixfold polyhedrons of two types: [NaO(OH)2(H2O)3] and [NaO(OH)(H2O)4] centered by Na. The mineral was named in memory of Yu. K. Yegorov-Tismenko (1938-2007), outstanding Russian crystallographer and crystallochemist. The type material of yegorovite has been deposited at the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Grishin, V. G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

2010-12-01

303

The rare-metal ore potential of the Proterozoic alkaline ultramafic massifs from eastern part of the Baltic Shield in the Kola alkaline province.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kola Alkaline Province consists of intrusions of two main stages of the intraplate alkaline magmatism. The early stage of igneous activity occurred in Proterozoic 1.9 billion years ago, the next in Paleozoic at 380 million years. The Proterozoic alkaline magmatism produced Gremyakha-Vyrmes and Elet'ozero large alkaline-ultrabasic massifs, Tiksheozero carbonatite massif and numerous small syenite complexes. Paleozoic magmatism on Baltic Shield exhibited more widely, than Proterozoic. The world largest Khibiny and Lovozero alkaline intrusions, numerous alkaline-ultrabasic massifs with carbonanites, alkaline dike swarms and diatremes were formed. It is well known that carbonatites of Paleozoic alkaline-ultrabasic massifs contain large-scale deposits of rare-metal ores (Afanasiev et al., 1998). The metasomatic rocks on foidolites and carbonatites of Gremyakha-Vyrmes are final products of differentiation of Proterozoic alkaline-ultrabasic magma enriched in incompatible elements, including Nb and Zr similar to Paleozoic carbonatites. The massif Gremyakha-Vyrmes is one of the largest titanomagnetite-ilmenite deposits in Russia associated with ultrabasites. Our investigation showed that albite-microcline and aegirine-albite metasomatites formed rich rare-metal ores consisting of 3.2 wt. % Nb2O5 and 0.7 ZrO2. Zircon and pyrochlore-group minerals represent the main minerals of rare-metal ores. The following evolutionary sequences of pyrochlore group minerals has been observed: betafite or U pyrochlore - Na-Ca pyrochlore - Ba-Sr pyrochlore - "silicified" pyrochlore - Fe-Nb, Al-Nb silicates. Such evolution from primary Nb oxides to secondary silicates under low temperature hydrothermal conditions is similar to the evolution of rare metal phases in Paleozoic alkaline massifs analogous to Lovozero syenites and in carbonatites. The rare metal minerals of Gremyakha-Vyrmes crystallized in high alkaline hydrothermal environment at increased activity of Nb, Ta, Zr, U, Th and at temperature near 600-650°C (according to isotopic graphite-calcite, biotite-pyroxene and zircon-rutile thermometers). The minerals of latest stages occurred under low-temperature, decrease of pH and high activity of Si, REE, Sr, Ba, Fe and Al. Isotope data obtained for carbonatites and metasomatites of the Gremiakha-Vyrmes massif linked to a mantle source. We suggest that carbonatites were the source of Nb, U, Th, Zr and REE. Metasomatic rocks accumulate rare metals and could be formed during the metasomatism triggered by intrusion of carbonatites into the alkaline and basic-ultrabasic complexes of the massif. The nepheline-feldspathoid-aegirine pegmatoids, carbonatite veins and breccia of Elet'ozero Proterozoic alkaline-ultrabasic massif formed rare-metal ores and showed genetic similarity to final products of differentiation of the Gremyakha-Vyrmes. Research covered by RFBR grant 13-05-12021.

Sorokhtina, Natalia; Kogarko, Lia

2014-05-01

304

Post-drilling destabilization of temperature profile in borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), the 1.5-km-deep borehole Yaxcopoil-1, located\\u000a in the Chixculub meteor impact structure in Mexico, has undergone further study after drilling operations ceased. Temperature\\u000a logs were repeated ten times at intervals 0.3–0.8, 15, 24 and 34 months after borehole shut-in. The logs bear a distinct signature\\u000a of transient heat transfer by groundwater flow

Jan Šafanda; Philipp Heidinger; Helmut Wilhelm; Vladimír ?ermák

2007-01-01

305

Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook  

SciTech Connect

One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

1996-09-01

306

Recent warming trends inferred from borehole temperature data in Figuig area (Eastern Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground surface temperature history (GSTH) reflecting the past climate conditions in eastern Morocco was evaluated by analyzing the temperature-depth profiles measured in four boreholes at the Figuig Oasis. The temperature-depth data were inverted using the functional space inversion method in order to reconstruct the surface temperature past changes. The results reveal a recent warming in the last century with an amplitude of 1-3 °C for the four boreholes and a comparison with surface air temperature (SAT) variation from the Bouarfa and Bechar meteorological stations confirms this result. This warming trend is confirmed by other climate proxies.

Ouzzaouit, Lalla Amina; Bakraoui, Alae; Benalioulhaj, Nouredine; Carneiro, Julio; Correia, Antonio; Jilali, Abdelhakim; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Zarhloule, Yassine

2014-08-01

307

Visualization of hydraulic connections using Borehole Array around LPG Underground Storage Cavern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a systematic approach to visualize the hydraulic connections within the fractured rock mass around the underground LPG storage caverns using array of water injection boreholes. By taking advantage that water injection boreholes are located so as to cover the storage caverns, a complete sketch of hydraulic conditions around the caverns, such as locations of water conducting fractures, hydraulic conductivity and groundwater pressure can be obtained. Applicability of the proposed techniques have been tested in an on-going construction project operated by JOGMEC, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, at Namikata, Western part of Japan. Three 26m x 30m x 485m caverns, located at 150 - 200 m below the ground surface in a granitic rock, are under construction. By systematically monitoring the pressure responses between the neighboring boreholes during drilling of total 387 boreholes around the two propane caverns, a spatial profile of the hydraulic connections and hydraulic conductivity around the caverns has been successfully obtained. Locations of localized depressurized zones created during an arch excavation have been detected by monitoring pressure in each borehole after stopping water supply to that borehole temporarily. Measurement has been conducted using each one of the 302 boreholes, one at a time. Observation shows that there is a clear correlation between total pressure drop and pressure gradient versus time curve on semi-logarithmic plot, dH/log10t, as expected by the numerical prediction. Regions where dH/log10t is larger than a certain criteria, determined by a numerical simulation for flow around a cavern in a rock with uniform hydraulic conductivity, have been evaluated as a depressurized zone caused by insufficient water supply, possibly due to existence of the high permeable zones. Separate pore pressure measurement around the caverns also supports this interpretation that a low pressure is prevailing near the borehole where a large value of dH/log10t is obtained. As a countermeasure to avoid further depressurization, installation of additional water injection hole was conducted. The same observation was then repeated. It is recognized that dH/log10t has recovered above the criteria, showing that the local water balance has been improved. Finally it is concluded that the proposed rather simple but space encompassing observation is applicable to groundwater management during construction and also provides useful information for creating a hydrogeological model, considering a fracture network system, that will be used for the evaluation of the cavern performance as a storage tank.

Shimo, M.; Mashimo, H.; Maejima, T.; Aoki, K.

2006-12-01

308

Taking borehole conditions algorithmically into account in the. gamma. spectrometry of rock  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, an analytical model permitting an operative algorithmic interpretation of the data of borehole gamma spectrometry is briefly described. The spectrometry of the natural gamma radiation of rock permits significant increase in the efficiency of solving problems of oil-gas geophysics associated with the surveying and exploitation of oil and gas deposits, calculation of the reserves, and increasing the petroleum output of beds. The meteorological parameters of the interpretational model are presented. The universal dependence of the bed value for a centered instrument and an instrument passed to the borehole wall on the dimensionless parameter is shown.

Kozhevnikov, D.A.

1987-01-01

309

Particle Size Distribution Data From Existing Boreholes at the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Site  

SciTech Connect

This report provides particle size distribution data for samples near the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Site that were archived in the Hanford Geotechnical Sample Library. Seventy-nine sediment samples were analyzed from four boreholes. Samples were collected from every ten feet in the boreholes. Eightly percent of the samples were classified as slightly gravelly sand. Fifteen percent were classified as gravelly sand, gravelly silty sand, or sandy gravels. These data indicate that the particle size of the sediment is consistent across the ILAW site and is dominated by sand in the upper part of the Hanford formation with more gravel rich units in the lower part.

Valenta, Michelle M.; Martin, Maria B.; Moreno, Jorge R.; Ferri, Rosalie M.; Horton, Duane G.; Reidel, Stephen P.

2000-09-25

310

Borehole temperature response for competing models of Laurentide ice sheet dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole temperature profiles (BTP) are not only the source for estimates of the background geothermal heat flow, but also allow the reconstruction of past surface temperature changes. Though shallow boreholes (e. g. less than 500 m) are abundant in most continental areas, their use is inhibited by the necessity of extracting the paleoclimatic signal present in the borehole temperature at any depth. However, assuming a long-term ground surface temperature history (GSTH), a generalized reduced temperature may be used for the interpretation of the shallow observations. To derive or test the required assumptions, very deep boreholes (say, > 2000 m) are highly important also for the investigation of shallow measurements. In areas which were influenced by the Last Glacial Period (LGP), the existence of the large scale ice sheets (e.g. the Laurentide or Weichselian), the spatial distribution of basal conditions, and the timing of their retreat have a major influence on the subsurface temperature regime. Though for parts of its history no longer directly related to atmospheric temperature, deep BTPs carry information on basal conditions, oceanic transgressions, and retreat histories, and can thus contribute to the confirmation/rejection, or even calibration of ice sheet models. From this it follows that a meaningful interpretation of the paleoclimatic signal can only proceed with a reasonable understanding of the regional ice sheet behavior, and, in order to quantify the effects, a calibrated numerical ice sheet model. From such a model, synthetic long term GSTHs may be generated, which can subsequently be used to derive the generalized reduced temperatures for the shallow BTPs. This approach is challenging in several aspects: (1) high-resolution, high-order/hybrid ice sheet models are only now emerging, and the physics at the base (e.g. ice streams) needs improvement; (2) a calibration in the sense of a Bayesian inverse problem are rare, and (3) appropriate sets of borehole data (including the corresponding metadata) still have to be collected and need to undergo strict quality control before being used. In addition, a methodological concept fora regional interpretation is missing. In this contribution we will compare the borehole temperature response for two ice sheet models of the Laurentide glaciation, differing in their dynamics. Both were realized by running the hybrid SIA/SSA code GRISLI in different modes. The subsurface temperature anomalies thus generated are significant. Unfortunately the existing deep boreholes in the area are not placed in areas of high sensitivity (e.g., Northern Quebec, Canadian Archipelago). Notwithstanding these difficulties, we will present results for some of these available boreholes in central and northern Canada and Alaska.

Rath, Volker; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Robinson, Alex; Montoya-Redondo, Marisa

2013-04-01

311

Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is low in the natural gamma ray isotopes uranium, thorium, and potassium, while rhyolites produce high total gamma ray responses. Sediment interbeds become apparent as the radioactivity associated with fine grained minerals is significantly higher than that of the host rock (e.g. basalt) due to high hydrogen concentration within the crystal structure of clays. Basalt lacks conductive minerals and results in high resistivity but moderate magnetic susceptibility. The sediments on the other hand are highly conductive and have a low magnetic susceptibility. The basalt and rhyolite units are relatively massive except for fractures which become apparent in the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. Signal is lost in soft sediments resulting in dark regions when full amplitude is displayed for the ultrasonic borehole televiewer. The massive basalt shows short P- and S-wave travel times and therefore a high sonic velocity, while the sediments display only P-wave first arrivals.

Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

2013-12-01

312

An experimental and theoretical study of shock-induced surface waves in porous boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface wave modes in a water-filled borehole surrounded by a poroelastic medium are studied. Numerical and experimental results are presented for the dispersion relation of shock-induced surface waves in a borehole in a confined formation in a broad band of frequencies (1-50 kHz). Theoretically, it is shown that permeability affects considerably both the phase velocity and damping coefficient of the pseudo-Stoneley wave. Experimentally, a vertical shock tube is used to excite pseudo-Stoneley and pseudo-Rayleigh waves as well as the bulk compressional wave. Qualitative agreement between experiment and theory is obtained.

Chao, G.; Smeulders, D. M. J.; van Dongen, M. E. H.

313

Mathematical model of gamma-ray spectrometry borehole logging for quantitative analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A technique for analyzing gamma-ray spectral-logging data has been developed, in which a digital computer is used to calculate the effects of gamma-ray attentuation in a borehole environment. The computer model allows for the calculation of the effects of lithology, porosity, density, and the thickness of a horizontal layer of uniformly distributed radioactive material surrounding a centralized probe in a cylindrical borehole. The computer program also contains parameters for the calculation of the effects of well casing, drilling fluid, probe housing, and losses through the sodium-iodide crystal. Errors associated with the commonly used mathematical assumption of a point detector are eliminated in this model. (USGS)

Schimschal, Ulrich

1981-01-01

314

Reconstruction of Past Climatic Changes in Polar Regions using Borehole Paleothermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In what is becoming a classic climate-reconstruction method, the temperature-history on the upper boundary of an ice-sheet can be inferred from the present-day temperature field observed within the ice; temperature measurements from one or more boreholes are generally used to ascertain the present-day temperature field. This process is known as borehole paleothermometry. The method can be applied equally well to terrestrial areas where groundwater flow is quite limited or does not occur at all, such as areas dominated by thick permafrost. A number of factors influencing the temperature field in the vicinity of the borehole(s) must be taken into account during the analysis, including: the environmental setting of the hole, the thermal disturbance caused by drilling, possible convection of the borehole fluid, thermal conductivity variations, ice advection, and heat sources due to shear strain and other affects. Once these factors are taken into account, the subsurface temperature measurements can be used to reconstruct the temperature history on the surface using any number of geophysical inverse methods (e.g. Monte Carlo, spectral expansion). With all these methods, the amount of detail available in the solutions (climate histories) is determined by the number and location of the temperature measurements, the measurement uncertainties, and characteristically diminishes for older times. Different inner-product spaces can be used when formulating the inverse problem. An investigation of these spaces using the spectral expansion (SE) and true-norm-minimizing (TNM) inverse methods show that for borehole paleothermometry: 1) Solution errors are greatly reduced for inner-product spaces based on log(?) instead of ?, where ? is time-before-present. This is partly because the basis functions are better balanced. 2) Inner-product spaces that include a temporal weighting function can be effectively used to reduce the magnitude of false oscillations ("ringing") in the solutions, particularly for recent times. The investigation also revealed deficiencies in the SE method when applied to borehole paleothermometry that are associated with the limited number of basis functions that can be effectively used with SE for this inverse problem. The TNM solutions are superior in the context of borehole paleothermometry.

Clow, G. D.

2008-12-01

315

Intermediate scale borehole (Room C): In situ data report (January 1989--June 1993)  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented from the intermediate scale borehole test, an in situ test fielded in the pillar separating Rooms C1 and C2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The test was to provide data on the influence of scale, if any, on the structural behavior of underground openings in salt. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1989, with the drilling of the intermediate scale borehole in December 1990. Gage data in this report cover the period from January 1989 through June 1993.

Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Baird, G.T.; Labreche, D.A.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Northrop-Salazar, C.L. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-11-01

316

Time-lapse gravity: A numerical demonstration using robust inversion and joint interpretation of 4D surface and borehole data  

E-print Network

surface and borehole data Richard A. Krahenbuhl1 and Yaoguo Li1 ABSTRACT There are a number of ongoing efforts for effective reservoir management decisions. The tracking of injected fluid through inversion can be significantly improved with the joint interpretation of surface and borehole gravity data. This is particularly

317

State of lithospheric stress and borehole stability at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hole 504B in the eastern equatorial Pacific is the deepest hole to penetrate oceanic basement, extending more than 1,500 m beneath the seafloor. Two borehole televiewer (BHTV) logs have been combined and processed in terms of both acoustic amplitude and travel time in order to evaluate the extent and distribution of rock failure along the borehole wall. A histogram of

Roger H. Morin; Robin L. Newmark; Colleen A. Barton; Roger N. Anderson

1990-01-01

318

A maximum likelihood estimator for bedrock fracture transmissivities and its application to the analysis and design of borehole hydraulic tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method to estimate the transmissivities of bedrock fractures from transmissivities measured in intervals of fixed length along a borehole. We define the scale of a fracture set by the inverse of the density of the Poisson point process assumed to represent their locations along the borehole wall, and we assume a lognormal distribution for their transmissivities.

Anthony C. F. West; Kent S. Novakowski; Saeed Gazor

2006-01-01

319

System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole  

DOEpatents

In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

2012-10-16

320

Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Petr Bulant, Charles University in Prague, Jol H. Le Calvez*,  

E-print Network

Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Not performing accurate borehole deviation surveys for hydraulic fracture monitoring (HFM) and neglecting fracture parameters. Introduction Recently a large number of hydraulic fracture treatments have been

Cerveny, Vlastislav

321

Borehole Strain Measurements on Volcanoes: Insights from Montserrat and Hekla  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Fall 2000 we reported that data from Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters allowed a short term (~20 minutes) warning of an eruption of Hekla, Iceland, in 2000 and showed clear changes before an eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986. In 2002-2003 (CALIPSO program) we installed a small net of strainmeters near Montserrat’s Soufriere Hills Volcano, an active andesitic dome building volcano. We have sites in Long Valley and Hawaii (with USGS); at Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei area, Stromboli and (planned) Etna (with Italian colleagues). Gladwin strainmeters have been installed at Yellowstone and Mt. St. Helens (PBO). Our recent volcano research efforts have been on Montserrat and Hekla. Analyses of a very large dome collapse (Montserrat) in July 2003 (Voight et al, 2006) and an explosion in March 2004 (Linde et al., 2010) reveal a reservoir at about 5 km with a NW-SE trending dike extending from the reservoir to about 1.5 km from the surface. A number of explosions require only a narrow conduit (15 m radius) that extends from the top of the dike to the surface (Voight et al. 2010); others have a different strain signature and require deeper sources. A 1 month long clear strain excursion required an additional contribution from a reservoir at about 11 km (Hautmann et al. in prep). Many small signals with similar strain change patterns take place over much shorter time scales (2 - 20 mins) are presumably due to gas transfer. We now realize, from the 2000 eruption of Hekla, that the magma geometry is quite different from that in all earlier models. The reservoir is about 11 km deep but the dike that breaks the surface in Hekla's characteristic fissure eruption does not extend to the reservoir as had been thought; but to no more than about 1 km. Although undetectable by any available surface measurements, there must be a conduit to connect the reservoir to the dike. In Sturkell et al. (in prep) we propose that this conduit is now sufficiently large in diameter to remain fluid during the 10 years between eruptions, explaining the dramatic change in eruption interval of about 60-80 years up till 1947 to the current 10 years. For both the 2000 eruption of Hekla and the small March 2004 explosion at Montserrat our strainmeters record clear strain changes before any surface activity, due to mass movement from the reservoir into the shallower dike. This allows an estimate of the bulk modulus of the reservoir for each volcano. For Montserrat we get 7 GPa, implying a few percent of free gas, consistent with other estimates. For Hekla the estimate is surprisingly high, more than 40 GPa, implying no free gas in the reservoir of this volcano whose eruption initiates with a >10 km high plume. This is consistent with the fluid conduit. The expansion during the last 10 years of strainmeter monitoring on volcanoes has been less extensive than we would like but nevertheless we have seen some progress in that direction. We remain strong advocates for an expanded strainmeter role in the future.

Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.

2010-12-01

322

Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Arnold, Bill Walter [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

2012-09-01

323

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to Tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. Sediments from borehole 299-E27-22 were considered to be background uncontaminated sediments against which to compare contaminated sediments for the C Tank Farm characterization effort. This report also presents our interpretation of the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the A-AX, C and U Waste Management Area field investigation report(a) in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. A core log was generated for both boreholes and a geologic evaluation of all core samples was performed at the time of opening. Aliquots of sediment from the borehole core samples were analyzed and characterized in the laboratory for the following parameters: moisture content, gamma-emitting radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Two key radiocontaminants, technetium-99 and uranium-238, along with other trace metals were determined in acid and water extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2006-10-18

324

Geohydrologic assessment of fractured crystalline bedrock on the southern part of Manhattan, New York, through the use of advanced borehole geophysical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced borehole-geophysical methods were used to assess the geohydrology of fractured crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, NY in preparation of the construction of a new water tunnel. The study area is located in a highly urbanized part of New York City. The boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock that

F Stumm; A Chu; P K Joesten

2007-01-01

325

Andrianovite, Na 12 (K,Sr,Ce) 3 Ca 6 Mn 3 Zr 3 Nb(Si 25 O 73 )(O, H 2 O,OH) 5 , a new potassium-rich mineral species of the eudialyte group from the Khibiny alkaline Pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the description of a new eudialyte-group mineral, which was named andrianovite in honor of Valerii Ivanovich\\u000a Andrianov (1938–1991), a famous Russian mathematician and crystallographer, who developed the AREN software package for structural\\u000a study of minerals with variable composition. The new mineral has been found in pegmatite from the Koashva open pit, Khibiny\\u000a Pluton, Kola Peninsula, as rims

A. P. Khomyakov; G. N. Nechelyustov; R. K. Rastsvetaeva; K. A. Rozenberg

2008-01-01

326

Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for Long Term Gas Measurements in Deep Boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct determination of the gas composition in subsurface brines in deep boreholes is necessary for the characterization of existing fluids and the monitoring of changes of reservoir gases during industrial use. The conventional methods used for this purpose were mostly expensive and sophisticated techniques and typically involve the collection of discrete samples that are transported to a laboratory for

M. Zimmer; J. Erzinger; Chr. Kujawa

2009-01-01

327

Experimental technique and new temperature and heat flow measurements in the deep boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the outstanding problems for the modern prospect geophysics is the following, whether permeable zones and commercial petroleum concentrations exist in deep crystalline basement. Temperature measurements allow us to more accurately determine the permeable layers and reservoirs in the basement. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes include a set of deep instruments, cable winch and surface

M. Khristoforova

2003-01-01

328

GPR borehole reflection experiments constrain fracture geometry in a crystalline rock aquifer, Ploemeur, Brittany, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid flow in fractured crystalline aquifers is mainly controlled by the geometry and connectivity of permeable fractures. Deterministic imaging of individual 3D flow paths between boreholes in fractured rock is so far not possible using either geophysical or hydrological data. At a hydrogeological research site in Ploemeur, France, we explore the utility of combining Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) data collected

Caroline Dorn; Niklas Linde; Joseph Doetsch; Tanguy Le Borgne; Olivier Bour

2010-01-01

329

New experimental sites for borehole geophysics, hydrodynamics and long-term monitoringITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide platforms for the development of new downhole geophysical and hydrodynamic sensors, 4 sites are being developped with a series of nearby 100 m deep boreholes located with a few meters to 100 meters, at the most. The objective is to set-up a cluster of extremely well characterized in-situ laboratories at scales where experiments cannot be conducted

P. Pezard

2003-01-01

330

Geophysical logs and core measurements from forty boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A data base of geophysical logs and core measurements acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been established. We used this data set to generate log plots from 40 boreholes at a scale of 1:1200 for reference and for correlation. Log headers summarize the drilling and logging sequence. We describe the logging tools, the sources of core data, and the editing procedures. We illustrate the adverse effects of casing on the gamma-ray log, of borehole rugosity on the density log, and of borehole diameter and fluid resistivity on the resistivity logs. Welding and alteration of the tuffs are the dominant geological controls on the response of the density, velocity, neutron, and resistivity logs. Density, resistivity, gamma-ray, and, in particular, the magnetic-field logs are useful for correlation of stratigraphy and alteration. A few zones in which the matrix is moderately permeable have produced log responses indication invasion of the rock by drilling fluid. Readings from the density log were confirmed with core measurements. It appears that the epithermal-neutron and dielectric-permittivity logs can be used to estimate water content providing calibration methods are established. 82 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Nelson, P.H.; Muller, D.C.; Schimschal, U.; Kibler, J.E.

1991-11-01

331

Berriasian and Valanginian dinoflagellate cysts from three boreholes in Northeast Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berriasian and Valanginian dinocyst assemblages are documented from three boreholes in Northeast Bulgaria. In addition to conventional transmitted light microscopy, a selection of species has been studied in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The novel method of CLSM is now applied for the first time to the morphological analysis and final identification of Bulgarian fossil dinoflagellate cyst species. The stratigraphic

Polina Pavlishina; Susanne Feist-Burkhardt

332

Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-3  

SciTech Connect

Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-3 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,487 m (4,880 ft) below ground surface (bgs). Slotted screen is placed in an upper screened section from 1,095 to 1,160 m bgs (3,591 to 3,805 ft bgs) and in the lower screened section from 1,278 to 1,474 m bgs (4,191 to 4,834 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is significant upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus and large vertical flow velocities in the well casing result in the measured borehole flow rates being potentially highly nonrepresentative of conditions in the aquifer. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

P. Oberlander; C. Russell

2005-09-01

333

Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4  

SciTech Connect

Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

Phil L. Oberlander; Charles E. Russell

2005-12-31

334

Coupled Aquifer-Borehole Simulation by Tom Clemo1,2  

E-print Network

on the interpretation of transient drawdown from a well. They assumed Darcy flow in the formation and turbulent pipe. The wellbore flow model is embedded into the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. The nonlinear in a borehole with fluid flow in an aquifer is developed in this paper. Conservation of momentum is used

Barrash, Warren

335

On a possible source of error in extracting equilibrium formation temperatures from borehole BHT data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of equilibrium formation temperatures from observation of temperatures during breaks in drilling of a borehole is often achieved by assuming a constant axial line heat source, and by making some mathematical simplifications. It is shown that use of such simplifications can, in some cases of particular relevance to oil and gas wells, lead to significant errors in the

M DRURY

1984-01-01

336

Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

1984-07-01

337

Annual Logging Symposium, June 3-6, 2007 COMBINED INVERSION OF BOREHOLE RESISTIVITY AND SONIC  

E-print Network

as independent variables avoids enforcing a lithology- specific relationship to porosity. INTRODUCTION WaterSPWLA 48th Annual Logging Symposium, June 3-6, 2007 1 COMBINED INVERSION OF BOREHOLE RESISTIVITY OF INVASION Gong Li Wang, Carlos Torres-Verdín, Jun Ma, and Tobiloluwa B. Odumosu, The University of Texas

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

338

Surface temperature trends in Russia over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures  

E-print Network

Surface temperature trends in Russia over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole in Russia and nearby areas to reconstruct the ground surface temperature history (GSTH) over the past five. D. Duchkov, I. V. Golovanova, S. Huang, V. A. Shchapov, and J. E. Smerdon, Surface temperature

Smerdon, Jason E.

339

Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data  

DOEpatents

Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth. 30 figs.

Ward, S.H.

1989-10-17

340

BLIND TESTS OF REFRACTION MICROTREMOR ANALYSIS AGAINST SYNTHETICS AND BOREHOLE DATA  

E-print Network

BLIND TESTS OF REFRACTION MICROTREMOR ANALYSIS AGAINST SYNTHETICS AND BOREHOLE DATA Karalyn Heath1 the synthetics in a blind test, following standard ReMi procedures. Between the models and the blind results, we recordings using a finite-difference code. The test models span the range of Vs profiles seen for rock sites

341

Understanding the Chena Hot Springs, Alaska, geothermal system using temperature and pressure data from exploration boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chena Hot Springs is a small, moderate temperature, deep circulating geothermal system, apparently typical of those associated to hot springs of interior Alaska. Multi-stage drilling was used in some exploration boreholes and was found to be useful for understanding subsurface flow characteristics and developing a conceptual model of the system. The results illustrate how temperature profiles illuminate varying pressure versus

Kamil Erkan; Gwen Holdmann; Walter Benoit; David Blackwell

2008-01-01

342

Temperatures at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet inferred from borehole temperature data  

E-print Network

Temperatures at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet inferred from borehole temperature data Fre. The GSTH's are consistent with information on the history of the Laurentide ice sheet and provide: Rolandone, F., J.-C. Mareschal, and C. Jaupart, Temperatures at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

Rolandone, Frederique

343

Temperatures at the base of the Laurentide Ice Sheet inferred from borehole temperature data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use temperature profiles from 4 deep (>1600 m) boreholes across Canada to determine ground surface temperature histories (GSTH's) through and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Inversion yields the temperature history at the base of the glacier and the surface temperature evolution after the glacial retreat. The results indicate geographic differences in basal temperature history across the Ice Sheet.

Frédérique Rolandone; Jean-Claude Mareschal; Claude Jaupart

2003-01-01

344

High-resolution velocity field imaging around a borehole: Excavation Damaged Zone characterization  

E-print Network

1 High-resolution velocity field imaging around a borehole: Excavation Damaged Zone.balland@ineris.fr, vincent.renaud@ineris.fr ABSTRACT The excavation of a deep underground structure induces a stress field redistribution that creates an Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ). Study of EDZ physical properties is of prime

Boyer, Edmond

345

Impact of maximum borehole depths on ground warming patterns: A spatial analysis over the Northern Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past variations in the Earth's surface energy balance are preserved in the terrestrial subsurface and can be inferred from borehole temperature-depth profiles. These profiles are used to reconstruct past ground surface temperature (GST) histories. Recent work by Beltrami et al. (2011) has shown that estimated GST histories can be significantly impacted by the maximum depth of the borehole temperature measurement. In the present study, we use temperature-depth profiles measured at 558 sites distributed between 30o N and 60o N in the Northern Hemisphere. For each site, the background steady-state temperature profile is estimated using progressively deeper maximum depths of truncation. Additionally, GST histories are reconstructed using multiple maximum depth truncations. In order to control on the influence of the geographical sampling, shallow boreholes are dropped from the analysis once their depth is surpassed. The estimated temperature changes over 50-yr intervals are evaluated in these reconstructions as a function of the maximum truncation depth in the database. Similarly, the total terrestrial heat gain is also estimated using progressive depths of truncations. All calculations show a significant dependence on the maximum depths of the borehole profiles and further indicate the importance of this factor in estimates of past temperature and heat content histories derived from geothermal data. Further, calculations also show that the ground has warmed by 0.5o over last 100 years consistent with the earlier studies by Beltrami and Bourlon (2004).

Beltrami, Hugo; Matharoo, Gurpreet S.; Smerdon, Jason E.

2013-04-01

346

Vertical temperature gradients within discharging steam-water boreholes can indicate flow-rate  

SciTech Connect

Few temperature profiles have been taken in flowing geothermal boreholes. The three experiments studied here give a straight line relationship for temperature with depth. This gradient is simply correlated with both hole diameter and flow-rate as in an equation.

James, R.

1980-09-01

347

INFERRING THE SUB-SURFACE STRUCTURAL COVARIANCE MODEL USING CROSS-BOREHOLE GROUND PENETRATING RADAR TOMOGRAPHY.  

E-print Network

- BOREHOLE GROUND PENETRATING RADAR TOMOGRAPHY. Thomas M. Hansen*, Majken C. Looms, and Lars Nielsen T squares based ground penetrating radar tomography problems, and linear inverse Gaussian problems. The methodology is then applied to a nonlinear ground penetrating radar tomography case study. The covariance

Mosegaard, Klaus

348

Petrophysical inversion of borehole array-induction logs: Part I --Numerical examples  

E-print Network

in porous media resulting from water-base mud filtrate invading hydrocarbon- bearing rock formations biases in estimating permeability re- sulting from uncertain knowledge about rock-fluid and mud media into the analysis of geoelectrical borehole measurements will significantly improve current

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

349

IDENTIFYING HYDRAULICALLY CONDUCTIVE FRACTURES WITH A SLOW-VELOCITY BOREHOLE FLOWMETER.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U. S. Geological Survey used a recently developed heat-pulse flowmeter to measure very slow borehole axial water velocities in granitic rock at a site near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The flowmeter was used with other geophysical measurements to locate and identify hydraulically conducting fractures contributing to the very slow vertical water flow in the two boreholes selected for study. The heat-pulse flowmeter has a flow-measuring range in water of 0. 06-6m/min, and can resolve velocity differences as slow as 0. 01 m/min. This is an order of magnitude slower than the stall speed of spinner flowmeters. The flowmeter is 1. 16 m long and 44 mm in diameter. It was calibrated in columns of 76 and 152 mm diameter, to correspond to the boreholes studied. The heat-pulse flowmeter system is evaluated, and problems peculiar to the measurement of very slow axial water velocities in boreholes are discussed.

Hess, Alfred E.

1986-01-01

350

Fast modeling of borehole neutron porosity measurements with a new spatial transport-diffusion approximation  

E-print Network

diffusion solution is im- plemented for nonmultiplying systems in 2D and 3D cylindrical coordinatesFast modeling of borehole neutron porosity measurements with a new spatial transport-diffusion)-derived spatial flux sensitivity functions (FSFs) and diffusion flux-difference (DFD) approximations. The method

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

351

Limitations of Using Uniform Heat Flux Assumptions in Sizing Vertical Borehole Heat Exchanger Fields  

E-print Network

of ground heat exchangers (GHE) used with ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. These models can account Line Source Theory; g-functions 1. Introduction Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are a widely approach with a parametric study. Keywords - Ground Source Heat Pumps; Borehole Heat Exchangers; Finite

352

Analytical g-function for inclined boreholes in ground-source heat pump systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design of ground-source heat pump systems, the calculation of the total length of the bore field is very important because it is responsible for the major part of the initial cost. Some technologies, like direct expansion systems and pile systems, often use inclined boreholes. Most design methods do not consider this effect and may overestimate the total length

Louis Lamarche

2011-01-01

353

Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

1997-12-01

354

A pseudo-spectral method for simulating poro-elastic wave propagation in complex borehole environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 3D cylindrical coordinates. An important application of this method is the realistic modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. To this end, we use numerical mesh consisting of three concentric domains representing the borehole fluid in the center followed by the casing and/or mudcake, and the surrounding porous formation. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and Fourier expansions in the vertical and azimuthal directions as well as a Runge-Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method based on the method of characteristics and trigonometric interpolation is used to match the boundary conditions at the fluid/porous-solid and porous-solid/porous-solid interfaces as well as to reduce the number of grid points in the innermost domain for computational efficiency. We apply this novel poro-elastic modeling approach to assess the sensitivity of Stoneley waves to formation permeability in the presence of a casing as well as to evaluate the effects of various kinds of heterogeneity in the porous formation on the recorded signals. Our results indicate that Stoneley waves are indeed remarkably sensitive to the average permeability of the heterogeneous porous formation behind a perforated PVC casing. Our results do, however, also indicate that the amplitudes of the Stoneley decay very rapidly from the borehole wall towards the center of the borehole and hence are correspondingly difficult to measure with conventional centered borehole logging tools.

Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José; Holliger, Klaus

2013-04-01

355

Elucidation of basal processes from borehole water level perturbations along a transect of the Greenland ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial perturbation of the water level in glacier boreholes connected to the bed via slug and bail tests provides a useful means of investigating the subglacial hydrologic system. Owing to their ease of performance, short duration, and repeatability, these tests are particularly valuable in deep, cold ice settings in which open boreholes refreeze within a few hours. Here we present results from 34 slug tests performed over two field seasons in western Greenland. We conducted tests in 10 different boreholes connected to the bed at four separate sites where ice thickness ranged from <100 meters (m) to 820 m. In addition to the test hole, we monitored water levels in up to three adjacent boreholes. Both test holes and adjacent boreholes exhibited overdamped responses, marked by a slow recovery towards equilibrium, as well as oscillatory, underdamped responses. In some instances, adjacent boreholes exhibited spatially heterogeneous behavior in which both overdamped and underdamped responses occurred in different holes during the same test. In test holes not impacted by inter-borehole hydrodynamics, the oscillation frequency generally decreased following the square root of the ice thickness. Inter-borehole dynamics are captured by modeling the immediate drainage system as a network of pipes in which the degree of damping is dictated by individual pipe geometry. We investigate mechanisms responsible for inducing oscillatory behavior in the absence of adjacent borehole effects, and constrain their feasibility by the trend in frequency change with ice thickness. In doing so, we draw conclusions regarding the short term storage of water by the basal system, and infer similarities between the drainage network beneath sites on western Greenland and well-studied mountain glacier drainage systems.

Meierbachtol, T. W.; Harper, J. T.; Humphrey, N. F.

2011-12-01

356

Analysis of the results of hydraulic-fracture stimulation of two crystalline bedrock boreholes, Grand Portage, Minnesota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic fracture-stimulation procedures typical of those provided by contractors in the water-well industry were applied to two boreholes in basaltic and gabbroic rocks near Grand Portage, Minnesota.These boreholes were considered incapable of supplying adequate ground water for even a single household although geophysical logs showed both boreholes were intersected by many apparently permeable fractures. Tests made before and after stimulation indicated that the two boreholes would produce about 0.05 and 0.25 gallon per minute before stimulation, and about 1.5 and 1.2 gallons per minute after stimulation. These increases would be enough to obtain adequate domestic water supplies from the two boreholes but would not furnish enough water for more than a single household from either borehole. Profiles of high-resolution flow made during pumping after stimulation indicated that the stimulation enhanced previously small inflows or stimulated new inflow from seven fractures or fracture zones in one borehole and from six fractures or fracture zones in the other.Geophysical logs obtained after stimulation showed no specific changes in these 13 fractures that could be related to stimulation other than the increases in flow indicated by the flowmeter logs. The results indicate that the stimulation has increased inflow to the two boreholes by improving the connectivity of favorably orientated fractures with larger scale flow zones in the surrounding rocks. Three of four possible diagnostics related to measured pressure and flow during the stimulation treatments were weakly correlated with the increases in production associated with each treatment interval. These correlations are not statistically significant on the basis of the limited sample of 16 treatment intervals in two boreholes, but the results indicate that significant correlations might be established from a much larger data set.

Paillet, Fredrick L.; Olson, James D.

1994-01-01

357

Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in boreholes USW WT-10, UE-25 WT No. 12, and USW SD-7, 1995-96, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in three boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area between March 1995 and January 1996 to obtain estimates of borehole specific capacity and aquifer transmissivity. Analysis of aquifer testing in borehole USW SD-7 also resulted in an estimate of reservoir volume. Aquifer-test data were analyzed with the Cooper and Jacob straight-line method, two modified Theis nonequilibrium equation solutions, and a modified reservoir-limit solution. The highest estimates of transmissivity were in borehole USW WT-10, completed in the Topopah Spring Tuff. Mean transmissivity, based on the results of three drawdown tests, was 1,600 meters squared per day. Mean specific capacity in borehole USW WT-10 after 5 hours of pumping was 1,100 meters squared per day, and was estimated to be 740 meters squared per day after 24 hours of pumping. Aquifer testing in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 appeared to be significantly affected by well losses. A mean transmissivity of 7 meters squared per day was obtained on the basis of analysis of three drawdown tests in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12. Mean specific capacity in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12, after 24 hours of pumping, was 7 meters squared per day. Borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 seemed to be producing water from fractures that could provide only a limited amount of water to the borehole.

O`Brien, G.M.

1997-09-01

358

Borehole temperatures and climate change: Ground temperature change in south India over the past two centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy-five borehole temperature-depth profiles in south India, located between 8° and 15°N, are analyzed to infer past changes in surface ground temperature. Solutions for a linear surface temperature change indicate average warming of about 0.9 ± 0.3°C over the past 127 ± 25 years at the 95% level of confidence for the entire data set, albeit with considerable geographic variability. Some sites in a restricted region exhibit surface ground temperature cooling during the last 50 to 100 years while a number of other borehole sites show large surface warming amplitudes in the range 1-3°C with onset times during the last few decades to less than a Century. Such rapid changes may represent effects of local land use changes superimposed on the long-term climate change. Results of borehole analysis do not support a latitude effect in climate change. A set of 28 meteorological surface air temperature (SAT) records, distributed in the three major climatic provinces (Interior Peninsula, West Coast and East Coast) in south India yield an average warming trend of 0.6 ± 0.2°C/100 years over the period 1901-2006 for which records exist. Combined analysis of borehole temperatures and SAT data yields a long-term, pre-observational mean temperature (baseline) 0.6 ± 0.1°C lower than the 1961-1990 mean SAT. With an additional 0.35°C of warming beyond the 1961-1990 mean, the total warming from the ˜1800 baseline is 0.95°C. Given multiple uncertainties, we consider the 0.9°C of warming from borehole temperature inversion and 0.95°C of warming from the hybrid borehole temperature-SAT analysis to be consistent if significant warming occurred in the 19th Century, prior to the onset of SAT records. The present data set together with the set of 70 temperature profiles in India analyzed earlier constitute an extensive documentation of climatic warming for the low latitude region 0°-20° N that was previously under-sampled in global geothermal climate change studies.

Roy, Sukanta; Chapman, David S.

2012-06-01

359

A Bayesian partition modelling approach to resolve spatial variability in climate records from borehole temperature inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collections of suitably chosen borehole profiles can be used to infer large-scale trends in ground-surface temperature (GST) histories for the past few hundred years. These reconstructions are based on a large database of carefully selected borehole temperature measurements from around the globe. Since non-climatic thermal influences are difficult to identify, representative temperature histories are derived by averaging individual reconstructions to minimize the influence of these perturbing factors. This may lead to three potentially important drawbacks: the net signal of non-climatic factors may not be zero, meaning that the average does not reflect the best estimate of past climate; the averaging over large areas restricts the useful amount of more local climate change information available; and the inversion methods used to reconstruct the past temperatures at each site must be mathematically identical and are therefore not necessarily best suited to all data sets. In this work, we avoid these issues by using a Bayesian partition model (BPM), which is computed using a trans-dimensional form of a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. This then allows the number and spatial distribution of different GST histories to be inferred from a given set of borehole data by partitioning the geographical area into discrete partitions. Profiles that are heavily influenced by non-climatic factors will be partitioned separately. Conversely, profiles with climatic information, which is consistent with neighbouring profiles, will then be inferred to lie in the same partition. The geographical extent of these partitions then leads to information on the regional extent of the climatic signal. In this study, three case studies are described using synthetic and real data. The first demonstrates that the Bayesian partition model method is able to correctly partition a suite of synthetic profiles according to the inferred GST history. In the second, more realistic case, a series of temperature profiles are calculated using surface air temperatures of a global climate model simulation. In the final case, 23 real boreholes from the United Kingdom, previously used for climatic reconstructions, are examined and the results compared with a local instrumental temperature series and the previous estimate derived from the same borehole data. The results indicate that the majority (17) of the 23 boreholes are unsuitable for climatic reconstruction purposes, at least without including other thermal processes in the forward model.

Hopcroft, Peter O.; Gallagher, Kerry; Pain, Christopher C.

2009-08-01

360

COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE  

SciTech Connect

Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance assessment, inclusion of dose calculations from collocated low-level waste in the boreholes for the individual protection requirements, further assessments of engineered barriers and conditions associated with the assurance requirements, and expansion of documentation provided for assessing the groundwater protection requirements. The Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group approved the performance assessment for Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in 2001 and did not approve the Application of the Assurance Requirements. Remaining issues concerned with engineered barriers and the multiple aspects of the Assurance Requirements will be resolved at the time of closure of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. This is the first completion and acceptance of a performance assessment for transuranic materials under the U.S. Department of Energy self-regulation. The Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes are only the second waste disposal configuration to meet the safety regulatory requirements of 40 CFR 191.

Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

2003-02-27

361

Application of an iterative analytical model for determining formation permeability from temperature data in subseafloor boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a computer program that links three separate analytical calculations used to determine bulk formation properties from thermal data collected in subseafloor boreholes. The three analytical calculations are based on (1) the thermal influence of transient downhole or uphole flow resulting from a combination of natural formation pressure and excess borehole pressure induced by drilling and other operations; (2) pressure differences between the borehole and ambient formation associated with observed and inferred thermal conditions; and (3) rates of flow into or out of the borehole at depth as a result of radial flow to or from the formation, based on the transient pressure response. These three calculations have generally been made separately in the past, and linking them allows the results of the calculation (3) to be applied as input for calculation (1), leading to iterative convergence on a single set of self-consistent formation properties and flow rates. This linked approach will also facilitate a more rigorous assessment of uncertainty in formation properties. The new program, written in a common scientific programming environment, improves on earlier approximations for fluid properties and accounts for changes in gravitational potential energy arising from rapid movement of fluids up or down the borehole. We have applied this analytical tool to a new temperature record from IODP Hole 1301A, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Data were recorded by an autonomous temperature probe and logger deployed for four years in a subseafloor borehole observatory. Analysis of the thermal record from the first five months following observatory installation, when there was sustained downflow through annular gaps between concentric casing strings at the seafloor, indicates a flow rate of ~3 L/s into the formation surrounding the open hole. This downhole flow rate is consistent with a bulk formation permeability of 10^-12 m^2, a value that is (a) somewhat lower than inferred within a deeper crustal section tested with a drillstring packer in Hole 1301B, 36 m away, and (b) similar to a value determined on the basis of the pressure response in Hole 1027C, 2.4 km from Holes 1301A and 1301B, resulting from 13 months of sustained downflow of cold bottom water into Hole 1301B.

Winslow, D. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Becker, K.

2010-12-01

362

Near surface characterisation of a limestone site using borehole and surface geophysics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with the analysis of the respective performances and the optimization of geophysical methods used for the non-destructive imagery of rocks, from the surface to a depth of approximately 100 m. Different techniques, carried out from the surface or from boreholes, have been tested on the \\char`&{uml;}Médecin Hill\\char`&{uml;} (Centre d'Etude de Cadarache - 13108 St. Paul lez Durance - France). This test site consists in a low fractured limestone, crossed by several faults characterized by a near-vertical dip. The site was previously investigated by numerous other characterization methods (boreholes, surface geology, structural analysis, well logging, etc.): a well known structural 3D model is available. Each tested geophysical method is based on the determination of different physical parameters (elastic parameters, density, electrical resistivity, dielectric permittivity, etc.). In terms of resolution and depth of investigation, every geophysical method has its own drawbacks and advantages. High resolution seismic focuses between 20 and some hundred of meters of depth with a metric to decametric vertical resolution. GPR has a decimetric resolution but electromagnetic waves are strongly attenuated after a few meters of propagation. DC resistivity is a potential method so, resolution dramatically decreases with depth of investigation. The acquisition pattern of this last study leads to a depth of investigation around 15 m and a resolution of one to several meters. Several surface acquisitions have been performed within a 400 m line along which seven boreholes are located. From the high resolution reflection seismic data, we calculated a depth migrated section which displays the main interfaces affected by some near vertical faults. These results are compared to seismic data obtained from a borehole survey interpreted with the help of log data. A radar borehole survey, using tomographic and reflection pattern surveys provided improved information but only within a reduced volume around boreholes. During a four month period, several identical electric acquisitions along the studied line have been carried out. Resistivity data outlines the fractured character of the limestone. We discuss resistivity variation in time with respect to rain rates and fractures locations. Information coming from these various results shows the complementary of these different approaches. They must not be opposed but must be merged in order to extract a coherent geological model.

Sénéchal, G.; Hollender, F.; Rousset, D.

2003-04-01

363

Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages recovered from both terrestrial and marine hydrothermal systems (e.g. Candidatus Desulforudis, Candidate Phylum OP8) as well as globally distributed marine sediments (e.g. Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group, JTB35). This analysis provides a framework for future research investigating the evolutionary and functional diversity, population genetics, and activity of the poorly understood habitat. These ongoing sampling expeditions greatly benefit from improvements to both CORK observatories and evolving sampling equipment including microbiologically-friendly materials and dependable access to pristine fluids from the ocean crust.

Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

2012-12-01

364

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study  

SciTech Connect

The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

1993-12-01

365

Rock Property Analysis of Core Samples from the Calico Hills UE25a-3 Borehole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Core samples from the Calico Hills UE25a-3 borehole were measured for density, porosity, resistivity, induced polarization, compressional sonic velocity, and magnetic properties as part of the radioactive waste disposal site identification studies current...

L. A. Anderson

1981-01-01

366

Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste  

E-print Network

The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

Cabeche, Dion Tunick

2011-01-01

367

Cement Technology for Plugging Boreholes in Radioactive-Waste-Repository Sites. Progress Report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory evaluations were made of several borehole plug formulations proposed for the Bell Canyon field test. Measurements included compressive strength, permeability, density, and thermal conductivity. A few preliminary tests with saltcrete formulation...

E. W. McDaniel, G. A. West, H. B. Greene, J. G. Moore, M. T. Morgan

1980-01-01

368

Borehole data package for well 699-37-47A, PUREX Plant Cribs, CY 1996  

SciTech Connect

A new groundwater monitoring well (699-37-47A) was installed in 1996 as a downgradient well near the PUREX Plant Cribs Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility at Hanford. This document provides data from the well drilling and construction operations, as well as data from subsequent characterization of groundwater and sediment samples collected during the drilling process. The data include: well construction documentation, geologist`s borehole logs, results of laboratory analysis of groundwater samples collected during drilling and of physical tests conducted on sediment samples collected during drilling, borehole geophysics, and results of aquifer testing including slug tests and flowmeter analysis. This well (699-37-47A) was constructed in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-24-00H and interim milestone M-24-35 (Ecology et al. 1994), and was funded under Project W-152.

Lindberg, J.W.; Williams, B.A.; Spane, F.A.

1997-02-01

369

Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1989-01-01

370

Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric measurements and vertical four point electrode interpretations. The transport equation for NaCl-tracered water is the basic rule to determine the groundwater transport velocity. Numerical calculations to simulate the measurement are carried out with the program FEFLOW. Due to the density contrast, the tracer undergoes vertical movement. Kessels, W., Zoth, G.(1998): Doppelmantel - Packer mit geoelektrischer Meßtechnik zur Bestimmung der Abstandsgeschwindigkeit des Grundwassers, Patent Az:19855048.0, GGA-Institut, Germany, Hannover. KESSELS, W., RIFAI, H., THORENZ, C., ZOTH, G.(2002): Multi Electrode Geoelectric on the Borehole Wall- Determination of groundwater velocity and dispersion parameters, AGU spring meeting, Washington KESSELS, W., ZOTH, G., WONIK, T., FULDA, C. (1999): THE USE OF SALT CARTRIDGES FOR FLUID LOGGING. XXIV GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF E.G.S. THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS PANTELEIT,B., KESSELS, W., BINOT, F (2006): MUD TRACER TEST DURING SOFT ROCK DRILLING; W.R.R., VOL. 42, W11415, DOI:10.1029/2005WR004487

Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

2007-05-01

371

Canister cryogenic system for cooling germanium semiconductor detectors in borehole and marine probes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High resolution intrinsic and lithium-drifted germanium gamma-ray detectors operate at about 77-90 K. A cryostat for borehole and marine applications has been designed that makes use of prefrozen propane canisters. Uses of such canisters simplifies cryostat construction, and the rapid exchange of canisters greatly reduces the time required to restore the detector to full holding-time capability and enhances the safety of a field operation where high-intensity 252Cf or other isotopic sources are used. A holding time of 6 h at 86 K was achieved in the laboratory in a simulated borehole probe in which a canister 3.7 cm diameter by 57 cm long was used. Longer holding times can be achieved by larger volume canisters in marine probes. ?? 1975.

Boynton, G.R.

1975-01-01

372

Development and field testing of the high-temperature borehole televiewer  

SciTech Connect

The High-Temperature Borehole Televiewer is a downhole instrument which provides acoustic pictures of the borehole walls that are suitable for casing inspection and fracture detection in geothermal wells. The Geothermal Drilling Organization has funded the development of a commercial tool survivable to temperatures up to 275{degree}C and pressures of 5000 psi. A real-time display on an IBM-compatible PC was included as part of the developmental effort. This paper describes the three principal components are: the mechanical section, the electronics, and the computer software and hardware. Each of these three components are described with special attention to important design changes most pertinent to a high temperature environment. The results of two field tests of the televiewer system are also described. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Duda, L.E.; Uhl, J.E.; Wemple, R.P.

1990-01-01

373

The research on borehole stability in depleted reservoir and caprock: using the geophysics logging data.  

PubMed

Long-term oil and gas exploitation in reservoir will lead to pore pressure depletion. The pore pressure depletion will result in changes of horizontal in-situ stresses both in reservoirs and caprock formations. Using the geophysics logging data, the magnitude and orientation changes of horizontal stresses in caprock and reservoir are studied. Furthermore, the borehole stability can be affected by in-situ stresses changes. To address this issue, the dehydration from caprock to reservoir and roof effect of caprock are performed. Based on that, the influence scope and magnitude of horizontal stresses reduction in caprock above the depleted reservoirs are estimated. The effects of development on borehole stability in both reservoir and caprock are studied step by step with the above geomechanical model. PMID:24228021

Yuan, Junliang; Deng, Jingen; Luo, Yong; Guo, Shisheng; Zhang, Haishan; Tan, Qiang; Zhao, Kai; Hu, Lianbo

2013-01-01

374

3-D seismic endoscopy: multiscale analysis and dynamic azimuthal filtering of borehole waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously proposed a method of seismic endoscopy and a related prototype tool to acquire directional information and to produce three-dimensional (3-D) seismic images in a cylindrical volume surrounding a borehole, with an investigation radius of several metres. Basic imaging algorithms were developed where the azimuthal move out (AMO) process is combined to a timescale method to refocus directional information and analyse the surrounding medium. Further processing tools, however, were necessary for separating the various types of waves recorded. The present paper describes a multiscale and dynamic azimuthal filtering to separate the far-field waves from borehole or tube waves, generated by the pipe. We call this filter Stoneley move out (SMO), because it characterizes Stoneley waves associated with the tube. It is then possible to reconstruct details of the far field by an inverse wavelet transform. The comparison with classical methods such as the covariance method is discussed. Applications on noisy synthetic and experimental data are presented.

Valero, Henri Pierre; Saracco, Ginette

2005-06-01

375

Ground Water Level Measurements in Selected Boreholes Near the Site of the Proposed Repository  

SciTech Connect

The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) acquired quarterly and continuous data on water levels from approximately 26 boreholes that comprise a periodic monitoring network (Table 1) between October 2003 and September 2007. During this period we continued to observe and analyze short and long-term ground water level trends in periodically monitored boreholes. In this report we summarize and discuss four key findings derived from analysis of water level data acquired during this period: 1. Rapid ground water level rise after storm events in Forty Mile Canyon; 2. Seismically-induced ground water level fluctuations; 3. A sample of synoptic observations and barometric influences on short term fluctuations; and 4. Long term ground water level trends observed from mid-2001 through late-2005.

Page, H. Scott

2007-11-29

376

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22  

SciTech Connect

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.7 and 4.25. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2006. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at the Hanford Site. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. This report also presents the interpretation of data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the WMA A-AX, C, and U field investigation report in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2008-09-11

377

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Boreholes C3830, C3831, C3832 and RCRA Borehole 299-W10-27  

SciTech Connect

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28,4.43, and 4.59. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in April 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C3830, C3831, and C3832 in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27 installed northeast of the TY Tank Farm.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

2008-09-11

378

Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive potential gradient (water moves upward, via evapotranspiration) for the entire vertical depth. Very little liquid flow occurs through the vadose zone. The direction of flow in the upper vadose zone (approximately the upper 35 meters) is upward, based on unsaturated hydraulic conductivity data, water potential data, and environmental tracer data.

Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

2005-08-01

379

Deep Structure of the Nojima Fault, Japan, Estimated by a Borehole Observation of Trapped-Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of fault-zone trapped-waves are expected to be one of the effective approaches for imaging a deep fault structure. Trapped-waves are usually detected by surface array observations. In these observations, however, seismograms are disturbed by attenuation and strong scattering near the surface. Fault zone structure should be estimated more precisely by a borehole observation of trapped-waves. In this study, we

T. Mizuno; K. Nishigami

2001-01-01

380

A finite line-source model for boreholes in geothermal heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical solution of the transient temperature response in a semi-infinite medium with a line source of finite length has been derived, which is a more appropriate model for boreholes in geothermal heat exchangers, especially for their long-duration operation. The steady-state temperature distribution has also been obtained as a limit of this solution. An erratic approach to this problem that

H. Y. Zeng; N. R. Diao; Z. H. Fang

2002-01-01

381

Subseafloor seawater-basalt-microbe reactions: Continuous sampling of borehole fluids in a ridge flank environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole 1301A was drilled, cased, and instrumented with a long-term, subseafloor observatory (CORK) on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in summer 2004. This borehole is located 1 km south of ODP Hole 1026B and 5 km north of Baby Bare outcrop. Hole 1301A penetrates 262 m of sediment and 108 m

C. Geoffrey Wheat; Hans W. Jannasch; Andrew T. Fisher; Keir Becker; Jessica Sharkey; Samuel Hulme

2010-01-01

382

Evidence for a little ice age and recent warming from a borehole temperature data inversion procedure  

SciTech Connect

In this article, we apply our analytical theory, published earlier in this journal, to obtain information on the earth surface temperature history from some borehole temperature data. Compared to the results of the five different methods applied to the same temperature data, our method seems to be easier, assumption-free, and yields internally consistent results. The results suggest a cooling a few centuries ago, followed by a continuing warming up to these days, in agreement with a little ice age scenario.

Fivez, J.; Thoen, J. [Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Department Natuurkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

2004-11-15

383

Finite line-source model for borehole heat exchangers: effect of vertical temperature variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solution to the three-dimensional finite line-source (FLS) model for borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) that takes into account the prevailing geothermal gradient and allows arbitrary ground surface temperature changes is presented. Analytical expressions for the average ground temperature are derived by integrating the exact solution over the line-source depth. A self-consistent procedure to evaluate the in situ thermal response test

Tatyana V. Bandos; Álvaro Montero; Esther Fernández; Juan Luis G. Santander; José María Isidro; Jezabel Pérez; Pedro J. Fernández de Córdoba; Javier F. Urchueguía

2009-01-01

384

Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995-1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100-150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85-90 mW m-2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m-2) are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90-100 mW m-2) are also observed in the peninsular (western) part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60-70 mW m-2) are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Bal?kesir provinces.

Erkan, K.

2014-01-01

385

Pneumatic testing in 45-degree-inclined boreholes in ash-flow tuff near Superior, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Matrix permeability values determined by single-hole pneumatic testing in nonfractured ash-flow tuff ranged from 5.1 to 20.3*10{sup -16} m{sup 2} (meters squared), depending on the gas-injection rate and analysis method used. Results from the single-hole tests showed several significant correlations between permeability and injection rate and between permeability and test order. Fracture permeability values determined by cross-hole pneumatic testing in fractured ash-flow tuff ranged from 0.81 to 3.49 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}, depending on injection rate and analysis method used. Results from the cross-hole tests monitor intervals showed no significant correlation between permeability and injection rate; however, results from the injection interval showed a significant correlation between injection rate and permeability. Porosity estimates from the cross-hole testing range from 0.8 to 2.0 percent. The maximum temperature change associated with the pneumatic testing was 1.2{degrees}C measured in the injection interval during cross-hole testing. The maximum temperature change in the guard and monitor intervals was 0.1{degrees}C. The maximum error introduced into the permeability values due to temperature fluctuations is approximately 4 percent. Data from temperature monitoring in the borehole indicated a positive correlation between the temperature decrease in the injection interval during recovery testing and the gas-injection rate. The thermocouple psychrometers indicated that water vapor was condensing in the boreholes during testing. The psychrometers in the guard and monitor intervals detected the drier injected gas as an increase in the dry bulb reading. The relative humidity in the test intervals was always higher than the upper measurement limit of the psychrometers. Although the installation of the packer system may have altered the water balance of the borehole, the gas-injection testing resulted in minimal or no changes in the borehole relative humidity.

LeCain, G.D.

1995-11-01

386

Geothermics and climate change 2. Joint analysis of borehole temperature and meteorological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-period ground surface temperature variations contained in borehole temperature-depth profiles form a complementary climate change record to high-frequency, but noisy surface air temperature (SAT) records at weather stations. We illustrate the benefits of jointly analyzing geothermal and meteorological data for two regions in Utah where both high-quality temperature-depth measurements and century long SAT records exist. Transient temperature-depth profiles constructed from

Robert N. Harris; David S. Chapman

1998-01-01

387

Borehole indentor — A tool for assessing in-situ bulk ice strength and micromechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Research Council (NRC) borehole indentor (BHI) is increasingly being used in the Arctic for measuring in-situ bulk strength of ice and its seasonal variation in conjunctions with investigations on climate change. Before NRC-BHI system was taken to the Arctic, its performance was evaluated on columnar-grained S1 ice in Dow's Lake, Ottawa. S1 ice with its huge and clear grains

Nirmal K. Sinha

2011-01-01

388

Pneumatic testing in 45-degree-inclined boreholes in ash-flow tuff near Superior, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Matrix permeability values determined by single-hole pneumatic testing in nonfractured ash-flow tuff ranged from 5.1 to 20.3 * 1046 m2 (meters squared), depending on the gas-injection rate and analysis method used. Results from the single-hole tests showed several significant correlations between permeability and injection rate and between permeability and test order. Fracture permeability values determined by cross-hole pneumatic testing in fractured ash-flow tuff ranged from 0.81 to 3.49 * 1044 m2, depending on injection rate and analysis method used. Results from the cross-hole tests monitor intervals showed no significant correlation between permeability and injection rate; however, results from the injection interval showed a significant correlation between injection rate and permeability. Porosity estimates from the 'cross-hole testing range from 0.8 to 2.0 percent. The maximum temperature change associated with the pneumatic testing was 1.2'(2 measured in the injection interval during cross-hole testing. The maximum temperature change in the guard and monitor intervals was O.Ip C. The maximum error introduced into the permeability values due to temperature fluctuations is approximately 4 percent. Data from temperature monitoring in the borehole indicated a positive correlation between the temperature decrease in the injection interval during recovery testing and the gas-injection rate. The thermocouple psychrometers indicated that water vapor was condensing in the boreholes during testing. The psychrometers in the guard and monitor intervals detected the drier injected gas as an increase in the dry bulb reading. The relative humidity in the test intervals was always higher than the upper measurement limit of the psychrometers. Although the installation of the packer system may have altered the water balance of the borehole, the gas-injection testing resulted in minimal or no changes in the borehole relative humidity.

LeCain, G. D.

1995-01-01

389

The Effect of Borehole Flow on Salinity Profiles From Deep Monitor Wells in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-water resource management in Hawaii is based partly on salinity profiles from deep wells that are used to monitor the thickness of freshwater lenses and the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater. Vertical borehole flow in these wells may confound understanding of the actual salinity-depth profiles in the basaltic aquifers and lead to misinterpretations that hamper effective water-resource management. Causes and effects of borehole flow on salinity profiles are being evaluated at 40 deep monitor wells in Hawaii. Step- like changes in fluid electrical conductivity with respect to depth are indicative of borehole flow and are evident in almost all available salinity profiles. A regional trend in borehole flow direction, expected from basin-wide ground-water flow dynamics, is evident as major downward flow components in inland recharge areas and major upward flow components in discharge areas near the coast. The midpoint of the transition zone in one deep monitor well showed inconsequential depth displacements in response to barometric pressure and tidal fluctuations and to pumping from nearby wellfields. Commonly, the 1 mS/cm conductivity value is used to indicate the top of the transition zone. Contrary to the more stable midpoint, the depth of the 1 mS/cm conductivity value may be displaced by as much as 200 m in deep monitor wells near pumping wellfields. The displacement is complemented with an increase in conductivity at a particular depth in the upper part of the profile. The observed increase in conductivity is linear with increase in nearby pumpage. The largest deviations from expected aquifer-salinity profiles occur in deep monitor wells located in the area extending from east Pearl Harbor to Kalihi on Oahu, which coincides with the most heavily pumped part of the aquifer.

Rotzoll, K.; Hunt, C. D.; El-Kadi, A. I.

2008-12-01

390

Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver

Jianghai Xia; Richard D. Miller; Choon B. Park; James A. Hunter; James B. Harris; Julian Ivanov

2002-01-01

391

Results From the Expanded and Upgraded High Resolution Borehole Seismic Network (HRSN) at Parkfield, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Parkfield Prediction Experiment the HRSN of 10, 3-component borehole seismometers was installed in 1987 to monitor the evolution of seismicity to very low magnitudes (M<0) in the expected nucleation region of a repeating M6 earthquake. During the period 1987 thru mid-1998, high frequency broad-band width (0 to 125 Hz) seismograms from over 5100

W. C. Johnson; R. M. Nadeau; R. W. Clymer

2003-01-01

392

Nondestructive analysis of bore-hole cores for gold utilizing a [sup 252]Cf source and a profile scanner  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of bore-hole cores is a vital stage in the evaluation of a mineral prospect in the exploration process. The sinking of deep bore holes during the development of a gold field represents a very large investment for each bore-hole core, and the resultant core is of great value as a permanent record of geology and lithology and of the gold distribution.

Watterson, J.I.W. (Univ. of Witwatersrand (South Africa))

1992-01-01

393

Stochastic inverse method for estimation of geostatistical representation of hydrogeologic stratigraphy using borehole logs and pressure observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is presented for identifying statistical characteristics of stratigraphies from borehole and hydraulic data. The\\u000a approach employs a Markov-chain based geostatistical framework in a stochastic inversion. Borehole data provide information\\u000a on the stratigraphy while pressure and flux data provide information on the hydraulic performance of the medium. The use of\\u000a Markov-chain geostatistics as opposed to covariance-based geostatistics can provide

Dylan R. HarpVelimir; Velimir V. Vesselinov

2010-01-01

394

Detecting urbanization effect on the subsurface thermal environment from borehole temperature measurements in Xi'an, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increasing evidence of the dual impacts of global warming and urbanization, urban heat island effects have attracted tremendous attentions from scientific community and the general public. However, most of the existing research efforts so far have been given to the above-surface aspects of urban heat islands. The prospective thermal environmental changes beneath the urban ground surface remain largely unnoted. In a fast expanding campus of the Xi'an Jiaotong University in Xi'an, China, we have established a comprehensive environmental monitoring system consisting of a typical ground surface meteorological station, two rooftop meteorological masts, and a 510 m deep borehole observatory. The borehole is dedicated for the detection of changes in ground temperature at various depths with respect to urbanization and other environmental changes. Underground temperature of this borehole has been repeatedly logged more than 25 times to date. Systematic temperature differences between two consecutive logs due to the thermal recovery from drilling perturbation were notable for about 1 month after the completion of drilling in March 2012. The differences has felled below observation error since then, except for the most upper 10 m which is possibly influenced by diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations at the ground surface. Analysis of the temperature measurements from this scientific borehole observatory shows a ground surface warming of 2 degree-C over the past 20 years which can be attributed in part to the land cover and land use change from farm land to urban settings of the borehole site. Additionally, we have systematically measured 15 hydrological observation boreholes within the limit of the Xi'an Municipal City; 6 of the boreholes are located in urban areas and 9 in suburban/rural areas. Several boreholes are apparently perturbed by ground water pumping. Nevertheless, conductive temperature profiles show that temperatures within the upper 100 to 150 m depths are on average about 0.7 degree-C higher in the urban areas than in the suburban/rural areas.

Pan, C.; Huang, S.; Ren, Y.; Wang, H.; Peng, F.; Wang, X.; Du, M.

2012-12-01

395

Novel wireless sensor system for dynamic characterization of borehole heat exchangers.  

PubMed

The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is presented. The system, by means of two special valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT) and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way. PMID:22164005

Martos, Julio; Montero, Álvaro; Torres, José; Soret, Jesús; Martínez, Guillermo; García-Olcina, Raimundo

2011-01-01

396

Refraction Microtremor as an Alternative to Boreholes for Earthquake Hazard Assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of shallow shear velocity is important to earthquake-hazard assessment. Borehole-based methods (downhole, crosshole) require both drilling and measurement activities. This makes them expensive point measurements, unsuitable for many preliminary investigations. We tested an alternative surface-based method for estimating shallow shear velocities with seismic refraction equipment at the sites of several boreholes in California and Nevada: the Newhall Fire Station; the Pinon Flat Observatory; Keenwild, California; and the I-580 extension in Reno, Nevada. The method was also demonstrated on weathered rock at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sites ranged from hard to soft (NEHRP hazard classes A to D). The refraction microtremor method uses ambient ground noise (recorded as in ASTM D5777), and wavefield analysis to identify Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. It works well in dense urban areas and transportation corridors. At quiet rural sites with hard rock, estimating phase velocities below a few meters depth requires a simple energy source such as a weight drop or a rolling truck. Depth-averaged shear velocities are available in the field within a few minutes of recording. We compare the effects of downhole and refraction-microtremor velocities on surface spectra. For the sites tested, shear velocities estimated from refraction microtremor are just as effective as borehole velocities for estimating the spectral seismic site-transfer function for earthquake-hazard evaluations of sites.

Louie, J. N.; Abbott, R. E.; Abbott, R. E.; Anooshehpoor, R.; Biasi, G.; Beeston, H. E.

2001-12-01

397

Novel Wireless Sensor System for Dynamic Characterization of Borehole Heat Exchangers  

PubMed Central

The design and field test of a novel sensor system based in autonomous wireless sensors to measure the temperature of the heat transfer fluid along a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is presented. The system, by means of two specials valves, inserts and extracts miniaturized wireless sensors inside the pipes of the borehole, which are carried by the thermal fluid. Each sensor is embedded in a small sphere of just 25 mm diameter and 8 gr weight, containing a transceiver, a microcontroller, a temperature sensor and a power supply. A wireless data processing unit transmits to the sensors the acquisition configuration before the measurements, and also downloads the temperature data measured by the sensor along its way through the BHE U-tube. This sensor system is intended to improve the conventional thermal response test (TRT) and it allows the collection of information about the thermal characteristics of the geological structure of subsurface and its influence in borehole thermal behaviour, which in turn, facilitates the implementation of TRTs in a more cost-effective and reliable way. PMID:22164005

Martos, Julio; Montero, Alvaro; Torres, Jose; Soret, Jesus; Martinez, Guillermo; Garcia-Olcina, Raimundo

2011-01-01

398

The crystal fabric of ice from full-waveform borehole sonic logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an ice sheet, a preferred crystal orientation fabric affects deformation rates because ice crystals are strongly anisotropic: shear along the basal plane is significantly easier than shear perpendicular to the basal plane. The effect of fabric can be as important as temperature in defining deformation rates. Fabric is typically measured using analysis of thin sections under the microscope with co-polarized light. Due to the time-consuming and destructive nature of these measurements, however, it is difficult to capture the spatial variation in fabric necessary for evincing ice sheet flow patterns. Because an ice crystal is similarly elastically anisotropic, the speed of elastic waves through ice can be used as a proxy for quantify anisotropy. We use borehole sonic logging measurements and thin section data from Dome C, East Antarctica to define the relations between apparent fabric and borehole measured elastic speeds (compressionalVP and vertically polarized shear VSV). These relations, valid for single maximum fabrics, allow in-situ, depth-continuous fabric estimates of unimodal fabric strength from borehole sonic logging. We describe the single maximum fabric usinga1: the largest eigenvalue of the second-order orientation tensor. For ice at -16°C anda1in the 0.7-1 range the relations areVP = 248 a13.7 + 3755 m s-1 and VSV = -210a17.3 + 1968 m s-1.

Gusmeroli, Alessio; Pettit, Erin C.; Kennedy, Joseph H.; Ritz, Catherine

2012-09-01

399

Role of borehole plugging in the evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Research on borehole plugging (BHP) is part of an integrated strategy to develop technology that can assure successful nuclear waste isolation. The application of this strategy to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico has included an assessment of the role BHP plays in the development of a repository at that site. This paper presents a description of the WIPP site, repository design, and the current research and development program. The status of drill holes - those drilled for petroleum and potash exploration and those drilled for site characterization - within the proposed site boundaries is presented. Sixty-six holes are present on the 7700 hectare (19,000 acre) site, yet only 8 penetrate as deep as the proposed repository location. The assumptions made about shaft and borehole sealing in consequence assessment studies are presented. The results of these studies indicate that borehole seals with effective permeabilities greater than tens of darcies would result in doses to maximally exposed individuals of less than 0.01% of natural background.

Hunter, T.O.

1980-01-01

400

High-resolution saturated hydraulic conductivity logging of borehole cores using air permeability measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturated hydraulic conductivity ( K s) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. The hand-held air permeameter technique was investigated for high-resolution hydraulic conductivity determination on borehole cores using a spatial resolution of ˜0.05 m. The suitability of such air permeameter measurements on friable to poorly indurated sediments was tested to improve the spatial prediction of classical laboratory-based K s measurements obtained at a much lower spatial resolution (˜2 m). In total, 368 K s measurements were made on ˜350 m of borehole cores originating from the Campine basin, northern Belgium, while ˜5,230 air permeability measurements were performed on the same cores, resulting in a K s range of seven orders of magnitude. Cross-validation demonstrated that, using air permeameter data as the secondary variable for laboratory based K s measurements, the performance increased from R 2 = 0.35 for ordinary kriging (laboratory K s only) to R 2 = 0.61 for co-kriging. The separate treatment of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity revealed considerable anisotropy in certain lithostratigraphical units, while others were clearly isotropic at the sample scale. Air permeameter measurements on borehole cores provide a cost-effective way to improve spatial predictions of traditional laboratory based K s.

Rogiers, B.; Winters, P.; Huysmans, M.; Beerten, K.; Mallants, D.; Gedeon, M.; Batelaan, O.; Dassargues, A.

2014-09-01

401

The U-tube: A new paradigm in borehole fluid sampling  

SciTech Connect

Fluid samples from deep boreholes can provide insights into subsurface physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Recovery of intact, minimally altered aliquots of subsurface fluids is required for analysis of aqueous chemistry, isotopic composition, and dissolved gases, and for microbial community characterization. Unfortunately, for many reasons, collecting geofluids poses a number of challenges, from formation contamination by drilling to maintaining integrity during recovery from depths. Not only are there substantial engineering issues in retrieval of a representative sample, but there is often the practical reality that fluid sampling is just one of many activities planned for deep boreholes. The U-tube geochemical sampling system presents a new paradigm for deep borehole fluid sampling. Because the system is small, its ability to integrate with other measurement systems and technologies opens up numerous possibilities for multifunctional integrated wellbore completions. To date, the U-tube has been successfully deployed at four different field sites, each with a different deployment modality, at depths from 260 m to 2 km. While the U-tube has proven to be highly versatile, these installations have resulted in data that provide additional insights for improving future U-tube deployments.

Freifeld, B. M.

2009-10-01

402

Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

2010-12-01

403

The dipole flow test: A new single-borehole test for aquifer characterization  

SciTech Connect

A new single-borehole measurement technique for confined aquifers, the dipole flow test, yields the vertical distributions of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity, the vertical hydraulic conductivity, and the specific storativity when applied to different borehole intervals. The test utilizes straddle packers to isolate two chambers in the borehole, pressure transducers to monitor drawdown in them, and a small pump to create a dipole flow pattern in the aquifer by pumping water at a constant rate from the aquifer into one chamber, transferring it within the well to the next chamber, and finally injecting it back to the aquifer. A mathematical model describing the drawdown in each chamber is derived for the transient as well as the steady state cases. The aquifer parameters may be estimated from data produced by the dipole flow test alone or in conjunction with conventional pumping tests. The dipole flow regime reaches a steady state relatively quickly, especially in well permeable aquifers. A robust computational methodology for estimating the aquifer parameters, suitable for automatization, is based on the Newton-Raphson algorithm applied to a system of up to three nonlinear equations, each describing the well drawdown at a different judiciously chosen time. Due to the relatively small drawdown it invokes, the dipole flow test may be applicable to unconfined aquifers as well.

Kabala, Z.J. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

1993-01-01

404

Finite element modeling of borehole heat exchanger systems. Part 1. Fundamentals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and arrays of BHE are modeled by using the finite element method. The first part of the paper derives the fundamental equations for BHE systems and their finite element representations, where the thermal exchange between the borehole components is modeled via thermal transfer relations. For this purpose improved relationships for thermal resistances and capacities of BHE are introduced. Pipe-to-grout thermal transfer possesses multiple grout points for double U-shape and single U-shape BHE to attain a more accurate modeling. The numerical solution of the final 3D problems is performed via a widely non-sequential (essentially non-iterative) coupling strategy for the BHE and porous medium discretization. Four types of vertical BHE are supported: double U-shape (2U) pipe, single U-shape (1U) pipe, coaxial pipe with annular (CXA) and centred (CXC) inlet. Two computational strategies are used: (1) The analytical BHE method based on Eskilson and Claesson's (1988) solution, (2) numerical BHE method based on Al-Khoury et al.'s (2005) solution. The second part of the paper focusses on BHE meshing aspects, the validation of BHE solutions and practical applications for borehole thermal energy store systems.

Diersch, H.-J. G.; Bauer, D.; Heidemann, W.; Rühaak, W.; Schätzl, P.

2011-08-01

405

Effect of multiple and delayed jet impact and penetration on concrete target borehole diameter  

SciTech Connect

The effect of multiple and delayed jet impact and penetration on the borehole diameter in concrete targets is discussed in this paper. A first-order principle of shaped-charge jet penetration is that target hole volume is proportional to the energy deposited in the target by the jet. This principle is the basis for the relation that target borehole diameter at any depth along the penetration path is proportional to the jet energy deposited in the target at that location. Our current research shows that the 'jet energy per unit hole volume constant' for concrete can be substantially altered by the use of multiple and delayed jet impacts. It has been shown that enhanced entrance crater formation results from the simultaneous impact and penetration of three shaped-charge jets. We now demonstrate that enhanced borehole diameter is also observed by the simultaneous impact and penetration of multiple shaped-charge jets followed by the delayed impact and penetration of a single shaped-charge jet.

Murphy, M J; Baum, D W; Kuklo, R M; Simonson, S C

2001-01-26

406

Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xia, J.; Miller, R. D.; Park, C. B.; Hunter, J. A.; Harris, J. B.; Ivanov, J.

2002-01-01

407

A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

Paulsson Geophysical Services

2008-03-31

408

A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite (Mg,Mn2+)5(Ba, Sr)(PO4)4·8H2O from Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia.  

PubMed

We have studied aspect of the molecular structure of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite from Zheleznyi iron mine, Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, using SEM with EDX and vibrational spectroscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis shows a homogeneous phase, composed by P, Mg, Ba, Mn and Ca. Small amounts of Si were also observed. An intense Raman peak at 975 cm(-1) is assigned to the PO4(3-) ?1 symmetric stretching mode. The Raman band at 964 cm(-1) is attributed to the HPO4(2-) ?1 symmetric stretching vibration. Raman bands observed at 1016, 1035, 1052, 1073, 1105 and 1135 cm(-1) are attributed to the ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations of the HPO4(2-) and PO4(3-) units. Complexity in the spectra of the phosphate bending region is observed. The broad Raman band at 3272 cm(-1) is assigned to the water stretching vibration. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects on the molecular structure of rimkorolgite to be undertaken. PMID:24971716

Frost, Ray L; López, Andrés; Theiss, Federick L; Aarão, Guilherme Marcos; Scholz, Ricardo

2014-11-11

409

Concentrations of tritium and strontium-90 in water from selected wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory after purging one, two, and three borehole volumes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water from 11 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's quality assurance program to determine the effect of purging different borehole volumes on tritium and strontium-90 concentrations. Wells were selected for sampling on the basis of the length of time it took to purge a borehole volume of water. Samples were collected after purging one, two, and three borehole volumes. The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory provided analytical services. Statistics were used to determine the reproducibility of analytical results. The comparison between tritium and strontium-90 concentrations after purging one and three borehole volumes and two and three borehole volumes showed that all but two sample pairs with defined numbers were in statistical agreement. Results indicate that concentrations of tritium and strontium-90 are not affected measurably by the number of borehole volumes purged.

Bartholomay, R. C.

1993-01-01

410

Borehole breakout orientation from LWD data (IODP Exp. 334) and the present stress state in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project transect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole breakouts are sub-vertical hole enlargements that form on opposite sides of the borehole wall by local rock failure due to non-uniform stress. In a vertical borehole, the breakout direction is perpendicular to the maximum principal horizontal stress. Hence, borehole breakouts are key indicators of the present state of stress in the subsurface. Borehole breakouts were imaged by logging-while drilling (LWD) measurements collected in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP, IODP Expedition 334). The borehole radius was estimated from azimuthal LWD density and ultrasonic measurements. The density-based borehole radius is based on the difference in scattered gamma rays measured by a near and a far detector, which is a function of the standoff between the tool and the borehole. Borehole radius can also be measured from the travel time of an ultrasonic wave reflected by the borehole wall. Density and ultrasonic measurements are sampled in 16 azimuthal sectors, i.e., every 22.5°. These measurements are processed to generate images that fully cover the borehole wall and that display borehole breakouts as two parallel, vertical bands of large hole radius 180° apart. For a quantitative interpretation, we fitted a simple borehole shape to the measured borehole radii using a Monte Carlo sampling algorithm that quantifies the uncertainty in the estimated borehole shape. The borehole shape is the outer boundary of a figure consisting of a concentric circle and an ellipse. The ellipse defines the width, depth, and orientation of the breakouts. We fitted the measured radii in 2 m depth intervals and identified reliable breakouts where the breakout depth was significant and where the orientation uncertainty and the angle spanned by the breakout were small. The results show breakout orientations that differ by about 90° in Sites U1378 (about 15 km landward of the deformation front, 525 m water depth) and U1379 (about 25 km landward of the deformation front, 126 m water depth). The maximum principal horizontal stress is directed NNE-SSW at Site U1378 and WSW-ENE at Site U1379. These directions are approximately parallel and perpendicular to NNE-directed GPS deformation vectors on land. On erosive convergent margins, a transition is expected to take place from a compressive regime near a frontal wedge to extension and subsidence moving landward of the deformation front. Our working hypothesis is that this transition may take place between Sites U1378, where the breakout orientation is consistent with NNE-SSW compression, and Site U1379, where the breakouts indicate NNE-SSW extension.

Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.

2013-12-01

411

Monitoring CO2 gas-phase injection in a shallow sand aquifer using cross borehole GPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue that needs attention in designing effective storage schemes for CO2 storage in deep geologic formations is risk assessment of potential leakage. Leaking gas may threat surface and groundwater sources as well as vegetation. We have designed an experiment where we were track the movement of an injected CO2 gas-phase in an unconfined aquifer using cross borehole GPR. The test site is located in the south-western part of Denmark. The aquifer at the site consists of fine to coarse glacial melt water sands, which are staggered in slightly tilted layers. In all experiments gas was injected for 48 hours with flow rates between 9-16 g/min. The screen of the injection well is 10 m below ground level or 8 m below the water table. Initially an array of four GPR boreholes was installed around the injection well and subsequently two extra GPR Boreholes were installed downwards of dominating gas flow direction. GPR-data were acquired in zero offset (1D) and multiple offset (2D) configurations prior and during the injection. To support the GPR measurements 12 Decagon 5-TE soil moisture probes were installed at various dept for the last experiments. Both set of GPR data showed that a plume developed at the depth of the injection screen and that the injected gas primarily spread towards South-East. The geology consists of slightly tilting layers, which may cause migration of the gas plume along the interface of the coarse and fine sand and out of the monitoring area. The results confirmed the notion that geological heterogeneity has a critical impact on the gas migration pattern. The gas plume migration was further analysed by the multi-phase numerical code T2VOC a part of the TOUGH family.

Lassen, R. N.; Looms, M. C.; Jensen, K. H.; Sonnenborg, T.

2012-12-01

412

Effect of radon transport in groundwater upon gamma-ray borehole logs  

SciTech Connect

Granitic rock at an experimental waste storage site at Stripa, Sweden, is unusually high in natural radioelements (40 ppM uranium) with higher concentrations occurring locally in thin chloritic zones and fractures. Groundwater seeping through fractures into open boreholes is consequently highly anomalous in its radon content, with activity as high as one microcurie per liter. When total count gamma-ray logs are run in boreholes where groundwater inflow is appreciable, the result is quite unusual: the radon daughter activity in the water adds considerably to the contribution from the rock, and in fact often dominates the log response. The total gamma activity increases where radon-charged groundwater enters a borehole, and remains at a high level as the water flows along the hole in response to the hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the gamma log serves as a flow profile, locating zones of water entry (or loss) by an increase (or decrease) in the total gamma activity. A simple model has been developed for flow through a thin crack emanating radon at a rate E showing that the radon concen