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Sample records for kola superdeep borehole

  1. The Neutron Tomography Studies of the Rocks from the Kola Superdeep Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kichanov, S. E.; Kozlenko, D. P.; Ivankina, T. I.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Lukin, E. V.; Savenko, B. N.

    The volume morphology of a gneiss sample K-8802 recovered from the deep of 8802 m of the Kola Superdeep Borehole and its surface homologue sample PL-36 have been studied by means of neutron radiography and tomography methods. The volumes and size distributions of a biotite-muscovite grains as well as grains orientation distribution have been obtained from experimental data. It was found that the average volumes of the biotite-muscovite grains in surface homologue sample is noticeably larger than the average volume of grains in the deep-seated gneiss sample K-8802. This drastically differences in grains volumes can be explained by the recrystallization processes in deep of the Kola Superdeep Borehole at high temperatures and high pressures.

  2. The Kola superdeep borehole and U-Pb and Sm-Nd data synthesis (in memory of T. Krogh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, O.; Bayanova, T.; Yakovlev, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Kola superdeep borehole (SG-3) is drilled in the central part of the Central zone of the Pechenga rift down to a depth of 12 262 meters. The cross-section of the borehole from the surface down to a depth of 6842 meters consists of the Early Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary rocks. The Archaean amphibolite-gneiss complex (6842-12 262 meters depth) is characterized by laminar bedding and underlies the Proterozoic rock sequence of the Pechenga rift. The gneisses of the SG-3 cross-section were dated by traditional U-Pb isochron method on zircons and Sm-Nd method on rock-forming minerals. The tonalite gneiss formed in the interval of 2.93 - 2.81 Ga. The 2.77-2.55 Ga events reflect the Archaean stage of gneiss metamorphism and pegmatite rock emplacement. The interval of 1.9-1.7 Ga is the time of Svecofennian regional metamorphism and emplacement of the Litsa-Araguba granite that was dated on monazite, titanite, and zircon. The Sm-Nd isotope WR age of 3.15 Ga is thought to be the oldest for the protolyte of the local Archaean amphibolite. Three age groups of amphibolites have been distinguished, one Early Proteozoic and two Archaean, the oldest of whose (3.15-2.89 Ga) being the relic of the greenstone belt formed in the oceanic crust. The protolytic amphibolites mostly show negative values of ?Nd (-0.30.- 5.2) with a few positive (0.59-5.88). It indicates the predominant contribution of the mantle enriched in lithophile elements to their genesis. The total of the U-Pb and Sm-Nd data corroborates the polychronous nature of the local Archaean rock genesis and reflect laminar and blocky structure of the cross-section in contrast to the previously suggested rhythmic stratigraphy. New U-Pb data on baddeleyite and zircon of the Pechenga Cu-Ni deposit and surrounding rocks varying from 2.3 to 1.7 Ga reflect exact emplacement time (1980+/-10 Ma) of the ore-bearing gabbro-wehrlite intrusions and long-term magmatic (plume) activity. All investigations are supported by ???? 08-05-00324 and ITP K-0194.

  3. Experience in applying acoustopolarization method for rock samples from the Kola (SG-3), German (KTB) and Finnish (OKU) investigation boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatsevich, Felix F.

    2013-04-01

    The Kola Superdeep Borehole (SG-3) was drilled in the NW-part of the Kola Peninsula [1]. The borehole intersected the lower Proterozoic complex (0-6848 m) of the Pechenga Formation and an Archaean granite and metamorphic complex (6848-12261 m). Our investigations show that rocks of the Archaean complex (paragneiss, metabasite, amphibolites) have high elastic anisotropy. It correlates with breakouts from the walls of the borehole and its inclination (deviation) from the vertical during drilling. Because of this when drilling SG-3 at a depth of 7.7 km to 10.1 km accidents occurred with the loss of the drill string part. Sinking the German drill hole ?-? (9101 m) was also accompanied by complications during its drilling [2]. The drill hole was drilled in the crystalline basement of the Bohemian massif in the south of Germany. The main rocks composing the massif are paragneiss, metabasite, granite and metasedimentary rocks. Our investigations of the ?-? samples from the 4.1-7.1 km interval also showed a high level of elastic anisotropy. The investigation drill hole Outokumpu (OKU) located in SE Finland, reached a final depth of 2516 m. The drill hole has passed through mica schists, biotite gneiss, serpentinite and pegmatite granite. Excluding pegmatite granite, all rocks have a high level of elastic anisotropy. Joint analyses of rock samples from SG-3, ?-? and OKU showed that the use of the acoustopolariscopy method can reveal intervals with breakouts and inclinations of the drill hole from the vertical. Elastic anisotropy monitoring of rocks performed by the acoustopolariscopy method will prevent accidents during sinking wells. 1. Gorbatsevich, F.F. & Smirnov, Yu.P. 2000. Kola Superdeep Borehole: 3-D model of elastic anisotropy of crystalline rocks in the upper and middle crust. In: The results of the study of the deep substance and physical processes in the Kola Superdeep Borehole section down to a depth of 12261 m. (Eds. F.P. Mitrofanov, F.F. Gorbatsevich). Apatity, Poligraf Publ., pp. 131-134. 2. Emmermann R. and Lauterjing J. The German Continental Deep Drilling Program KTB: Overview and major results // Journ. of Geoph. Res.-V.102. No. B8. - P18, 179-18,201. 3. Felix F. Gorbatsevich, Mikhail V. Kovalevsky, Olga M. Trishina. Characteristics of elastic properties of the crystalline rock samples from the Outokumpu deep drill hole: results of acoustopolariscopic laboratory measurements // Special Volume. Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 51, 2011. P. 207-218.

  4. New Experimental Technique For Study of The Superdeep and Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, M.

    As the search for hydrocarbons moves into areas of greater depth, it becomes increas- ingly important both to establish the presence of permeable zones in the granite-gneiss layer of the Earth's crust, and to sample these zones for discovery of deposits of com- mercial size and grade. Standard geophysics logging measurements into boreholes does not provide precise recognition and characteristics of permeable zones. Substan- tial anbiquity currently exists concerning the thickness, extent and the degree of frac- turing of the weak shear zones. Our advanced technique of temperature measurements made such observations possible. Our experiments in superdeep and deep boreholes beginning in 1990's have revealed temperature distribution in the crystalline basement to a depth of 5810 m. I made repeated temperature measurements in the Archean basement in the superdeep and deep boreholes located on the East European platform in 2001. They show that thermal regime have a greater tendency toward temperature inhomogeneity. The most important is the accumulating evidence that temperature anomaly configuration reflects variation in the behavior of dynamics processes within the unconsolidated zone, which, in turn, shows the origin of anomaly. The number, thickness and magnitude of temperature anomalies in the granite-gneiss layer of the Earth's crust that we interpreted as unconsolidated zones (zones in a loosely aggre- gated form) increase with increasing depth. There is evidence for the existence of long-time processes of convective heat-mass transfer in these localized weak zones.

  5. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust in the region of superdeep boreholes of Yamal-Nenets autonomous district using the fields of natural and controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Petrishchev, M. S.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Selivanov, V. N.; Barannik, M. B.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Grigoriev, V. F.; Sergushin, P. A.; Kopytenko, E. A.; Biryulya, M. A.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Esipko, O. A.; Damaskin, R. V.

    2013-11-01

    Electromagnetic soundings with the fields of natural (magnetotelluric (MT), and audio magnetotelluric (AMT)) and high-power controlled sources have been carried out in the region of the SG-6 (Tyumen) and SG-7 (En-Yakhin) superdeep boreholes in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district (YaNAD). In the controlled-source soundings, the electromagnetic field was generated by the VL Urengoi-Pangody 220-kV industrial power transmission line (PTL), which has a length of 114 km, and ultralow-frequency (ULF) Zevs radiating antenna located at a distance of 2000 km from the signal recording sites. In the soundings with the Urengoi-Pangody PTL, the Energiya-2 generator capable of supplying up to 200 kW of power and Energiya-3 portable generator with a power of 2 kW were used as the sources. These generators were designed and manufactured at the Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The soundings with the Energiya-2 generator were conducted in the frequency range from 0.38 to 175 Hz. The external generator was connected to the PTL in upon the agreement with the Yamal-Nenets Enterprise of Main Electric Networks, a branch of OAO FSK ES of Western Siberia. The connection was carried out by the wire-ground scheme during the routine maintenance of PTL in the nighttime. The highest-quality signals were recorded in the region of the SG-7 (En-Yakhin) superdeep borehole, where the industrial noise is lowest. The results of the inversion of the soundings with PTL and Zevs ULF transmitter completely agree with each other and with the data of electric logging. The MT-AMT data provide additional information about the deep structure of the region in the low-frequency range (below 1Hz). It is established that the section of SG-6 and SG-7 boreholes contains conductive layers in the depth intervals from 0.15 to 0.3 km and from 1 to 1.5 km. These layers are associated with the variations in the lithological composition, porosity, and fluid saturation of the rocks. The top of the poorly conductive Permian-Triassic complex is identified at a depth of about 7 km. On the basis of the MT data in the lowest frequency band (hourly and longer periods) with the observations at the Novosibirsk observatory taken into account, the distribution of electric resistivity up to a depth of 800 km is reconstructed. This distribution can be used as additional information when calculating the temperature and rheology of the lithosphere and upper mantle in West Siberia. The results of our studies demonstrate the high potential of the complex electromagnetic soundings with natural and controlled sources in the study of deep structure of the lithosphere and tracing deep oil-and-gas-bearing horizons in the sedimentary cover of the West Siberian Platform within the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district.

  6. Vertical Variations In Heat Flow Inferred From Experiments In Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Y.; Romushkevich, R.; Gorobtsov, D.; Korobkov, D.

    2012-04-01

    Deep scientific and parametric continental boreholes allow to obtain representative experimental data on combination of the geothermal parameters of the crust - temperature, temperature gradient, rock thermal properties, and, as the result, heat flow density values - which are more reliable compared to the previous data from shallow boreholes. Special advantages of the scientific boreholes include also a possibility for many repeated temperature logging during long time intervals (several years often) after a finish of the drilling that allowed (1) to determine temperatures and temperature gradient values corresponding to thermal equilibrium of the formations studied, (2) to study temporal regularities in temperature and temperature gradient behaviour within different formation layers during the formation recovery process. Scientific boreholes are drilled with numerous coring (often - with continuous coring) that provides the possibility to obtain detailed information on a distribution of rock thermal conductivity along the borehole. As a result, the scientific deep and super-deep boreholes provided the unique possibility for the determination of vertical distributions of the heat flow density that can not be reached normally in other boreholes. Experimental geothermal and petrothermal investigations performed for the super-deep boreholes Kola, Ural, Vorotilovo, Tyumen, Yen-Yakha (all - Russia), Saatly (Azerbaidzhan), and deep scientific and parametric boreholes Kolva, Timano-Pechora, Tyrnyaus, (all - Russia), Krivoy Rog (Ukraine), Muruntau (Uzbekistan), Nordlingen-72 (Germany), Yaxcopoil-1 (Mexico) allowed us to establish the following important peculiarities in geothermal parameters of the crustal blocks studied with scientific deep drilling were established from the investigations: (1) temperature gradient recovery up to undisturbed values occurs essentially faster than it was assumed earlier; (2) a rate of temperature gradient recovery was found to be different for different formation layers; (3) significant variations in rock thermal properties vary significantly along boreholes within several thousands, hundreds and dozens meters as well as along short depth intervals of 0.5-1 m; (4) conductive component of the heat flow density varies up to 70-100% along boreholes often, regular increase in heat flow density within depth intervals of several kilometers is combined with essential local variations, (5) values of a conductive component of the heat flow density established from the measurements in deep and super-deep boreholes exceeds significantly (by 30-100%) and systematically the previous experimental estimates done earlier for shallow boreholes. The mentioned regularities in behaviour of the geothermic parameters were confirmed from new experimental data for the scientific and parametric boreholes Severo-Molokovo, Vysokovo, Yarudeyskaya (Russia), Eyreville (USA) and from the revision of previous experimental geothermic data for the Moscow syneclise (the East European platform) and Ural region. The new results obtained from studying vertical variations in the heat flow density demonstrate a regular essential (30-60%) increase in the conductive component of the heat flow density with a depth within upper depth intervals up to 2000-3000 m. The results show that the determination of heat flow values from averaging the geothermal parameters within long depth intervals can lead to essential underestimation of the crustal heat flow values.

  7. Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of the German KTB superdeep well in the 4100-7100 m depth range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskiy, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The KTB German Superdeep Well (Germany, Windischeschenbach) has limiting depth of 9101 m. It is one of the world deepest well among the continental boreholes. A study of physical parameters including elastic ones of the massif intersected by the well allowed to represent a real pattern of changing properties and the state of crystalline rocks in upper and middle part of the Earth crust. Such a deep section enables performing analyses of large spectrum of geological and geophysical objects, such as minerals, crystalline rocks, geological strata, formation complexes et al. Recently obtained results permit to get a general idea of elastic-anisotropic properties of crystalline rocks extracted from great depths. A study of properties and state of rocks along the KTB section will make it possible to most precisely determine regular changes of the Earth's rock properties within a large range of depths. Below are the results of investigation of elastic-anisotropic properties for 13 core samples of the KTB rocks in the range of 4.1 to 7.1 km. In this interval the well has penetrated metamorphosed rocks [1]. The measurements have been done by an acoustopolarization method with recent improvements and with devices for determination of sample elastic properties [2 3]. The data obtained are the result of extended study into the KTB rock samples by the method [4]. Study of rock samples from the KTB Superdeep Well in the 4100-7100 m depth range showed that they all are elastic anisotropic and pertain to a orthorhombic symmetry type. Virtually the degree of linear acoustic anisotropic absorption (LAAA) effect has been detected in all samples. Its appearance is likely related to directional orientation of mineral grains as well as to the generation of microcracks during drilling and lithostatic stress release. The several samples showed an angular unconformity between the LAAA orientation and elastic symmetry elements. The shear waves depolarization (DSW) effect was detected in garnet amphibolites samples. There was observed a tendency to persistence in propagation rate of compression and shear wave velocities. The pattern of change in anisotropy factors for compression and shear waves in depth shows itself in a similar way. There is an inverse correlation between density and anisotropy. R E F E R E N C E S 1. Emmermann R., Althaus E., Giese P., Stockhert B.. KTB Hauptbohrung. Results of Geoscientific Investigation in the KTB Field Laboratory. Final Report: 0-9101m. KTB Report 95-2. Hannover. 1995. 2. Gorbatsevich F.F. Acoustopolariscopy of rock forming minerals and crystalline rocks. Apatity, Kola Science Centre RAS, 2002, p. 140. (In Russian) 3. Kovalevskiy M.V. Automated hardware-software complex Acoustpol: Tutorial: Apatity, K & M Publ., 2009. 54p. (In Russian). 4. Kovalevsky M.V., Gorbatsevich F.F., Harms U., Dahlheim H.-A. Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of German KTB Superdeep Well // Geophysical magazine.- Geophysics Institute of NAS of Ukraine. -2012.- Issue 34.-#2.-P. 36-48. (In Russian)

  8. New borehole-derived results on temperatures at the base of the Fennoscandian ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Volker; Vogt, Christian; Mottaghy, Darius; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Tarasov, Lev

    2014-05-01

    During the last few years, a data base of deep boreholes (>1000 m )in the area of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has been collected, including boreholes from Russia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Norway. All of these are supposed to have recorded local basal ice conditions during the last glacial cycle. However, at each of these sites we are confronted with particular problems of interpretation. Here, we will concentrate on two very deep boreholes, namely the Outokumpu ICDP borehole (OKU, ≡2500 m) and a set of boreholes of intermediate depth (up to 1300 m) in the immediate meighborhood of the Kola superdeep borehole SG3. In the first case, OKU, we have developed a strategy combining the use of a traditional variational inversion of thye Tikhonov type, with a MCMC approach for the exploration of the associated uncertainty. A wide distribution around the result of the variational approach was chosen, with a time dependent temporal correlation length reflecting the loss of resolution back in time. The results fit very well with region independent results from different proxies, multi-proxy reconstructions, and instrumental data. They also are consistent with surface temperatures derived from recent calibrated ice sheet models. The SAT-GST offset independently derived from shallow borehole observations in the area was a crucial step to obtain theses results. The second case, SG3, has been studied a long time, and no final result was obtained regarding the question whether the observed heat flow density profile is caused by paleoclimate, fluid flow, or both. Earlier studies, as well as forward modelling using the results of the aforementioned ice sheet model indicate that paleoclimate alone can not explain the observations. We tested the model derived from the set of shallow boreholes against the temperature log from the main superdeep SG3, which, in contrast to these, transects the main high-permeability zone. The comparison led to a favorable results, and is also qualitatively consistent with other data reported in earlier Russian publications. However, for the SG3 case, which involves fluid flow processes, there are still important open questions. These are related to some of the assumptions made in the modeling and inversion process. The temperature conditions at the base of the ice sheet are surely not it's only effect: the high pressures induced but the ice load are known to drive melt water deep into the subsurface, with unknown temperature effects. Moreover, the crustal deformation related to isostatic effects probably influence large-scale permeability, in particular if older structures can be reactivated. These questions will be discussed in the light or recent modelling results obtained by groups active in nuclear waste disposal research, and which may open new research perspectives in the future.

  9. KOLA: A Knowledge Organization Language*

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeona; Patil, Ramesh

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes KOLA, a new knowledge representation system based on the structured-inheritance network paradigm. KOLA extends the expressive capabilities of the NIKL knowledge representation system without adversely affecting its computational tractability. The expressive constructs in KOLA are designed to facilitate the organization of domain knowledge that can be easily understood by humans and can be efficiently processed by computers. The need for the extensions is motivated through examples illustrating the limitations of NIKL. Formal semantics for these extensions, their implementation in KOLA and examples of their use are presented.

  10. Stishovite paradox in genesis of the superdeep diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    Stishovite was experimentally discovered [1] as high-density polymorph of SiO2 stable at 9 - 50 GPa. A paradoxical paragenesis of stishovite and magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O was disclosed among primary inclusions in lower-mantle superdeep diamonds [2]. This contradicts to a common knowledge that SiO2 and MgO paragenesis is forbidden for low-pressure SiO2 polymorphs - quartz and coesite. The "stishovite paradox" does not manifest itself in the lower mantle ultrabasic compositions as is seen from experimental pyrolite assembly magnesiowustite+Mg-perovskite+Ca-perovskite at 50 GPa. In basic basalt composition stishovite is formed together with Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite and Al-bearing phases under the lower mantle PT-parameters [3]. In this case stishovite is taken as product of oceanic basalt subducted into lower mantle, but not in situ lower-mantle primary mineral. Paragenesis of stishovite and superdeep diamond has opened up fresh opportunity for detailed study. Magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O inclusions in superdeep diamonds are characterized by a wide variation of FeO content between 10 and 64 mol. % [2]. It is interesting that ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 solid solutions are decomposed into Mg-perovskite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 + magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 (within 30 - 42 mol. % Fe2SiO4) and magnesiowustite + stishovite (within 42 - 100 mol. % Fe2SiO4). Based on experimental data, melting phase diagram of MgO - SiO2 - FeO system at 30 GPa is constructed [4]. Subsolidus assembly includes solid solutions of (Mg,Fe)-perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O. With increase in FeO content in the system, liquidus relations are determined by two univariant cotectics L + (Mg,Fe)O + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and L + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 having come to invariant peritectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3. Mg-perovskite is eliminated by peritectic reaction L + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 = (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 that gives rise to third univariant cotectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2. The physicochemical peritectic mechanism is also operating in the MgO - SiO2 - FeO - CaSiO3 system where Ca-perovskite is stable. Thus, the "stishovite paradox" has physicochemical substantiation. Fractional crystallization of magnesiowustite in ultrabasic lower-mantle magma could lead to a rise of FeO content in the residual melts and activate the peritectic mechanism of the "stishovite paradox' formation. This is resulted in a transfer to basic residual melts and in situ formation of stishovite-magnesiowustite-Ca-perovskite rocks where stishovite is a primary lower-mantle mineral. This mechanism can be extended to the origin of stishovite and "stishovite paradox" in the superdeep diamond inclusions. By mantle-carbonatite model [5], the parental media of upper-mantle diamonds and inclusions are presented by carbonate-silicate-carbon melts. Carbonate-based parental media are applicable to origin of lower-mantle superdeep diamonds and inclusions. In this case the reasons arise from the presence of primary Na-, Mg-, Fe-, Ca-carbonate inclusions in superdeep diamonds and experimental evidence for congruent melting of carbonates under PT-conditions of the lower mantle [6, 7]. Support: RFBR grant 11-05-00401. 1. Stishov S.M., Popova S.V. (1961). Doklady USSR Academy of Sciences ????? 2. Kaminsky F. (2012). Earth-Science Review 110 . 127-147. 3. Akaogi M. ln E. Ohtani, ed. Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 2007. # 421. P. 1-13. 4. Litvin Yu.A. Doklady Earth Sciences, 2013 (accepted). 5. Litvin Yu.A. ln E. Ohtani, ed. Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 2007. # 421. P.83-103. 6. Spivak A.V., Litvin Yu.A., S.V. Ovsyannikov, et al. // Journal of Solid State Chemistry 2012,. 191, 102-106. 7. Solopova N.A., Litvin Yu.A., Spivak A.V. et al. Doklady Earth Sciences, 2013 (accepted).

  11. Tracking Crust-Mantle Recycling through Superdeep Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Thomson, Andrew; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Sublithospheric, or 'superdeep' diamonds, originate in the deep upper mantle, transition zone, and at least as deep as the shallow lower mantle. When diamonds crystallize in the mantle from fluids or melts they occasionally entrap coexisting mineral phases. Because of their great physical resiliency, diamonds can potentially preserve information over long distance- and time-scales, revealing important information about the petrologic, tectonic and geodynamic environment in which the diamonds grew and were transported. Superdeep diamonds and their inclusions have proven especially powerful for probing processes related to subduction of slabs into the deep mantle [1-3]. In contrast to lithospheric diamonds that are effectively frozen-in geodynamically, mineral inclusions in superdeep diamonds often record hundreds of kilometers of uplift in the convecting mantle from their original depth of origin [3-5]. The phase equilibria of unmixing of original deep mantle phases such as Ca- and Mg-perovskite, NAL-phase, CF-phase, CAS-phase, and majorite provide a means to establish amounts of uplift. The few available age constraints indicate superdeep diamond growth from the Proterozoic to the Cretaceous, and further dating can potentially lead to constraining mantle upwelling rates [4]. Here we will provide several examples showing how superdeep diamonds and their inclusions record processes of subduction and slab foundering, and ultimately recycling of slab material from the transition zone and lower mantle into the shallow upper mantle. 1. Harte, B., Mineralogical Magazine, 2010. 74: p. 189-215. 2. Tappert, R., et al., Geology, 2005. 33: p. 565-568. 3. Walter, M.J., et al., Science, 2011. 333: p. 54-57. 4. Bulanova, G.P., et al., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2010. 160: p. 489-510. 5. Harte, B. and N. Cayzer, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 2007.

  12. The results of deep seismic investigations on geotraverse in the Barents Sea from Kola peninsula to Franz-Joseph Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakoulina, T. S.; Telegin, A. N.; Tikhonova, I. M.; Verba, M. L.; Matveev, Y. I.; Vinnick, A. A.; Kopylova, A. V.; Dvornikov, L. G.

    2000-12-01

    In 1995 geophysical investigations in the southern part of the AP-1 geotraverse across the whole Barents Sea Plate were completed. The entire profile links the super-deep SG-3 well on the Kola peninsular (town of Zapolarny) and the base Hayes-1 well on Franz-Joseph Land. The extent of the investigated part of the profile was 700 km. The integrated seismic experiment included offshore and onshore wide-angle reflection/refraction observations (referred hereinafter as Deep Seismic Sounding DSS) with 3-component ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) and air guns and multi-channel seismic reflection study (MCS) at different offsets ranges. Sufficiently dense deployment of OBS (5-20 km) and a 250 m shooting interval provided reliable phase correlation and wave identification. Intensive reflections from the Moho have been recorded practically continuously along the profile. The DSS data processing built a mid point dynamic reflection Moho image and produced a general depth section. MCS data defined boundaries in the sedimentary layer and the basement surface in the southern part of the profile. The lowermost observed boundary, the Moho, occurs at depths between 35 and 40 km. The thickness of sedimentary cover varies from zero in the southern part of the profile to 14-16 km in its northern part. Results of geological interpretation confirm the continental crust in the studied part of the Barents Sea Shelf Plate.

  13. Borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Clerke, E.A.

    1988-10-25

    A borehole imaging apparatus is described comprising: a housing movable within a borehole; at least one acoustic transducer supported in the housing for transducing acoustic energy in such a borehole; and an acoustic fluid in at least a portion of the housing for acoustically coupling the transducer to fluid in the borehole, the acoustic fluid having a low kinematic viscosity substantially less than 50 cSt at 4/sup 0/C, and having an acoustic impedance which minimizes loss of the acoustic energy passing through the housing.

  14. The characteristic photoluminescence and EPR features of superdeep diamonds (So-Luis, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuryeva, Olga P.; Rakhmanova, Mariana I.; Nadolinny, Vladimir A.; Zedgenizov, Dmitry A.; Shatsky, Vladislav S.; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komarovskikh, Andrey Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used for the first time to characterize properties of superdeep diamonds from the So-Luis alluvial deposits (Brazil). The infrared measurements showed the low nitrogen content (>50 of 87 diamonds from this locality were nitrogen free and belonged to type IIa) and simultaneously the extremely high level of nitrogen aggregation (pure type IaB being predominant), which indicates that diamonds under study might have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions. In most cases, PL features excited at various wavelengths (313, 473, and 532 nm) were indicative of different growth and post-growth processes during which PL centers could be formed via interaction between vacancies and nitrogen atoms. The overall presence of the 490.7 nm, H3, and H4 centers in the luminescence spectra attests to strong plastic deformations in these diamonds. The neutral vacancy known as the GR1 center has probably occurred in a number of crystals due to radiation damage in the post-growth period. The 558.5 nm PL center is found to be one of the most common defects in type IIa samples which is accompanied by the EPR center with g-factor of 2.00285. The 536 and 576 nm vibronic systems totally dominated the PL spectra of superdeep diamonds, while none of "normal" diamonds from the Mir pipe (Yakutia) with similar nitrogen characteristics showed the latter three PL centers.

  15. Stable isotope evidence for crustal recycling as recorded by superdeep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, A. D.; Thomson, A. R.; Bulanova, G. P.; Kohn, S. C.; Smith, C. B.; Walter, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 and Collier-4 kimberlites and the Machado River alluvial deposit in Brazil have carbon isotopic compositions that co-vary with the oxygen isotopic compositions of their inclusions, which implies that they formed by a mixing process. The proposed model for this mixing process, based on interaction of slab-derived carbonate melt with reduced (carbide- or metal-bearing) ambient mantle, explains these isotopic observations. It is also consistent with the observed trace element chemistries of diamond inclusions from these localities and with the experimental phase relations of carbonated subducted crust. The 18O-enriched nature of the inclusions demonstrates that they incorporate material from crustal protoliths that previously interacted with seawater, thus confirming the subduction-related origin of superdeep diamonds. These samples also provide direct evidence of an isotopically anomalous reservoir in the deep (≥350 km) mantle.

  16. Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O; Adesanya, Saburi A; Idowu, Thomas O; Okimi, Oluwakemi C; Oyelami, Oyesiku A; Iwalewa, Ezekiel O

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking). Results 143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males 24, females 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on Garcinia kola as compared to the placebo. The mid term outcome of eleven Garcinia kola subjects after cessation of use had a mean pain relief period of 17.27 +/- 5.15 days (range: 926 days). There was no significant cardiovascular, renal or drug induced adverse reaction to Garcinia kola. Conclusion Garcinia kola appeared to have clinically significant analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects in knee osteoarthritis patients. Garcinia kola is a potential osteoarthritis disease activity modifier with good mid term outcome. Further studies are required for standardization of dosages and to determine long-term effects. PMID:18667082

  17. Kimberlitic sources of super-deep diamonds in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Belousova, Elena A.; Andreazza, Paulo; Tremblay, Mousseau; Griffin, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The Juina diamond field, in the 1970-80s, was producing up to 5-6 million carats per year from rich placer deposits, but no economic primary deposits had been found in the area. In 2006-2007, Diagem Inc. discovered a group of diamondiferous kimberlitic pipes within the Chapadão Plateau (Chapadão, or Pandrea cluster), at the head of a drainage system which has produced most of the alluvial diamonds mined in the Juina area. Diamonds from placer deposits and newly discovered kimberlites are identical; they have super-deep origins from the upper-mantle and transition zone. Field observations and petrographic studies have identified crater-facies kimberlitic material at seven separate localities. Kimberlitic material is represented by tuffs, tuffisites and various epiclastic sediments containing chrome spinel, picroilmenite, manganoan ilmenite, zircon and diamond. The diamond grade varies from 0.2-1.8 ct/m 3. Chrome spinel has 30-61 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Picroilmenite contains 6-14 wt.% MgO and 0.2-4 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Manganoan ilmenite has less than 3 wt.% MgO and 0.38-1.41 wt.% MnO. The 176Hf/ 177Hf ratio in kimberlitic zircons is 0.028288-0.28295 with ɛHf = 5.9-8.3, and lies on the average kimberlite trend between depleted mantle and CHUR. The previously known barren and weakly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Juina area have ages of 79-80 Ma. In contrast, zircons from the newly discovered Chapadão kimberlites have a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 93.6 ± 0.4 Ma, corresponding to a time of magmatic activity related to the opening of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The most likely mechanism of the origin of kimberlitic magma is super-deep subduction process that initiated partial melting of zones in lower mantle with subsequent ascent of proto-kimberlitic magma.

  18. Experimental technique and new temperature and heat flow measurements in the deep boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, M.

    2003-04-01

    One of the outstanding problems for the modern prospect geophysics is the following, whether permeable zones and commercial petroleum concentrations exist in deep crystalline basement. Temperature measurements allow us to more accurately determine the permeable layers and reservoirs in the basement. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes include a set of deep instruments, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. We made temperature measurements by the specially developed measurement technique that gives high accuracy and validity. The temperatures were measured downwards into the borehole, precluding additional fluid mixing in the hole. The thermometer lowering rate was minimised with 200 meter per hour. Measurements were made in deep and superdeep boreholes having steady-state temperature regime. Temperature was measured up to a depth of 5800 m with a sampling interval of 10 cm to 5 m. Measurements were made in the open hole and in the drill string. Temperature measurements give evidence for the existence of anomalous zones potentially corresponding to permeable layers. Unconsolidated zones occur at great depths in the granite-gneiss layer and their thickness and magnitude increase with increasing depth. The studies indicate that fluid injection anomalies, gas anomalies, sheet flow and overflow zones can be detected by temperature measurements. The drilling in the hole revealed heavily shattered rocks (fault breccia) at these depths. New temperature measurements in the deep boreholes that stood idle for 3 to 9 years after the drilling suggest permanent migration of gas from greater depths.

  19. Temperature Measurements In The Boreholes and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, D.

    Together with the workers of Kazan State University, I made temperature measure- ments in the crystalline basement of the superdeep Novo-Yelhovskaya 20009 hole located on the Tataria arch. We revealed the temperature anomaly in the open hole in a depth range of 5284 to 5322 m. It is one of the largest anomalies indicating the existence of an unconsolidated zone with high reservoir properties in the granite- gneiss layer. The drilling in the hole revealed heavily shattered rocks (fault breccia) and tectonic high-dipping fault. In 1998, 25 December the local shallow earthquake occurs near the 20009 borehole. Geophysical measurements revealed that the earth- quake focus is at a depth of 5300 m. Our temperature measurements one month latter, in 1999, 22 January showed that there was caving of desintegrated rocks in the zone of tectonic fault at a depth of about 5320 m that was apparently responsible for the observed earthquake. This earthquake seem to occur on the high-angle fault. The tem- perature anomaly suggested about the convective flows in this zone. However, repeated measurements 0.5 years latter (1999, July) argue that temperature anomalies are not present in this depth range. The important change in the behavior of the temperature from the large anomaly to the normal distribution is evident. This is evidence for the stopping of processes of convective heat-mass transfer in this zone. Thus, the temper- ature measurements suggest that at least some of these faults are currently active and the sites of some of the earthquakes are controlled by localized areas of weakness in the Earth's crust.

  20. Global mantle convection: Evidence from carbon and nitrogen isotopes in super-deep diamonds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palot, M.; Cartigny, P.; Harris, J.; Kaminsky, F. V.; Stachel, T.

    2009-12-01

    Constraining the convective regime of the Earth’s mantle has profound implications for our understanding of the Earth’s cooling and the geodynamics of plate tectonics. Although subducting plates seem to be occasionally deflected at 660 km, evidence from seismic tomography and fluid dynamics suggest that substantial amounts of material reach the core-mantle boundary. Most geochemists, on the other hand, based on evidence from noble gases, would argue for the presence of separate upper and lower mantle reservoirs. Diamond provides a unique opportunity to sample those parts of the mantle that remains inaccessible by any other means. Some mineral associations in diamond, such as majoritic garnet, calcic and magnesian perovskite and manganoan ilmenite with ferropericlase have been recognised as originated from the transition zone down to the lower mantle (Stachel et al., 1999; Kaminsky et al., 2001). In addition, nitrogen in these diamonds is potentially a good tracer for mantle geodynamics. Exchanges between an inner reservoir (characterised by negative δ15N) via degassing at oceanic ridges with an outer reservoir (characterised by positive δ15N) via recycling at a subduction zones can lead to isotopic contrast in a stratified mantle. Because of common super-deep mineral inclusion assemblages in diamonds from Juina (Brazil) and Kankan (Guinea), we carried out a detailed study of nitrogen and carbon isotopes. The Juina diamonds show broadly similar ranges of δ15N from +3.8‰ down to -8.8‰ for both upper (UM) and lower (LM) mantle diamonds. This important feature is also found for UM and LM diamonds from Kankan, although the range of δ15N differs with values from +9.6‰ down to -39.4‰. Both sets of results suggest extensive material-isotopic exchange through the 660km discontinuity, contrary to the idea of an isolated reservoir. Transition zone (TZ) diamonds are enriched in 13C with δ13C from -3.1‰ up to +3.8‰ at Kankan but those of Juina are depleted in 13C with δ13C from -4.2‰ down to -12.8‰. Three zoned TZ and LM diamonds demonstrate more than 3.5‰ δ13C variations, two from Kankan with δ13C up to +0.1‰ and +1.4‰ and one from Juina with δ13C down to -9.8‰. These diamonds may have initiated their growth in the LM and following slow uplift in a convective mantle have equilibrated in the TZ, and in doing so show an evolution in carbon isotopic composition. Therefore the C- and N- independent isotopic tracers suggest that significant amounts of material are exchanged across the 660km discontinuity. Subsequent preservation of a large range of δ13C and δ15N compositions may be compatible with the model of global thermochemical convection with a small amplitude of density heterogeneities inferred from seismology and mineral physics. Kaminsky, F. V. et al., 2001. Superdeep diamonds from Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140: 734-753. Stachel, T. et al., 2001. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds. Contrib Mineral Petrol 142: 465-475.

  1. Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava; Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei; Kornev, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m{sup 3} of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

  2. Borehole televiewer mudcake monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Clerke, E.A.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes a method for determining the thickness of mudcake on the wall of a borehole, comprising: directing acoustic energy, from a borehole televiewer within the borehole, toward the mudcake; detecting the precursor reflection of the acoustic energy from the mudcake at the borehole/mudcake interface by detecting the time T/sub 1/ when the reflected precursor acoustic energy level rises above a predetermined threshold level greater than the background noise level and less than the later signal peak of the reflected acoustic energy; detecting the time T/sub 2/ of the reflection of the acoustic energy from the borehole wall at the mudcake/borehole wall interface by detecting the later signal peak arrival of the reflected acoustic energy; and determining the thickness of the mudcake from the difference T/sub 2/-T/sub 1/ in the detected mudcake and borehole wall reflection times.

  3. Novel Environment Friendly Method of Preparing Nanoreinforced Composites Based on Metallic, Ceramic and Polymer Matrixes - Superdeep Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usherenko, S.; Figovsky, O.

    At superdeep penetration (SDP) process of penetration of discrete micro-particles and stitching of metals, ceramics and polymers by the synthesized filaments, on depths in tens and hundreds millimeters is realized. Contrary to the basic models at SDP intensive energy release is observed: local melting, synthesis, radiation and forming of massive composite materials. Process of SDP occurs in the boundaries of the closed system. Products of interaction for example, carbon and silicon are saved in volume of preform and don't organize harmful waste at manufacture. The massive composite material is formed in a pulse regime and modified in volume by nano and micro structural elements. Manufacture of a durable material does not demand traditional process of sintering.

  4. Laser drilling of superdeep micron holes in various materials with a programmable control of laser radiation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Gavrilov, A V; Smetanin, S N; Fedin, A V

    2007-01-31

    The possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of laser drilling of micron holes, increasing their depth, and eliminating their conic shape are studied by using a single-mode loop Nd:YAG laser with self-phase conjugation on the gain gratings and passive Q-switching by a scanned gradiently coloured F{sub 2}{sup -}:LiF crystal. Holes of diameters 15-150 {mu}m and depth up to 20 mm with the aspect ratio (ratio of the hole depth to its diameter) of 50-155 are drilled in various metals and alloys. It is shown that passive Q-switch scanning during drilling provides the increase in the depth and speed of the laser drilling of superdeep holes by a factor of 1.5-2. (laser technologies)

  5. Borehole cementing over water

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, T.K.

    1984-05-01

    A borehole cementing process is disclosed in which a quantity of water-like fluid is pumped into a borehole above drilling mud and the cement slurry is pumped into the borehole above at least a portion of the water-like fluid. Turbulent mixing of cement slurry and water at the interface creates an isolation zone preventing degradation of the bulk of the cement slug.

  6. CaSiO3-walstromite inclusions in super-deep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzolini, Chiara; Nestola, Fabrizio; Milani, Sula; Brenker, Frank E.

    2015-04-01

    Diamonds are considered the unique way to trap and convey real fragments of deep material to the surface of our planet. Over the last thirty years, great strides have been made in understanding of Earth's lower mantle, mainly thanks to technological and instrumental advances; nevertheless, it is only in the last two decades that a whole range of inclusion parageneses derived from the lower mantle was discovered in diamonds from So Luiz (Brazil) (Kaminsky, 2008 and references therein), thereby establishing a 'window' into the lower mantle. These so-called super-deep diamonds form at depths greater than lithospheric diamonds, more precisely between 300 and 800 km depth, and contain mostly ferropericlase, enstatite (believed to be derived from MgSi-perovskite) and CaSiO3-walstromite (believed to be derived from CaSiO3-perovskite). Even though CaSiO3 not only adopts the perovskite structure with increased pressure and temperature, but also it is considered the dominant Ca-bearing phase in the Earth's lower mantle (Tamai and Yagi, 1989), at the present day there are no reliable literature data on the pressure at which CaSiO3 crystallizes within diamonds. In order to obtain for the first time a pressure of formation value for CaSiO3-walstromite, several inclusions still trapped in a diamond coming from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) were investigated both by in-situ microRaman spectroscopy and in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction. First, we applied 'single-inclusion elastic barometry' as improved by Angel et al. (2014) to determine the pressure of formation of the diamond-inclusion pairs. Starting from the maximum remnant pressure value ever reported (Joswig et al., 2003) and adopting the thermoelastic parameters already present in literature (Swamy and Dubrovinsky, 1997; Liu et al., 2012), we obtained an apparent entrapment pressure of ~7.1 GPa, corresponding to ~250 km, at 1500 K. The presence of fractures around the inclusions indicates this is a minimum estimate, and it is possible that the entrapment pressure falls at least into the stability field of Ca2SiO4-larnite + CaSi2O5-titanite. In support of this hypothesis we secondly compared our Raman spectra with reference spectra of the same phases obtained from an experimental product of Gasparik et al. (1994). Our preliminary results indicate in at least one inclusion the coexistence of CaSiO3-walstromite + Ca2SiO4-larnite, suggesting that CaSiO3-walstromite forms in sub-lithospheric conditions from the back transformation from CaSiO3-perovskite. Further investigations are in progress in order to find evidence of CaSi2O5-titanite in these inclusions. References Angel R.J., Alvaro M., Nestola F., Mazzucchelli M.L. (2014) Diamond thermoelastic properties and implications for determining the pressure of formation of diamond-inclusion systems. Russ Geol Geophys, in press; Gasparik, T., Wolf, K. and Smith, C.M. (1994) Am Mineral, 79,1219-1222; Joswig, W., Paulus, E.F., Winkler, B. and Milman, V. (2003) Z Kristallogr, 218,811-818; Kaminsky, F. (2008) Earth Sc Rev, 110,127-147; Liu, X., Wang, S., He, Q., Chen, J., Wang, H., Li, S., Peng, F., Zhang, L. and Fei, Y. (2012) Am Mineral 97,262-267; Swamy, V. and Dubrovinsky, L.S. (1997) Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 61,1181-1191; Tamai, H. and Yagi, T. (1989) Phys Earth Planet Inter, 54,370-377.

  7. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  8. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  9. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  11. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage. PMID:25478098

  12. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-02-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage. PMID:25478098

  13. Trace Elements in the Section of the Kievey PGE Deposit (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groshev, Nikolay; Rundkvist, Tatyana; Korchagin, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The Kievey reef-type PGE deposit located in the Lower Layered Horizon (LLH) of the West-Pana intrusion was formed as a result of one or several additional magma injections (Korchagin & Mitrofanov, 2010). The composition of the magma was essentially similar to the saturated tholeiite basalt assumed to be a parental magma for the West-Pana layered intrusion in the Kola Peninsula (Latypov & Chistyakova, 2000). In the present study, whole-rock and ICP-MS trace-element data through a detailed borehole section (37 samples) of the LLH were obtained in an attempt to find some differences in the composition of the magmas. The section of the LLH includes four rhythmical units with a total thickness of 21.5 m lying on the mesocratic gabbronorite containing rare 5-cm interlayers of leucocratic rocks. The bottom of the first cycle is a layer of fine- to medium grained melanorite. Interlayering of gabbronorites and leucogabbronorites is observed in the middle of the cycle. Mottled rock of leucogabbronorite-anorthositic composition with relatively distinct spots caused by amphibolization and saussuritization occurs at the upper leucocratic part of the unit. In comparison to the first cycle of the LLH, the upper cycles are thinner and have more simple internal structures. Well-expressed thin layering is rare, and a mottled structure is weakly developed. Relatively thin (15-55 cm thick) coarse grained olivine melanorite layers at the base of these units are a characteristic feature. The overlying unit is represented by homogeneous fine-medium grained gabbronorites with rare interlayers of coarse and medium grained varieties. PGE mineralization (3 levels about 4-6 ppm Pt+Pd+Au) in the LLH occurs near the lower margins of the upper cycles and is associated with interstitial irregular disseminated sulfides (up to 0.5 vol. % of pentlandite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite). Disseminated sulfides are most abundant in the upper part of the first cycle, whereas they are hardly visible in the upper cycles. According to obtained analytical data it appears that additional magma injections, with similar concentrations of compatible elements to the parental magma, differ from the latter by lower concentrations of Ti (and also Th, Pb, Hf, Zr,Ta, Nb) and rare earth elements. Of note are also the relatively high normative anorthite component in plagioclase in the LLH and the positive Eu anomaly in the LLH and in the overlying unit. The work was supported by RFBR (11-05-00061-a, 13-05-12055-ofi-m).

  14. Borehole Geophysical Logging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

  15. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage; Prasad Kumarab, Peramune A A S

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica L. (Gotu Kola) is a nutritionally important plant and a valued traditional medicine in South East Asia. In this review, the chemical composition, nutritional values, and health benefits of C. asiatica have been discussed in detail to emphasize its usage as traditional food and medicine. C. asiatica is one of the most commonly used green leafy vegetables (GLVs) in some countries including Sri Lanka due to its high amounts of medicinally important triterpenoids and beneficial carotenoids. It is consumed in the form of GLVs and in the preparation of juice, drink, and other food products. It is also known to contain vitamins B and C, proteins, important minerals, and some other phytonutrients such as flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, and polyphenol. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown important health benefits like antidiabetic, wound-healing, antimicrobial, memory-enhancing, antioxidant, and neuroprotecting activities. However, detailed scientific approaches on clinical trials regarding health benefits and nutritional values of C. asiatica are limited, hindering the perception of its benefits, mechanisms, and toxicity in order to develop new drug prototypes. In vitro studies have shown that the method of processing C. asiatica has an impact on its nutritional values and health-related beneficial compounds. The composition of its compounds is influenced by different biotic and abiotic factors which need to be studied in detail to provide information to the public in order to maximize the usage of this valuable plant. PMID:26602573

  16. Paleomagnetic and Geochronological Studies of the Kola Devonian Alkaline Province (Kola Peninsula, Russia) and Their Geological Implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Arzamastsev, A.; Thomson, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    This study represents the conclusions of a five-year paleomagnetic study of the Kola Alkaline Province. Most of our work has been concentrated on Devonian magmatic rocks - dykes and intrusive massifs - but at least two dozen Precambrian dykes and, occasionally, host rocks were also sampled. Our paleomagnetic results are based on more than 2000 samples from 130 dolerite and alkaline dykes of Devonian and Precambrian age. Rock magnetic studies were made on tens samples. We also present new geochronological (Ar/Ar) and microprobe data from the Devonian dykes. Moreover, we present new apatite fission track ages, obtained on eleven drill cores from different depths of the Khibina alkaline massif and compare them with our own thermal numerical model in order to estimate the rate and age of the post-magmatic exhumation process. All obtained results will be made available through an open access GIS project from the end of December, 2014 on the site http://paleomag-ifz.ru/en. Analysis of the obtained multidisciplinary data does not fully support the hypothesis of regional Fennoscandia remagnetization event in the Late Jurassic, discussed earlier in (Veselovskiy et al., 2013), and instead leads us to propose the existence of an interval of abnormal behavior of the main geomagnetic field in Devonian time. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 12-05-00216, 13-05-12021, 13-05-12030 and the project of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant no. 14.Z50.31.0017).

  17. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-data-transmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At thime of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the adjacent water and ice.

  18. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  19. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  20. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  1. Borehole stability in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, G.M.; Wong, S.W.; Davidson, C.J.; Woodland, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    Downhole mud/shale interaction can only be properly understood if rock mechanical, shale hydration, and fluid transport phenomena are taken into account. This paper presents a review of Koninklijke Shell E P Laboratorium's research on borehole stability in shales. Mechanisms relevant to shale stability, including pore pressure penetration (the gradual increase in pore pressure resulting from high mud weight), capillary threshold pressures, compressive and tensile failure, postfailure stabilization, hydration stress, inhibition, and osmotic phenomena are discussed. The authors attempt to integrate these mechanisms into a comprehensive model for shale behavior.

  2. Borehole televiewer display

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbow, F.H.K.

    1984-07-31

    A display system for use with a well logging tool of the type that scans a borehole wall by rotating an acoustical transducer while emitting and receiving acoustic energy is disclosed. The received acoustic or information signals are received and recorded for later use. In addition, both the amplitude and time-of-flight of the information signals are digitized and passed to a computer that controls a television display and cathode ray tube. The amplitude is displayed on the televison screen while the time-of-flight is displayed on the cathode ray tube as a caliper log.

  3. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  4. Borehole digital geophone tool

    SciTech Connect

    Schoepf, V.L.; Sidhwa, F.J.; Bentley, J.W.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a method of acquiring acoustical data from a borehole. It comprises connecting a first digital gelphone module (DGM) to a 7-conductor logging cable; connecting a second DMG to the first DMG by a separate length of the 7-conductor cable whereby each of the 7 conductors in the cable will functionally extend from the cable through the first DGM, the separate length of cable, and the second DGM; lowering the DGMs on the logging cable to a desired depth in the borehole; supplying power to the first DGM through dedicated power conductors in the cable to generate test data which is transmitted from the first DGM to the surface through a dedicated transmission conductor in the cable; transmitting a signal to the first DGM commanding the DGM to supply power from the power conductors through the separate length of cable to the second DGM to thereby generate and transmit test data from the second DGM to the surface through the dedicated transmission conductor in the cable; transmitting a timebreak signal down the dedicated, timebreak conductor in the cable to simultaneously actuate the first and second DGMs to begin acquisition of data; sensing acoustical energy at each of the DGMs and generating data signals representative thereof; storing the data signals in each DGM; and transmitting upon command the data signals from each DGMs to the surface through the transmission conductor in the cable.

  5. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  6. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines. Some factors were observed enabling or disabling first (tropospheric) arrivals of such signals depending on weather conditions. Systematic backazimuth deviations for stratospheric arrivals have been observed caused by strong stratospheric winds. In 2009 mobile infrasound arrays were developed in KRSC. Each array comprises 3 low-frequency microphones, GPS, digitizer and PC with data acquisition system. Aperture of such arrays is about 250 m, deployment time is less than 1 hour. These arrays are used in experimental work with Roskosmos space agency to search space debris reentering places. In 2012 a wireless version of such mobile array was created. Each acquisition point comprises a microphone, GPS and ADC chips, microcontroller and radio modem to send data to a central unit. This enabled us to increase aperture (up to 500 m) and decrease deployment time.

  7. A Test of Borehole Paleoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnold, W.; Wood, S.

    2002-12-01

    New temperature-depth (T-z) measurements in boreholes previously used for heat flow and borehole paleoclimate studies between 1979 and the present provide a critical test of borehole paleoclimatology and may provide a means of determining anthropogenic forcing of surface temperature. In 2001 and 2002, we obtained new T-z profiles in boreholes in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Ontario that were drilled and logged initially for heat flow research and later were used in paleoclimate analysis. Comparison of the T-z logs reveals changes in subsurface temperatures, which correlate with air temperature records at nearby meteorological stations. These repeat measurements solve a problem in comparing the borehole temperature record to the instrumental meteorological surface-air-temperature (SAT) record in that data for the same time periods are compared. In previous comparisons, the borehole T-z profile at the beginning of the SAT record was unknown and a pre-observational mean was assumed for the SAT. The results of this test can be used to compute the thermal energy stored in the ground between measurements. Comparison of these results to radiative flux measurements from meteorological and satellite instruments for the time periods represented by the data may allow determination of relative changes and differences in radiation and thermal energy storage. However, energy storage in the ground is a complex process involving a number factors that influence energy exchange including, soil moisture, ground cover, wind, precipitation, solar radiation, surface heat flow, soil temperature, and air temperature. If these factors can be accurately determined, extraction of the anthropogenic signal from the borehole data should be possible.

  8. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental conditions for a long period. We demonstrated this idea using cross- hole borehole radar measurement. We think this method is useful for detecting any changes in hydrogeological situations, which will be useful for subsurface storage such as LNG and nuclear waste.

  9. Drive mechanism for borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Siegfried, R.W. II

    1989-05-09

    This patent describes a borehole tool for generating signals indicating a condition of structure defining a borehole, including a rotatable transducer for transmitting and receiving signals relative to the structure. The improvement is characterized by: housing means for the tool; an elongated support member supported by the housing means; a support plate disposed on the support member and movable axially relative to the support member, the transducer being operably connected to the support plate for movement with the support plate axially relative to the support member; motor means connected to the support plate; and means engaged with the support member and operably connected to the transducer and the motor means for axially translating the transducer and rotating the transducer relative to the support member in timed relationship, one to the other, in response to operation of the motor means to provide a circumferential and axially extending transducer signal pattern along a portion of the borehole in which the tool is disposed.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

    The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

  11. A Pb isotope investigation of the Lovozero Agpaitic Nepheline Syenite, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zartman, R. E.; Kogarko, L. N.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time Pb isotope composition was established in Lovozero rocks and raremetal ores, which is important for identifying their sources. The world's largest layered intrusion of agpaitic nepheline syenite-the Lovozero alkaline massif—is located near the center of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. This superlarge complex plutonic body hosts the economically important loparite and eudiallyte deposits [1]. These deposits contain immense resources of REE, Nb, Ta, Zr, and constitute a world class mineral district. The Lovozero massif belongs to the Kola ultramafic alkaline and carbonatitic province (KACP) of Devonian age. Previous bulk rock studies have shown that the initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios of Lovozero rocks plot in the depleted mantle quadrant of Sr-Nd diagrams [2]. More recently, Hf isotope data obtained by Kogarko et al. (3) confirm that the Lovozero and Khibina massifs with ɛHf between 6 and 8 are derived predominantly from a depleted mantle source. It was shown that Sr, Nd, and Hf abundances are significantly elevated in the Kola alkaline rocks, and thus their isotopic compositions are relatively insensitive to minor contamination by the overlying crustal rocks. By contrast, Pb in the KACP rocks is a much more sensitive indicator of a crustal component. In this paper we investigate the lead isotopic signature of all resentative types of Lovozero rocks (Table 1) in order to further characterize their mantle sources. The Lovozero massif consists of four intrusive phases. Rocks of phase I (mostly nepheline syenites) comprise about 5% of the total volume, phase II (urtites, foyaite, lujavrites) forms the main portion of the massif comprising 77% in volume, and phase III (eudialyte lujavrites) contributes about 18%. Country rocks are represented by Devonian effusive rocks and Archean gneisses.

  12. Sr Nd Pb isotopic compositions of the Kovdor phoscorite carbonatite complex, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi Jung; Lee, Jong Ik; Hur, Soon Do; Kim, Yeadong; Moutte, Jacques; Balaganskaya, Elena

    2006-10-01

    The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions for the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (PCC), Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, have been determined to characterize the mantle sources involved and to evaluate the relative contributions of a plume and subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the formation of the complex. The Kovdor PCC is a part of the Kovdor ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite massif, and consists of six intrusions. The initial isotopic ratios of the analyzed samples, calculated at 380 Ma, display limited variations: ?Nd, + 2.0 to + 4.7; 87Sr/ 86Sr, 0.70319 to 0.70361 ( ?Sr, - 12.2 to - 6.2); 206Pb/ 204Pb, 18.38 to 18.74; 207Pb/ 204Pb, 15.45 to 15.50; 208Pb/ 204Pb, 37.98 to 39.28. The Nd and Sr isotope data of the Kovdor PCC generally fit the patterns of the other phoscorites and carbonatites from the Kola Alkaline Province (KAP), but some data are slightly shifted from the mixing line defined as the Kola Carbonatite Line, having more radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. However, the less radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and negative ?7/4 values of Pb isotopes of the analyzed samples exclude crustal contamination, but imply the involvement of a metasomatized lithospheric mantle source. Isotopic variations indicate mixing of at least three distinct mantle components: FOZO-like primitive plume component, EMI-like enriched component and DMM-like depleted component. The isotopic nature of the EMI- and DMM-like mantle component observed in the Kovdor samples is considered to be inherited from metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle. This supports the previous models invoking plume-lithosphere interaction to explain the origin of the Devonian alkaline carbonatite magmatism in the KAP.

  13. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  14. Isotope composition of neodymium in neo-Archean banded iron formations of Karelia and Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felitsyn, S. B.; Bogomolov, E. S.; Alfimova, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Studies of three deposits of neo-Archean banded iron formations from the West Karelian domain (the Kostomuksha deposit) and from the Central Kola block (the Olenegorsk and Kirovogorsk deposits) showed a pronounced difference in the isotope compositions of Nd from quartz and magnetite-hematite interlayers. The less radiogenic Nd of iron-containing layers compared to that of the quartz component may be considered as an indication of the formation mechanism of the treated banded iron formations. Thus, silicon-containing layers are related to submarine volcanism and iron was supplied to the sedimentation zone from other sources.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  4. In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  5. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kukkonen, J.

    2010-06-01

    The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel non-ferrous metallurgy plant was missing from the EMEP inventory, as well as from some others, being in some cases misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much lower bias - up to 6 times for the most-affected sites - for SO2 with regard to the measured concentrations of 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations in the region. Temporal correlation improved moderately (10-20%) but homogeneously over Lapland. The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

  6. A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kukkonen, J.

    2010-11-01

    The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel metallurgy plant was missing or strongly under-estimated in the major European emission inventories, such as EMEP, EDGAR, TNO-GEMS, and PAREST-MEGAPOLI. In some cases it was misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the Peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much smaller under-estimation of SO2 concentrations at 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations. For the nearest site to the plant the 10-fold underestimation turned to a 1.5-fold over-prediction. Temporal correlation improved more moderately (up to 45% for concentrations, up to 3 times for deposition). The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

  7. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  8. Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

    2000-09-15

    Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

  9. Impact of acid and trace metals deposition on freshwater invertebrates in north-eastern Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.

    1996-12-31

    Freshwater invertebrate communities in a total 400 lakes and streams in northeastern Norway, Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula, subjected to the atmospheric deposition were studied. The severe influence of toxic heavy metals, dusts from smelters and mineral enrichment factories were found in the Kola Peninsula. The negative acidification effects on benthic communities were found in the Jarfjord (Norway), Enontekio, Ranua-Posio and Kittila-Kolari (Finnish Lapland) areas and in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Taxa groups, known to be sensitive to acidification, such as gammarids, snails, mayflies, stone flies, were represented with few species and in a low abundance. Heavy metals accumulation in biota is recorded in areas surrounding nickel smelters in the Kola Peninsula. The metal concentration invertebrates in remote areas is rather wide and depend on an air deposition, characteristics of lake catchment areas, as well as water acidity. The environmental variables, such as lake hydrological type, altitude of lakes, dominant substratum type, abundance of macrophytes and mosses in sampling area, content of pollutants in water also show significant relationships with metal concentration in invertebrates. The most severe negative effects on biota were found in waters with low pH and simultaneously contaminated by heavy metals. The biological method for estimation of simultaneously water acidification and contamination is suggested.

  10. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  11. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  12. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

  13. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-07-20

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

  14. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological demonstration sites with uniform signposts and educational data packages on geological heritage. The main target groups are pupils and teachers at schools, especially on elementary stage. Tourists and locals visiting protected and recreational areas and other heritage sites will also benefit from the results. Personnel working in education and tourism will get new targets and background data for their clients. Final beneficiaries are local inhabitants, entrepreneurs and companies through positive impact to local economy and communities.

  15. Time ramped gain for borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes an improvement in a borehole imaging apparatus wherein a rotating acoustic transducer means is periodically pulsed to emit a sequence of acoustic pulses into the borehole fluid toward the borehole wall and the reflected response of the acoustic pulse is received by the transducer means and converted to a related electrical signal. The improvement comprises: electrical signal compensating means located in the borehole for compensating substantially each of the electrical signals. The compensating means including variable gain amplifier means controllable from the surface for continuing to increase the amount of gain applied to each electrical signal as a function of the propagation time of the acoustic energy through the borehole fluid, to reduce the effects such as initial ringdown, mud reflections, and time-dependent borehole fluid attenuation of the acoustic energy.

  16. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P.

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  17. Shear wave transducer for boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, N.H.

    1984-08-23

    A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  18. Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

  19. Tubular Mg-ferrite in Mg-wustite inclusions in diamond of superdeep origin: control of Fe-valence by crystallographic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, R.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Harte, B.; Green, H. W.

    2009-12-01

    Inclusions of ferropericlase and Mg-wustite are frequently observed in diamond from the lower mantle. Diamond and inclusion are considered to form a closed system under mantle conditions. Therefore, the original oxygen activity fo inside inclusions in diamond remains constant. Here, we report on TEM investigations on FIB-cut foils of Mg-wustite inclusions in diamond from superdeep diamonds ( Sao Luiz, Brazil)1. Along the inhomogeneously distributed dislocation lines in Mg-wustite tubular structures of Mg-ferrite are observed. The tube-like structures are always approximately 150 nm in diameter and associated with negative crystals (50 nm in size) that are arranged along the original dislocation lines. HREM imaging of the tube-like Mg-ferrite also reveals some nanometer-sized magnetite crystals (20 - 50 nm). The different phases have been identified by their chemical composition and their crystal structure (electron diffraction or fast Fourier transforms from HREM images). Mg-wustite, Mg-ferrite and magnetite have identical crystallographic orientation. It is suggested that Mg-ferrite has formed under constant fo conditions by a Fe-disproportionation reaction2,3: (Mg, Fe)O ? MgFe2O4 + Mgvacancy + Fe3O4 3Mg2+ ? 2Fe3+ + 1Mgvacancy Excess Mg diffuses along the dislocation cores to the inclusion surface because dislocation lines always end at the surface of a crystal. The Mg-vacancies condensate along the dislocation cores thus forming the observed negative crystals in the Mg-ferrite tubes. The observed regular diameter of the tubes (150 nm) might be associated with the strain field around the dislocation cores. That strain field might have influenced or even initiated the disproportionation reaction, thus limiting the width of the tubular structures of Mg-ferrite. It might also explain why the observed Mg-ferrite tubes are inhomogeneously distributed in the original Mg-wustite crystal. The Mg-ferrite tubes are decorating the original dislocation cores in Mg-wustite. 1 Harte, et al.,1999, Lower mantle mineral associations in diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brazil. In book: Mantle petrology: Field observation and high pressure experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd. The Chemical Society, Special Publication, no 6, 1999. Editors: Y. Fei, C. M. Bertka and B. Mysen; pp. 125-153. 2 Frost et al., 2004, Nature, 428, 409-412. 3 McCammon, 2005, Science, 308, 807-808.

  20. Nanoinclusions Of Phase Egg AlSiO3(OH), In Superdeep Diamonds From Juina (Brazil): Evidence For Subduction Of Crustal Components To Earth's Mantle Transition Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, R.; Kaminsky, F.; Matsyuk, S.

    2006-12-01

    Evidence for a possible deep subduction of crustal materials comes from (i) ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terranes related to continental collisions, (ii) studies of geochemical reservoirs of basalts and (iii) experimental synthesis and investigation of typical crustal minerals at extreme pressures and temperatures. Here, we present additional evidence for deep subduction of crustal material: inclusions in kimberlitic diamonds. Most of the mineral inclusions in kimberlitic diamonds belong to mantle sections of the Earth's interior. Inclusions such as ferropericlase, Ca-Si-perovskite, Mg-Si-perovskite, perovskite, tetragonal almandine-pyrope phase (TAPP) are indicators for a deep seated origin of the diamonds up to 1700 km ( Kaminsky, Zakharchenko et al. 2001). First evidence of traces of crustal materials was found in diamond from Guaniamo (Venezuela), containing coesite with crustal oxygen isotope signature, which is in the range of ?18O = 10.2 to 16.9 (Schulze, Harte et al. 2003). We report the first finding of an hydrous aluminum silicate phase Egg (AlSiO3(OH)) in alluvial diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil), which indicates that continental material was subducted to the mantle Transition zone. Phase Egg is present in diamond in several larger inclusions (a few hundred micron in size) as nanometer-sized, idiomorphic crystals (20 30 nm). Phase Egg is always associated with a small volume fraction of stishovite and a significant amount of pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The finding of phase Egg proves the existence of an Al-phase in the lower mantle and Transition zone environment. The presence of OH-groups in phase Egg strongly supports the idea of subduction processes reaching the depth of Transition zone and lower mantle. References Kaminsky, F. V., O. D. Zakharchenko, et al. (2001). "Superdeep diamonds form the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil." Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 140(6): 734-753. Schulze, D. J., B. Harte, et al. (2003). "Extreme crustal oxygen isotope signatures preserved in coesite in diamond." Nature (London) 423(6935): 68-70.

  1. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  2. Coupled aquifer-borehole simulation.

    PubMed

    Clemo, Tom

    2010-01-01

    A model coupling fluid hydraulics in a borehole with fluid flow in an aquifer is developed in this paper. Conservation of momentum is used to create a one-dimensional steady-state model of vertical flow in an open borehole combined with radially symmetric flow in an aquifer and with inflow to the well through the wellbore screen. Both laminar and turbulent wellbore conditions are treated. The influence of inflow through the wellbore screen on vertical flow in the wellbore is included, using a relation developed by Siwoń (1987). The influence of inflow reduces the predicted vertical variation in head up to 15% compared to a calculation of head losses due to fluid acceleration and the conventional Colebrook-White formulation of friction losses in a circular pipe. The wellbore flow model is embedded into the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. The nonlinear conservation of momentum equations are iteratively linearized to calculate the conductance terms for vertical flow in the wellbore. The resulting simulations agree favorably with previously published results when the model is adjusted to meet the assumptions of the previous coupled models. PMID:19682095

  3. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other boreholes— (1) The primer cartridge shall... inserted shall face the back of the borehole; and (3) The primer cartridge and other explosives shall...

  5. [Functional status and seasonal changes in white blood cells in submarine personnel in the Kola Polar region].

    PubMed

    Myznikov, I L; Marchenko, V V; Mik, B A

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated was potentiality of the blood leukocyte count analysis proposed by L.H. Garkavi et al. (1985-1990) within the program of submariners health monitoring. Leukograms of 573 sailors on active service in a large nuclear submarines unit and 455 divers of a formation of ships removed from an active unit of nuclear submarines for utilization. Seasonal variations in the functional state of submariners were revealed. The most noticeable differences in these two large groups of sailors were associated with particular months. Results suggest, first of all, serious adaptive loads on the physiology of submariners on military service in the Kola polar. Burden of these loads varies with seasons and has some peculiar features which means that health-improving programs should be developed for each season and each specific group of submariners, and Garkavi's method should be standardized to be applicable to the Kola polar population. PMID:12696504

  6. Three hydroxylated lupeol-based triterpenoid esters isolated from the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe parasitic on Kola acuminata.

    PubMed

    Omeje, Edwin Ogechukwu; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Kawamura, Akira; Proksch, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Column fractionation and purification of an n-hexane fraction led to the isolation of three lupeol-based triterpenoid esters from the leaves of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe, Loranthus micranthus Linn parasitic on a local kola nut tree, Kola acuminata. These three compounds were adequately characterised using a combination of UV/visible, IR, NMR (C-NMR and H-NMR), DEPT, MS and two-dimensional correlation (H-H COSY, Hetero-nuclear Single Quantum Correlation (HSQC), HMBC, NOE and NOESY) studies as 7?,15?-dihydroxyl-lup-20(29)-ene-3?-esters of palmitic (I), stearic (II) and eicosanoic acids (III). The characterisation of other isolated compounds is ongoing. Remarkably, this is the first report of the existence of fatty acid esters of an unusual 7?,15?-dihydroxylated lupeol in the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe. These isolated compounds might contribute in part to the numerous established bio-activities of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoes. PMID:22007932

  7. Interpretation and application of borehole televiewer surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    A borehole televiewer log is comparable to a picture of a continuous core and may yield even more information since it is a picture of the cores host environment; i.e., the inside of the borehole as it exists in the subsurface. Important relationships are preserved which can be lost when cores are brought to the surface. Fractures, bedding planes, vugs, and lithology changes are identifiable on borehole televiewer logs. The travel time of the signal from the sonde to the borehole wall and back to the sonde recently has been used to form a second log: the transit time log. Interpretation problems due to noncircular borehole and eccentered logging sondes are easily overcome using the combination of amplitude and transit time logs. Examples are given to demonstrate potential use.

  8. Paleoclimate and Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions on the North Kola Peninsula during the Past 2000 Years According Pollen Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosevich, Ekaterina; Sapelko, Tatjana; Anisimov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Pollen data and radiocarbon data have enabled to reconstruct the periods of vegetation that depended on the climate changes. Records from different types of deposits allow to receive more information and to make paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake and bog sediments are the best sources for palaeoreconstruction. Palaeoclimatic changes, tectonic and coastline movement during Late Holocene caused vegetation changes on the North Kola Peninsula. Our data from pollen records from different sites on the north coast of the Kola Peninsula covers the Late Holocene about last 2000 years. We studied different types of sediment cores in the area between 69 N and 70 N, 3112' E and 35 E. We have studied peat deposits, small lake sediments and archaeological site on the Bolshoy Oleniy Island in Kola fjord, Barents Sea, and peat bog deposits in the Teriberka area. All the cores are studied by different methods where the core was pollen analysis. It has allowed tracking the periods of vegetation history in the tundra zone. Pollen reconstructions are confirmed by radiocarbon data. Our data was compared with other researches and we made correlations between pollen records from different lake deposits. Modern vegetation presents south tundra type of associations. Teriberka area is unique: almost existing types of tundra landscapes are presented here in small territory, including "typical tundra" with subshrubs formations. For paleoclimate reconstructions we have studied surface samples by pollen analysis. Samples were collected in 3 regions of Kola Peninsula. Samples have been taken on the Sredniy and Rybachiy Peninsulas (Murman region) in the south tundra with rich associations and boreal species of herbs. In the Olenegorsk region we selected vegetation associations not damaged by human and we collected surface samples on the border of forest tundra and northern taiga. In Apatity region we studied pollen records in North taiga landscapes. This data characterize regional and local conditions of vegetation development, which are very important to take into account in paleoenvironmental reconstruction and regional correlation.

  9. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola (Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota): An underutilised fruit.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Okudu, Helen O; Asumugha, Ukamaka V

    2016-02-15

    The nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola: Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota were determined. The pulps were extracted, grated and dried using solar dryer. Dried pulps were milled into flour with attrition milling machine (0.5mm sieve size). The nutrient compositions were determined using standard AOAC methods. Gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods were used for phytochemical determinations. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the proximate and some mineral and vitamin composition of the two varieties. Most abundant minerals were calcium (195-199mg for C. parchycarpa), potassium (204-209mg/100g for C. lepidota) and ?-carotene (2755-5028?g/100g for C. parchycarpa). Calcium:phosphorus and sodium:potassium ratios were adequate (>1.0 and ?0.06, respectively). Monkey kola had substantial amounts of iron, zinc, and copper; the B-vitamins and vitamin C. The phytochemical contents were quiet high, the most abundant being flavonoids (415-494mg/100g). Monkey kola is a fruit that should be fully exploited for its potential health benefits. PMID:26433302

  10. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  11. Archean to Paleoproterozoic polymetamorphic history of the Salma eclogite in Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imayama, Takeshi; Oh, Chang-Whan; Park, Chan-Soo; Yi, Keewook; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important questions in the Earth Science is when and how plate tectonics operate in the Precambrian time. The tectonic and thermal evolution of the Precambrian eclogite is significant key for understanding the Precambrian geodynamic mechanisms. Eclogites in Kola Peninsula, Russia are some of the oldest eclogites of the world, but there has been much debate about the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism: Archean (e.g. Volodichev et al. 2004; Mints et al., 2010) or Paleoproterozoic (e.g. Skublob et al., 2011, 2012). The controversy is mainly because of the lack of zircon dating coupled with the formation of garnet and omphacite. In this study, we present geochronological, petrographic, and geochemical data from the Salma eclogites in the Kola Peninsula, Russia to characterize subduction and collision processes in the Precambrian. Microstructural observations, P-T analyses, zircon inclusion analyses, and U-Pb zircon dating revealed multiple metamorphic stages that the Salma eclogite underwent. The amphibolite facies metamorphic event firstly occurred at 2.73-2.72 Ga during Archean. In the Paleoproterozoic period, the Salma eclogites underwent prograde stage of epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. The eclogite facies metamorphic event took place under the P-T condition of 16-18 kbar and 740-770 °C at 1.89-1.88 Ga, with a subsequent granulite facies metamorphism during decompression stage from 18 kbar to 9-12 kbar. Finally, later amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 8-10 kbar and 590-610 °C on cooling. The Archean metamorphic zircons that contain inclusions of Grt + Am + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt are unzoned grains with dark CL, and they are relatively enriched in HREE. In contrast, the 1.89-1.88 Ga sector or concentric zoned zircons with pale-grey CL include inclusions of Grt + Omp + Ca-Cpx + Am + Bt + Qtz + Rt, and they have the flat pattern of HREE due to the amounts of abundant garnet during the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Whole rock chemistry indicates that these eclogites were originally tholeiitic basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridge. Our data suggest that the ocean plate was exposed once during Archean, and then they deeply subducted to form the eclogite and exhumed during Paleoproterozoic. The 1.89-1.88 Ga eclogite-facies metamorphism implies that the continent-continent collision between the Kola and Karelian continents occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, rather than the Archean. The prograde metamorphism of epidote-amphibolite facies for the Salma eclogites represents a warm subduction in the Paleoproterozoic, as well as some Phanerozoic eclogites such as the Besshi District, Sambagawa (Enami et al., 1994), and Hubei Province, central China (Zhou et al., 1993) and as the tectonic blocks in the Franciscan Complex, California (Oh and Liou 1990).

  12. Surveying of a borehole for position determination

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

    1985-04-02

    A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

  13. Anomalous alkaline rocks of Soustov, Kola: evidence of mantle-derived metasomatic fluids affecting crustal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, F.; Arzamastsev, A.; Montero, P.; Arzamastseva, L.

    2000-12-01

    The intrusive complexes of Gremiakha-Vyrmes and Soustov represent the two extremes of the Early Proterozoic alkaline plutons of Kola, predominantly composed of feldespathoidal syenites. Gremiakha-Vyrmes rocks (zircon age: 1,884+/-6 Ma) have trace-element and isotope signatures (87Sr/86Srt 0.704, ?Ndt -3-1.3) compatible with an ultimate mantle origin. Soustov syenites (zircon age: 1,872+/-8 Ma) are totally different and show an acute crustal imprint. They have sodaline and analcite instead of nepheline, contain a plethora of REE-HFSE-rich accessories, and are characterised by elevated contents of F, Cl, REE, Y, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sn, Be, Li, Rb, Tl, Pb and Cs, negative Eu anomalies, K/Rb 190-160, Nd/Th 3, and Nb/Ta 12, with extremely high 87Sr/86Srt (>0.720) and, at the same time, relatively high ?Ndt ( -1.6-1.7). In this paper, we explore the idea that the anomalous features of Soustov syenites can be explained if we assume they are derived from a metasomatic agent, initially an H2O-CO2 supercritical fluid released by alkaline mafic magmas, that was profoundly contaminated during percolation through crustal materials. As percolation advanced, the bulk composition of the fluid solute changed from alkali halides and carbonates to a silica-undersaturated alkaline melt. When the fluid cooled to a temperature of 550-600 C, it reached the point at which vapor and melt were no longer miscible and split into two components, a vapour phase and a Cl- and F-rich silica-undersaturated silicate melt that crystallised to produce Soustov syenites. To study this process, we have developed a numerical method for modelling the solute composition of the fluid during the infiltration metasomatism. Our results, using the LREE abundances and the Sr and Nd isotope composition of a Gremiakha-Vyrmes pegmatite as the starting solute composition of the fluid, and the mode and mineral trace-element and isotope composition of a common Kola gneiss as representative of percolated materials, indicate that the fluid would have acquired a signature closely matching Soustov's, even in the case of Nd isotopes, if the gneiss age is 2.9 Ga, near its real age. This model is still a mere working hypothesis that needs further refinements, but may represent a reasonable explanation of the genesis of anomalous alkaline rocks with high 87Sr/86Srt and ?Ndt>=0, either saturated or undersaturated, which are difficult to understand in terms of magmatic fractionation/contamination.

  14. Anomalous alkaline rocks of Soustov, Kola: evidence of mantle-derived metasomatic fluids affecting crustal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bea, F.; Arzamastsev, A.; Montero, P.; Arzamastseva, L.

    2001-02-01

    The intrusive complexes of Gremiakha-Vyrmes and Soustov represent the two extremes of the Early Proterozoic alkaline plutons of Kola, predominantly composed of feldespathoidal syenites. Gremiakha-Vyrmes rocks (zircon age: 1,884+/-6 Ma) have trace-element and isotope signatures (87Sr/86Srt 0.704, ?Ndt -3-1.3) compatible with an ultimate mantle origin. Soustov syenites (zircon age: 1,872+/-8 Ma) are totally different and show an acute crustal imprint. They have sodaline and analcite instead of nepheline, contain a plethora of REE-HFSE-rich accessories, and are characterised by elevated contents of F, Cl, REE, Y, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sn, Be, Li, Rb, Tl, Pb and Cs, negative Eu anomalies, K/Rb 190-160, Nd/Th 3, and Nb/Ta 12, with extremely high 87Sr/86Srt (>0.720) and, at the same time, relatively high ?Ndt ( -1.6-1.7). In this paper, we explore the idea that the anomalous features of Soustov syenites can be explained if we assume they are derived from a metasomatic agent, initially an H2O-CO2 supercritical fluid released by alkaline mafic magmas, that was profoundly contaminated during percolation through crustal materials. As percolation advanced, the bulk composition of the fluid solute changed from alkali halides and carbonates to a silica-undersaturated alkaline melt. When the fluid cooled to a temperature of 550-600 C, it reached the point at which vapor and melt were no longer miscible and split into two components, a vapour phase and a Cl- and F-rich silica-undersaturated silicate melt that crystallised to produce Soustov syenites. To study this process, we have developed a numerical method for modelling the solute composition of the fluid during the infiltration metasomatism. Our results, using the LREE abundances and the Sr and Nd isotope composition of a Gremiakha-Vyrmes pegmatite as the starting solute composition of the fluid, and the mode and mineral trace-element and isotope composition of a common Kola gneiss as representative of percolated materials, indicate that the fluid would have acquired a signature closely matching Soustov's, even in the case of Nd isotopes, if the gneiss age is 2.9 Ga, near its real age. This model is still a mere working hypothesis that needs further refinements, but may represent a reasonable explanation of the genesis of anomalous alkaline rocks with high 87Sr/86Srt and ?Ndt>=0, either saturated or undersaturated, which are difficult to understand in terms of magmatic fractionation/contamination.

  15. Mg-ferrite precipitates in magnesiowstite inclusions in diamond from superdeep origin: extraordinary nonstoichiometry of a deep mantle Mg-wstite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, R.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Harte, B.; Green, H. W.

    2010-12-01

    Inclusions of ferropericlase and Mg-wstite frequently occur as inclusions in diamond from the lower mantle. Under mantle conditions, diamond plus inclusion are regarded as a closed system. Therefore, the original oxygen activity fo inside inclusions in diamond should have remained unchanged. Here, we report on TEM investigations on FIB-cut foils from Mg-wstite inclusions in diamond enclosed in superdeep diamonds ( Sao Luiz, Brazil)1. TEM images display erratically distributed precipitates of Mg-ferrite. The tube-like precipitates are usually 70 - 150 nm in diameter and always associated with negative crystals (50 nm in size) that are arranged along the center-line of the Mg-ferrite precipitates. Additionally, HREM imaging of the tube-like Mg-ferrite reveals nanometer-sized magnetite crystals 20 - 50 nm in size. The different phases Mg-ferrite, magnetite and Mg-wstite host have been identified by their chemical composition and electron diffraction patterns from HREM images. Mg-wustite, Mg-ferrite and magnetite have identical crystallographic orientation. It is suggested that Mg-ferrite has precipitated under constant oxygen fugacity solid state conditions by a solid state reaction. We interpret these precipitates as former dislocation lines that have been decorated by precipitation of magnesioferrite plus condensed cation vacancies in the form of tiny negative crystals. The implication is that when the Mg-wstite crystal was originally trapped by the host diamond, it contained a far larger concentration of ferric ions than is implied by its present bulk chemical composition and that the excess Fe3+ content was balanced electrically by extraordinary numbers of cation vacancies. During uplift diamond + Mg-wstite are deformed and dislocations are generated. The dislocation cores with compressed and dilated regions act as a sink for vacancies as well as Fe3+ , and both of them diffuse towards the dislocation cores. As a consequence Mg-ferrite with CaMn2O4 structure (high-pressure form) nucleates and vacancies condensate forming negative crystals. 4(Mg0.25 Vac.0.25 Fe3+0.5)O ---> MgFe2O4 + 1 vacancy Extensive twinning of the Mg-ferrite precipitates suggests that they were originally precipitated in the high-pressure structure CaMn2O4 and during further uplift, together with the diamond host, Mg-ferrite transformed by displacive transformation into the low-pressure spinel structure below 25 GPa. The Mg-ferrite precipitates in Mg-wstite suggest a lower mantle origin of the original Mg-wstite host. 1 Harte, et al.,1999, Lower mantle mineral associations in diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brazil. In book: Mantle petrology: Field observation and high pressure experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd. The Chemical Society, Special Publication, no 6, 1999. Editors: Y. Fei, C. M. Bertka and B. Mysen; pp. 125-153.

  16. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P. (Sandoval County, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Bernalillo County, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Bernalillo County, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  17. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  18. The comparative effects of chronic consumption of kola nut (Cola nitida) and caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice.

    PubMed

    Umoren, E B; Osim, E E; Udoh, P B

    2009-06-01

    The comparative effects of chronic [28 days] consumption of kola nut and its active constituent, caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice were investigated. Thirty adult Swiss white mice [15-30 g body weight], were used for the study. The open field-maze was employed for the evaluation of locomotor behaviour. Mice in the control group [n=10] were fed normal rodent chow, mice in the kola nut-fed group [n=10] were fed kola diet [25 % wt/wt of rodent chow] while those in the caffeine-fed group [n=10] were fed caffeine diet [0.66% wt/wt of rodent chow] for 4 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Daily food intake, water intake and body weight change were also measured. Daily food intake in the kola nut and caffeine-fed group of mice was significantly [P<0.001 respectively] lower than the control. There was also a significant [P<0.001] decrease in daily water intake in the caffeine-fed group compared to the control whereas, the apparent decrease of water intake in the kola nut-fed group was not significantly different from the control. Body weight change was also significantly [P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively] lower in the kola nut and caffeine-fed groups of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of rearing in the open field was significantly [P<0.01] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of grooming was also significantly [P<0.05] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. There was also a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the frequency of light-dark transitions in the light/dark transition box for the caffeine-fed group when compared to the control. The results showed that chronic consumption of kola nut and caffeine diets caused decrease in food intake and body weight. Consumption of caffeine-diet also significantly decreased water intake and locomotor activity. The effect of kola nut-diets on water intake and locomotor activity was not significant. Hence, the effect of kola nut on locomotor behaviour and water intake may not be due to caffeine only. PMID:19826468

  19. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  20. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  1. Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol in the European subarctic: Contribution of the Kola Peninsula smelter areas, central Europe, and the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkkula, Aki; Aurela, Minna; Hillamo, Risto; MKel, Timo; Pakkanen, Tuomo; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Maenhaut, Willy; FranOis, Filip; Cafmeyer, Jan

    1999-10-01

    An 18-month set of concentration data of various elements in fine (diameter D <2.5 ?m) and coarse (2.5 ?mKola Peninsula, Russia. The concentrations in aerosol arriving from the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean are very close to the values observed at more remote Arctic sites. In air from the Kola Peninsula, approximately one third of the samples, concentrations of some trace elements were 2 orders of magnitude above the background concentrations. The elements most clearly transported in the pollution plumes from Kola Peninsula were Cd, Ni, Cu, V, Pb, As, Fe, and Co. Penner et al. [1993] presented a method for estimating black carbon (BC) emissions by comparing BC/SO2 (S) close to the sources and used a ratio 0.6 for the former USSR. We found that this ratio was <0.1 in the clearest pollution plumes from Kola peninsula. The ratio of the chemical mass to the gravimetric mass of the aerosol samples was 80% both for the fine and coarse particle filters, regardless of the source area. Comparison of the aerosol concentrations with the concentrations of elements in snow showed that the deposition was proportional to the aerosol exposure. The contribution of Kola Peninsula to the deposition is high, 80% for Ni, Cu, and Co and somewhat lower for other anthropogenic elements.

  2. Time of formation and genesis of yttrium-zirconium mineralization in the Sakharjok massif, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrin, V. R.; Skublov, S. G.; Balashov, Yu. A.; Lyalina, L. M.; Rodionov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Kola geotectonic province in the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield accommodates a significant number of alkaline rock massifs differing in age. They are of mantle and mantle-crustal origin (alkali and nepheline syenites, carbonatites) and related to crustal sources (Neoarchean alkali granites). Among them, the Neoarchean Sakharjok nepheline syenite massif is related to the oldest intrusions of this kind bearing yttrium-zirconium mineralization. The crystallization of alkali syenite pertaining to the first intrusive phase of the intrusive Sakharjok massif is dated to 2645 ± 7 Ma, and this implies that this syenite postdated alkali granites (2.66-2.67 Ga). To date the yttrium-zirconium ore, we applied the local U-Pb method to zircon crystals occurring in the mineralized block hosted in nepheline syenite. The earliest fragments of zircon crystallized 1832 ± 7 Ma ago; the age of metamorphism is estimated at 1784 ± 13 Ma. These dates indicate the Paleoproterozoic age of the yttrium-zirconium mineralization, which was formed as a product of fluid reworking of the Neoarchean nepheline syenite of the Sakharjok massif.

  3. Method for effecting seals in earth boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.E.; Geffen, S.E.

    1984-08-07

    A well fluid and method for borehole sealing such as grouting or plugging, is disclosed the fluid being comprised of water, a water swellable clay and a water dispersible polymer which prevents immediate hydration of the clay.

  4. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    SciTech Connect

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  5. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, James P R; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, Franois K; Lapworth, Daniel J; Read, Daniel S; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Townsend, Barry R; Williams, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3) at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  6. Using Boreholes as Windows into Groundwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James P. R.; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, Franois K.; Lapworth, Daniel J.; Read, Daniel S.; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S.; Newbold, Lindsay K.; Townsend, Barry R.; Williams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m3 at 0.41.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  7. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs.

  8. Characterization of HANARO neutron radiography facility in accordance with ASTM standard E545-91/E803-91 for KOLAS/ISO17025.

    PubMed

    Cheul-Muu, Sim; Ki-Yong, Nam; In-Cheol, Lim; Chang-Hee, Lee; Ha-Lim, Choi

    2004-10-01

    As neutron radiography is even more in demand for industrial applications of aircraft, turbine blade, automobile, explosive igniters, etc, it is necessary to review the standards which are the most appropriate for preparing the procedures for setting up the QA system. Recently, Korea Of Lab Accreditation Scheme (KOLAS) was originated from ISO 17025. It is widely recognized by research peer groups for conducting valid tests. The neutron radiography facility (NRF) of High Flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO), which started ion 1996, is the preliminary stages of KOLAS. The HANARO NRF is not only characterized using ASTM standards E545-91/E803-91 to satisfy the requirements of KOLAS, but in the design phase of the tomography system. PMID:15246410

  9. Rb-Sr dating of the pegmatites from the Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt (kola peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Pavel

    2003-04-01

    The Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt is situated in the north-eastern part of the Kola Peninsula. The aim of investigation was to establish an age of the REE pegmatite with spodumene, which occurs in the greenstone belt. Four samples of whole rock, spodumene, apatite, and muscovite were taken for Rb-Sr dating of the REE pegmatite. The age obtained on these samples is about 1,9 Ga. The rocks have undergone an alteration due to thermal and hydrothermal processes, and a pressure change during the crystallization, and their Rb-Sr system was disturbed. U-Pb zircon age determined for the same rock ranges within 1,8-2,0 Ga (Kudryashov N.M., in press). Available isotope data allow concluding the following: - REE pegmatites of one of the largest lithium and cesium deposits in Russia have been first dated, and their Rb-Sr age is estimated to be approximately 1,9 Ga; - The formation of the pegmatite is presumably associated with the emplacement of muskovite-tourmaline granites into sedimentary-volcanic rocks at a final stage of the belt evolution; - Obtained results indicate apparently the Proterozoic time of formation of the pegmatites in the Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt. The pegmatite with an age of 1,8-1,9 Ga known in a large Sweden -Finnish belt, which are confined to the Svecofennian mobile belt and associated with post-orogenic microcline granite, and also the pegmatite field of the Varutresk-Kluntarna area (Sweden), which age is determined to vary within the interval of 1,775-1,900 Ga can be considered as possible analogues of the pegmatites under the study.

  10. Fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) from silexites of the Keivy alkali granites, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalina, L. M.; Zozulya, D. R.; Savchenko, Ye. E.; Tarasov, M. P.; Selivanova, E. A.; Tarasova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of the morphology, anatomy, and chemical composition of fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) from silexites of the Keivy alkali granites in Kola Peninsula has shown that these minerals are the main REE concentrators in this area and that their content reaches 10-15 vol %. Britholite and yttrialite are associated with zircon, aeschynite-(Y), chevkinite-(Ce), fergusonite-(Y), thorite, monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y) and bastnaesite-(Ce). Three morphological types of fluorbritholite-(Y) have been identified: (I) subhedral crystals and grains, (II) anhedral grains intergrown with yttrialite-(Y), and (III) poikilitic crystals and skeletal aggregates. These morphological types of fluorbritholite-(Y) are characterized by successive (I to III type) decreases in P content down to the pure silicate fluorbritholite-(Y). Crystals of the first type are heterogenous: the P content decreases and the HREE content increases from core to rim. The total REE content increases insignificantly from types I to II and drastically decreases in fluorbritholite-(Y) of type III. The successive prevalence of HREE over LREE indicates the hydrothermal conditions of mineral crystallization. The chemical composition of yttrialite-(Y) is distinguished by the relatively high Th content and depletion in Al. The compositional trend (from core to rim) in heterogeneous grains of yttrialite-(Y) testifies that their heterogeneity was caused by metasomatic alteration of the mineral. The interrelation of fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) indicate that fluorbritholite-(Y) of types II and III were formed later than yttrialite-(Y). Evidence for fluorbritholite-(Y) and yttrialite-(Y) formation suggests the significant role of hydrothermal processes in the genesis of silexites.

  11. Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, evaluation of potential impact - through concentration, deposition and loadings patterns - on population and environment due to continuous anthropogenic emissions (on example of sulfates) of the Cu-Ni smelters of the Russian North is given. To estimate impact, the Danish Emergency Response Model for Atmosphere (DERMA) was employed to perform long-term simulations of air concentration, time integrated air concentration (TIAC), dry (DD) and wet (WD) deposition patterns resulting from continuous emissions of the Severonickel smelters located on the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk region, Russia). To perform such simulations the 3D meteorological fields (from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF) for the year 2000 were used as input. For simplicity, it has been assumed that normalized releases of sulfates from smelters location occurred at a constant rate every day. For each daily release the atmospheric transport, dispersion, dry and wet deposition due to removal processes were estimated during 10 day interval. Output from these long-term simulations is an essential input for evaluation of impact, doses, risks, and short- and long-term consequences, etc. Detailed analyses of simulated concentration and deposition fields allowed evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of resulted patterns on different scales. Temporal variability of both wet and dry deposition as well as their contribution into total deposition have been estimated. On an annual scale, the concentration and deposition patterns were estimated for the most populated cities of the North-West Russia. The modeled annual fields were also integrated into GIS environment as well as layers with population density (from the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, CIESIN) and standard administrative division of the North-West Russia and bordering countries. Furthermore, the estimation of deposited amounts (loadings) of sulfates for selected regions of Russia and border countries has been performed. It has been found that for the "mild emission scenario" (i.e. approx. 31.6 ths. ton), for the Severonickel smelters, the annual average daily dry deposition value is 5.79 ton (with the highest - 10.4 ton - in September, and the lowest - 2.9 ton - in March). The annual average daily wet deposition is 22.7 tons, and a strong month-to-month variability is seen compared with dry deposition. The highest average WD (46.3 ton) is in January, and the lowest - 5.5 ton - in July. There are also differences in amount deposited in total from daily releases. On an annual scale, on average, 32.9% of emitted amount could be deposited at the surface during the considered duration (i.e. 10 days) of atmospheric transport. The highest deposited amount of 57.2% is observed in January and the lowest of 14.3% - in July. Taking into account actual annual (on example of year 2000) emissions of sulfur dioxide as 45.3 ths. ton (Severonickel smelters, city of Monchegorsk), the summary annual time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition were re-scaled and these have been estimated for most populated cities (Arkhangelsk, Petrozavodsk, Sankt-Petersburg, Syktyvkar, Pskov, and Vologda) of the North-West Russia. It was found that among these cities, the TIAC is the highest - 86 μg•h/m3 - for Arkhangelsk and the lowest - 4 μg•h/m3 - for Pskov. Both dry and wet depositions were also the highest for Arkhangelsk - 0.5 and 2.2 mg/m2, respectively. Detailed analysis also showed that for regions surrounding the Kola Peninsula, on average (maximum), the total (dry plus wet) deposition was 0.6 (3.0), 1.8 (5.1), and 28.3 (122) mg/m2 for the territories of the Arkhangelsk, Karelia, and Murmansk regions of Russia. For border regions with Scandinavian countries, on average (maximum), the total deposition was 2.2 (6.7) mg/m2 in Finnmark (Norway); 0.2 (0.4) in Norrbotten and 0.03 (0.1) mg/m2 in Vsterbotten counties (Sweden); 0.6 (1.2) in Eastern Finland, 2.2 (7.2) in Lapland, and 1.4 (2.9) mg/m2 in Oulu provinces of Finland. For urban population living in the central and northern territories of the Kola Peninsula the yearly loading due to deposition of sulfates could be more than 40 kg/person. For bordering territories with the Murmansk region such loadings are less than 5 kg/person for the Eastern Finland, Karelia, and Arkhangelsk regions; and up to 15 kg/person - for the Northern Norway.

  12. Attenuation of free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth after the M = 9 earthquake in Sumatra and super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk: II. interpretation of the observed Q-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskii, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    In the first part of the paper, the range of the admissible values of the Q-factor for the fundamental spheroidal modes and overtones was calculated from the records of the free oscillations of the Earth after the earthquake with M = 9 in Sumatra and the super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk. Below, the interpretation of the data obtained in the first part of the paper is presented. By orthogonalization of the functional derivatives of the eigenfrequencies with respect to the density and Q-factor of the mantle, the model distributions of these parameters which best fit the whole set of the data about the attenuation of the free oscillations and the phases of forced nutations of the Earth are reconstructed. The use of the attenuation data for the free oscillations recorded after the super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk on May 24, 2013 significantly improves the accuracy of the Q-factor reconstruction at different depths in the mantle. The implications of the free oscillations' attenuation data for the solution of the inverse problem of reconstructing the profiles of density and creep function of the mantle in the interval of periods from 1 s to one day are studied. Without the allowance for the attenuation data, the reconstruction errors for the density profiles were about 0.1 g/cm3, and for the shear moduli at the oscillation period of 200 s, about 4 109 dyn/cm2. The use of the free oscillation attenuation data largely removes this uncertainty. Although the relative measurement accuracy of the Q-factor is by about two orders of magnitude lower than the measurement accuracy of all eigenfrequencies, the weights of relative residuals of Q in the minimand functional of the weighted mean square deviations should be of the same order of magnitude as the weights for the relative changes in the free oscillation frequencies. With the allowance for the new attenuation data obtained in the first part of the paper, the reconstruction errors for these parameters have become about 1.5 times lower.

  13. Seismoelectric Wave Measurements in Borehole Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Hu, H.; Guan, W.

    2014-12-01

    An experimental system was built in the laboratory based on the electrokinetic theory, which contains a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer ( 1 MS/s, 22 bits ). The electrokinetic measurements are carried out with seismoelectric well logging technique in borehole models at high frequency (90 kHz), and the localized electrokinetic fields that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are clearly observed with monopole source in two sandstone models that are saturated by tap water. The magnitudes of these seismoelectric waves are in the range of 1-100 microvolt, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. The experimental results also show that the seismoelectric well logging signals are related to the permeability of borehole formations. Their amplitudes become larger in the high permeability model, which can be used to measure the permeability of rock formation although no such relationship has ever been provided in existing theories. We also made seismoelectric measurements in a lucite borehole model, but no observable seismoelectric signals were recorded by the electrode. This is not out of our expectation because the lucite formation is not porous and no electrokinetic conversion occurs in such material. However, the electric signal recorded in the Lucite borehole represents the background noise of our measurement system, which is less than 0.5 microvolt. This study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and also presents the range of seismoelectric signals in borehole saturated by tap water that is much closer to the condition of actual formation.

  14. Inverse borehole coupling filters and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a new procedure for processing VSP and crosswell data acquired using an array of hydrophone. The procedure consists of three steps. In the first step the authors apply an inverse borehole coupling equation to convert hydrophone pressure data into borehole squeeze pressure data, by which the tube waves are significantly attenuated and the P-wave and S-wave are partially compensated for the borehole effects. In the second step, they make use of a partial differential equation that relates the borehole squeeze pressure to the pressure of the incident P-wave. In the third step, they show that one can also map the hydrophone pressure data into the geophone response, provided that both the P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles along the borehole are known. Several synthetic examples are used to demonstrate its accuracy. The Kent Cliffs hydrophone data are successfully processed using the above steps, and the data quality is found to be significantly improved.

  15. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  16. The borehole televiewer: Some field examples

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.

    1984-01-01

    Shell's borehole televiewer was purchased from Simplec Manufacturing Company, Dallas, Texas, and has been modified by the addition of a computerized uphole data acquisition and real-time enhancement and display system. In addition, downhole improvements have been made in acoustics and electronics. Improved performance in heavier muds and softer formations including oil base inverted emulsion muds has been obtained. Also, good images in out-of-round boreholes and holes with tool centering problems can be obtained. Shell is currently using the BHTV as a high resolution dip meter and borehole geometry tool as well as a fracture detection and casing inspection device. Because of the high resolution and good visual image produced, complex geological information may be obtained. Examples shown include burrowing, sealed and open fractures, bedding dip and bedding folds.

  17. Borehole televiewer system using multiple transducer subsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Broding, R.A.

    1986-07-15

    A method is described of logging a borehole in the earth comprising: (a) generating a first acoustic signal having the frequency F1 at a depth in the borehole; (b) generating a second acoustic signal having the frequency F2 which is less than F1 in the borehole at approximately the depth; (c) generating a first electrical scan signal representative of a response to the first acoustic signal; (d) generating a second electrical scan signal representative of a response to the second acoustic signal; (e) discarding all of the first electrical scan signal except a first portion, (f) discarding a first portion of the second electrical scan signal and retaining a second portion, (g) adding the first portion of the electrical scan signal and the second portion of the second electrical scan signal and obtaining a composite signal.

  18. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  19. VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okko, Olli; Hassinen, Pertti; Front, Kai

    1994-02-01

    A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurement devices. The report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consist of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogeneous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment.

  20. Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass surrounding the borehole array. ?? 1993.

  1. Borehole Summary Report for C4997 Rotary Drilling, WTP Seismic Boreholes Project, CY 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Difebbo, Thomas J.

    2007-02-28

    The following Final Geologic Borehole Report briefly describes the drilling of a single borehole at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford, Washington, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation. The location of the WTP is illustrated in Figure 1-1. The borehole was designated as “C4997”, and was drilled to obtain seismic and lithologic data for the Pretreatment Facility and High-Level Waste Vitrification Plant in the WTP. Borehole C4997 was drilled and logged to a total depth of 1428 ft below ground surface (bgs) on October 8, 2006, and was located approximately 150 ft from a recently cored borehole, designated as “C4998”. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) determined the locations for C4997, C4998, and other boreholes at the WTP in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Review Panel, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The total depth of Borehole C4997 was also determined by PNNL.

  2. Model accurately predicts directional borehole trajectory

    SciTech Connect

    Mamedbekov, O.K. )

    1994-08-29

    Theoretical investigations and field data analyses helped develop a new method of predicting the rate of inclination change in a deviated well bore to help reduce the frequency and magnitude of doglegs. Predicting borehole dogleg severity is one of the main problems in directional drilling. Predicting the tendency and magnitude of borehole deviation and comparing them to the planned well path makes it possible to improve bottom hole assembly (BHA) design and to reduce the number of correction runs. The application of adaptation models for predicting the rate of inclination change if measurement-while-drilling systems are used results in improved accuracy of prediction, and therefore a reduction in correction runs.

  3. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  4. Thermal effects in borehole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dung Trung

    An accurate wellbore stability analysis depends strongly on the state of knowledge of the problem at hand. Almost in all cases, the state of knowledge for wellbore stability analyses is poor. Values of many parameters and variables (so-called prior geological information) are poorly constrained and various assumptions of the adopted wellbore models are easily violated. The dilema is that using a model requiring few input parameters would suffer from a large number of model assumptions and simplifications; while using a complex model requiring a large number of input parameters which have wide ranges of possible values. Therefore, assessing the uncertainty (or degree of confidence) for different possible wellbore stability/instability scenarios remains difficult. Current sensitivity analyses, which consider varying possible values of one parameter while keeping others constant, are suboptimal and may not provide the correct effects of the parameters' uncertainties on the overall uncertainty of the wellbore stability prediction. Recent technological advances such as logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measuring-while-drilling (MWD) enable real-time updating of measured rock properties values and in-situ conditions. This means the ranges and uncertainties of parameters for wellbore stability analyses can be adjusted in real-time, during drilling. This aspect has not been developed into a self-updating, real-time wellbore stability analysis approach yet. As a step toward that goal, this dissertation presents several studies covering different aspects of wellbore stability. In particular, the uncertainties of input parameters and selected models are treated using a probabilistic framework combining Monte Carlo simulations and Bayesian statistics. The uncertain nature of both input parameters and model assumptions and their effects on the uncertainties of wellbore stability predictions are investigated. It is shown that, depending on the severity of parameters' uncertainties, the use of complex wellbore models might not necessarily reduce the uncertainty of the predictions, contrary to popular belief. The following studies explore the quantifications of rock parameters' uncertainties (ranges) that are used as input in a wellbore stability analysis. Firstly, three equivalent forms of Gassmann's equation are presented. These equations were applied to several sets of laboratory measurements (Berea sandstones and Bedford limestones) to determine the grain matrix bulk modulus and Biot-Willis coefficient based on measured compressive and shear velocities. A stochastic simulation was performed to examine the effect of uncertainty and/or measurement errors on calculated grain matrix bulk modulus and Biot-Willis coefficient. The results showed that the calculated grain matrix bulk modulus is relatively constant with applied differential pressure (up to 50 MPa) for sedimentary rocks, whereas Biot-Willis coefficient is a function of the confining pressure. Small errors in dry and saturated bulk modulus values (or of velocities), however, can significantly affect the calculated grain bulk modulus and Biot-Willis coefficient values. The uncertainties of rock failure parameters (Uniaxial Compressive Strength, cohesion, and internal friction angle) obtained from laboratory experiments are considered next. It is shown that different testing procedures and data analysis methods result in very different input rock failure parameter values. A new analytical solution to find the best-fit Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope from N Mohr's circles based on Least-Absolute Errors is presented, showing comparable results with those deduced from established least-square regression approaches. The problem is converted into N linear systems that can be solved readily using a common linear programming method. This method is found to be more useful than least-square regression when one has to deal with data sets of mixed qualities. Finally, a wellbore stability analysis demonstration using a probabilistic approach is presented for the Barnett Shale. The selected porothermoelastic model shows that the cooling effect due to a ~30 °C temperature difference between the drilling mud and the formation is most likely the cause of the transverse tensile failures observed in horizontal open-hole borehole imaging logs.

  5. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  6. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  7. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    PubMed

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration positively correlated with distance from the smelter and the content of carbon and nitrogen and negatively correlated with the content of available nickel and copper in the soils. Remediation of technogenic barrens promoted intensification of soil biological activity. At the same time, the willow planting along with grass seeding into the new constructed fertile soil layer was much more effective for activation of soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration than the planting into the limed and fertilized polluted soils (chemo-phytostabilization). PMID:25898538

  8. Borehole instability in the Western Canadian overthrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Woodland, D.C. )

    1990-03-01

    Borehole instability is primarily a rock mechanics problem. Regional earth stresses and typical rock strengths are used to explain the widespread nature of irregularly shaped, fragile boreholes in the western Canadian Overthrust Belt (foothills). Drilling fluids and practices are investigated with a rock mechanics model of borehole failure. Although drilling practices can significantly affect problems associated with borehole wall failure, they are not the primary cause.

  9. Borehole Inspection System for large diameter holes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W.L.; Oliver, R.D.; Lavelle, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A color camera developed for underwater applications has been adapted for use as a large diameter Borehole Inspection System (BIS). This video/photographic system has pan and tilt capabilities and remotely interchangeable lenses. A compass provides an azimuth for orientation. It is designed to operate in boreholes ranging in diameter from 1.2 m to 3.0 m. The system has a 180 degree ''fisheye'' lens and an inspection lens with zoom. 35 mm photographs can be taken of the same view as the video for precise location. Video tape and 35 mm film is annotated. The primary function of the BIS is geologic investigation. Various characteristics of the geologic medium can be viewed. Lithologic types and textures can be determined. Structural features such as faults, fractures, and bedding can be scrutinized. Detail descriptions of stratigraphic sequences and contacts are possible. In combination with other borehole data and sample information, many questions about hole conditions and the geologic medium can be resolved. Field operations often demand immediate resolution of borehole problems. This system offers on-the-spot visual inspection of the drill hole and associated hardware. Large eroded zones can be evaluated and casings and liners can be inspected. Other applications such as the location and configuration of hardware left in the hole and fluid entry points are possible.

  10. Ice deformation measurements in boreholes on Rhonegletscher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Arne; Funk, Martin

    2010-05-01

    In order to provide boundary conditions for numerical flow modeling, information on the basal motion of temperate glaciers are necessary. Whereas basal processes are usually not directly accessible and cannot easily be inferred from surface measurements, borehole deformation measurements allow via determination of velocity profiles to investigate the contributions of both sliding and internal ice deformation to surface motion. In summer 2009 borehole deformation measurements covering both vertical and shear strain have been carried out on the tongue of Rhonegletscher (Valais, Switzerland). Unlike earlier studies using gravitation driven inclinometry uniquely, our experimental setup includes both gravimeters and magnetometers. This allows to determine the borehole deformation with respect to a fixed coordinate system given by gravitational and geomagnetical fields. Additionally, daily variations of englacial water pressure and borehole tilt angle are considered. The tilt variation are well correlated to the pressure variations. So we conjecture that daily ice flow variations are driven by the influence of changing water pressure on basal motion, in spite of the exact mechanism not being clear yet.

  11. USGS Training on Borehole Geophysical Logging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A USGS hydrologist holds an electromagnetic induction borehole logging tool while the tool is calibrated. The hydrologist was participating in a USGS class on how to use electromagnetic induction geophysical methods for groundwater investigations, conducted by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch o...

  12. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

  13. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  14. Fiber optics can improve borehole measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Eric O.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid flow in boreholes can give scientists important information about hydrogeological processes deep beneath the surface. Most studies measure flow using heat pulse, electromagnetic, and impeller flowmeters, but these methods are time-consuming and can actually obstruct the fluid being measured.

  15. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  16. Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  2. Apatite fission track thermochronology of Khibina Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia): Implications for post-Devonian Tectonics of the NE Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.; Zakharov, Vladimir S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of the Kola Peninsula area of NE Fennoscandia remains almost fully unknown because of the absence of any thermochronological data such as apatite and/or zircon fission track or (Usbnd Th)/He ages. In order to fill this gap and to constrain the post-Devonian erosion and exhumation history of this region, we present the results of apatite fission track (AFT) dating of eleven samples selected from the cores taken from different depths of the northern part of the Khibina intrusive massif. The Rbsbnd Sr isochron age of this alkaline magmatic complex which is located at the center of Kola Peninsula is 368 + 6 Ma (Kramm and Kogarko, 1994). Samples were analyzed from depths between + 520 and - 950 m and yielded AFT ages between 290 and 268 Ma with an age uncertainty (1σ) of between ± 19 Ma (7%) and ± 42 Ma (15%). Mean track lengths (MTL) lie between 12.5 and 14.4 μm. Inverse time-temperature modeling was conducted on the age and track length data from seven samples of the Khibina massif. Thermal histories that best predict the measured data from three samples with the most reliable data show three stages: (1) 290-250 Ma-rapid cooling from > 110 °C to 70 °C/50 °C for lower/upper sample correspondingly; (2) 250-50 Ma-a stable temperature stage; (3) 50-0 Ma-slightly increased cooling rates down to modern temperatures. We propose that the first cooling stage is related to late-Hercynian orogenesis; the second cooling stage may be associated with tectonics accompanying with opening of Arctic oceanic basin. The obtained data show that geothermal gradient at the center of Kola Peninsula has remained close to the modern value of 20 °C/km for at least the last 250 Myr. AFT data show that the Khibina massif has been exhumed not more then 5-6 km in the last 290 Myr.

  3. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  4. Minerals of zirconolite group from fenitized xenoliths in nepheline syenites of Khibiny and Lovozero plutons, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshikov, Yu. P.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Zirconolite, its Ce-, Nd-, and Y-analogs, and laachite, another member of the zirconolite group, are typomorphic minerals of the fenitized xenoliths in nepheline syenite and foidolite of the Khibiny-Lovozero Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. All these minerals are formed at the late stage of fenitization as products of ilmentie alteration under the effect of Zr-bearing fluids. The diversity of these minerals is caused by the chemical substitutions of Na and Ca for REE, Th, and U compensated by substitution of Ti and Zr for Nb, Fe and Ta, as well as by the redistribution of REE between varieties enriched in Ti (HREE) or Nb (LREE). The results obtained can be used in the synthesis of Synroc-type titanate ceramics assigned for the immobilization of actinides.

  5. [Occupational morbidity among miners engaged into contemporary method of extracting copper-nickel ores in Kola Transpolar regions].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Shilov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The risks for developing occupational pathology and its specific features were studied in 358 Kola Transpolar copper-nickel miners who were diagnosed with 722 cases of occupational diseases (OD) in the years 1990-2013. The highest risk for developing OD, which are dominated by the diseases of the musculoskeletal system, has been found in tunnellers (OR = 12,8) and operators of drilling rigs (OR = 10,4). A significant increase in the risk of OD has been established in miners with length of service at 11-15 years and over 25 years. The conclusion is made about the need to improve the technical, medical and organizational measures targetted at preventing health problems in this group of workers. PMID:25552032

  6. Voloshinite, a new rubidium mica from granitic pegmatite of Voron'i Tundras, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; Agakhanov, A. A.; Belakovsky, D. I.; Kazantsev, S. S.; Zubkova, N. V.

    2010-12-01

    Voloshinite, a new mineral of the mica group, a rubidium analogue of lepidolite, has been found from the rare-element granitic pegmatite at Mt. Vasin-Myl'k, Voron'i Tundras, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It is closely associated with pollucite and lepidolite and commonly with muscovite, albite, and quartz; K,Rb-feldspar, rubicline, spodumene, montebrasite, and elbaite are among associated minerals as well. Voloshinite, a late mineral that formed after pollucite, commonly fills polymineralic veinlets and pods within the pollucite aggregates. It occurs as rims up to 0.05 mm thick around lepidolite, as intergrowths of tabular crystals up to 0.25 mm in size, and occasionally replaces lepidolite. The new mineral is colorless, transparent, with vitreous luster. Cleavage is eminent parallel to {001}; flakes are flexible. The calculated density is 2.95 g/cm3. The new mineral is biaxial (-), with 2 V = 25, ? calc = 1.511, ? = 1.586, and ? = 1.590. The optical orientation is Y = b, Z = a. The chemical composition of the type material determined by electron microprobe (average of five point analyses; Li has been determined with ICP-OES) is as follows (wt %): 0.03 Na2O, 3.70 K2O, 12.18 Rb2O, 2.02 Cs2O, 4.0 Li2O, 0.03 CaO, 0.02 MgO, 0.14 MnO, 21.33 Al2O3, 53.14 SiO2, 6.41 F, -O = F2 2.70, total is 100.30. The empirical formula is: (Rb0.54K0.33Cs0.06)?0.93(Al1.42Li1.11Mn0.01)?2.54(Si3.68Al0.32)?4O10 (F1.40(OH)0.60)?2. The idealized formula is as follows: Rb(LiAl1.5?0.5)[Al0.5Si3.5O10]F2. Voloshinite forms a continuous solid solution with lepidolite. According to X-ray single crystal study, voloshinite is monoclinic, space group C2/ c. The unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.191, b = 9.025, c = 20.40 , ? = 95.37, V= 951.5 3, Z = 4. Polytype is 2 M 1. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, - I[ hkl]) are: 10.1-60[001]; 4.55-80[020, 110, 11 bar 1 ]; 3.49-50[11 bar 4 ]; 3.35-60[024, 006]; 3.02-45[025]; 2.575-100[11 bar 6 , 131, 20 bar 2 , 13 bar 4 ], 2.017-50[136, 0.0.10]. The mineral was named in honor of A.V. Voloshin (born in 1937), the famous Russian mineralogist. The type material is deposited at the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  7. Digital relief 3D model of the Khibiny massive (Kola peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of maps of 1: 50,000 and 1: 200,000 3D model Khibiny massif developed. We used software ARC / INFO v10.2 ESRI. This project will be organised to build background for gas pollution monitoring network. We planned to use the model to estimate local heterogeneities in the composition of the atmosphere at the emanation of greenhouse gases in the area, the construction of models of vertical distribution of the content of trace gases in the rock mass. In addition to the project GIS digital elevation model contains layers of geological and tectonic map that allows us to estimate the area of the output of certain petrographic rock groups characterized by different ratios of emitted hydrocarbons (CH4/ H2). The model allows to construct a classification of fault in the array. At first glance, there are two groups of faults - the ancient associated with the formation of the intrusive phases sequence, and the young - due to recent tectonic shifts. Ancient faults form a common semicircular structure of the pluton cause overall asymmetry Khibin heights with the transition to the border area between the Khibiny and Lovoozero. Modern tectonics mainly represented by radial and chord faults which are formed narrow mountain valleys and troughs. It remains an open question as to which system fault (old or young) is more productive to gas emanations? On the one hand the system characterized by a large old depth, on the other hand a young more active faults. Address these issues require further detailed observations. The essential question is to assess the possibility of maintaining a constant concentration gradient of these impurities in the atmosphere due to gas emanations of fracture zones and areas enriched occluded gases. In the simulation of these processes can be used initially set parameters: 1 the flow rate of the gas impurities 2 the value of wind flows in closed and open valley 3 Assessment of thermal diffusion coefficients determined by the temperature gradient at the bottom and at the edge of the valley. Changing these parameters for different climatic seasons allows us to estimate the duration of the existence of gas in homogeneities in the aerial under soil and up soil layers. Complex ring structure site and manifestations of recent tectonic movements allow it to allocate more closed areas with different plant-land cover and different geomorphological features. In particular stand out - bogs, forest area on the slopes and riparian forest zone, the zone of mountain tundra and rocky plateau. Designated areas should be considered together with the full history of the evolution relief Khibin, processes of decrease glaciers and their occurrence. One of the results of the work performed is the allocation within the array of closed circuses, paleo-ice landforms drumlin and moraine ridges. These landforms represent the latest stage of the glacial history of glaciation on the Kola Peninsula and the Arctic coast. Estimated areal characteristics of different forms. In some cases it was possible to separate a sequence of glacial relief forms, which suggests staging a retreat of glaciers in the area. The project highlighted areas open mining apatite ores in Khibiny massif. Career located in the inner part of the massif form a closed area drain mine water pollution and wind. While the new career located on the border of the array and the forest zone characterized by a single watershed and accordingly included in the ecological life support cycle of residential villages and towns of Kirovsk and Apatity. This fact forces us to view mining activity as a powerful source of contamination. Designed GIS project thus can be used to solve a number of problems geomorphological orientation. In addition a number of application issues - the environment, paleoclimatology, geotectonic can be successfully addressed on the basis of the digital 3D model.

  8. In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 817 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 811 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.0790.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3 and 4 MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3 and 4 MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3 and 4 MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4 MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3 and 4 MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

  9. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in sediments and fish in the Kola Peninsula lakes under airborne contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dauvalter, V.A.; Kashulin, N.A.; Lukin, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    The copper-nickel smelter complexes of Kola Peninsula are powerful sources of atmospheric contamination by heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, etc.) and acidic oxides (SO{sub 2}) deposited in precipitation and caused negative effects on local freshwater ecosystems. The rise of background levels occurs over large areas in the region. The aim of the investigations is to assess effects of the air contamination on lake ecosystems at different distances (from 15 to 120 km) from one of the main heavy metal pollution sources of the Kola Peninsula - smelters of the Pechenganickel Company. Negative effects of air pollution by the smelters on the freshwater ecosystems were recorded. Lake sediments accumulate very intensively heavy metals. Heavy metal contamination factors calculated as the quotient of concentration from the uppermost (0-1 cm) sediment to the mean preindustrial background value (concentrations from 20-30 cm sediment layers) for the investigated region reach up 120 for Ni and 76 for Cu in the lakes within a distance of 40 km from the smelters. The lakes in this region have very high contamination degree according classification by Hakanson (1980). Concentrations of Ni in organs and tissues of all studied fishes (whitefish, pike, perch, arctic char, brown trout) were considerably higher in the investigated lakes than in remote unpolluted lakes. There is tight positive correlation between Ni concentrations in surficial sediment (0-1 cm) and fish kidney (r = +0.854), as well as between values of contamination degree and Ni content in fish (r = +0.871).

  10. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  11. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  12. Disposition of plutonium in deep boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W.G.; Jardine, L.J.; Walter, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    Substantial inventories of excess plutonium are expected to result from dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons. Disposition of this material should be a high priority in both countries. A variety of disposition options are under consideration. One option is to place the plutonium either directly or in an immobilized form at the bottom of a deep borehole that is then sealed. Deep-borehole disposition involves placing plutonium several kilometers deep into old, stable, rock formations that have negligible free water present. Containment assurance is based on the presence of ancient groundwater indicating lack of migration and communication with the biosphere. Recovery would be extremely difficult (costly) and impossible to accomplish clandestinely.

  13. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  14. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  15. Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C. L.; Statler, R. D.; Peterson, E. W.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations.

  16. Continuous borehole strain observations at italian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, R.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Romano, P.

    2009-04-01

    Since spring 2004 a research project has been developed in Italy to install borehole Sacks-Evertson strainmeters (dilatometers) aimed to improve monitoring systems of the Italian volcanoes. 6 borehole dilatometers have been installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005 (Scarpa et al., 2007) and two dilatometers have been installed on Stromboli volcano during 2006. Relevant strainmeter data have been collected and analyzed at the three instruments installed at Campi Flegrei. During the 2004-2006 miniuplift episode, which was characterized by 4 cm of maximum vertical displacement, an anomalous strain was released during summer 2006, in correspondence of anomalous CO2 release and increase of displacements measured by tiltmeters and GPS transducers. The strain episodes preceded the seismic activity by few month as also observed during the 1982 last large uplift episode. On Stromboli volcano, an extensive phase of activity occurred in February-April 2007 and significant data have been recorded at the two borehole dilatometers during the initial phase of activity and a larger explosion occurred on March 15. Data processed on Mt.Vesuvius show no relevant trend of strain due to its quiescent state. Modeling of the recorded activity has been performed in order to understand the mechanism of the processes occurring on these three active volcanic areas.

  17. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the presence of the borehole than measurements in a single borehole.

  18. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  19. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  20. Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

  1. Automated analysis of ice properties from glacier borehole images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2013-04-01

    Optical televiewing provides a continuous, true-colour, orientated 360° optical image of a borehole wall. The recent application of this technology in ice boreholes has yielded far more detail relating to the internal structure of ice masses than has been previously available using traditional borehole TV video or acoustic televiewers. From the optical televiewer logs, which are allied to true orientation, the dip and strike of each planar structure that intersects the borehole can be calculated. We present a number of methods which aid the user in the annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images by automatically detecting layers and inclusions present in borehole image logs. The techniques used include a modified version of the Canny Edge Detector to highlight edges in the image, and a number of edge processing and fitting algorithms to extract sinusoidal layers from these edges. Active Contours have also been used to provide a semi-automatic inclusion detection tool. These techniques have been implemented as part of a software tool designed to allow the manual and automatic annotation of borehole features. A Genetic Algorithm has also been developed as part of a separate tool which allows for the fine tuning of parameters in the above algorithms. Results to date have shown good correspondence with manual operators in terms of layering and inclusions present in borehole images from a number of ice masses including Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica; the NEEM deep borehole, Greenland; Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard; and Tsanfleuron Glacier, Switzerland.

  2. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  3. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  4. Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

  5. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  6. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the polyvinyl chloride-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it.

  7. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  8. Minerals of the gadolinite-(Y)-hingganite-(Y) series in the alkali granite pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalina, L. M.; Selivanova, E. A.; Savchenko, Ye. E.; Zozulya, D. R.; Kadyrova, G. I.

    2014-12-01

    Minerals of the gadolinite-(Y)-hingganite-(Y) series pertaining to the gadolinite-datolite group have been found in the alkali granite pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula. Gadolinite-(Y) is distinguished by its unique natural crystalline state. The unit-cell parameters of this mineral have elevated values as compared with those of gadolinite-(Y) from other deposits and occurrences: (i) a = 10.11 Å, b = 7.63 Å, c = 4.79, V = 369.30 Å3; (ii) a = 10.05 Å, b = 7.69 Å, c = 4.76, V = 367.99 Å3. The increase in unit-cell parameters is not correlated with variation in chemical composition. The variable chemical compositions of particular individuals, especially as concerns REE and Y contents, assume two gadolinite-(Y) generations being contained in the intragranite pegmatites. Gadolinite-I is characterized by a high LREE content (LREE N /HREE N = 1.6) with a prevalence of total REE over Y (REE/Y = 1.36). Gadolinite-II is significantly depleted in LREE (LREE N /HREE N = 0.3) with a prevalence of Y over REE (REE/Y = 0.29). Hingganite-(Y), which has also been found in the alkali granite pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula for the first time, is characterized by elevated unit-cell parameters as well: a = 10.05 Å, b = 7.72 Å, c = 4.76 Å, V = 369.12 Å3. The mineral is enriched in Ca (up to 5 wt % CaO); and, by contents of REE and Y, the hingganite-(Y) from inter-granite pegmatites keeps the marginal position between its Y-dominant and REE-dominant varieties. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns assume that hingganite-(Y) crystallizes between the first and the second generations of gadolinite-(Y) and that alkali intragranite pegmatites are formed at the late magmatic stage, whereas amazonite-bearing pegmatites are formed under postmagmatic hydrothermal conditions.

  9. The Role of Active Fractures on Borehole Breakout Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, D.; Kohl, T.; Schoenball, M.; Müller, B.

    2013-12-01

    The properties of georeservoirs are strongly related to the stress field and their interpretation is a major target in geotechnical management. Borehole breakouts are direct indicators of the stress field as they develop due to the concentration of the highest compressional stress toward the minimum horizontal stress direction. However, the interaction with fractures might create local perturbations. Such weakened zones are often observed by localized anomalies of the borehole breakout orientation. We examined high-quality acoustic borehole televiewer (UBI) logs run in the entire granite sections at the deep well GPK4 at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The borehole is moderately inclined (15° - 35°) in its middle section. Detailed analysis of 1221 borehole elongation pairs in the vicinity of 1871 natural fractures observed in GPK4 well is used to infer the role of fractures on the borehole breakouts shape and orientation. Patterns of borehole breakout orientation in the vicinity of active fractures suggest that the wavelength of the borehole breakout orientation anomalies in this granite rock depend on the scale of the fracture while the rotation amplitude and direction is strongly influenced by the fracture orientation. In the upper and middle part of the well even a linear trend between fracture and breakout orientations could be established. In addition to the rotation, breakouts typically are found to be asymmetrically formed in zones of high fracture density. We find that major faults tend to create a systematic rotation of borehole breakout orientation with long spatial wavelength while abrupt changes are often observed around small fractures. The finding suggest that the borehole breakout heterogeneities are not merely governed by the principal stress heterogeneities, but that the effect of mechanical heterogeneities like elastic moduli changes, rock strength anisotropy and fracturing must be taken into account. Thus, one has to be careful to infer the principal stress orientation from borehole breakout data observed in fractured rock.

  10. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  11. High Temperature Borehole Televiewer software user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, L.E.

    1989-11-01

    The High Temperature Borehole Televiewer is a downhole instrument which provides acoustic pictures of the borehole walls that are suitable for casing inspection and fracture detection in geothermal wells. The Geothermal Drilling Organization has funded the development of a commercial tool survivable to temperatures of 275{degree}C and pressures of 5000 psi. A real-time display on an IBM-compatible PC was included as part of the development effort. This report contains a User Manual which describes the operation of this software. The software is designed in a menu format allowing the user to change many of the parameters which control both the acquisition and the display of the Televiewer data. An internal data acquisition card digitizes the waveform from the tool at a rate of 100,000 samples per second. The data from the tool, both the range or arrival time and the amplitude of the return signal, are displayed in color on the CRT screen of the computer during the logging operation. This data may be stored on the hard disk for later display and analysis. The software incorporates many features which aid in the setup of the tool for proper operation. These features include displaying and storing the captured waveform data to check the voltage and time windows selected by the user. 17 refs., 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Borehole Seismic Observatories for Monitoring Crustal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Ralph; Petitt, Robert; Pettigrew, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Since 1991 the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its successor the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have developed an observatory technology to monitor hydrological processes (temperature, pressure, and pore fluid sampling) in boreholes drilled on the deep seafloor. The borehole observatory equipment is called Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). Adding seismometers to CORKs (SeisCORKs) would enable monitoring of small earthquake events (mb about -2 or -3) associated with the hydrological processes. For example: 1) After an earthquake event fluid may flow in the formation in response to the changing stress regime. Down to what magnitude of event do the pressure transients in the well respond? 2) Fluid flow causes small earthquakes. One mechanism for example is by changing the temperature of the rocks which expand and contract, altering the stress regime. 3) Laboratory studies of rock deformation show that shear fracture is preceded by the coalescence of interacting tensile microcracks which are observed as "acoustic emissions". By placing high frequency geophones (up to 2000sps sampling) next to faults it may be possible to observe these "acoustic" precursors to rock failure. SeisCORKs will acquire micro- and nano-earthquake information that is simultaneous and co-located with the pressure, temperature, pore water chemistry and pore water biology measurements in the seafloor.

  13. Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the decrease is a result of socio-economic changes in the area. It is very likely that in areas with low background aerosol concentrations but close to large sources of anthropogenic sulphur emissions the trends in NPF depend on the overall human activity, general cleaning of the emissions and changes in natural biogenic emissions. This should be taken into account when estimating e.g. the effect of Arctic shipping routes to the future climate. Paatero, J., et al. (2008). Effects of Kola air pollution on the environment in the Western part of the Kola peninsula and Finnish Lapland - Final report. Finnish Meteorological Institute Reports, 6, 1-26. Prank, M., M. et al. (2010). A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10849-10865. Sipilä, M., et al. (2010). The role of sulfuric acid in atmospheric nucleation. Science, 327, 1243-1246.

  14. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here we present first preliminary processing results from the multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey and the data that were recorded along the three surface lines. The data quality is generally very good and the shot gathers show many clear and strong reflections up to six seconds two-way-traveltime. In a first step the data set was used to derive a detailed velocity model around the borehole from the inversion of first arrival traveltimes, which is essential for the application of any further imaging approaches. This velocity model was compared to the available logging informations from the COSC-1 borehole and with velocity models derived from older existing high resolution reflection seismic profiles. The further data processing will employ advanced seismic imaging techniques in order to image and characterize the small scale structures around the COSC-1 borehole including the analysis of anisotropic effects caused by aligned fractures and faults and their relation to the stress regime.

  15. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  16. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  17. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  18. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  19. Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Comparison of the Schumann resonance parameters in horizontal magnetic and electric fields according to observations on the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldugin, V. C.; Vasiljev, A. N.; Ostapenko, A. A.

    2006-04-01

    The measurements of horizontal electric components at extremely low frequencies (0.1-20 Hz) have been started in the high-latitude observatory of Lovozero in the Kola Peninsula. It is found that the electric components are not less informative than the horizontal magnetic ones for Schumann resonance study. The diurnal variations in amplitude, frequency, and bandwidth of the first Schumann resonance mode in the electric W-E and N-S components are similar to the variations in the magnetic H and D components, respectively. The same correspondence of the components keeps for Q bursts. The frequencies in electric and magnetic components are not always equal: In summer, the frequency of the electric N-S component in the diurnal variation exceeds the frequency of the magnetic D component by 0.1 Hz. The parameters of both magnetic and electric components have seasonal variations. Three maxima of thunderstorm activity are observed in daily variations of the amplitudes of electric components: the Asian and American ones in the W-S component and the African one in the N-S component. The width of resonance bands in the electric components is somewhat larger than in the magnetic ones. The calculations of ELF wave components near poorly conducting surface are made, the results being in accordance with the observations.

  1. Modern pollen and stomate deposition in lake surface sediments from across the treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gervais, B R.; MacDonald, G M.

    2001-04-01

    We sampled and analyzed surface sediments from 31 lakes along a latitudinal transect crossing the coniferous treeline on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The major vegetation zones along the transect were tundra, birch-forest tundra, pine-forest tundra, and forest. The results indicate that the major vegetation types in our study area have distinct pollen spectra. Sum-of-squares cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA) groupings of pollen sites correspond to the major vegetation zones. PCA ordination of taxa indicates that the first axis separates taxa typical of the forest zone (Pinus, Picea) from taxa typical of tundra and forest-tundra zones (Polypodiaceae, Ericaceae, and Betula). The current position of the coniferous treeline, defined in our region by Pinus sylvestris, occurs roughly where Pinus pollen values reach 35% or greater. Arboreal pollen (AP)/non-arboreal pollen (NAP) ratios were calculated for each site and plotted against geographic distance along the transect. AP/NAP ratios of 7 or greater are found within pine-forest tundra and forest vegetation zones. Pinus stomates (dispersed stomatal guard cells) are absent from sites north of the coniferous treeline and all but two samples from the forested sites contain stomates. Stomate concentrations among the samples are highly variable and range from 10 to 458 per ml and positively correlate with the changing Pinus pollen values. PMID:11389916

  2. Emission of CO2 by soils in the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter in the Kola subarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadulin, M. S.; Koptsik, G. N.

    2013-11-01

    The intensity of the in situ soil respiration in the background northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola subarctic region reaches 120-290 mg C-CO2/m2 per h. In the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter, it decreases to 90-140, 30, and 15-30 mg C-CO2/m2 per h at the stages of spruce defoliation, spruce-birch woodland, and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. For the first time, the impact of the industrial pollution on root respiration has been assessed, and the dependences of the CO2 emission, the contribution of mineral soil horizons to this process, the microbial biomass, and root respiration on the concentrations of available nickel and copper compounds have been determined. The efficiency of two remediation technologies applied to technogenic barrens near the smelter has been evaluated on the basis of four parameters of the soil biological activity. The results indicate that remediation with the creation of a new filled soil layer is more efficient than chemical and phytoremediation methods.

  3. Emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula and at Noril'sk, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Ron; Barnes, S.-J.; De Caritat, P.; Chekushin, V.A.; Melezhik, V.A.; Reimann, C.; Zientek, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Published estimates for base metal emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula are re-examined in the light of (a) chemical data on the composition of the ores; (b) official emission figures for 1994; and (c) modelled emissions based on dry and wet deposition estimates derived from data for snow and rain samples collected in 1994. The modelled emissions, official emission figures and chemical data are mutually compatible for Ni, Cu and Co and show that previously published figures underestimated the emissions of the major elements, Ni and Cu (though within the same order of magnitude) and overestimated the emissions of As, Pb, Sb and Zn by up to several orders of magnitude, in some cases exceeding the calculated total input to the plants. Published estimates have neglected information on the nature and chemistry of the ores processed in metallurgical industries in the Noril'sk area of Siberia and the Urals. Revised emission estimates for 1994, using knowledge of the chemistry of the ores, are proposed: taken with published information on total emissions up to 2000 these data give an indication of emission levels in more recent years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autumn migration and wintering areas of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus nesting on the Kola Peninsula, northern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganusevich, S.A.; Maechtle, T.L.; Seegar, W.S.; Yates, M.A.; McGrady, M.J.; Fuller, M.; Schueck, L.; Dayton, J.; Henny, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Four female Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus breeding on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, were fitted with satellite-received transmitters in 1994. Their breeding home ranges averaged 1175 (sd = ??714) km2, and overlapped considerably. All left their breeding grounds in September and migrated generally south-west along the Baltic Sea. The mean travel rate for three falcons was 190 km/day. Two Falcons wintered on the coasts of France and in southern Spain, which were, respectively, 2909 and 4262 km from their breeding sites. Data on migration routes suggested that Falcons took a near-direct route to the wintering areas. No prolonged stopovers were apparent. The 90% minimum convex polygon winter range of a bird that migrated to Spain encompassed 213 km2 (n = 54). The area of the 50% minimum convex polygon was 21.5 km2 (n = 29). Data from this study agree with others from North America that show that Falcons breeding in a single area do not necessarily follow the same migratory path southward and do not necessarily use the same wintering grounds.

  5. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  6. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  7. Multiple position borehole extensometer procedure: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of the Multiple Position Borehole Extensometer Procedure is to provide detailed information for MPBXs installed at the salt Deaf Smith County ESF. This procedure includes design of equipment, installation, instructions, instrument locations, measurement requirements, support requirements, quality assurance procedures, and data acquisition requirements. Data reduction procedures are also discussed; however, the relevance of the data is discussed elsewhere in the appropriate test plans. Sufficient detail is provided in this procedure to allow for integrating the requirements of this procedure into both the facility construction and overall underground testing programs; identifying necessary equipment for procurement; determining data acquisition requirements as input to Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) design; providing step-by-step procedures for training personnel as well as for directing field operations; establishing quality assurance (QA) checkpoints and implementation methods; and defining data reduction methods and providing the anticipated accuracy of the system. 11 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Borehole plugging materials development program, report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Walley, D.M.; Buck, A.D.

    1980-02-01

    The data for 2 yr of grout mixtures durability studies developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are reported. In addition, data for 1 yr of durability studies of grout mixture field samples used to plug the ERDA No. 10 exploratory drill hole near the WIPP site are included. The grout samples and the data do not show any evidence of deterioration during the durability studies that include exposure to brine at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The data include strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus, expansion, weight change, porosity, permeability, bond strength, chemical analysis of cements, and petrographic examinations. The work was performed at the Concrete Division of the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiments Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The work is continuing at WES.

  9. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Donald N. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  10. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  11. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  12. (An assessment of borehole seismic fracture diagnostics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    A five year effort to apply triaxial borehole seismometer technology to mapping hydraulic fractures by detecting microseismic events associated with the fracturing process has been completed. During this time, a number of evolutionary improvements to thee borehole receiver have lead to a unique sensor array geometry consisting of four geophone axes, positioned so that each axis makes the same angle with both the horizontal plane and the plane of the clamp are. The receiver includes downhole amplifiers which provides two gains, 112 dB for weak seismic sources and 100 dB to avoid saturation from strong seismic sources. The amplified seismic signals from the eight data channels are frequency division multiplexed onto frequency modulation subcarriers for transmission to the surface through a single conductor wire line. This combination of multi-geophone reception, downhole amplification and frequency modulation data transmission results in a very sensitive receiver, almost completely free of electric noise. The data from two downhole receivers in offset wells are recorded on tape to provide a continuous record of all signals. An event location scheme, based on primary wave polarization and using directional statistics, computes the location of microseismic events with error estimates. Over 700 microseismic events were digitized during a recent stimulation experiment. Analysis of these data resulted in 160 microseismic event locations, some as far as 450 ft. (137 m) from the receiver. The azimuth determined from event locations agrees reasonably well with the predicted fracture azimuth, the head agrees with temperature log tops, and fracture height is in good agreement with fracture model calculations. Wrong lengths are less than fracture model predictions unless fracture width is larger than expected. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Descamps, G.E.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

  14. The buckling of drillstrings in curved sections of boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, J.H.B. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    A model for the buckling of drillstrings within curved boreholes is important in the drilling of extended reach and horizontal wells. It has been noted in drilling operations that a curved borehole increases the buckling resistance of the drillstring compared to a straight borehole. The effects of the curvature, however, cannot be correctly determined from the current buckling models developed for straight boreholes, from where the current models for curved boreholes in the literature borrow their fundamentals. A mathematical model for analyzing buckling of drillstring within curved boreholes has been developed. This model predicts the unloading buckling force of a drillstring. The results show that one can apply higher axial forces at the bit and obtain longer extended reach or horizontal sections without putting the drillstring under risk of helical buckling and the consequent lock-up of the column. The model presented here, called the Hypergeometric Model, uses an analytical method employing an inclined beam-column theory with moving boundary conditions. The boundaries are numerically adjusted until a fit between the buckled section and the curved borehole is obtained. The buckling force varies with the inclination along the curved section of a borehole. Thus buckling force curves as functions of inclination can be derived and used in simulations and drillstring design. Excellent experimental results compared to the predictions support the model. This model also includes friction effects between the drillstring and the borehole wall. In this paper, the author presents the mathematics of the Hypergeometric Model with an illustrative result. The experimental results, simulations and field applications are deferred to a following presentation.

  15. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  16. Structural characterization and composition of Y-rich hainite from Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalina, L.; Zolotarev, A.; Selivanova, E.; Savchenko, Ye.; Zozulya, D.; Krivovichev, S.; Mikhailova, Yu.

    2015-08-01

    Y-rich hainite occurs in nepheline syenite pegmatite of the Sakharjok massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It forms euhedral prismatic crystals up to 2 mm in length as well as rims around an unidentified mineral phase (silicate of Ca, Y, Zr and Ti). The mineral is triclinic, space group P-1, a 9.6054(10), b 5.6928(6), c 7.3344(7) Å, α 89.903(2), β 101.082(2), γ 100.830(2)°, V 386.32(7) Å3, Z = 1. The calculated density is 3.39 g/cm3. Chemical composition of Sakharjok hainite is different from the previously published data by much higher Y and Nb contents up to 0.72 and 0.20 atoms per formula unit, respectively, by the two- to five-fold depletion in the LREEs and by the strong enrichment of the HREEs. From the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, there is a significant amount of Y in the M1 site associated with the absence of Zr in it. Nb and Zr are concentrated in the M5 site substituting Ti. Combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and electron microprobe data give the empirical formula (Ca1.04Y0.63REE0.24Mn0.02)∑1.93(Na0.92Ca0.77)∑1.69Ca2.00(Na0.65Ca0.10)∑0.75(Ti0.60Zr0.21Nb0.15Fe0.03)∑0.99((Si4.00Al0.02)∑4.02O14) (F2.61O1.39)∑4.00.

  17. Platinum-group elements (Rh, Pt, Pd) and Au distribution in snow samples from the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, Dean; Melcher, Frank; Niskavaara, Heikki; Pavlov, Vladimir A.; Reimann, Clemens; Stumpfl, Eugen F.

    In April 1996 snowpack samples were collected from the surroundings of the ore roasting and dressing plant at Zapoljarnij and the nickel smelters at Nikel and Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. In the laboratory, filter residues of snowpack samples (fraction>0.45 ?m) from 15 localities (close to the nickel processing centres) were chemically for precious metals (Rh, Pt, Pd, Au) and Te by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) analysis, and for Cu and Ni by ICP-MS. Values up to 2770 ng/l Pd, 650 ng/l Pt and 186 ng/l Au were found in the filter residues. Additionally, platinum-group elements (PGE) and Au contents in ore samples from Noril'sk , as well as in technogenic products ("Cu-Ni-feinstein" and copper concentrate) processed at the Monchegorsk smelter complex, were analysed using flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) for comparison with results obtained from snow. Rh, Pt, Pd and Au distribution data show the presence of two ore components (Noril'sk and Pechenga). Concentrations of these metals decrease with distance from the industrial sources and with the prevailing wind direction (generally north-south). Microscopic investigations and electron microprobe analysis of polished sections of snow filter residues (>0.45 ?m) also reveal differences between particles from the two sources. To avoid confusion the term "Noril'sk" is used throughout the paper to denote material and/or data from the Noril'sk area and its sub-district, Noril'sk while Pechenga relates to the local ore.

  18. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  19. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  20. Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT): A program for the automatic and manual annotation of glacier borehole images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2013-02-01

    We present a stand-alone software platform, Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT), for the examination, annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images. This tool aids in the lengthy and often subjective process of annotating layers and other features in optical and acoustic glacier borehole televiewer logs. Since these view 360° around the full circumference of an exploratory borehole, intersecting planes are reconstructed on the televiewer image as sinusoids, the amplitude and phase of which can be used to calculate, respectively, the dip and direction of dip of each of these planes. The program aids in the annotation and examination of such planes, as well as a number of other features, including clusters and inclusions. BIFAT also provides an automatic layer detection option to aid and speed up the often lengthy process of identifying planar features in glacier borehole images. The software also shows promising results in rock borehole images and in the detection of planar layers in line-scan ice core images. We describe the capability and operation of BIFAT, and illustrate its application with reference to the automatic identification and annotation of sections from an optical televiewer (OPTV) borehole log from Roi Baudouin, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The software is freely available for download from http://users.aber.ac.uk/byh/iceoptv.

  1. Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT): A program for the automatic and manual annotation of glacier borehole images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2013-04-01

    We present a stand-alone software platform, Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT), for the examination, annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images. This tool aids in the lengthy and often subjective process of annotating layers and other features in optical and acoustic glacier borehole televiewer logs. Since these view 360° around the full circumference of an exploratory borehole, intersecting planes are reconstructed on the televiewer image as sinusoids, the amplitude and phase of which can be used to calculate, respectively, the dip and direction of dip of each of these planes. The program suite aids in the annotation and examination of such planes, as well as a number of other features, including clusters and inclusions. BIFAT also provides an automatic layer detection option to aid and speed up the often lengthy process of identifying planar features in glacier borehole images, and a semi-automatic inclusion detection tool. The software shows promising results in rock borehole images and in the detection of planar layers in line-scan ice core images. We describe the capability and operation of BIFAT, and illustrate its application with reference to the automatic identification and annotation of sections from optical televiewer (OPTV) borehole logs from a variety of ice masses including Roi Baudouin, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and Tsanfleuron Glacier, Switzerland. The software is freely available for download from http://users.aber.ac.uk/byh/iceoptv.

  2. Calibrated Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A. A.; Fox, O.; Gallaher, W. W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), funded by NSF as part of the Earthscope program and installed and maintained by UNAVCO, includes 75 borehole strainmeters (BSMs), which makes it one of the largest strainmeter arrays in the world. Co-located with seismometers, and embedded within the PBO continuous GPS network, the strainmeters expand the bandwidth of the Observatory enabling the capture of signals with periods of days to minutes. Six years after installation of the first strainmeter, over 70% of the network is in compression and over 85% of the instruments have a strong signal to noise ratio in the M2 tidal band. UNAVCO's BSM engineers ensure the network usually collects over 95% percent of possible data. UNAVCO makes the BSM Level 0 (raw) and Level 2 (processed) data products available to the community via the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), the IRIS DMC and UNAVCO's own web site. Processed BSM data includes gauge, areal, differential and tensor shear strains plus data edits and time series corrections for barometric pressure, earth tides, ocean load and borehole trends. Before strain data can be incorporated into a geophysical model with confidence, however, an instrument response must be found that relates the gauge measurements to the regional strains (i.e., an in-situ calibration is needed). In this presentation we describe the method UNAVCO will use to calibrate PBO strainmeters using earth tides as a reference signal and assuming an anisotropic instrument setting. The calibrated data will be released in a simple delimited ASCII format and will be included with the processed data set that is currently updated every 24 hours. In addition to the 5-minute Level 2 data set, UNAVCO will include the calibrated areal and shear strains at 1-sps for significant events anywhere in the world as part of its Special Event series. In order to meet Earthscope goals of data transparency and processing repeatability, the expanded processed data sets will include a summary of the calibration method, tidal observations, predictions upon which the calibrations are based and the strain matrix used to generate the areal and shear data. This presentation will also describe the new file naming convention that will allow the user to 1.) select a preferred calibration method for their data and 2.) allow UNAVCO the flexibility of including new methods of calibration in the future.

  3. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  4. SURFACE AND BOREHOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING OF CONDUCTING CONTAMINANT PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component ma...

  5. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  6. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  7. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  8. Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive interference the signals of each vibrator must be independently controlled in amplitude and phase. This allows a systematic exploration of areas around the borehole and also in direction ahead of the borehole. Measurements of the developed borehole devices with this seismic method show that structures like nearby galleries of the mine or zones of cracks can be explored depending on the issued direction. Imaging with a three-component Fresnel-Volume-Migration shows clearly the effect of the radiation pattern to the distribution of the seismic wave energy. The migration of the reflected wave field reveals an amplification of the reflected amplitudes at the galleries corresponding to the radiation pattern of the seismic borehole sources. A second borehole device was developed for usage in boreholes up to 2 km depth. After completion first measurements are planned to verify the exploration method for a directional investigation in boreholes. The measurements will take place in different geologies of hard and soft rocks and also depths. This project is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry.

  9. Analysis and Interpretation of Borehole Hydraulic Tests in Deep Boreholes: Principles, Model Development, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickens, J. F.; Grisak, G. E.; Avis, J. D.; Belanger, D. W.; Thury, M.

    1987-07-01

    A review of the literature on hydraulic testing and interpretive methods, particularly in low-permeability media, indicates a need for a comprehensive hydraulic testing interpretive capability. Physical limitations on boreholes, such as caving and erosion during continued drilling, as well as the high costs associated with deep-hole rigs and testing equipment, often necessitate testing under nonideal conditions with respect to antecedent pressures and temperatures. In these situations, which are common in the high-level nuclear waste programs throughout the world, the interpretive requirements include the ability to quantitatively account for thermally induced pressure responses and borehole pressure history (resulting in a time-dependent pressure profile around the borehole) as well as equipment compliance effects in low-permeability intervals. A numerical model was developed to provide the capability to handle these antecedent conditions. Sensitivity studies and practical applications are provided to illustrate the importance of thermal effects and antecedent pressure history. It is demonstrated theoretically and with examples from the Swiss (Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle) regional hydrogeologic characterization program that pressure changes (expressed as hydraulic head) of the order of tens to hundreds of meters can result from 1° to 2°C temperature variations during shut-in (packer isolated) tests in low-permeability formations. Misinterpreted formation pressures and hydraulic conductivity can also result from inaccurate antecedent pressure history. Interpretation of representative formation properties and pressures requires that antecedent pressure information and test period temperature data be included as an integral part of the hydraulic test analyses.

  10. Microcomputer-based borehole engineering system

    SciTech Connect

    MacPherson, J.D.; Bralley, J.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes a microcomputer system designed to take raw drilling data combined with measured rock properties such as porosity and permeability to produce output in the form of depth plots. User-selected parameters include porosity, permeability, formation pressures such as pore, fracture, or overburden, rock properties such as Poisson's ratio or bulk modules, and bottomhole and formation temperatures. Data entry can be done via multiplexor from a data gathering system, through a data communication link, or by manual input. The system allows either raw or partially processed data to be supplied, and can be run either online in real time at the wellsite or offline at a remote location. The data is processed sequentially by the system, with each calculation or processing module performing a specific operation on the data. The calculation modules used for any data set are selected by the user from a base menu. These modules can be removed, added or changed as desired by the client or operator, allowing easy tailoring and expansion of the system. Output from the system goes to disk for storage and to a drum plotter. This enables continuous monitoring of the borehole parameters as the well is drilled, and enhances the value of the data.

  11. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  12. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  14. Cross-borehole fracture mapping using electromagnetic geotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A. L.; Deadrick, F. J.; Lytle, R. J.

    1982-04-01

    This article describes the evaluation of a new geophysical technique used to map fractures between boreholes: electromagnetic geotomography used in conjunction with salt water tracers. An experiment has been performed in a granitic rock mass. Geotomographic images have been generated and compared with borehole geophysical data; neutron logs, acoustic velocity logs, caliper logs and acoustic televiewer records. Comparisons between the images and the geophysical logs indicate that clusters of fractures were detected but single fractures were not.

  15. Cross-borehole fracture mapping using electromagnetic geotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Deadrick, F.J.; Lytle, R.J.

    1982-04-20

    This article describes the evaluation of a new geophysical technique used to map fractures between boreholes: electromagnetic geotomography used in conjunction with salt water tracers. An experiment has been performed in a granitic rock mass. Geotomographic images have been generated and compared with borehole geophysical data: neutron logs, acoustic velocity logs, caliper logs and acoustic televiewer records. Comparisons between the images and the geophysical logs indicate that clusters of fractures were detected but single fractures were not.

  16. Thermobaric calculation of a steam-thermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishaev, M. G.; Azizov, G. A.

    2011-07-01

    A procedure is proposed for carrying out an approximate analytical calculation of pressure and temperature along a vertical borehole for thermal water with a temperature of 150-320C taking into account its phase transition into steam. It is shown that both a single-phase flow mode for water and a two-phase flow mode for a mixture of water and steam can appear in the borehole under certain conditions.

  17. Shock-induced wave propagation over porous and fractured borehole zones: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huajun; Smeulders, D M J

    2013-12-01

    Borehole waves are strongly affected by adjacent porous zones or by fractures intersecting the borehole. A theoretical description for both porous and fracture zones is possible based on the introduction of an effective borehole fluid bulk modulus, characterizing the wave attenuation via borehole wall impedance. This impedance can be calculated for both porous and fracture zones adjacent to the borehole, thus predicting borehole wave attenuation, transmission, and reflection over such zones. A shock tube setup generates borehole tube waves that are used for porous and fracture zone characterization. A PVC sample is used to introduce and vary fractures in a cylindrical sample. Shock wave experiments show that attenuation in boreholes adjacent to porous zones can be predicted by theory. The transmittivities of a borehole tube wave over 1 and 5?mm fractures are correctly predicted, thus showing the potential of borehole wave experiments for fracture detection and characterization. PMID:25669291

  18. Acoustic evidence of mechanical damage surrounding stressed boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, K.W.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrate that acoustic waveforms recorded in a borehole provide evidence of stress-induced mechanical damage in surrounding rock. In the experiments, external uniaxial stress was applied perpendicular to the borehole. Stress concentrations near the borehole wall caused velocities of refracted compressional-wave to vary with azimuth. Low velocities occurred in zones of tensile stress, and high velocities occurred in zones of compressive stress. Velocity variations are on the order of 10%. At high values of externally applied uniaxial stress, rock exceeded its yield strength and permanent damage developed. This damage decreased the measured velocities by approximately 10%, especially in the zones of compressive stress concentration. The heterogeneous nature of the velocities surrounding the borehole resulted in low-velocity channels parallel to the borehole wall, caused either by tensile stress concentrations or by mechanical damage. These low-velocity channels may be responsible for high-amplitude bright-spots that appear on variable density plots of azimuthal waveform scans. The amplitude increases can be on the order of 500% and are associated with low-velocity zones, not with decreased attenuation. The hypothesized mechanism is acoustic focusing, whereby velocity gradients refract acoustic waves back towards the borehole.

  19. Deformation Monitoring by Borehole Geodetic Strainmeter in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Ergintav, Semih; Dogru, Asli; Yilmaz, Onur; Mencin, David; Mattioli, Glen; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirik, Liz

    2015-04-01

    This project is aimed to study three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation through North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) in Marmara Region, Turkey. Within this project, two borehole observatories consisting of borehole strainmeters, borehole seismometers, tiltmeters, and pore pressure sensors have been deployed in Istanbul. These installations have been supported by Istanbul Development Agency (ISTKA) (financially) and UNAVCO (technically). Istanbul, located near the most active parts of the North Anatolian Fault, has been monitored by different observing techniques such as seismic networks and continuous/survey-mode GPS networks for decades. Borehole strainmeters are very sensitive to deformation in the range of less than a month and can capture signals with superior precision at local spatial scales. In this project, it will be possible to determine the movements precisely which can not be monitored with available measurement systems in the middle and the eastern part of Marmara Sea through NAFS. Our long term objective is to build a borehole monitoring system in the region. By integrating various data obtained from borehole observatories, we expect to get a better understanding of dynamics in the western NAF. In this presentation, we introduce data and ongoing analysis obtained with strainmeters.

  20. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, F.L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  1. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  3. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus reducing atmospheric C concentration), as well as to select more appropriate species during forestation plan management at least in the north of Iran. PMID:22836390

  4. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

  5. Crustal stress determination from boreholes and rock cores: Fundamental principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Currie, Claire A.; Zhang, Lei

    2012-12-01

    Obtaining quantitative information on the state of stress in the crust can only be accomplished by accessing the zone of interest by drilling. The borehole cavity, however, disrupts the virgin stress state by concentrating stresses in predictable patterns with a number of consequences. At sufficiently low stress magnitudes, the concentrated stresses amplify the elastic anisotropy azimuthally around the borehole because the elastic properties of most rocks depend nonlinearly on stress. At higher levels, the stresses damage then fracture the rock near the wellbore wall or within a growing core stub. Indeed, almost all of the borehole techniques indirectly measure stress through these manifestations of the concentrated stresses. This contribution reviews, at a fundamental level, the concentration of stresses by the borehole, the effects on the materials in the borehole's vicinity, and how these are used to infer stress states. Stress concentrations applied to rocks, which are generally nonlinear elastic materials, induce both radial and azimuthal variations in elastic wave speeds near the borehole that can be used to infer stress directions from advanced acoustic logging methods. Hydraulic fractures initiate, propagate, and remain propped open by measured pressures that can be interpreted with knowledge of the stress concentrations to obtain quantitative stress magnitudes. At higher stress levels, the rock fails producing borehole breakouts or drilling induced tensile fractures both of which are indicative of stress directions and can be used to constrain stress magnitudes. Similarly, the various styles of drilling induced core fractures indicate both stress directions and the faulting environment encountered. Unfortunately, no method currently allows for complete determination of the stress tensor; using a number of different but complementary techniques is necessary to best constrain in situ stress states.

  6. An in-well heat-tracer-test method for evaluating borehole flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, Stephen M.; Hart, David J.; Bahr, Jean M.

    2015-12-01

    An improved method is presented for characterizing vertical borehole flow conditions in open boreholes using in-well heat tracer tests monitored by a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system. This flow logging method uses an electrical resistance heater to warm slugs of water within bedrock boreholes and DTS monitoring of subsequent heat migration to measure borehole flow characteristics. Use of an electrical resistance heater allows for controlled test initiation, while the DTS allows for detailed monitoring of heat movement within the borehole. The method was evaluated in bedrock boreholes open to Cambrian sandstone formations in south-central Wisconsin (USA). The method was successfully used to measure upward flow, downward flow, and zero flow, and to identify changes in borehole flow rates associated with fracture flow and porous media flow. The main benefits of the DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer test method of borehole flow logging are (1) borehole flow direction and changes in borehole fluid velocity are readily apparent from a simple plot of the field data, (2) the case of zero vertical borehole flow is easily and confidently identified, and (3) the ability to monitor temperatures over the full borehole length simultaneously and in rapid succession provides detailed flow data with minimal disturbance of the borehole flow. The results of this study indicate that DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer tests are an effective method of characterizing borehole flow conditions.

  7. An in-well heat-tracer-test method for evaluating borehole flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, Stephen M.; Hart, David J.; Bahr, Jean M.

    2015-08-01

    An improved method is presented for characterizing vertical borehole flow conditions in open boreholes using in-well heat tracer tests monitored by a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system. This flow logging method uses an electrical resistance heater to warm slugs of water within bedrock boreholes and DTS monitoring of subsequent heat migration to measure borehole flow characteristics. Use of an electrical resistance heater allows for controlled test initiation, while the DTS allows for detailed monitoring of heat movement within the borehole. The method was evaluated in bedrock boreholes open to Cambrian sandstone formations in south-central Wisconsin (USA). The method was successfully used to measure upward flow, downward flow, and zero flow, and to identify changes in borehole flow rates associated with fracture flow and porous media flow. The main benefits of the DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer test method of borehole flow logging are (1) borehole flow direction and changes in borehole fluid velocity are readily apparent from a simple plot of the field data, (2) the case of zero vertical borehole flow is easily and confidently identified, and (3) the ability to monitor temperatures over the full borehole length simultaneously and in rapid succession provides detailed flow data with minimal disturbance of the borehole flow. The results of this study indicate that DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer tests are an effective method of characterizing borehole flow conditions.

  8. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  9. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX)

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  10. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  11. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground water; and (3) an increase in primary or secondary porosity and an associated change in mineral assemblage, or decrease in ground water specific conductance, was characterized in two of the boreholes below 300 m.The results of the radar reflection logging indicate that even where data quality is marginal, borehole-radar reflection logging can provide useful information for ground-water characterization studies in fractured rock and insights into the nature and extent of fractures and fracture zones in and near boreholes.

  12. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  13. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  14. Borehole seismic imaging: A full waveform inversion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Pengxiang

    Site characterization for the design of deep foundations is crucial for ensuring a reliable and economic substructure design, as unanticipated site conditions can cause significant problems and disputes during construction. Traditional invasive exploration methods sample a small volume of material and insufficiently assess spatial variation in subsurface conditions. Established and emerging surface-based geophysical exploration methods may identify large-scale spatial variability, but fail to provide a detailed picture of the rock quality at depths where a socket is required for the design of a drilled shaft foundation. In order to compensate for the shortcomings of these methods, a new borehole-based characterization method has been developed, which creates images of the shear wave velocity profile along and around the borehole to provide credible socket material analyses and detect nearby anomalies. The proposed imaging technique is based on the time-domain full waveform inversion of elastic waves generated inside a borehole, which are captured by a string of sensors placed vertically along the borehole wall. This approach has the ability to simulate all possible wave types of seismic wavefields, and then compare these simulations with observed data to infer complex subsurface properties. This method formulates and solves the forward model of elastic wave propagation within a borehole using ABAQUS, a commercially available finite element package. The inversion is cast as a least-squares optimization problem solved using the regularized Gauss-Newton method. To test the proposed imaging technique, the present study performed comprehensive numerical studies. First, the accuracy of the forward model and the effectiveness of the inversion scheme was validated. Then, the capability of the proposed imaging technique was evaluated by inverting a series of three-dimensional (3-D) synthetic data sets, including a homogeneous model, a horizontally layered model with high impedance contrast, a cylindrically layered model that mimicked borehole preparation, and simplified earth models containing ring-type anomalies and isolated anomalies. Good models were recovered for each case presented herein.

  15. Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1984-05-01

    Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

  16. Downhole vertical seismic profile survey reveals structure near borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Dautenhahn Wyatt, K.; Wyatt, S.B.

    1982-10-18

    A vertical seismic profile (VSP) survey can be useful for obtaining subsurface structural information in the immediate vicinity of the borehole. Such information has much higher vertical and horizontal resolution than that of conventional surface seismic data. Ray-tracing techniques allow the interpreter to compare synthetic VSP data from a structural model with the actual VSP field data. Additionally, the vertical seismic profile common-depth-point (VSPCDP) stack procedure effectively determines what the model should be by transforming VSP data into a high-resolution miniseismic section in the vicinity of the boreholes.

  17. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  18. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has benefited greatly from review principally by Steve Pye, and also by Paul Eslinger, Dave Sevougian and Jiann Su.

  19. Cross-borehole fracture mapping using electromagnetic geotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A. L.; Deadrick, F. J.; Lytle, R. J.

    1982-05-01

    Salt water was forced into a fractured rock mass, attenuating the high frequency electromagnetic waves used for probing. The locations in the rock where the salt water induced signal losses were then mapped by geotomography. This technique was used near Oracle, Arizona, in a granitic rock mass. The data obtained were reduced to gray level images, which show the calculated signal transmission properties of the rock mass. These images were analyzed and compared with borehole geophysical data: neutron logs, acoustic velocity logs, caliper logs, and acoustic televiewer logs. Comparisons between the images and the borehole geophysical data suggest that geotomography has merit when used to map fracture in granite.

  20. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Geochronology of the Archaean Kolmozero-Voron'ya Greenstone Belt: U-Pb dating of zircon, titanite, tourmaline and tantalite (Kola Region, North-Eastern BAltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N.; Gavrilenko, B.; Apanasevich, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Archaean Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt is one of the most ancient geological structures of the Kola Peninsula. It is located between Upper Archaean terrains: Murmansk, Central Kola and Keivy. Within the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt there are rare metal (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be), Cu, Mo, and Au deposits. All rocks were metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions and intruded by granodiorites, plagiomicrocline and tourmaline granites and pegmatite veins. Four suites are distinguished within the belt: lower terrigenous formation, komatiite-tholeite, basalt-andesite-dacite and upper terrigenous formation. The U-Pb age of 29256 Ma on magmatic zircon was obtained for leucogabbro of differentiated gabbro-anorthosite massif Patchemvarak, situated at the boundary between volcanic-sedimentary units and granitoids of the Murmansk block. This age is the oldest for gabbro-anorthosites of the Kola Peninsula. Sm-Nd age of komatiites is ca. 2.87 Ga (Vrevsky, 1996). U-Pb age of zircon from biotite schist, which belongs to acid volcanites is 2865+/-5 Ma. Quartz porphyries, which are considered to be an intrusive vein analogous of acid volcanites has an age of 2828+/-8 Ma, that marks the final stage of the belt development. Dating of titanite from ovoid plagioamphibolites yielded an U-Pb age of 2595+/-20 Ma that probably is connected with the closure of the U-Pb isotopic titanite system during the regional metamorphism. The Porosozero granodioritic complex with an age of 2733+/-6 Ma is located between granites of the Murmansk domain, migmatites and gneisses of the Central Kola terrain and the Keivy alkaline granites. Tourmaline granites are found all over the Kolmozero-Voronya belt occurring among volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the belt. Their Pb-Pb age of 2520+/-70 Ma appears to denote the tourmaline crystallization at a post-magmatic stage of the complex formation. U-Pb zircon age from rare metal pegmatites is 1.9-1.8 Ga. Zircons from pegmatites are represented mostly by crystals with disturbed structure as a result of fluid influence that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of crystallization process [Alviola, et al. 2001]. By this reason we measured U-Pb age of tantalite. U-Pb age of tantalite from rare-metal pegmatites is ca 2.5 Ga, coeval with the age of tourmaline granites, which could be a source for pegmatites. This age determines the time of rare metal pegmatite crystallization, while zircon age of 1.9-1.8 Ga reflects the time of U-Pb zircon system disturbance under the influence of hydrothermal and metasomatic processes. Thus, several stages can be distinguished in the evolution of the Archaean Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt: protoocean with komatiite-toleite magmatism (3.0-2.9 Ga); volcanic arc with andesite-rhyolite magmatism (2.9-2.8 Ga); regional metamorphism and granitization with melting of granodiorite-granite magmas (2.7-2.6 Ga); regressive metamorphism and potassium metasomatism with the formation of tourmaline and microcline granites and rare-metal pegmatites within and outside the belt 2.5 Ga. The work is supported by RFBR grants 01-05-65451 and 00-05-72032

  2. Transformation of the chemical composition of the waters of small lakes on Kola Peninsula owing to a decrease in technogenic air pollution and to climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, T. I.; Bazova, M. M.; Efimova, L. E.

    2014-05-01

    The emission of sulfur dioxide and metals from copper-nickel melting plants on Kola Peninsula (Russia) decreased pronouncedly over the last two decades. The decrease in the sulfate content and increase in the acid-neutralizing capability of waters were proven on the basis of the data of surveys on 75 small lakes repeated once every five years from 1990 to 2010. The variations of other parameters of the chemical composition of the waters of small lakes depend on the geological and landscape conditions of the formation of waters. The alkalinity and pH values increased in 46% of the lakes; 24% of them showed a further decrease of these parameters; and no reliable changes were traced in 31% of the lakes. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in the lacustrine water decreased 5-to 10-fold over the last two decades.

  3. Observing ETS Evolution With Borehole Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dragert, H.; Roeloffs, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The behaviour of along-strike propagation was recognized in the first report of the discovery of Cascadia slow slip [Dragert et al., 2001]. Even with very few and sparsely distributed GPS stations, it could be estimated that the slow slip in 1999 propagated in the northwest direction at ~6 km/day. It was later established that the occurrence of tremor at Cascadia tracks the along-strike propagation of the slips. Recent introduction of Gladwin borehole strainmeters (BSM) as well as the densification of GPS coverage under the Plate Boundary Observatory has enabled more detailed monitoring of the slip migration. In this study we analyze the behaviour of strategically located BSMs in ETS episodes and use the strain records to examine the along-strike migration of prolonged ETS in northern Cascadia. Consistent with the conclusion of a tidal calibration study [Roeloffs, 2010], we found that the BSM areal strains in this area are generally unusable, but the shear strains yield useful information. Although tidal calibration was conducted only for a subset of the BSMs, there appears to be a general correspondence between BSMs that yield good results in the tidal calibration and those that yield clear signals in multiple ETS episodes. BSMs are sensitive to many tectonic and nontectonic processes. Long-term trends caused by time-dependent adjustment of the surrounding formation and seasonal variations caused by surface and subsurface fluid pressure changes may be removed by analysis of long data records in conjunction with supplementary data, such as streamflow, from individual sites. Such corrections reduce uncertainties in the net strain remaining after a slow slip event. When detailed corrections are not feasible or possible, very simple processing of BSM data still provides useful information on the timing of the sudden change due to the slow slip and the sign of that change (increase or decrease). Despite various limitations, the BSM data have improved the characterization of the along-strike propagation of ETS slip. In a case study using the May 2008 ETS, the BSM data show remarkable consistency with GPS time series. The combination of BSM and GPS data reveals a pattern of bi-directional propagation of the slip from its initiation area west of northern Puget Sound. In a simple model, the speed of the northwest propagation varies from 8 km/day, to 2 km/day, and to 15 km/day, but that of the south propagation stays at 6 km/day. The tremors observed for this ETS episode show a similar bi-directional migration pattern and similar changes in northwest migration velocity, but the tremor migration front is slightly ahead of the slip propagation front. Finer details of the tremor migration such as rapid streaks in the dip direction and backward migration in the strike direction cannot be geodetically resolved and therefore must be limited in magnitude and/or areal extent. The results provide guidance for site selection of future BSM installations in this and other subduction zones. Dragert, H., K. Wang, and T. James (2001), Science 292, 1525-1528. Roeloffs (2010), JGR 115, B06405, doi:10.1029/2009JB006407.

  4. Uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) using LA-ICP-MS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, E.; Camacho, A.; Yang, P.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Halden, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    Perovskite (CaTiO3) is a common early crystallizing accessory phase in a variety of alkaline rocks, and has been shown to contain enough U and Th for U-Pb dating. U and Pb analysis of perovskite has been primarily carried out using the SHRIMP or ID-TIMS techniques, and the resulting U-Pb dates commonly yield the emplacement age of the host rock. To our knowledge, only one U-Pb study of perovskite has been done using the LA-ICP-MS (Cox and Wilton, 2006). Some of the advantages of this method over the SHRIMP and ID-TIMS techniques include greater speed and lower cost of analysis. In this work, the U-Pb ages of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Russia) were obtained in situ using the LA-ICP-MS. The measured 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios were corrected for time-dependent mass-bias using the well-calibrated zircon standard GJ-1 (608.5 0.4 Ma; Jackson et al., 2004). On a Tera-Wasserburg diagram (Tera and Wasserburg, 1972) the analyses of perovskite from two magmatic phases (clinopyroxenite and carbonatite) plot in separate clusters. Although the variations in the 238U/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios within each group are small, there is enough dispersion between the two clusters to obtain a reasonably precise age of 375 13 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.23), which strongly suggests that the carbonatitic rocks are broadly coeval with the clinopyroxenite. The only other isotopic study on the Afrikanda Complex was done on a clinopyroxenite using the Rb-Sr method and yielded a whole rock-mineral (perovskite, biotite, augite and apatite) isochron age of 364.0 3.1 Ma (2; MSWD = 0.72). This age is within error of our U-Pb date, which demonstrates that LA-ICP-MS-based U-Pb dating of perovskite can serve as a reliable geochronological tool. References Cox, R.A. and Wilton, D.H.C. (2006) U-Pb dating of perovskite by LA-ICP-MS: An example from the Oka carbonatite, Quebec, Canada. Chem. Geol., 235, 21-32. Jackson, S.E., Pearson, N.J., Griffin, W.L. and Belousova, E.A. (2004) The application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to in situ U-Pb zircon geochronology. Chem. Geol.,211, 47-69. Kramm, U., Kogarko, L.N., Kononova, V.A. and Vartiainen, H. (1993) The Kola alkaline province of the CIS and Finland. Lithos, 30, 33-44. Tera, F. and Wasserburg, G.J. (1972) U-Th-Pb systematics in three Apollo 14 basalts and the problem of initial Pb in lunar rocks. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 14, 281-304.

  5. Identification of the AntiListerial Constituents in Partially Purified Column Chromatography Fractions of Garcinia kola Seeds and Their Interactions with Standard Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, D.; Buwa, L.; Mayekiso, B.; Basson, A. K.; Okoh, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Partially purified fractions of the n-hexane extract of Garcinia kola seeds were obtained through column chromatography and their constituents were identified through the use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three fractions were obtained by elution with benzene as the mobile phase and silica gel 60 as the stationery phase and these were named Benz1, Benz2, and Benz3 in the order of their elution. The antiListerial activities of these fractions were assessed through MIC determination and only Benz2 and Benz3 were found to be active with MIC's ranging from 0.625 to 2.5 mg/mL. The results of the GC-MS analysis showed Benz2 to have 9 compounds whilst Benz3 had 7 compounds, with the major compounds in both fractions being 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) and 9,19-Cyclolanostan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3.β.). The Benz2 fraction was found to have mainly indifferent interactions with ampicillin and penicillin G whilst mainly additive interactions were observed with ciprofloxacin. The Benz3 fraction's interactions were found to be 50% synergistic with penicillin G and 25% synergistic with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. A commercially available 9,19-Cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, (3.β.) was found not to exhibit any antiListerial activities at maximum test concentrations of 5 mg/mL, suggesting that the compound could be acting in synergy with the other compounds in the eluted fractions of Garcinia kola seeds. PMID:24527056

  6. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  7. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    SciTech Connect

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  8. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  9. TRENDS IN BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION: ASSAYING AND REMOTE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    Several borehole geophysical techniques have been developed in recent years. Assaying technique development has been concentrated on nuclear methods, with some progress being made on using electrical and magnetic properties for mineral identification. Adaptation of conventional surface geophysical techniques to the borehole for locating near-misses of mineralized zones has led to the development of borehole resistivity, electromagnetic (EM), gravity and magnetic methods to the borehole environment. This paper discusses some of the applications and pitfalls of these new techniques.

  10. Level-determined sampling in an uncased borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ian; Lerner, David N.

    1995-10-01

    Four novel sampling devices (two sock samplers and two active devices) were tested for their ability to obtain level-representative groundwater from a 90 m uncased borehole in a Permo-Triassic sandstone aquifier. The samples were compared with those taken from a nearby piezometer nest. The results from the open borehole were not consistent with those from the piezometers, particularly in the lower part of the aquifer. Field data and five-layer regional groundwater model were used in an attempt to understand the reasons for the variation between the results. A strong downward vertical head gradient caused flow into the top of the borehole and out of the bottom, disturbing the natural chemical profile. This accounted for the difference in the results between the piezometer nest and the sampling devices in the lower part of the aquifer. Further modelling showed that unreasonably long periods of flushing would be required to flush the zone of mixed water and therefore obtain level-representative samples from the lower section of the borehole. Sock samplers, which rely on natural groundwater flow to flush the aquifer, would have to wait several years, and so could only be used as semi-permanent devices. A conventional double packer method would require about 2 weeks of continuous pumping, whereas separation pumping would require several months of purging, unless larger pumps were utilised.

  11. Recent developments in the optical televiewing of ice boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Bryn

    2014-05-01

    Developed in the past few years, the optical televiewing (OPTV) of ice boreholes has now been successfully applied to temperate and polythermal valley glaciers, to Antarctic ice shelves, to a shallow borehole on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and recently to the NEEM deep ice borehole. Here, we report on several specific aspects of this work, outlining the capability of OPTV in glaciological analysis. These include: Revealing the 3D internal structure of valley glaciers, e.g. identifying eight separate structural generations on Midre Lovnbreen, Svalbard; Characterizing the internal ice facies forming the base of an Antarctic ice shelf rift, e.g. identifying three possible types of 'marine ice'; Recording annual layering and allowing age-depth scales to be reconstructed for contrasting locations on both the Greenland and the Antarctic ice sheets. Providing a proxy for snow, firn and ice density, based on calibrating an OPTV record of an Antarctic ice-shelf borehole with densities measured gravimetrically on corresponding core samples. Reconstructing former surface melting and melt-pond formation on an Antarctic ice shelf, revealing that such melting is not a recent phenomenon. Revealing aspects of the internal structure of the Greenland ice sheet at the NEEM deep ice drill site, e.g. the presence of ash layers and annual layering at depths of several hundreds of metres in the ice.

  12. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  13. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  15. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  16. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 75.388 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.388 Boreholes in advance... approaches— (1) To within 50 feet of any area located in the mine as shown by surveys that are certified by...

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  18. Simulation of Borehole Failure Phenomena Using Discrete Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. Y.; Cook, B. K.; DiGiovanni, A. A.; Perkins, E. D.; Williams, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    A computationally efficient numerical model based on the discrete-element method (DEM) is described and applied to simulate well-known borehole failure phenomena: hydraulic fracturing and borehole breakouts. Radially graded, two-dimensional DEM models of the near-wellbore region were created of bonded disk elements. Inspired by the molecular model of a fluid, source elements were used to simulate fluid pressurization of the model borehole subjected to far-field stresses. The calibration and validation of these numerical tools will require extensive comparison against experimental and field data (Wawersik, 2000). To address this challenge, a joint experimental-numerical research effort has been undertaken to develop a robust simulation capability for the exploration and prediction of near-wellbore mechanics. A true-triaxial vessel has been designed and constructed to enable the realistic laboratory simulation of the three-dimensional stress conditions present in the field (Wawersik et. al, 1997). The structural damage in the DEM models was analyzed using histograms of the angular distribution of bond damage; results obtained for various stress states showed qualitative reproduction of the gross failure mechanisms associated with both hydraulic fracturing and borehole breakouts. The results from the laboratory simulation of near-wellbore failures demonstrate the ability of DEM to capture the discontinuous failure processes under different stress conditions.

  19. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  20. Cross-borehole fracture mapping using electromagnetic geotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A L; Deadrick, F J; Lytle, R J

    1982-05-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is evaluating high resolution geophysical techniques for characterization of nuclear waste repository sites. This report presents the results of the first phase of this project. We describe the evaluation of a new geophysical technique used to map fractures remotely between boreholes: electromagnetic geotomography used in conjunction with water tracers. Salt water is forced into the fractured rock mass, attenuating the high frequency electromagnetic waves used for probing. The locations in the rock where the salt water has induced signal losses are then mapped by geotomography. An experiment using this technique has been performed near Oracle, Arizona, in a granitic rock mass. The data obtained were reduced to gray level images, which show the calculated signal transmission properties of the rock mass. We analyzed these images and compared them with borehole geophysical data: neutron logs, acoustic velocity logs, caliper logs, and acoustic televiewer logs. Comparisons between the images and the borehole geophysical data suggest that geotomography has merit when used to map fracture in granite. Image anomalies, which can be indicative of fracturing along the borehole walls, usually coincide with geophysical log anomalies. Under the conditions of the Oracle experiment, available data indicate that clusters of fracture zones were detected. Single fractures were not detected. The thickness of the smallest recognizable fractured zone was 0.6 m (2 ft).

  1. Borehole televiewer for fracture detection and cement evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.; Clerke, E.A.

    1991-02-12

    This patent describes a method for acoustically logging a borehole in the earth to detect anomalies in the earth formation beyond the wall of the borehole. It comprises generating a plurality of narrow beam acoustic pulses with a rotating transducer at a first location in the borehole, wherein the complete circumference of the borehole at the first location is scanned by the pulses; receiving at the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses and producing a first electrical signal; receiving at a second location vertically spaced from the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses with a single element annular thin film omnidirectional receiver and producing a second electrical signal; recording the first and second electrical signals to provide a visual display of the elapsed time between the generating of the acoustic pulses and the occurrence of reflection events from the anomalies in the first and second electrical signals; and analyzing the display to locate the position of the anomalies.

  2. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  3. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  4. Zero-Offset VSP in the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krau, Felix; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rdiger; Buske, Stefan; Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2015-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled borehole COSC-1. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this an approx. 2.5 km deep borehole, with nearly 100% core recovery, was drilled in the Scandinavian Caledonides, close to the town of re in western Jmtland/Sweden. The seismic survey consisted of a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment with receivers at the surface and in the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source (VIBSIST 3000) was used and activated over a period of 20 seconds as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. For each source point, 25 seconds of data were recorded. The wavefield was recorded in the borehole by 15 three-component receivers using a Sercel Slimwave geophone chain with an inter-tool spacing of 10 meters. The ZVSP was designed to result in a geophone spacing of 2 meters over the whole borehole length. The source was about 30 meters away from the borehole and thus, provides a poor geometry to rotate 3C-data in greater depths. For this reason, a check shot position was defined in about 1.9 km distance to the borehole. With this offset shots, it is possible to rotate the components of the 3C receivers and to concentrate the S-wave energy on one component and thus, increase the signal-to-noise ratio of S-wave events. This offset source point was activated periodically for certain depth positions of the geophone chain. The stacked ZVSP-data show a high signal-to-noise ratio and good data quality. Frequencies up to 150 Hz were recorded. On the vertical component, clear direct P-wave arrivals are visible. Several P-wave reflections occur below 1600 meters depth. After rotating the components, further processing steps will be applied to sharpen the signal shape by signal deconvolution and to separate the upgoing and downgoing wavefields by f-k-filtering. P- and S-wave velocities as well as reflection events will be compared to available information from logging and geological interpretation of the drilled cores.

  5. New Insights into Crustal Attenuation from Deep Borehole Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejean, S. G.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Imanishi, K.; Ito, H.; Stork, A.

    2003-12-01

    Teleseismic and regional attenuation studies commonly find that S-waves are more attenuated than P-waves. Four recent studies that have estimated Q as part of the process of determining local earthquake source parameters using data recorded in deep boreholes (800 m to 2500 m), however, find the opposite result for ray paths that sample the seismogenic crust: P-waves are more strongly attenuated than S-waves. The difference in Qs/Qp between the borehole, regional, and teleseismic studies reflects the depth dependence of attenuation in the crust. In this presentation, we summarize attenuation measurements from the SAFOD Pilot Hole in Parkfield, California, the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) in eastern California; the Cajon Pass borehole in southern California; and the Ontake borehole in western Nagano, Japan, and we discuss the implications these measurements have for physical properties of the seismogenic crust. The seismometers in all four boreholes were installed well below the water table in competent basement rock and were used to observe nearby earthquakes with focal depths from 2 to 10 km. At all sites S-waves are less attenuated than P-waves (Qs/Qp = 1.2-2). The ratio Qs/Qp does not vary systematically with the overall degree of attenuation; at Cajon Pass Qp 900 and at SAFOD Qp 250, yet Qs/Qp = 1.2 in both areas. In the case of Ontake, the only site where frequency dependent attenuation was estimated, Qs/Qp also does not vary with frequency. Furthermore, at all sites, neither Qp nor Qs varies systematically with corner frequency, as it would were Q to have a strong frequency dependence. Because these four boreholes are located in widely varying tectonic and lithologic environments, Qs>Qp may be a common property of the Earth's crust in the 1-10 km depth range. The two boreholes in geothermally active provinces that we have studied have higher Qs/Qp ratios than the other sites (LVEW Qs/Qp 2 and western Nagano Qs/Qp 1.7 versus Cajon Pass and SAFOD Qs/Qp 1.2). Theoretical calculations and laboratory rock mechanics experiments suggest that Qs/Qp reaches a maximum of 2-2.5 when pore spaces are 70-90% saturated (see Winkler and Nur, Geophysics, 1995 V. 47, p.1 for summary). Although it is not clear if these rock-physics observations are applicable to the crust at seismogenic depths, they suggest that pore spaces are not fully saturated. Particularly high Qs/Qp in Long Valley Caldera and Ontake might reflect the presence of a steam phase trapped in pore spaces.

  6. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

  7. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  8. Mapping Uncertainty in the Borehole Method of Climate Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. G.; Chapman, D. S.; Harris, R. N.

    2002-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about surface ground temperatures (SGT) a region has experienced in the past, and therefore provide complementary information to the more customary surface air temperature (SAT) record of climate change. Using temperature-depth measurements from boreholes, researchers have been able to extend local, regional, and hemispheric estimates of surface temperature variations by several centuries. The borehole method relies on the conduction of heat in the upper few hundred meters of the earth's crust; mathematically, conduction is a compressive (information losing) mapping. When solving the inverse heat conduction problem (reconstructing SGT from temperature-depth measurements), one is forced to deal with the non-uniqueness issues this compressive mapping creates. Several researchers have suggested that the most robust mean of dealing with the uniqueness problem is to limit the number of parameters in the solution. Taken to the extreme, this means using the temperature-depth information (in connection with the SAT record) to find a single parameter, the pre-observational mean temperature (POM). Alternatively, one can seek to parameterize SGT changes in terms of rates of change over long time periods (century intervals), the few-parameter estimation technique of Huang et al. [1996]. However, even when only a limited number of parameters are sought in the inversion, a certain amount of a priori information must be assumed. We are interested in how uncertainties in this a priori information are mapped into uncertainties in the solution. We perform numerical simulations to investigate how uncertainties in borehole temperature-depth measurements, data reduction parameters, SAT records, and thermal constraints (all used as a priori information in recovering a POM from a temperature-depth log) are mapped into the solution space of the borehole method of climate reconstruction.

  9. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  10. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzlez-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  11. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzlez-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  12. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the pressure-tightness and the functionality of the hydraulic system components of the borehole device. To monitor the prototype four cameras and several moisture sensors were installed along the source and receiver units close to the extendable coupling stamps where an infiltration of fluid is most probably. The tests lasted about 48 hours each. It was possible to extend and to retract the coupling stamps of the prototype up to a depth of 2100 m. No infiltration of borehole fluids in the SPWD-tool was observed. In preparation of the acoustic calibration measurements in the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg seismic sources and receivers as well as the recording electronic devices were installed in the SPWD-wireline prototype at the GFZ. Afterwards, the SPWD-borehole device was transported to the GFZ-Underground-Lab and preliminary test measurements to characterize the radiation pattern characteristics have been carried out in the newly drilled vertical borehole in December 2013. Previous measurements with a laboratory borehole prototype have demonstrated a dependency of the radiated seismic energy from the predefined amplification direction, the wave type and the signal frequencies. SPWD is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry

  13. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of interfacial seismoelectric effects that appear to be caused by the arrival of the P-wave at the water table located 3 to 14 m below surface. The signals can be observed arriving simultaneously across dipoles located up to 20 m below the water table and are also detected by dipoles located at surface. Polarity reversals are observed 5 to 11 m below the water table at the three sites. These reversals may be explained by our 2 m dipole receivers passing inside a vertical electric dipole produced by seismoelectric conversion, and thereby provide compelling new evidence in support of existing models for the generation of seismoelectric effects at interfaces.

  14. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  15. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  16. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clemo, T.; Barrash, W.; Reboulet, E.C.; Johnson, T.C.; Leven, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  17. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements.

    PubMed

    Clemo, Tom; Barrash, Warren; Reboulet, Edward C; Johnson, Timothy C; Leven, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. PMID:19341370

  18. Coseismic Offsets on PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Real, or Spurious?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, A. J.; Agnew, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    We have observed coseismic strain offsets during many significant earthquakes, at all locations in the 74-instrument PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network. The M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 induced the largest offsets thus far, on BSMs located within the San Jacinto fault zone - the "Anza cluster". Here we present analyses of trends in the observed offsets for the Anza cluster, as well as inspection of their inferred borehole lithology. We find that offsets rarely agree with elastic dislocation theory in magnitude and sign, and speculate that they are controlled more by localized geologic constraints than by triggered fault slip, as has been suggested in previous studies (e.g. Linde and Johnson, 1989).

  19. Deriving historical total solar irradiance from lunar borehole temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Ohmura, Atsumu

    2008-01-01

    We study the feasibility of deriving historical TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) from lunar borehole temperatures. As the Moon lacks Earth's dynamic features, lunar borehole temperatures are primarily driven by solar forcing. Using Apollo observed lunar regolith properties, we computed present-day lunar regolith temperature profiles for lunar tropical, mid-latitude, and polar regions for two scenarios of solar forcing reconstructed by Lean (2000) and Wang et al. (2005). Results show that these scenarios can be distinguished by small but potentially detectable differences in temperature, on the order of 0.01 K and larger depending on latitude, within ~10 m depth of the Moon's surface. Our results provide a physical basis and guidelines for reconstructing historical TSI from data obtainable in future lunar exploration.

  20. Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  1. Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Nai-Hsien (Castro Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  2. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  3. Enhancement of Network Performance through Integration of Borehole Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korger, Edith; Plenkers, Katrin; Clinton, John; Kraft, Toni; Diehl, Tobias; Husen, Stephan; Schnellmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the detection and characterisation of weak seismic events across northern Switzerland/southern Germany, the Swiss Digital Seismic Network has installed 10 new seismic stations during 2012 and 2013. The newly densified network was funded within a 10-year project by NAGRA and is expected to monitor seismicity with a magnitude of completeness Mc (ML) below 1.3 and provide high quality locations for all these events. The goal of this project is the monitoring of areas surrounding potential nuclear waste repositories, in order to gain a thorough understanding of the seismotectonic processes and consequent evaluation of the seimsic hazard in the region. Northern Switzerland lies in a molasse basin and is densely populated. Therefore it is a major challenge in this region to find stations with noise characteristics low enough to meet the monitoring requirements. The new stations include three borehole sites equipped with 1 Hz Lennartz LE3D-BH velocity sensors (depths between 120 and 160 m), which are at critical locations for the new network but at areas where the ambient noise at the surface is too high for convential surface stations. At each borehole, a strong motion seismometer is also installed at the surface. Through placing the seismometers at depth, the ambient noise level is significantly lowered - which means detection of smaller local and larger regional events is enhanced. We present here a comparison of the performance of each of the three borehole stations, reflecting on the improvement in noise compared to surface installations at these sites, as well as with other conventional surface stations within the network. We also demonstrate the benefits in the operation network performance, in terms of earthquakes detected and located, which arise from installing borehole stations with lower background noise.

  4. Use of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter to delineate groundwater producing fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Moore, G.K.; Clapp, R.B. ); Young, S.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Ground water flow on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) is dominated by permeable fractures within the relatively impermeable rocks. It is possible to detect the fractures which intersect a borehole using conventional logging tools (electrical, sonic, acoustic televiewer, caliper, temperature), but not with any certainty which of these fractures are permeable and are part of a connected network. This poses a problem for the groundwater modeler. Should all known fractures be included in the model Only major fractures

  5. Fracture analysis in borehole acoustic images using mathematical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Aldenize; Guerra, Carlos Eduardo; Andrade, André

    2015-06-01

    Fracture analysis is a geological task that treats so-called fracture attributes (location, direction (strike), slope (dip), and aperture) of the fractures that cross the borehole. It can be performed by direct measures on drill cores or interpreted on acoustic or electromagnetic images of the borehole wall. This activity has gained more importance in Brazil with the recent exploration of carbonate reservoirs of the Brazilian pre-salt. The acoustic imaging logging tool creates two images, the amplitude and the travel time. Only the amplitude image, which reflects the acoustic impedance of the borehole wall, is used to perform the fracture analysis. However, some misinterpretations may occur due to the qualitative nature of this interpretation being very dependent on the geologist’s expertise. Thus, we present a method of performing automation of the fracture analysis using acoustic amplitude images. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, we present a mathematical model for the acoustic amplitude images along the borehole trajectory crossed by fractures. This model involves all fracture attributes in the generation of the images and is used to validate the results of fracture analysis. The second part presents the method for automatic fracture analysis. This method is composed of two stages. The first one performs fracture identification using an algorithm based on the mathematical morphology, which acts as an edge-detection tool that delimits the fracture region in the acoustic amplitude images. In the second stage, we apply an interpolating polynomial over the image region previously identified as fracture to extract the fracture attributes. The evaluation of this methodology is performed with synthetic images generated by the presented model that supports the results of the automatic fracture analysis performed using real acoustic amplitude images.

  6. Cymrite as an indicator of high barium activity in the formation of hydrothermal rocks related to carbonatites of the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokhtina, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Voloshin, A. V.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Bogdanova, A. N.; Moiseev, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Cymrite, BaAl2Si2O8 nH2O, is a rare mineral formed during low-grade dynamothermal metamorphism ( T = 250-300C, P = 1-3 kbar). Cymrite has been described from many metasedimentary ores and hydrothermal rocks. In carbonatites, it has been found for the first time. Cymrite has been identified in the Kovdor and Seblyavr massifs, Kola Peninsula. In Kovdor, this mineral has been described from one of the hydrothermal veins cutting the pyroxenite-melilitite-ijolite complex at the Phlogopite deposit; cymrite is associated with thomsonite, calcite, and stivensite. In the Seblyavr pluton, cymrite occurs in thin veins of calcite carbonatite that cut pyroxenite contacting with ijolite. Cymrite from the Seblyavr pluton is associated with calcite, natrolite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. The mineral is optically negative and uniaxial, with extinction parallel to elongation; ? 1.607(1). According to X-ray diffraction data, cymrite from Seblyavr is monoclinic, space group P1 m1; unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.33, b = 36.96, c = 7.66 , ? = 90, V = 1510.55 3. According to the results of IR spectroscopy, in the series of samples from different massifs (in the running order Kovdor-Voishor-Seblyavr), the double-layer deformation is enhanced and accompanied by a decrease in the Si-O-Si angle and weakening of hydrogen bonds of interlayer water. The empirical formulas of cymrite calculated from electron microprobe analyses are Ba0.93-0.95Ca0.01-0.02K0.00-0.05Na0.02-0.04Al1.97-2.01Si1.99-2.03O8(H2O) and Ba1.00-1.02Ca0.00-0.01Sr0.00-0.01Fe0.00-0.01Al1.94-2.00Si1.98-2.03O8(H2O) at Seblyavr and Kovdor, respectively. Cymrite from the carbonatite massifs of the Kola Peninsula was formed under hydrothermal conditions at low temperature (200-300C), high activity of Ba and Si, and high water pressure. At Kovdor, the mineral crystallized directly from the residual solution enriched in Ba. The sequence of mineral deposition is as follows: thomsonite-cymrite-calcite-stevensite. Cymrite from the Seblyavr pluton is a product of hydrothermal alteration of primary Na-K-Ba silicates of ijolite: nepheline, feldspar, and probably celsian. Natrolite replaces cymrite indicating high alkalinity of late hydrothermal fluids.

  7. Quantifying Water Flow And Contaminant Flux In Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.; Cho, J.; Rao, S.; Parker, B.; Cherry, J.

    2001-12-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring both contaminant and groundwater flux in aquifers. The method uses a sorptive permeable media that is placed either in a borehole or monitoring well to intercept contaminated groundwater and release resident tracers. The material is packed in a permeable sock and inserted into the borehole for a specified period of time. The sock is then removed and subsampled to analyze for tracers and contaminants. By quantifying the fraction of resident tracer lost and the mass of contaminant sorbed, contaminant flux and groundwater flow can be calculated. This approach requires knowledge of the tracer and contaminant partitioning or sorption characteristics with the media and an estimate of the media and aquifer permeability contrast. The method has been laboratory tested using both liquid hydrocarbon and activated carbon as the sorptive media. This method has also been field tested at the Borden research site in Canada. The field tests were conducted in a TCE/PCE plume that resulted from a controlled release of a DNAPL mixture. The contaminant flux is compared with estimates based on multilevel samplers located 1 m down gradient of the fully screened wells used for the borehole flux tests.

  8. Hydraulic conductivity explored by factor analysis of borehole geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szab, Norbert Pter

    2015-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method is presented for providing hydrogeological information on groundwater formations. Factor analysis is applied to borehole logs in Hungary and the USA to estimate the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity of rocks intersected by the borehole. Earlier studies showed a strong correlation between a statistical variable extracted by factor analysis and shale volume in primary porosity rocks. Hydraulic conductivity as a related quantity can be derived directly by factor analysis. In the first step, electric and nuclear logs are transformed into factor logs, which are then correlated to hydraulic properties of aquifers. It is shown that a factor explaining the major part of variance of the measured variables is inversely proportional to hydraulic conductivity. By revealing the regression relation between the above quantities, an estimate for hydraulic conductivity can be given along the entire length of the borehole. Synthetic modeling experiments and field cases demonstrate the feasibility of the method, which can be applied both in primary and secondary porosity aquifers. The results of factor analysis show consistence with those of the Kozeny-Carman method and hydraulic aquifer tests. The application of the statistical analysis of well logs together with independent ground geophysical and hydrogeological methods serves a more efficient exploration of groundwater resources.

  9. Waterflood monitoring using borehole self-potential data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atshan, Imad O.

    A cross-hole imaging technique is developed to follow the evolution of an oil-water encroachment front over time during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. I simulate borehole electric potentials associated with a two-phase flow between two wells in a heterogeneous reservoir. The flow of the water phase generates a source (streaming) current density, which is responsible for the occurrence of an electrical field that can be measured remotely. I develop a least-squares static inversion algorithm, a time-lapse inversion algorithm and a differential inversion algorithm to invert a set of snapshots of the electrical potential distribution in a borehole in order to localize and monitor the position and shape of the oil-water encroachment front. I demonstrate through a synthetic case study that the magnitude of the electric signal can reach up to hundreds of millivolts, and that the position and the shape of the oil-water encroachment front can be successfully recovered while it is still tens to hundreds of meters away from the well where the sensors are located. Such information could be part of an intelligent feedback system between borehole monitoring and flow-control that optimizes injection and production in a producing reservoir.

  10. Borehole Breakouts in Berea Sandstone Reveal a New Fracture Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, B. C.

    - Vertical drilling experiments in high-porosity (22% and 25%) Berea sandstone subjected to critical true triaxial far-field stresses, in which ?H (maximum horizontal stress) >?v (vertical stress) >?h (least horizontal stress), revealed a new and non-dilatant failure mechanism that results in thin and very long tabular borehole breakouts that have the appearance of fractures, and which counterintuitively develop orthogonally to ?H. These breakouts are fundamentally different from those induced in crystalline rocks, as well as limestones and medium-porosity Berea sandstone. Breakouts in these rocks are typically dog-eared in shape, a result of dilatant multi-cracking tangential to the hole and subparallel to the maximum far-field horizontal stress ?H, followed by progressive buckling and shearing of detached rock flakes created by the cracks. In the high-porosity sandstone a narrow layer of grains compacted normal to ?H is observed just ahead of the breakout tip. This layer is nearly identical to ``compaction bands'' observed in the field. It is suggested that when a critical tangential stress concentration is reached along the ?h spring line at the borehole wall, grain bonding breaks down and a compaction band is formed normal to ?H. Debonded loose grains are expelled into the borehole, assisted by the circulating drilling fluid. As the breakout tip advances, the stress concentration ahead of it persists or may even increase, extending the compaction band, which in turn leads to breakout lengthening.

  11. Experimental measurements of seismoelectric signals in borehole models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An experimental system is built for the electrokinetic measurements with a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer (1 MS s-1, 22 bits). The acoustic and seismoelectric experiments are carried out in different borehole models at the high frequency of 90 kHz in the laboratory. All the localized seismoelectric signals that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are first clearly observed with a monopole source in sandstone boreholes that are saturated by tap water. The amplitudes of these signals are measured in the range of 1-120 μV, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. Then the amplitude ratio of electric signal to acoustic pressure (REP) for each of the three waves is calculated and compared with the theoretical simulations. Based on the experimental data, we find that seismoelectric logging signals as well as REP become stronger at the more permeable borehole model. We also find that seismoelectric logging signals are more sensitive to permeability and porosity compared with acoustic logging signals. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and further indicates that the seismoelectric logging technique might be a preferable method to estimate formation parameters in the field measurements.

  12. Comparison of climate model simulated and observed borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.; Stevens, M. B.; Beltrami, H.; Goosse, H.; Rath, V.; Zorita, E.; Smerdon, J.

    2009-04-01

    Advances in understanding climate variability through the last millennium lean on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Progress in the integration of both approaches can potentially provide new means of assessing confidence on model projections of future climate change, of constraining the range of climate sensitivity and/or attributing past changes found in proxy evidence to external forcing. This work addresses specifically possible strategies for comparison of paleoclimate model simulations and the information recorded in borehole temperature profiles (BTPs). First efforts have allowed to design means of comparison of model simulated and observed BTPs in the context of the climate of the last millennium. This can be done by diffusing the simulated temperatures into the ground in order to produce synthetic BTPs that can be in turn assigned to collocated, real BTPs. Results suggest that there is sensitivity of borehole temperatures at large and regional scales to changes in external forcing over the last centuries. The comparison between borehole climate reconstructions and model simulations may also be subjected to non negligible uncertainties produced by the influence of past glacial and Holocene changes. While the thermal climate influence of the last deglaciation can be found well below 1000 m depth, such type of changes can potentially exert an influence on our understanding of subsurface climate in the top ca. 500 m. This issue is illustrated in control and externally forced climate simulations of the last millennium with the ECHO-G and LOVECLIM models, respectively.

  13. Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforov, A.

    The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

  14. Brine resistance of window materials for a Borehole Televiewer tool

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The Borehole Televiewer is a data logging tool that was developed to inspect boreholes and evaluate geological formations. Window failures were observed after the manufacturer of the tool replaced the elastomeric windows with windows made from polyimide (Vespel), a plastic material noted for its high thermal stability. In this work, it was demonstrated that while Vespel was quite stable thermally at 250/sup 0/C in an inert environment (argon), stress cracking occurred in the presence of brine at these temperatures over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Somewhat longer exposures to brine (24 hours) at 260/sup 0/C and 20.7 MPa resulted in extensive chemical reversion of polyimides. Acids and amines were detected by infrared analysis. In contrast, the mechanical and chemical properties of Teflon (poly(tetrafluorethylene)) were unaffected after exposure to brine under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, it was recommended that acoustic windows for the Borehole Televiewer be made of Teflon. It was also recommended that the configuration of the window be modified to allow for the tendency of Teflon to flow under stress.

  15. Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

  16. Sampling technology for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    Exploiting gas hydrate is based on sample drilling, the most direct method to evaluate gas hydrates. At present, the pressure-tight core barrel is a main truth-preserving core sampling tool. This paper puts forward a new gas hydrate-borehole bottom freezing sampling technique. The new sampling technique includes three key components: sampler by borehole bottom freezing, mud cooling system and low temperature mud system. The sampler for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing presents a novel approach to the in-situ sampling of gas hydrate. This technique can significantly reduce the sampling pressure and prevent decomposition of the hydrate samples due to the external cold source which may freeze the hydrate cores on the bottom of borehole. The freezing sampler was designed and built based on its thermal-mechanical properties and structure, which has a single action mechanism, control mechanism and freezing mechanism. The technique was tested with a trial of core drilling. Results demonstrate that the new technique can be applied to obtain freezing samples from the borehole bottom. In the sampling process of gas hydrate, mud needs to be kept at a low temperature state to prevent the in-situ decomposition of the hydrate if the temperature of mud is too high. Mud cooling system is an independent system for lowing the temperature of mud that returns to the surface. It can cool mud rapidly, maintain its low temperature steadily, and ensure the temperature of the inlet well mud to meet the gas hydrate drilling operation requirement. The mud cooling system has been applied to the drilling engineering project in the Qilian mountain permafrost in northwest China, and achieved the gas hydrates in permafrost. The ordinary mud could not meet the requirements of good performance at low temperature. Low temperature mud system for NaCl and KCl is developed, whose resistance to the temperature is as low as 20 below zero.In-situ sampling of gas hydrates can be achieved through combination of these three key components.

  17. Anisotropy-induced coupling in borehole acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Andrew N.; Sinha, Bikash K.

    1996-07-01

    The guided wave modes of a circular borehole in a weakly anisotropic formation are composed of linear superpositions of the associated modes for an isotropic formation. At moderate frequencies the major modes of concern are the quasi-Stoneley and quasi-flexural modes. These guided modes in anisotropic formations can be estimated from a perturbation analysis in terms of the unperturbed solutions for an isotropic formation. When the formation anisotropy is of monoclinic or lower symmetry, the normal and shear stresses become functions of both normal and shear strains through some additional anisotropic constants that are not present in materials with orthorhombic or higher symmetry. These additional elastic constants cause a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Under these circumstances, an on-axis monopole or dipole source excites both modes. Coupling coefficients account for the excitation of quasi-flexural motion by a monopole source, and of the quasi-Stoneley mode by a dipole. A transversely isotropic (TI) formation with its symmetry axis obliquely inclined with the borehole exhibits monoclinic symmetry in its rotated constants referred to the borehole axis. The monoclinic symmetry of the surrounding formation in such cases causes a coupling between the Stoneley and flexural modes. Computational results show that a borehole inclined at an angle of 60 from the symmetry axis of Austin chalk, a slow TI medium, exhibits coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural mode acceleration amplitudes of the order of 20 dB or less in the frequency range of interest. A similar obliquely inclined borehole in Bakken shale, a fast TI formation, exhibits a far weaker coupling between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural modes. The stronger coupling in the case of Austin chalk is a result of relatively large anisotropic constants together with close proximity of the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural dispersions. On the other hand, weaker coupling in Bakken shale is caused by relatively small anisotropic constants and a large separation between the Stoneley and qSV-polarized flexural dispersions in the moderate frequency range of interest.

  18. Stress orientation on the Norwegian continental shelf derived from borehole failures observed in high-resolution borehole imaging logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudy, Martin; Kjrholt, Halvor

    2001-07-01

    Knowledge of stress orientation is crucial for the understanding of many processes in the earth's crust such as tectonic development, earthquake occurrence, and fluid transport along faults. In the case of the Norwegian continental shelf, which is a prolific area for hydrocarbon production, this knowledge also plays an important role for engineering decisions with respect to wellbore stability and reservoir management. Therefore, data on stress orientation have been collected extensively over the past few years in this region. However, nearly all data published for the Norwegian continental shelf for depths less than 6 km are based on the evaluation of four-arm caliper data, a method with intrinsic limitations. For greater depths stress orientation is derived from earthquake focal plane mechanisms. This article presents stress orientation data derived from an extensive set of image logs throughout the Norwegian continental shelf. The analysis is based on the identification of compressive and tensile failures of the borehole wall in electrical and acoustic borehole imaging logs. This method for the determination of the stress orientation is found to be highly reliable and capable of delivering detailed and accurate results, and thus is far superior to the analysis of breakouts from four-arm caliper logs. The analysis of image logs shows that the stress orientation is consistent both regionally and with depth. Strong variations in stress orientation, which are often interpreted from earlier analyses of four-arm caliper data, are not observed. This may indicate that some of the earlier four-arm caliper analyses may have been biased by the misinterpretation of drilling-induced artefacts as stress-induced breakouts. Stress-induced failures of the borehole wall are observed in only about 40% of the wells analysed in this paper. This does not support the conclusion that the horizontal stresses are isotropic. It just indicates that the stress difference in combination with the borehole conditions (downhole pressure and temperature) was insufficient to induce these failures.

  19. Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikstrm, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

    2004-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other as a receiver (Rx) and they were lowered into the holes opposite each other. The Tx was operated in single shot mode, where an electromagnetic pulse was propagated and the time it took to penetrate the soil matrix and be detected by the Rx was measured. To allow for tomographic reconstruction of the vertical roots, a series of vectors were created by raising and lowering the antennas at intervals of 5 cm. Then the antennas were moved to opposite holes and the process was repeated creating 3200 unique travel-paths per tree. Borehole to surface measures were collected in a similar fashion, though the Rx was moved across the soil surface (10 cm interval) and the Tx was manipulated below ground (5 cm interval), generating 2400 unique travel-paths per tree. This is the first report of using borehole radar to study vertical tree roots. Cross-hole tomography provided excellent information on the depth of tree roots, but was less useful for imaging near surface features. Borehole to surface measures provided the best information on the near surface, where the bulk of roots are found (0-0.3 m). Cross-hole and borehole to surface data may be combined to further define vertical roots systems. Analysis of root mass and projected root mass is ongoing.

  20. Global lightning formation at a minimum and maximum of solar activity according to the observations of the Schumann resonance on the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloglazov, M. I.; Akhmetov, O. I.

    2010-12-01

    On the basis of the two-component measurements of the atmospheric noise electromagnetic field on the Kola Peninsula, a change in the first Schumann resonance (SR-1) as an indicator of global lightning formation is studied depending on the level of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). It is found that the effect of GCRs is most evident during five months: in January and from September to December; in this case the SR-1 intensity in 2001 was higher than the level of 2007 by a factor of 1.5 and more. This effect almost disappears when the regime of the Northern Hemisphere changes into the summer regime. It is assumed that an increase in the GCR intensity results in an increase in the lightning occurrence frequency; however, the probability that the power of each lightning stroke decreases owing to an early disruption of the charge separation and accumulation processes in a thundercloud increases; on the contrary, a decrease in the GCR intensity decreases lightning stroke occurrence frequency and simultaneously increases the probability of accumulating a higher energy by a thundercloud and increasing the lightning power to the maximum possible values.

  1. Attenuation of free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth after the M = 9 Earthquake in Sumatra and the super-deep Earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk: I. the Admissible Q-factor range for the fundamental mode and overtones of the free spheroidal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskaya, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    The problem of reconstructing the depth distribution of density and the depth and frequency dependences of the mechanical Q-factor in the Earth's mantle from the entire set of the present-day seismic and astrometric data on the travel times and periods of seismic waves and the amplitudes and phases of forced nutations is considered. The solution of the problem is refined by including the new data about the attenuation of the free oscillations of the Earth excited by the Sumatra earthquake ( M = 9) and super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk. The actual accuracy of the Q-factor is studied in the first part of the paper. To this end, we analyze (1) the convergence of the Q-factor estimated from the time series of different length shifted along the time axis and (2) the convergence of the results based on the different data. Since the accuracy of identifying all the periods and attenuation factors for the free oscillations from the Sumatra earthquake is significantly higher than for the earthquake with M = 9 in Japan, the data are only compared for the Sumatra and Okhotsk events. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is analyzed based on the records from different Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations including the station in Obninsk, the Kurchatov station in Kazakhstan, and the main ERM and MAJO stations in Japan. It is found that the highest SNR was observed in Obninsk. The inverse problem of reconstructing the density and Q-factor is solved for the frequency dependent real parts of the shear moduli with allowance for the most accurate data about the attenuation factors for the fundamental spheroidal modes of the free oscillations of the Earth.

  2. Borehole seismic-source radiation in layered isotropic and anisotropic media: Real data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, W.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1995-05-01

    The source and receiver boreholes in crosshole seismology are usually considered unimportant except for their effects on body wave radiation and reception patterns. The authors present counter examples by analyzing a real crosswell data set from Buckhorn, Illinois, using computer simulations. The algorithm used is a combination of the boundary element method (for the source borehole) and the borehole coupling theory (for the receiver borehole) in transversely isotropic media. They find that most of the strong events in the data are inexplicable unless both boreholes are included in the modeling. The importance of the boreholes stems from the local geology which consists of highly contrasted sedimentary rocks. At a high-contrast interface, wave conversion is no longer a negligible secondary effect. In fact, converted waves can be stronger than the primaries.

  3. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  4. Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-24

    A method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole. The borehole is logged to determine the bulk density of the formation surrounding the borehole. The core sample is scanned with a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a plurality of cross sections along the core sample. The bulk density log is then compared with the attenuation coefficients to determine the position to which the core sample correlates in the borehole. Alternatively, the borehole can be logged to determine the photoelectric absorption of the formation surrounding the borehole, and this log can be compared with data derived from scanning the core sample with a CAT at two different energy levels.

  5. Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

  6. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  7. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured rock through 3D inversion and accurate modeling of boreholes. However, deregularization of localized features can result in significant electrical conductivity artifacts, especially when representing features with a high degree of spatial uncertainty.

  8. CORK-Lite: Bringing Legacy Boreholes Back to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, K. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Pettigrew, T.; Jannasch, H. W.; Becker, K.; Davis, E. E.; Villinger, H. W.; Bach, W.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal for Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Exp 336 to North Pond, on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 22N, is to elucidate the microbial community structure, origin, and activity within a defined geochemical, hydrological, and geological setting (Expedition 336 Scientists, 2012). The goals are to be met by conducting downhole and well-head microbiological experiments utilizing borehole observatories. The plan to achieve this goal included the modernization of an existing borehole observatory (CORK; Davis et al., 1992) at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Hole 395A, the deployment of two new CORKs (one shallow and one deep), and the recovery and analysis of sediment and basalt. After the deployment of two CORKs, one in DSDP Hole 395A and the other in a shallow crustal hole tens of meters away (Hole U1382A), the next operation was to drill, case, and instrument a deep borehole at Site U1383, about 5 km to the north-northeast. The planned deep hole at U1383B began as designed (Expedition 336 Scientists, 2012). The 20-inch casing and re-entry cone were deployed and an 18.5-inch hole was drilled through 52.8 m of sediment and into basement (67.8 meters below seafloor (mbsf)). The 16-inch casing was deployed and the borehole deepened with a 14.75-inch tri-cone bit. Unfortunately, the tri-cone bit failed at 89.9 mbsf. Given the uncertainty of successfully recovering the bit and continuing drilling of this hole, a new hole (U1383C), about 25 m away, was started and later instrumented. With the successful deployment of the CORK at Hole U1383C, it was critical to seal Hole U1383B so that the open borehole would not "short circuit" the natural regional hydrologic flow. While on IODP Exp. 336 the plan quickly evolved from a simple seal for Hole U1383B to a newly designed CORK that could be deployed by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The design and operations for this new "CORK-lite" were conceived at sea. The first step was to modify an ROV platform with strength members below the platform to guide it in place when deployed from the ship in a "free-fall" mode. The second step was to design a CORK system that could seal the borehole and in consultation with ROV pilots, make sure the design was compatible with ROV operations. Operations were successful and a new instrumented "legacy hole" are now in place in the seafloor at North Pond. The platform was built and deployed during Expedition 336; the seal and instrumentation for long-term pressure monitoring and possible fluid sampling were built later and deployed successfully with the ROV Jason four months after the expedition. The success of this program has implication for instrumentation of numerous other "legacy" holes drilled as part of DSDP/ODP/IODP for combined hydrogeological, microbiological, and geochemical experimentation.

  9. A numerical investigation of head waves and leaky modes in fluid- filled boreholes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Cheng, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Although synthetic borehole seismograms can be computed for a wide range of borehole conditions, the physical nature of shear and compressional head waves in fluid-filled boreholes is poorly understood. Presents a series of numerical experiments designed to explain the physical mechanisms controlling head-wave propagation in boreholes. These calculations demonstrate the existence of compressional normal modes equivalent to shear normal modes, or pseudo-Rayleigh waves, with sequential cutoff frequencies spaced between the cutoff frequencies for the shear normal modes.-from Authors

  10. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

  11. In-situ borehole seismic monitoring of injected CO2 at the FrioSite

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Thomas M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy funded Frio Brine Pilot provided an opportunity to test borehole seismic monitoring techniques in a saline formation in southeast Texas. A relatively small amount of CO{sub 2} was injected (about 1600 tons) into a thin injection interval (about 6 m thick at 1500 m depth). Designed tests included time-lapse vertical seismic profile (VSP) and crosswell surveys which investigated the detectability of CO{sub 2} with surface-to-borehole and borehole-to-borehole measurement.

  12. Flow modeling and permeability estimation using borehole flow logs in heterogeneous fractured formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model of flow in the vicinity of a borehole is used to analyze flowmeter data obtained with high-resolution flowmeters. The model is designed to (1) precisely compute flow in a borehole, (2) approximate the effects of flow in surrounding aquifers on the measured borehole flow, (3) allow for an arbitrary number (N) of entry/exit points connected to M < N far-field aquifers, and (4) be consistent with the practical limitations of flowmeter measurements such as limits of resolution, typical measurement error, and finite measurement periods. The model is used in three modes: (1) a quasi-steady pumping mode where there is no ambient flow, (2) a steady flow mode where ambient differences in far-field water levels drive flow between fracture zones in the borehole, and (3) a cross-borehole test mode where pumping in an adjacent borehole drives flow in the observation borehole. The model gives estimates of transmissivity for any number of fractures in steady or quasi-steady flow experiments that agree with straddle-packer test data. Field examples show how these cross-borehole-type curves can be used to estimate the storage coefficient of fractures and bedding planes and to determine whether fractures intersecting a borehole at different locations are hydraulically connected in the surrounding rock mass.

  13. Quantifying The Quality Of PBO Borehole Strainmeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Mencin, D.; Phillips, D. A.; Gallaher, W. W.; Johnson, W.; Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeter as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the Earthscope program. The quality of the borehole strainmeter data is monitored both to inform UNAVCO's field engineers of possible instrument problems and to convey to the community the level of confidence they can have in recorded signals when they incorporate the data into geophysical models. In this presentation we describe the metrics developed to track data quality and show how the results have varied since completion of the network in October 2008. The metrics are designed to assess performance across the broad range of frequencies over which a strainmeter operates: the ability to record teleseisms, the signal to noise ratio in the tidal bands, the state of compression of the borehole and the presence of offsets in the time series. Strainmeters are designed to have optimal performance at periods of minutes to days, their purpose in PBO is to provide a temporal and spatial resolution of strain transients that cannot be obtained with GPS or seismology. Embedded within a network of over 1100 continuously operating GPS sites and collocated with seismometers, the strainmeter network completes the spectrum of plate boundary deformation signals that PBO can detect. We will explore the application of techniques now standard for seismic data, power spectral density analysis, to the strain data set. Creating a spectral fingerprint for each instrument could allow identification of changes in site characteristics and enable researchers to select strainmeters that are good candidates for detecting particular strain events such as aseismic creep or Episodic Tremor and Slip strain pulses.

  14. One Year of Data of Scimpi Borehole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Moran, K.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J. B.; Riedel, M.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Pirenne, B.; Iturrino, G. J.; Masterson, W.; Furman, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-Situ (SCIMPI) is a new subseafloor observatory designed to study dynamic processes in the subseabed using a simple and low-cost approach compared to a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). SCIMPI was successfully installed at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1416 during IODP Expedition 341S in May 2013. SCIMPI is designed to measure pore pressure, temperature and electrical resistivity over time in a borehole. The first SCIMPI prototype comprises nine modules joined in a single array by flexible cables. Multiple floats keep the system taut against a sinker bar weight located on SCIMPI and resting on the bottom of the borehole. All the modules record temperature and electrical resistivity, and three are also equipped with pressure sensors. Currently, SCIMPI operates as an autonomous instrument with a data logger that is recovered using an ROV. The second recovery of the SCIMPI data logger took place during the Ocean Networks Canada maintenance cruise, Wiring the Abyss 2014, on May 25th, 2014. The pressure sensor data show a stable trend in which tidal effects are observed in through the one year deployment. The temperature measurements in all the modules became stable over time with smaller variations over the last several months. The only temperature sensor differing from this trend is the shallowest, located at 8 meters below seafloor. This module shows a sudden spike of ~20C that on April 5th, 2014, an event that was repeated several times from April 25th until recovery of modules. The electrical resistivity sensors show variations over time that could be related to gas hydrate dynamics at the Site. Interpretation of these data is speculative at this time but borehole-sealing processes as well as the formation of gas hydrate are potential processes influencing the recordings. SCIMPI will soon be connected to Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory at Clayoquot Slope node to provide real-time data from this subseafloor observatory.

  15. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  16. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  17. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  18. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  19. The PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Data Availability, Access And Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Philips, David; Fox, Otina; Henderson, Brent; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen

    2013-04-01

    Earthscope is a U.S. NSF funded program designed to provide seismic, GPS, strainmeter, fault core, LiDAR, and InSAR data to the scientific community to research the evolution and structure of the North American continent. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, is the geodetic component of the program. PBO consists of over 1100 continuous GPS sites in the western U.S. and Alaska, 6 long baseline laser strainmeters and 75 co-located borehole strainmeters and seismometers distributed in arrays along the western U.S. Pacific-North American plate boundary. In this presentation we describe how UNAVCO makes the borehole data sets available to the community and details the generation of higher-level PBO strainmeter data products. PBO borehole data flow in either real time or with a few hours delay to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) where they are immediately available in SEED format. Archiving the various data sets using the same, well-known format facilitates the integrated analysis of complementary data sets. Processed strain time-series, earth tide models, barometric pressure response coefficients, long-term borehole trends, data quality information and calibration matrices for each strainmeter are generated by UNAVCO and can accessed in XML format from the DMC and NCEDC or, as ASCII files from UNAVCO. Both formats contain the information required to regenerate the processed time-series from the raw data thus meeting an Earthscope goal of repeatability of processed data sets. UNAVCO is guided by the scientific community in determining the best data formats, archiving, access methods and data products to generate. Recommendations for future data products made in an October 2012 workshop hosted by UNAVCO include: a noise assessment of each strainmeter site, development of a physical model for long-term trends in strainmeter data and the release of high-rate processed data in a seismic data format. UNAVCO's goal is to provide researchers not only with a strain time-series but also with the data products and metadata required to meet their research goals and enable scientific discovery.

  20. An overview of CORK borehole observatory microbiology experimentation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Edwards, K. J.; Haddad, A.; Wheat, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    As CORK borehole observatories evolve in sophistication for measuring subseafloor hydrogeological conditions, they have also been co-opted and redesigned for investigating the microbiology of the subsurface. These observatories are critical for accessing the crustal subsurface, one of the largest habitats for life on Earth. We will provide an overview of the development of novel colonization devices and experimental techniques designed to study the form and function of the crustal deep biosphere, focusing on work conducted on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (warm and anoxic) and at the mid-Atlantic ridge system (cool and oxic).

  1. Angular rate and position transducer for borehole survey instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hulsing, R.H.

    1984-07-17

    A transducer for sensing the angular position or rate of change of displacement of a housing of a borehole survey instrument with respect to a reference position includes a rotor magnetically suspended within a stator which is in turn secured to the housing. The rotor is constrained by the magnetic suspension to rotate about a single axis relative to the stator. A frame of reference is established for the transducer, against which subsequent measurements are compared. Optical sensing means are included for sensing the movement of the rotor about the axis of motion to develop an indication of the angular position or rate of change of position of the housing.

  2. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for orienting the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) do not have the same orientation, the data will be essentially worthless. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  3. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  4. Transport of radon in flowing boreholes at Stripa, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. H.; Rachiele, R.; Smith, A.

    1983-03-01

    Granitic rock in an underground experimental waste storage site at Stripa, Sweden, is unusually high in natural radioelements (40 ppm uranium), with higher concentrations occurring locally in thin chloritic zones and fractures. Consequently, groundwater seeping through fractures into open boreholes is highly anomalous in its radon content, with activity as high as 1 ?Ci/1. When total count gamma-ray logs are run in boreholes where groundwater inflow is appreciable, the result is quite unusual: the radon daughter activity in the water adds considerably to the gamma contribution from the rock, and in fact often dominates the log. The total gamma activity increases where radon-charged groundwater enters a borehole and decays as the water flows along the hole in response to the hydraulic gradient. As a consequence the gamma log serves as a flow profile, locating zones of water entry (or loss) by an increase (or decrease) in the total gamma activity. If mixing within the borehole does not occur, the activity decreases exponentially along the hole away from the entry point because of the steady decay of radon and its daughter products as they migrate with the flow in the water column.This spatial decay rate can be converted to a linear flow rate since the 3.8-day half-life of radon governs the response time. For example, if the volumetric flow rate in a 76-mm hole falls within the range 0.5-50 liters per day and if observations are available from a 10-m length of hole, then the flow rate can be measured quantitatively. Proportionately higher rates can be measured if longer hole lengths are available for observation. A model for flow through a thin crack emanating radon at a rate E shows that the radon concentration of water entering a hole is E/?h, where ? is the radon decay rate and h the crack aperture, assuming that the flow rate and crack source area are such that an element of water resides within the source area for several radon half-lives or more. Using this simple relationship, independent measurements of emanation and concentration produce reasonable estimates of fracture aperture. Although uranium concentration values at Stripa are unusually high, neither the emanation coefficients nor the fracture properties appear to be unusual for granitic rock. It therefore seems likely that many granitic sites must exist where the radon content in groundwater is higher than in other geological terranes, although perhaps not as high as the microcurie per liter concentrations found at the Stripa site.

  5. Three-dimensional effects causing artifacts in two-dimensional, cross-borehole, electrical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, Robin E.; Osiensky, James L.; Binley, Andrew M.; Williams, Barbara C.

    2008-09-01

    SummaryCross-borehole electrical resistance tomography (ERT) experiments utilize downhole electrodes, typically placed in a borehole filled with material of contrasting resistivity to the host rock. The circular geometry of the boreholes is three-dimensional, and inversion routines are typically two-dimensional. Because of the resistivity contrast, artifacts in the form of borehole inversion effects develop in the resistivity images. Other 3D effects resulting in inversion artifacts are shadow effects caused by use of a 2D code to invert data from a 3D body located outside the image plane. In both cases the inversion model misrepresents the spatial change in voltages as a corresponding spatial change in resistivity. Borehole inversion effects and shadow effects result as the forward solver attempts to resolve the discrepancy in the voltages for numerous electrode pairs into a meaningful resistivity distribution. Borehole inversion effects are shown to be related to the resistivity contrast between the borehole fill and the host medium, and to borehole diameter. Borehole inversion effects do not materialize with small diameter boreholes (e.g. ?0.1 m) when the fill resistivity contrast is one order of magnitude or less; however, a borehole fill resistivity contrast of two orders of magnitude causes artifacts in the form of sheaths near the boreholes, and a conductive artifact between the boreholes. Larger diameter borehole (e.g. 0.2 m) induce significant borehole inversion effects with as little as one order of magnitude fill resistivity contrast. The general resistivity patterns are similar for the borehole inversion effects. However, the artifacts are amplified as resistivity contrast and/or borehole diameter increase. These results are significant because borehole inversion effects may mask a target heterogeneity or an artifact may be confused for an anomaly resulting in improper actions for site characterizations or remediation strategies. Suggestions of best practices for experimental design to prevent or minimize borehole inversion effects include: minimizing borehole diameter, minimizing borehole fill resistivity contrast, measuring and inputting the resistivity of the borehole fill/water into the model, and inverting changes in resistivity for time-lapse ERT data. Shadow effects are shown to be related directly to the distance of the target heterogeneity out of the image plane. Our results show that shadow effects become insignificant when the target is between 3 and 5 m outside the 10-m wide image plane. Because the size of the target and resistivity contrast of the target to the host rock are site-specific variables, the actual distance at which shadow effects become insignificant will vary from site to site. To reduce misinterpretations by shadow effects reduce the dipole length of the four electrode measurements and supplement data from other well pairs and/or other methods.

  6. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-05-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} (10{sup {minus}4} darcy to 10{sup {minus}6}). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ``heal`` or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required.

  7. Multi-barrier borehole canister designs for a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.E.; Skaggs, R.L.; Mohansingh, S.

    1994-05-01

    Initial dimensions are presented for proposed multi-barrier spent fuel borehole canisters using coated shells combined with sacrificial anodes and alkaline, oxide barriers to adjust potential and pH of the exterior shell into thermodynamically passive or immune regions of the Pourbaix diagram. Configuration of the 3 PWR canister is similar to the 1983 Site Characterization Project (SCP) borehole design. Canister dimensions were determined by using material performance data to calculate wall thickness, criticality, and sacrificial anode life. For the 3-PWR canister. Incoloy 825 is the preferred exterior canister shell material; copper-nickel alloy CDA 715 is the preferred interior canister shell material. High-lime concrete or alumina is preferred for the alkaline filler. Magnesium alloy is the preferred sacrificial anode material. Coating the canister exterior would be necessary to reduce corrosion current density to the point where a 10,000 year design life is possible. A 1 PWR canister has lower mass, thinner walls and lower criticality than the 3 PWR design. Equilibrium calculations for the historical average composition of J-13 water using the aquatic chemical speciation program WQ4F show positive saturation indices for several minerals, indicating potential for deposition on the canister exterior over long time periods. Uniform deposition could reduce corrosion rate by hindering transport of corrosion products from the canister surface. If deposition is non-uniform, local corrosion could increase through development of differential oxygen concentration cells.

  8. Development of a borehole directional antenna at VHF

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Scott, L.

    1984-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing a directional VHF (30 MH/sub z/ to 300 MH/sub z/) antenna to physically fit into a small borehole is investigated. The study was carried out in a test chamber containing a 15 cm diameter borehole surrounded by sand which can be moistened with water or brine to adjust the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. Electric field measurements were made for an eccentrically positioned monopole, a corner reflector and a two-element array for a number of possible configurations. Using an eccentric monopole, the best beamwidth obtained was 78/sup 0/ and the front-to-back ratio was 3.5 db. The front-to-back ratio was increased to 8.5 db when two element arrays were arranged in such a way as to provide the optimum radiation pattern. However, the best results were achieved using a corner reflector: 60/sup 0/ beamwidth and 13 db front-to-back ratio. It is concluded that a directional VHF antenna can be designed for downhole application.

  9. Surface and Borehole Electromagnetic Imaging of Conducting Contaminant Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, James G.

    2000-06-01

    Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The source field is a magnetic field generated by currents in wire coils. This source field is normally produced in one borehole, while the received signals are the measured small changes in magnetic field in another, distant borehole; however, the method may also be used successfully in combination with surface sources and receivers. The goal of this procedure is to image electrical conductivity variations in the earth, much as x-ray tomography is used to image density variations through cross-sections of the body. Although field techniques have been developed and applied to collection of such EM data, the algorithms for inverting the magnetic data to produce the desired images of electrical conductivity have not kept pace. Prior to this project, the state of the art in electromagnetic data inversion was based on the Born approximation (requiring a lo w contrast assumption), or extensions. However, it is known that conductivity variations in fact range over several orders of magnitude and therefore require nonlinear analysis. The goal of this project has therefore been to join theory and experiment to produce enhanced images of electrically conducting fluids underground, allowing better localization of contaminants and improved planning strategies for the subsequent remediation efforts. The resulting field system can, after some more required work on calibration and reliability, be applied directly to EM characterization and remediation problems.

  10. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  11. Climatic warming in North America: Analysis of borehole temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, D.

    1995-06-16

    The primary database used to assess climatic warming over the last 100 to 150 years is the history of surface air temperatures (SATs) as recorded on a daily basis for weather forecasting. Climatic information missing from the truncated SAT record may be found in borehole temperature profiles. Changes in ground surface temperature (GST) propagate into the subsurface, exponentially decreasing in amplitude with increasing time and depth. Studies to date have shown that changes in SAT tend to be tracted in GST changes and GST is a valid indicator of climate change. Studies of borehole temperatures provide a relatively good constraint on the total magnitude of warming; inferences concerning the date at which the warming trend began and the rate at which it proceeded are much less certain. The available evidence from both GST and SAT studies is sonsistant with a major climatic warming over the North American Continent that likely began near the middle of the 19th century in the east, later in the west. The magnitude of warming in the east estimated from changes in GST significantly exceeds that estimated from SAT. A cause and effect relationship between anthropogenic activities and climatic warming cannot be demonstrated unambiguously at the present time. 29 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  13. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Parra, Jorge O. (Helotes, TX)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  15. Coupon holder for corrosion test downhole in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.B.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a wellbore having a downhole pump at the lower end of a production tubing string, a sucker rod string positioned within a production tubing and connected to reciprocate the downhole pump, the combination with the sucker rod string of an apparatus for measuring the rate of corrosion downhole in the borehole. It comprises a main body having opposed ends, means for forming a connection at the opposed ends by which the main body is series connected within the rod string to thereby suspend the apparatus downhole in the borehole, and further comprising; an axial chamber formed by an interior wall surface in the main body; radial ports extending through a sidewall of the main body and communicating the axial chamber with the exterior of the main body; wherein, the radial ports are oblated and include a lower curved end which is sloped downwardly and outwardly with respect to the longitudinal axis whereby reciprocation of the apparatus forces well fluid to flow through the chamber into contact with the coupon; the main body being comprised of an upper member and a lower member; means threadedly attaching the upper and lower members together in a removable manner; the chamber being a bore formed in the lower member; the insulating means being mounted to an end wall of the upper member; the end wall also defining the upper end of the chamber, the coupon extending downwardly into the bore formed in the lower member.

  16. New data on the U-Pb (SHRIMP II) age of zircons from aluminous gneisses of the Archean Kola Group of the Baltic shield and the problem of their interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myskova, T. A.; Mil'kevich, R. I.; Glebovitskii, V. A.; L'vov, P. A.; Berezhnaya, N. G.

    2015-07-01

    New data on the U-Pb (SHRIMP II) age are obtained for aluminous gneisses of the Kola Group of the Baltic shield. Gneisses are typically ascribed to metasedimentary rocks with detrital zircons. Our work interprets the isotopic data based on the magmatic (tonalite) origin of gneisses and zircon that was established from study of the morphology and geochemistry of zircons. The age of crystallization of the protolith is 2.9 Ga. The existence of two stages of Archean granulite metamorphism is confirmed: an early stage (2.9 Ga) and later granulite metamorphism (2707-2656 Ma).

  17. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary prism during IODP Exp. 319 and successfully recovered during IODP Exp. 332, both cruises being part of NanTroSEIZE (Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment). The 15-months long data showed transients related to the arrival of seismic waves, storms and can further be used for detection of seismogenic strain events. Moreover, based on tidal signals in the pressure data, it was possible to make assumptions regarding the elastic properties of the surrounding formation. The SmartPlug was exchanged by an enhanced version, the GeniusPlug, which provides additional fluid sampling devices and microbiological experiments during the monitoring period. Its recovery is planned for 2013. Going one step further in simplicity, a Mini-CORK has recently developed especially designed for the portable seafloor drill rig MeBo (MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany), which can be installed without a drillship and which, due to its telemetric unit, makes costly recovery operations obsolete. The MeBo can be operated from any re-search vessel and allows coring to a depth of 70 m, which may be followed by instrumentation of the borehole with the MeBo-CORK. Two designs are available: the first design allows in situ measurement of pressure and temperature solely, whereas the second design consists of a seafloor unit including additional mission specific sensors (osmo-samlers for geochemistry and microbiology, etc.). A first field test for the MeBo-CORKs into mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin is envisaged for summer 2012 to complement IODP project NanTroSEIZE.

  18. Geological structure and ore mineralization of the South Sopchinsky and Gabbro-10 massifs and the Moroshkovoe Lake target, Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripachkin, Pavel V.; Rundkvist, Tatyana V.; Miroshnikova, Yana A.; Chernyavsky, Alexey V.; Borisenko, Elena S.

    2015-08-01

    The South Sopchinsky massif (SSM), Gabbro-10 (G-10) massif, and Moroshkovoe Lake (ML) target Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, are located at the junction of the Monchepluton and Monchetundra layered intrusions. The intrusions were studied in detail as they are targets for platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. The rocks in these targets comprise medium- to coarse-grained mesocratic to leucocratic gabbronorites, medium-grained mesocratic to melanocratic norites and pyroxenites, and various veins mainly comprising norite, plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite rocks, and quartz-magnetite rocks. The veins contain Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization associated with magnetite and chromite. In all targets, the contacts between gabbronorite and norite-pyroxenite are undulating, and the presence of magmatic (intrusive) breccias suggests that these rocks formed through mingling of two distinct magmatic pulses. In places, the gabbronorites clearly crosscut the modal layering of the norites and pyroxenites. Trace element data indicate that the gabbronorites have similar compositions to rocks of the upper part of the Monchetundra intrusion, whereas the norites and pyroxenites resemble rocks from the lower to intermediate stratigraphic levels of the Monchepluton, such as in the Nude-Poaz and Sopcha massifs. Sulfide mineralization in the studied targets principally consists of secondary bornite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. In contrast, the primary sulfide assemblage within the layered sequence of the adjacent Monchepluton is characterized by pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Therefore, the mineralization in the studied targets is interpreted to be of a contact style. We argue that the studied area represents the contact zone between gabbronorites of the Monchetundra intrusion and norites and pyroxenites of the Monchepluton. In addition, the rocks were overprinted by postmagmatic veining and remobilization of contact style sulfide and PGE mineralization.

  19. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ayepola, Omolola R; Cerf, Marlon E; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complex disease that involves increased production of free radicals which is a strong stimulus for the release of pro-inflammatory factors. We evaluated the renal protective effect of kolaviron (KV) - a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of 5 flavonoids, in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: untreated controls (C); normal rats treated with kolaviron (C+KV); untreated diabetic rats (D); kolaviron treated diabetic rats (D+KV). A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) was used for the induction of diabetes. Renal function parameters were estimated in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Markers of oxidative stress in the kidney homogenate were analyzed in a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader and Bio-plex Promagnetic bead-based assays was used for the analysis of inflammatory markers. The effect of kolaviron on diabetes-induced apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. In the diabetic rats, alterations in antioxidant defenses such as an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were observed. There was no difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Diabetes induction increased apoptotic cell death and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with no effect on IL-10. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation and increased ORAC and GSH concentration in renal tissues. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats also suppressed renal IL-1β. The beneficial effects of kolaviron on diabetes-induced kidney injury may be due to its inhibitory action on oxidative stress, IL-1β production and apoptosis. PMID:25481391

  20. Strengthening borehole configuration from the retaining roadway for greenhouse gas reduction: a case study.

    PubMed

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Nong; Feng, Xiaowei; Zheng, Xigui; Kan, Jiaguang

    2015-01-01

    A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1) of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at the depth of 5~10 m along the casing and with a distance of 2~14 m behind the coal face, while boreholes 9~11 with a special thick-walled high-strength oil casing did not fracture during the whole extraction period. The gas extraction volume is closely related to the boreholes stability. After the stability of boreholes 9~11 being improved, the average gas flow rate increased dramatically 16-fold from 0.13 to 2.21 m3/min, and the maximum gas flow rate reached 4.9 m3/min. Strengthening boreholes configuration is demonstrated to be a good option to improve gas extraction effect. These findings can make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal mining industry. PMID:25633368

  1. Temperature logging as an aid to understanding groundwater flow in boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Borehole temperatures are affected by a range of physical phenomena, including drilling and engineering procedures, thermal resistivity of the rock, surface climatic changes, local heat sources and sinks, free convection of the borehole fluid, and water flows inside the borehole. As a result, temperature logs provide unique information not available from other logs. On the other hand, because the temperature log is sensitive to a variety of phenomena, one or more of these may obscure the effect being studied. In the case where groundwater is entering the borehole at one depth and exiting at another depth (or at the surface) the temperature disturbance resulting from this flow is likely to be a prominent feature of the temperature profile of the borehole. Because of this, water flows in boreholes are often a source of noise in temperature logs, obscuring the features of interest. Recently, however, unusual groundwater behavior was noted in several boreholes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and temperature logs were run as part of a program to study this phenomenon. In this case the groundwater flow has been the feature of interest in the logs, and the logs have been useful as an aid in understanding the water flow in those boreholes.

  2. Influence of Bedding Angle on Borehole Stability: A Laboratory Investigation of Transverse Isotropic Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, T.; Rybacki, E.; Backers, T.; Dresen, G.

    2015-07-01

    The stability of wells drilled into bedded formations, e.g., shales, depends on the orientation between the bedding and the borehole axis. If the borehole is drilled sub-parallel to bedding, the risk of borehole instabilities increases significantly. In this study, we examined the formation of stress-induced borehole breakouts in Posidonia shale by performing a series of thick-walled hollow cylinder experiments with varying orientations of the bedding plane with respect to the borehole axis. The thick-walled hollow cylinders (40 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length containing an 8 mm diameter borehole) were loaded isostatically until formation of breakouts. The onset of borehole breakout development was determined by means of acoustic emission activity, strain measurements, ultrasonic velocities and amplitudes. The critical pressure for breakout initiation decreased from 151 MPa by approximately 65 % as the bedding plane inclination changed from normal to parallel to the borehole axis. The finely bedded structure in the shale resulted in an anisotropy in elasticity and strength from which the variation in strength dominated the integrity of the thick-walled hollow cylinders.

  3. Geochemistry of Samples from Borehole C3177(299-E24-21)

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, Duane G.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Parker, Kent E.

    2003-05-28

    This report contains the results of geochemical and physical property analyses of twelve samples from the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) borehole #2. The borehole is in the middle of the 200 East Area, at the northeast corner of the ILAW disposal site.

  4. Fracture-frequency prediction from borehole wireline logs using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, E.M.; Bean, C.J.; Reilly, R.

    1999-11-01

    Borehole-wall imaging is currently the most reliable means of mapping discontinuities within boreholes. As these imaging techniques are expensive and thus not always included in a logging run, a method of predicting fracture frequency directly from traditional logging tool responses would be very useful and cost effective. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) show great potential in this area. ANNs are computational systems that attempt to mimic natural biological neural networks. They have the ability to recognize patterns and develop their own generalizations about a given data set. Neural networks are trained on data sets for which the solution is known and tested on data not previously seen in order to validate the network result. The authors show that artificial neural networks, due to their pattern recognition capabilities, are able to assess the signal strength of fracture-related heterogeneity in a borehole log and thus fracture frequency within a borehole. A combination of wireline logs (neutron porosity, bulk density, P-sonic, S-sonic, deep resistivity and shallow resistivity) were used as input parameters to the ANN. Fracture frequency calculated from borehole televiewer data was used as the single output parameter. The ANN was trained using a back-propagation algorithm with a momentum learning function. In addition to fracture frequency within a single borehole, an ANN trained on a subset of boreholes in an area could be used for prediction over the entire set of boreholes, thus allowing the lateral correlation of fracture zones.

  5. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in such a manner as to prevent undue... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in such a manner as to prevent undue... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in such a manner as to prevent undue... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in such a manner as to prevent undue... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in such a manner as to prevent undue... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and...

  10. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  11. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  12. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  13. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  14. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  15. Strengthening Borehole Configuration from the Retaining Roadway for Greenhouse Gas Reduction: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Nong; Feng, Xiaowei; Zheng, Xigui; Kan, Jiaguang

    2015-01-01

    A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1) of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at the depth of 5~10 m along the casing and with a distance of 2~14 m behind the coal face, while boreholes 9~11 with a special thick-walled high-strength oil casing did not fracture during the whole extraction period. The gas extraction volume is closely related to the boreholes stability. After the stability of boreholes 9~11 being improved, the average gas flow rate increased dramatically 16-fold from 0.13 to 2.21 m3/min, and the maximum gas flow rate reached 4.9 m3/min. Strengthening boreholes configuration is demonstrated to be a good option to improve gas extraction effect. These findings can make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal mining industry. PMID:25633368

  16. 30 CFR 250.907 - Where must I locate foundation boreholes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where must I locate foundation boreholes? 250... Approval Program 250.907 Where must I locate foundation boreholes? (a) For fixed or bottom-founded platforms and tension leg platforms, your maximum distance from any foundation pile to a soil boring...

  17. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  18. Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

    1998-08-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

  19. Borehole Geologic Data for the 216-Z Crib Facilities, A Status of Data Assembled through the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.

    2006-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assembling existing borehole geologic information to aid in determining the distribution and potential movement of contaminants released to the environment and to aid selection of remedial alternatives. This information is being assembled via the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS), which is being developed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, managed by PNNL, and the Remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this particular study was to assemble the existing borehole geologic data pertaining to sediments underlying the 216-Z Crib Facilities and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Closure Zone. The primary objective for Fiscal Year 2006 was to assemble the data, complete log plots, and interpret the location of major geologic contacts for each major borehole in and around the primary disposal facilities that received carbon tetrachloride. To date, 154 boreholes located within or immediately adjacent to 19 of the 216-Z crib facilities have been incorporated into HBGIS. Borehole geologic information for the remaining three Z-crib facilities is either lacking (e.g. 216-Z-13, -14, and -15), or has been identified as a lesser priority to be incorporated at a later date.

  20. Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

  1. Low-frequency radiation from point sources in a fluid-filled borehole.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Far-field displacement fields have been derived for an impulsive point force acting on a fluid-filled borehole wall under the assumption that the borehole diameter is small compared to the wavelength involved. The displacements due to an arbitrary source can be computed easily by combining the solutions for the impulsive sources. In general, the borehole source generates not only longitudinal and vertically polarized shear waves, but also horizontally polarized shear waves. This study also indicates that only the axisymmetric motion around the borehole due to normal stress is affected by the fluid in the borehole. In the long-wavelength limit, the presence of the fluid does not affect the radiation from tangential sources into the surrounding medium. -Author

  2. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  3. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  4. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: The development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: The CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hostab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link. After a predefined period, the data unit with satellite link is released, ascends to the sea surface, and remains there for up to two weeks while sending the long-term data sets to shore. In 2012, 2 MeBoPLUGs, 1 MeBoCORK-A and 1 MeBoCORK-B were installed with MeBo in the Nankai Trough, Japan, and data were successfully downloaded from the CORKs.

  5. COSC-1 technical operations: drilling and borehole completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Bjelm, Leif; Larsson, Stellan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    COSC-1, the first out of the two planned fully cored boreholes within the COSC-project, was completed in late August 2014. Drilling was performed using the national scientific drilling infrastructure, the so called Riksriggen, operated by Lund University, and resulted in a 2495.8 m deep borehole with almost 100 % core recovery. The rig is an Atlas Copco CT20C diamond core-drill rig, a rig type commonly used for mineral exploration. A major advantage with this type of drill rig compared to conventional rotary rigs is that it can operate on very small drill sites. Thus, it leaves a small environmental footprint, in this case around 1000 m2. The rig was operated by 3 persons over 12 hour shifts. Before the core drilling started a local drilling company installed a conductor casing down to 103 m, which was required for the installation of a Blow Out Preventer (BOP). The core drilling operation started using H-size and a triple tube core barrel (HQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 96 mm and a core diameter of 61.1 mm down to 1616 m. In general, the drilling using HQ3 was successful with 100 % core recovery and core was acquired at rate on the order 30-60 m/day when the drilling wasn't interrupted by other activities, such as bit change, servicing or testing. The HRQ-drill string was installed as a temporary casing from surface down to 1616 m. Subsequently, drilling was conducted down to 1709 m with N-size and a triple tube core barrel (NQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 45 mm. At 1709 m the coring assembly was changed to N-size double tube core barrel (NQ), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 47.6 mm and the core barrel extended to 6 m. In this way precious time was saved and the good rock quality ensured high core recovery even with the double tube. In general, the drilling using NQ3 and NQ was successful with 100 % core recovery at around 36 m/day by the end of the drilling operation. The main problem during the drilling operation was caused by brand new drill rods that were bent beyond tolerance. These bent drill rods caused increased friction during drilling, resulting in an increased torque and consequently a too low RPM. Thus, drill bits wore out faster than normal. Despite of this, the target depth was reached, but later than planned to the drill bits being replaced more frequently. However, it can be concluded that the drilling operation was successful as evidenced by drilling almost 2400 m with full core recovery of top quality cores and no drilling crew accidents. The COSC-borehole is the deepest drilled hole in Sweden using H- and N-size and the deepest hole ever drilled by an Atlas Copco CT20C. The present borehole is cased down to 103 m and the rest of the hole, around 2400 m, is left as an open-hole completion.

  6. Elastic wave scattering to characterize heterogeneities in the borehole environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Hei, Chuang; Su, Yuan-Da

    2016-04-01

    Scattering due to small-scale heterogeneities in the rock formation surrounding a wellbore can significantly change the acoustic waveform from a logging measurement which in turn can be used to characterize the formation heterogeneities. This study simulates the elastic heterogeneity scattering in monopole and dipole acoustic logging and analyse the resulting effects on the waveforms. The results show that significant coda waves are generated in both monopole and dipole waveforms and the dipole coda is dominated by S-to-S scattering, which can be effectively utilized to diagnose the heterogeneity in the rock formation. The coda wave modelling and analysis were used to characterize dipole acoustic data logged before and after fracturing a reservoir interval, with significant coda wave in the after-fracturing data indicating fracturing-induced heterogeneous property change in the rock volume surrounding the borehole.

  7. Borehole-plugging-materials development program report 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A.; Buck, A.D.

    1982-03-01

    This report gives data for up to 4 yr of durability studies of grout mixtures developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Samples from field plugging oprations for the Bell Canyon Test and ERDA-10 drill hole are included in the durability studies. Specimens of all mixtures had phase compositions and microstructures that were considered normal for these mixtures at these ages. All of the specimens of the various grout mixtures (including fresh and salt water) have maintained acceptable physical properties as measured by compressive strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity, and permeability to water. Porosity and expansion data under differing exposure conditions have been collected for continuing study evaluation. The work was performed and is continuing at the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi.

  8. Upgrading the acoustic borehole televiewer for geothermal fracture mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.

    1980-09-01

    The importance of fracture characterization in geothermal logging has long been recognized. The acoustic borehole televiewer is probably the single most useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures. However, since the televiewer was developed for low temperature oil and gas exploration, it has not been capable of reliable operation at geothermal temperatures. The theory of operation of the acoustic televiewer, the problems associated with its operation at both high and low temperatures, and a program to upgrade the tool are reviewed. Major results of the program have been: (1) a high temperature acoustic transducer, (2) an improved acoustic window, (3) more reliable electronics, and (4) the elimination of troublesome slip rings.

  9. Exploring the oceanic crust deep biosphere through subsurface borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, Beth

    2015-04-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 327 and 336, several new subsurface borehole observatories were installed in oceanic crust, with a primary motivation to access the deep biosphere in these poorly understood environments. These new observatories have enabled unprecedented opportunities to collect high-quality samples for microbiological analysis, including metagenomic and single cell genomic investigations of the unique microbial communities living "on the rocks." This presentation will provide an overview of recent discoveries, focusing on the observatories on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank and highlighting adaptations to life in the subsurface gleaned from genomic approaches. The presentation will also highlight opportunities for continued observatory-based research within the International Ocean Discovery Program.

  10. Analysis of Borehole-Radar Reflection Data from Machiasport, Maine, December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole-radar reflection logs in two boreholes in Machiasport, Maine. These bedrock boreholes were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation of the area surrounding the former Air Force Radar Tracking Station site on Howard Mountain near Bucks Harbor. The boreholes, MW09 and MW10, are located approximately 50 meters (m) from, and at the site of, respectively, the locations of former buildings where trichloroethylene was used as part of defense-site operations. These areas are thought to be potential source areas for contamination that has been detected in downgradient bedrock wells. This investigation focused on testing borehole-radar methods at this site. Single-hole radar-reflection surveys were used to identify the depth, orientation, and spatial continuity of reflectors that intersect and surround the boreholes. In addition, the methods were used to (1) identify the radial depth of penetration of the radar waves in the electrically resistive bimodal volcanic formation at the site, (2) provide information for locating additional boreholes at the site, and (3) test the potential applications of borehole-radar methods for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of source-area remediation efforts. Borehole-radar reflection logging uses a pair of downhole transmitting and receiving antennas to record the reflected wave amplitude and transit time of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. For this investigation, 60- and 100-megahertz antennas were used. The electromagnetic waves emitted by the transmitter penetrate into the formation surrounding the borehole and are reflected off of a material with different electromagnetic properties, such as a fracture or change in rock type. Single-hole directional radar surveys indicate the bedrock surrounding these boreholes is highly fractured, because several reflectors were identified in the radar-reflection data. There are several steeply dipping reflectors with orientations similar to the fracture patterns observed with borehole imaging techniques and in outcrops. The radar-reflection data showed that the vitrophyre in borehole MW09 was more highly fractured than the underlying gabbroic unit. The velocities of radar waves in the bedrock surrounding the boreholes were determined using single-hole vertical radar profiling. Velocities of 114 and 125 meters per microsecond were used to determine the distance to reflectors, the radial depth of penetration, and the dip of reflectors. The bimodal volcanic units appear to be ideal for radar-wave propagation. For the radar surveys collected at this site, radar reflections were detected up to 40 m into the rock from the borehole. These results indicate that boreholes could conservatively be spaced about 15-20 m apart for hole-to-hole radar methods to be effective for imaging between the boreholes and monitoring remediation. Integrated analysis of drilling and borehole-geophysical logs indicates the vitrophyric formation is more fractured than the more mafic gabbroic units in these boreholes. There does not, however, appear to be a quantifiable difference in the radar-wave penetration in these two rock units.

  11. Processing and Visualization of Borehole data in GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrova, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    Poster deals with the advances in the research on possibilities in the field of data modelling and visualization of borehole data and derived geological data and maps in geographic information systems (GIS). Borehole data naturally contains 3D information, describing the geological structure of an area of interest. This information is very valuable for assessing the deposits of groundwater, possibilities of underground storage of CO2, for mining or civil engineering companies, or simply to better understand the geological subsurface environment. Therefore, it is strongly demanded by experts as well as the broad public to display the geological maps and models in 3D. Focus of the poster is put on the storage of data in a geodatabase, possibilities of processing the data (interpretation, classification, creation of geological cross-sections), and visualization by means of widely-used GIS software. Data model is the key aspect for an effective use of data and its visualization. The intention is to use company and international community standards as much as possible, which makes the data interoperable in community and international data infrastructures. Research works will continue further on sharing of the multidimensional data with the geological community across Europe or the whole world, which might lead to some additional modifications of the data model in terms of unification of terminology or data structure. Also, the INSPIRE directive establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe will definitely change the data model a bit - when the final documents on data specifications for geological data are available (expected during the year of 2013), the current data model will have to be revised and modified.

  12. Estimation of ground surface temperatures from borehole temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kelin

    1992-02-01

    To infer past climatic changes from temperatures measured in boreholes, one must obtain reliable estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) histories from these data. This paper presents a method that uses a Bayesian inverse technique to estimate the GST in the Fourier frequency domain. By assuming the a priori GST to be stationary, with a prescribed standard deviation and a cutoff period, the time series is constrained to be bounded and smooth. Because accounting for conductivity variations with depth is crucial to the estimation of GST, a layered Earth medium has been used, for which the forward analytical solution of one-dimensional heat conduction is available. Borehole data from Flin Flon and Lac Dufault in Canada are inverted with this method. The Flin Flon hole, logged to a depth of 2900 m, provides an opportunity to study long-term GST variations, and the estimated GST from this hole shows some effects of deglaciation at the end of Pleistocene. At Lac Dufault, similar GSTs were obtained independently from three holes ranging from 550 to 900 m, and hence the results are considered more reliable. In the Lac Dufault GSTs, there is a warm period centered about 1000 years BP and a cold period about 400 years B.P., confirming the presence of the Little Climatic Optimum and the Little Ice Age, respectively. The Flin Flon result does not show the Little Climatic Optimum, and the Little Ice Age occurs about 100-200 years earlier. However, in both locations, the GSTs show another brief cold period around the turn of the century followed by rapid warming until 1940-1950, in good agreement with the trend of northern hemisphere surface air temperatures.

  13. OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar from the KTB borehole, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guralnik, Benny; Jain, Mayank; Herman, Frdric; Ankjrgaard, Christina; Murray, Andrew S.; Valla, Pierre G.; Preusser, Frank; King, Georgina E.; Chen, Reuven; Lowick, Sally E.; Kook, Myungho; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2015-08-01

    The reconstruction of thermal histories of rocks (thermochronometry) is a fundamental tool both in Earth science and in geological exploration. However, few methods are currently capable of resolving the low-temperature thermal evolution of the upper ?2 km of the Earth's crust. Here we introduce a new thermochronometer based on the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspar, and validate the extrapolation of its response to artificial radiation and heat in the laboratory to natural environmental conditions. Specifically, we present a new detailed Na-feldspar IRSL thermochronology from a well-documented thermally-stable crustal environment at the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). There, the natural luminescence of Na-feldspar extracted from twelve borehole samples (0.1-2.3 km depth, corresponding to 10-70 C) can be either (i) predicted within uncertainties from the current geothermal gradient, or (ii) inverted into a geothermal palaeogradient of 29 2 C km-1, integrating natural thermal conditions over the last ?65 ka. The demonstrated ability to invert a depth-luminescence dataset into a meaningful geothermal palaeogradient opens new venues for reconstructing recent ambient temperatures of the shallow crust (<0.3 Ma, 40-70 C range), or for studying equally recent and rapid transient cooling in active orogens (<0.3 Ma, >200 C Ma-1 range). Although Na-feldspar IRSL is prone to field saturation in colder or slower environments, the method's primary relevance appears to be for borehole and tunnel studies, where it may offer remarkably recent (<0.3 Ma) information on the thermal structure and history of hydrothermal fields, nuclear waste repositories and hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  14. Fiber optic DTS in sealed and heated boreholes for active groundwater flow characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas; Parker, Beth; Cherry, John; Mondanos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, advances in technology have allowed temperature profiling to evolve to offer new insight into fractured rock hydrogeology. Temperature profiles in open boreholes within fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation and/or in the borehole. An advance in temperature logging makes use of precision temperature profiles collected using wireline trolling methods in a heated borehole to identify fractures with active groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. A second development is based on collecting wireline temperature profiles within a sealed borehole to eliminate short circuiting effects caused by the open borehole conduit. The borehole is temporarily sealed with a flexible impervious fabric liner so that the water column in the borehole is static and cross-connection is eliminated. Though highly precise temperature and spatial measurements are possible using these techniques, the temporal resolution is limited by the rate at which the wireline probe can be raised and lowered in the borehole. There is a need to measure temperature profiles continuously over time to characterize transient processes. Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a technique that allows for collecting temperature profiles continuously. This tool was advanced by the oil and gas industry for collecting temperature data in multi kilometer deep boreholes over relatively coarse measurement scales. In contrast, very fine spatial and temperature resolutions are needed for freshwater contaminant fractured rock hydrogeology where the scale of interest is much more acute. Recent advances in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolution of DTS systems allow this technology to be adapted well to the shallow subsurface environment. This project demonstrates the first application of DTS used in conjunction with flexible borehole liners in a heated borehole environment. The integration of DTS, active heating, and lined boreholes was tested in the context of fractured rock site characterization. DTS heat pulse tests were carried out in two boreholes located at a well characterized research site in Guelph, ON, Canada. The capabilities for long-term and high temporal resolution site monitoring and characterization from the developed methods were assessed. The results of this technique are promising and indicate evidence for identifying active groundwater flow. Advancements to the DTS heat pulse method are possible to offer further improved insight into natural groundwater flow systems.

  15. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples from borehole USGS 136 indicated that concentrations of tritium, sulfate, and chromium were affected by wastewater disposal practices at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex. Depth-discrete groundwater samples were collected in the open borehole USGS 136 near 965, 710, and 573 ft BLS using a thief sampler; on the basis of selected constituents, deeper groundwater samples showed no influence from wastewater disposal at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex.

  16. Stress-induced borehole elongation: A comparison between the four-arm dipmeter and the borehole televiewer in the Auburn geothermal well

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.A.; Hickman, S.H.

    1985-06-10

    The nature and origin of borehole elongation recorded by the four-arm dipmeter calipers is studied utilizing information obtained from hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and borehole televiewer data taken in a well located in Auburn, New York. A preferred orientation N10/sup 0/W-S10/sup 0/E, +- 10/sup 0/ and a less prominant E-W orientation of borehole elongation, was observed on two runs of the dipmeter. Comparisons of borehole geometry determined using the televiewer and the dipmeter show that both tools give the same orientation of borehole elongation provided that the zone of elongation is longer than 30 cm. Comparisons of dipmeter caliper data with orientation of in situ stress and natural fractures, obtained from hydrofracturing tests and televiewer data show that the N10/sup 0/W-S10/sup 0/E borehole elongations (1) are axisymmetric, (2) are aligned with the minimum horizontal stress S/sub h/, and (3) are not associated with natural fractures intersecting the well. These elongations are interpreted as stress-induced well bore breakouts. The E-W elongation direction is characterized by an asymmetric borehole cross section in thinly bedded rocks and is not caused by breakouts. This asymmetric geometry can be discriminated from breakouts using the oriented electric measurements provided by the dipmeter. This study demonstrates that the dipmeter can be used to determine the orientation of S/sub h/ (by mapping breakouts), confirming the results of earlier less detailed studies, and provides a firm basis for mapping regional stress patterns using existing dipmeter data.

  17. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures intersecting the boreholes indicates numerous fractures, a high proportion of steeply dipping fractures, and considerable variation in fracture orientation. Low-dip-angle fractures associated with unloading and exfoliation are also present, especially at a depth of less than 100 feet below the top of casing. These sub-horizontal fractures help to connect the steeply dipping fractures, making this a highly connected fracture network. The high variability in the fracture orientations also increases the connectivity of the fracture network. A preliminary comparison of all fracture data from all the boreholes suggests fracturing decreases with depth. Because all the boreholes were not drilled to the same depth, however, there is a clear sampling bias. Hence, the deepest boreholes are analyzed separately for fracture density. For the deepest boreholes in the study, the intensity of fracturing does not decline significantly with depth. It is possible the fractures observed in these boreholes become progressively tighter or closed with depth, but this is difficult to verify with the borehole methods used in this investigation. The fact that there are more sealed fractures at depth (observed in optical televiewer logs in some of the boreholes) may indicate less opening of the sealed fractures, less water moving through the rock, and less weathering of the fracture infilling minerals. Although the fracture orientation remained fairly constant with depth, differences in the fracture patterns for the three restoration sites indicate the orientation of fractures varies across the study area. The fractures in boreholes on Miller Mountain predominantly strike northwest-southeast, and to a lesser degree they strike northeast. The fractures on or near the summit of Howard Mountain strike predominantly east-west and dip north and south, and the fractures near the Transmitter Site strike northeast-southwest and dip northwest and southeast. The fracture populations for the boreholes on or near the summit of Howard Mountain show more variation than at the other two sites. This variation may be related to the proximity of the fault, which is northeast of the summit of Howard Mountain. In a side-by-side comparison of stereoplots from selected boreholes, there was no clear correspondence between fracture orientation and proximity to the fault. There is, however, a difference in the total populations of fractures for the boreholes on or near the summit of Howard Mountain and the boreholes near the Transmitter Site. Further to the southwest and further away from the fault, the fractures at the Transmitter Site predominantly strike northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast.Heat-pulse flowmeter (HPFM) logging was used to identify transmissive fractures and to estimate the hydraulic properties along the boreholes. Ambient downflow was measured in 13 boreholes and ambient upflow was measured in 9 boreholes. In nine other bedrock boreholes, the HPFM did not detect measurable vertical flow. The observed direction of vertical flow in the boreholes generally was consistent with the conceptual flow model of downward movement in recharge locations and upward flow in discharge locations or at breaks in the slope of land surface. Under low-rate pumping or injection rates [0.25 to 1 gallon per minute (gal/min)], one to three inflow zones were identified in each borehole. Two limitations of HPFM methods are (1) the HPFM can only identify zones within 1.5 to 2 orders of magnitude of the most transmissive zone in each borehole, and (2) the HPFM cannot detect flow rates less than 0.010 + or - 0.005 gal/min, which corresponds to a transmissivity of about 1 foot squared per day (ft2/d). Consequently, the HPFM is considered an effective tool for identifying the most transmissive fractures in a borehole, down to its detection level. Transmissivities below that cut-off must be measured with another method, such as packer testing or fluid-replacement logging. Where sufficient water-level and flowmeter data were available, HPFM results were numerically modeled. For each borehole model, the fracture location and measured flow rates were specified, and the head and transmissivity of each fracture zone were adjusted until a model fit was achieved with the interpreted ambient and stressed flow profiles. The transmissivities calculated by this method are similar to the results of an open-hole slug test; with the added information from the flowmeter, however, the head and transmissivity of discrete zones also can be determined. The discrete-interval transmissivities ranged from 0.16 to 330 ft2/d. The flowmeter-derived open-hole transmissivity, which is the combined total of each of the transmissive zones, ranged from 1 to 511 ft2/d. The whole-well open-hole transmissivity values determined with HPFM methods were compared to the results of open-hole hydraulic tests. Despite the fact that the flowmeter-derived transmissivities consistently were lower than the estimates derived from open-hole hydraulic tests alone, the correlation was very strong (with a coefficient of determination, R2, of 0.9866), indicating the HPFM method provides a reasonable estimate of transmissivities for the most transmissive fractures in the borehole. Geologic framework, fracture characterization, and estimates of hydraulic properties were interpreted together to characterize the fracture network. The data and interpretation presented in this report should provide information useful for site investigators as the conceptual site groundwater flow model is refined. Collectively, the results and the conceptual site model are important for evaluating remediation options and planning or implementing the design of a well field and borehole completions that will be adequate for monitoring flow, remediation efforts, groundwater levels, and (or) water quality. Similar kinds of borehole geophysical logging (specifically the borehole imaging, gamma, fluid logs, and HPFM) should be conducted in any newly installed boreholes and integrated with interpretations of any nearby boreholes. If boreholes are installed close to existing or other new boreholes, cross-hole flowmeter surveys may be appropriate and may help characterize the aquifer properties and connections between the boreholes.

  18. Results of rock property measurements made on core samples from Yucca Mountain boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; Part 1, Boreholes UE25A-4, -5, -6, and -7; Part 2, Borehole UE25PNo.1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    Laboratory measurements of resistivity, bulk and grain density, porosity, compressional sonic velocity, water permeability, magnetic susceptibility, and remanent magnetization were made on core samples from Yucca Mountain boreholes located in Drill Hole Wash at the Nevada Test Site. The samples are representative of lithologic variations to be found in the Tiva Canyon, Yucca Mountain, Pah Canyon, and the upper Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff. Boreholes penetrated to a depth of approximately 152 meters (500 ft.). The Paintbrush Tuff consists primarily of nonwelded to densely welded rhyolitic ash-flow tuff with relatively thin beds of ash-fall tuff typically separating each Member. Resistivity and bulk density measurements were made on samples containing natural pore waters and repeated following resaturation with local tap water. Density comparisons indicate the samples to be undersaturated in their natural environment as expected in that the boreholes did not intersect the water table.

  19. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole.

  1. Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

  2. Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, A.L.; Howard, C.L.

    1993-03-01

    Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations.

  3. E-microsatellite markers for Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) genome: validation and cross-transferability in Apiaceae family for plant omics research and development.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Devi, Kamalakshi; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) is a plant that grows in tropical swampy regions of the world and has important medicinal and culinary use. It is often considered as part of Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. The unavailability of genomics resources is significantly impeding its genetic improvement. To date, no attempt has been made to develop Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers (eSSRs) from the Centella genome. Hence, the present study aimed to develop eSSRs and their further experimental validation and cross-transferability of these markers in different genera of the Apiaceae family to which Centella belongs. An in-house pipeline was developed for the entire analyses by combining bioinformatics tools and perl scripts. A total of 4443 C. asiatica EST sequences from dbEST were processed, which generated 2617 nonredundant high quality EST sequences consisting 441 contigs and 2176 singletons. Out of 1776.5?kb of examined sequences, 417 (15.9%) ESTs containing 686 SSRs were detected with a density of one SSR per 2.59?kb. The gene ontology study revealed 282 functional domains involved in various processes, components, and functions, out of which 64 ESTs were found to have both SSRs and functional domains. Out of 603 designed EST-SSR primers, 18 pairs of primers were selected for validation based on the optimum parameter value. Reproducible amplification was obtained for six primer pairs in C. asiatica that were further tested for cross-transferability in nine other important genera/species of the Apiaceae family. Cross-transferability of the EST-SSR markers among the species were examined and Centella javanica showed highest transferability (83.3%). The study revealed six highly polymorphic EST-SSR primers with an average PIC value of 0.95. In conclusion, these EST-SSR markers hold a big promise for the genomics analysis of Centella asiatica, to facilitate comparative map-based analyses across other related species within the Apiaceae family, and future marker-assisted breeding programs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of development of EST-SSRs in Centella asiatica by in silico approaches, which offers a veritable potential in further use in plant omics research and development. PMID:25562200

  4. Synthetic Convection Log — Characterization of vertical transport processes in fluid-filled boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Susann

    2010-09-01

    Two main types of vertical convective flows play an important role in transport along the fluid column: forced convective and free convective flows. Forced vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes (short-circuit flow) can be detected by means of borehole measurements, e.g. different types of flowmeters, temperature logs, and fluid-logging. For detecting free vertical convection (natural convection), so far, no special logging device or interpretation algorithm was available. This paper presents a new synthetic borehole log, the so-called Synthetic Convection Log (SYNCO-Log). It enables in-situ detection and identification of free convective, including double-diffusive, flows using state-of-the-art geophysical borehole measurements. Vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes is known to lead to transport of heat and mass. Thus, understanding free convective flow is crucial for geothermics, borehole geophysics, hydrological investigations, and meaningful fluid sampling. The SYNCO-Log is divided into two closely linked parts: (1) the cause-oriented approach compares the situation along the fluid column with critical thresholds for the onset of free convection and (2) the effect-oriented approach separates the anomalies and patterns in fluid quality that are induced by free convection. Inputs for the interpretation algorithm are simultaneously acquired temperature and mudresistivity (or fluid conductivity) logs, hydraulic pressure, and borehole diameter. Output of the algorithm is a computer generated, descriptive illustration of the results including a classified plot for delineating the type of flow. The reliability of the SYNCO-Log is high, as causes and effects, i.e. driving forces and resulting heat and mass transport, are simultaneously identified. Its applicability and the relevance of the results are shown on the example of borehole measurements from the KTB-MH deep crustal borehole, located in the Bavarian region of Germany.

  5. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  6. Borehole field calibration and measurement of low-concentration manganese by decay gamma rays ( Maryland, USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.; Lloyd, T.A.; Tanner, A.B.; Merritt, C.T.; Force, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Mn concentration in the Arundel clay formation, Prince Georges County, Maryland, was determined from a borehole by using delayed neutron activation. Then neutrons were produced by a 100 mu g 252Cf source. The 847 keV gamma ray of Mn was detected continuously, and its counting rate was measured at intervals of 15 s as the measuring sonde was moved at a rate of 0.5 cm/s. The borehole measurements compared favourably with a chemical core analysis and were unaffected by water in the borehole.-from Authors

  7. Borehole Geophysical Data From Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund Site, Corinna, Maine, March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Bruce P.; Nichols, William J.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole-geophysical data were collected in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in seven bedrock wells at the Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund site, Penobscot County, Corinna, Maine, in March, 1999. The data were collected as part of a reconnaissance investigation to provide information needed to address concerns about the distribution and fate of contaminants in ground-water at the site. The borehole geophysical data were also needed to guide subsequent data collection associated with the development of a remediation workplan. The borehole geophysical logs collected included: natural gamma, caliper, fluid temperature, fluid conductivity, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic resistivity, spontaneous potential, and single-point resistivity.

  8. A model for classifying and interpreting logs of boreholes that intersect faults in stratified rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvany, P.S. )

    1992-06-01

    A model reveals eleven fundamental relationships between the character of well logs and the geometry of borehole-strata-fault (BSF) intersections. Within limits, the model has two important practical applications. First, it provides a convenient way to classify logs of boreholes that intersect faults in stratified rocks. The different kinds of logs are given names, which can be used in informal and formal discourse to succinctly describe faulted logs. Second, the model can be used to interpret the geometry of BSF intersections directly from well logs. Knowledge of BSF geometry can be useful in interpreting faults in structure. Persons involved in highly deviated and horizontal boreholes should find the model particularly helpful.

  9. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

  10. Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F.P.; Lane, John W.; White, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the boreholes, the foliation strikes predominantly to the northwest and dips to the northeast. Although small-scale faults and lithologic discontinuities were observed in the OTV data, no large-scale faults were observed that appear on regional geologic maps. Fractures were located and characterized through the use of conventional geophysical, OTV, acoustic-televiewer (ATV), and borehole-radar logs. The orientation of fractures varies considerably across the site; some fractures are parallel to the foliation, whereas others cross-cut the foliation. Many of the transmissive fractures in the bedrock boreholes strike about N170?E and N320?E with dips of less than 45?. Other transmissive fractures strike about N60?E with dips of more than 60?. Most of the transmissive fractures in the domestic wells strike about N60?E and N22?E with dips of more than 45?. The strike of N60?E is parallel to the trend of a thrust fault that appears on regional geologic maps. Vertical flow in the boreholes was measured with the heat-pulse flowmeter under ambient and (or) pumping conditions. Results of ATV, OTV, and conventional logs were used to locate specific zones for flowmeter testing. Ambient downflow was measured in three boreholes, ambient upflow was measured in two other boreholes, and both ambient downflow and upflow were measured in a sixth borehole. The other five bedrock boreholes and domestic wells did not have measurable vertical flow. The highest rate of ambient flow was measured in the background borehole in which upflow and downflow converged and exited the borehole at a fracture zone near a depth of 62 feet. Ambient flow of about 340 gallons per day was measured. In the other five wells, ambient flow of about 20 to 35 gallons per day was measured. Under low-rate pumping (0.25 to 1 gallon per minute), one to six inflow zones were identified in each well. Usually the fractures that are active under ambient conditions contribute to the well under pumping conditions. To prevent

  11. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jiann -Cherng; Hardin, Ernest L.

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low-profile threaded connections at each end. The internal-flush design would be suitable for loading waste that arrives from the originating site in weld-sealed, cylindrical canisters. Internal, tapered plugs with sealing filet welds would seal the tubing at each end. The taper would be precisely machined onto both the tubing and the plug, producing a metal-metal sealing surface that is compressed as the package is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. The lower plug would be welded in place before loading, while the upper plug would be placed and welded after loading. Conceptual Waste Packaging Options for Deep Borehole Disposal July 30, 2015 iv Threaded connections between packages would allow emplacement singly or in strings screwed together at the disposal site. For emplacement on a drill string the drill pipe would be connected directly into the top package of a string (using an adapter sub to mate with premium semi-flush tubing threads). Alternatively, for wireline emplacement the same package designs could be emplaced singly using a sub with wireline latch, on the upper end. Threaded connections on the bottom of the lowermost package would allow attachment of a crush box, instrumentation, etc.

  12. Breakthroughs in Seismic and Borehole Characterization of Basalt Sequestration Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E. C.; Hardage, Bob A.; McGrail, B. Peter; Davis, Klarissa N.

    2011-04-01

    Mafic continental flood basalts form a globally important, but under-characterized CO2 sequestration target. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the northwestern U.S. is up to 5 km thick and covers over 168,000 km2. In India, flood basalts are 3 km thick and cover greater than 500,000 km2. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the CRBG and other basalts react with formation water and super critical (sc) CO2 to precipitate carbonates, thus adding a potential mineral trapping mechanism to the standard trapping mechanisms of most other types of CO2 sequestration reservoirs. Brecciated tops of individual basalt flows in the CRBG form regional aquifers that locally have greater than 30% porosity and three Darcies of permeability. Porous flow tops are potential sites for sequestration of gigatons of scCO2 in areas where the basalts contain unpotable water and are at depths greater than 800 m. In this paper we report on the U.S. DOE Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership surface seismic and borehole geophysical characterization that supports a field test of capacity, integrity, and geochemical reactivity of CRBG reservoirs in eastern Washington, U.S.A. Traditional surface seismic methods have had little success in imaging basalt features in on-shore areas where the basalt is thinly covered by sediment. Processing of the experimental 6.5 km, 5 line 3C seismic swath included constructing an elastic wavefield model, identifying and separating seismic wave modes, and processing the swath as a single 2D line. Important findings include: (1) a wide variety of shear wave energy modes swamp the P-wave seismic records; (2) except at very short geophone offsets, ground roll overprints P-wave signal; and (3) because of extreme velocity contrasts, P-wave events are refracted at incidence angles greater than 7-15 degrees. Subsequent removal of S-wave and other noise during processing resulted in tremendous improvement in image quality. The application of wireline logging to onshore basalts is underexploited. Full waveform sonic logs and resistivity-based image logs acquired in the 1250 m basalt pilot borehole provide powerful tools for evaluating geomechanics and lithofacies. The azimuth of the fast shear wave is parallel to SH and records the changes through time in basalt flow and tectonic stress tensors. Combined with image log data, azimuthal S-wave data provide a borehole technique for assessing basalt emplacement and cooling history that is related to the development of reservoirs and seals, as well as the orientation of tectonic stresses and fracture systems that could affect CO2 transport or containment. Reservoir and seal properties are controlled by basalt lithofacies, and rescaled P- and S- wave slowness curves, integrated with image logs, provide a tool for improved recognition of subsurface lithofacies.

  13. Simple, affordable and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hotstab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link. After a predefined period, the data unit with satellite link is released, ascends to the sea surface, and remains there for up to two weeks while sending the long-term data sets to shore. In summer 2012, two MeBoPLUGs, one MeBoCORK-A and one MeBoCORK-B were installed with MeBo on German RV Sonne in the Nankai Trough area, Japan. We have successfully downloaded data from the CORKs, attesting that coupling to the formation worked and pressure records were elevated relative to the seafloor reference. In the near future, we will further deploy the first two MeBoPUPPIs. Recovery of all monitoring systems by ROV is planned for 2016.

  14. Drilling, logging, and testing information from borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Thamir, F.; Thordarson, W.; Kume, J.; Rousseau, J.; Long, R.; Cunningham, D.M. Jr.

    1998-09-01

    Borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 is the first of two boreholes that may be used to determine the subsurface structure at Yucca Mountain by using vertical seismic profiling. This report contains information collected while this borehole was being drilled, logged, and tested from May 27, 1992, to April 22, 1994. It does not contain the vertical seismic profiling data. This report is intended to be used as: (1) a reference for drilling similar boreholes in the same area, (2) a data source on this borehole, and (3) a reference for other information that is available from this borehole. The reference information includes drilling chronology, equipment, parameters, coring methods, penetration rates, completion information, drilling problems, and corrective actions. The data sources include lithology, fracture logs, a list of available borehole logs, and depths at which water was recorded. Other information is listed in an appendix that includes studies done after April 22, 1994.

  15. Development of a Doppler Acoustic Imaging System for Borehole Wall to Evaluate Fluid Flow Distribution around Subsurface Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Jin; Niitsuma, Hiroaki

    2001-05-01

    We are in the process of developing a doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV) which quantitatively evaluates the permeability of independent subsurface fractures in a borehole. The system employs an ultrasonic pulsed Doppler method, and is compatible with the conventional acoustic borehole imaging system called borehole televiewer (BHTV). Using the DBHTV, back-scattered waves from fine particles in the borehole fluid such as drill mud or cuttings in a water filled borehole are detected along with the reflected waves from the borehole wall, and the Doppler shift of the back-scattered waves is used to estimate the fluid velocity. A method to estimate the distribution of Doppler shift was examined using a laboratory experimental model. An attempt to locate the sampling volume and a method to quantitatively estimate the flow velocity by scanning the transducer are examined. This study shows that the location of permeable fractures, the distribution of fluid velocity and the fluid volume can be visualized using the DBHTV.

  16. Geochronological U-PB zircon dating of two ore-bearing magma pulses: stratifrom and non-stratiform bodies in the Fedorov deposit (Kola Peninsula).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitkina, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Kola Peninsula is one of the unique geological provinces both in Russia and in the world, where platinum and palladium deposits have been discovered. The highest level of noble metal concentration has been found in the ore of the Fedorov-Pana massif. Presently, the several deposits within the Fedorov block contain first hundreds of tons of estimated platinum metal resources, allowing us to ascribe the intrusion to the class of large deposits (Mitrofanov, 2005). The Fedorov-Pana massif is situated in the central part of the Kola Peninsula and is one of 14 major Early Proterozoic layered massifs of the Northern belt occurring at the border between Early Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary rift sequences and Achean basement gneisses (Zagorodny, Radchenko, 1983; Bayanova, 2004). The isotope-geochronological data corroborate the geological-petrological conclusions made on the basis of prospecting works on the polyphase history of the Fedorov-Pana massif. At present, the following ages have been defined for the different stages of the massif evolution: 2526 - 2516 Ma (Nitkina, 2006) - pyroxenite and gabbro of the Fedorov magma chamber; 2501 - 2496- 2485 Ma (Bayanova, 2004; Nitkina, 2006) - gabbro-norite and gabbro of the main phase of the West-Pana block magma chamber and early disseminated platinum-metal mineralization and relatively rich Cu-Ni sulphide mineralization in the basal part of the massif; ca. 2470 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) - pegmatoid gabbro-anothosite and, probably, fluid-associated rich platinum-metal ores of the Lower Layered Horizon (Malaya Pana deposit); ca. 2450 Ma (Bayanova, 2004) - anorthositic injections and, probably, local lens-like rich Pt-Pd accumulations of the Upper layered Horizon. The Fedorov deposit represents the western part of the massif with the exposed area of about 45 km2 and occurs as a lopolith-like body (Shissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov, 2005; Mitrofanov et al., 2005). The stratigraphy of the deposit consists of the following zones: 50-100-m-thick marginal zone composed of schists after mafic rocks; the zone of ore-bearing taxitic gabbronorite typical of the deposit and will be discussed below; 50-200-m-thick norite zone with norites and plagiopyroxenites; 200-800-m-thick gabbronorite zone, and the uppermost gabbro zone with the thickness of over 1000 m. The latter contains rare thin layers of leucocratic rock varieties and anorthosites (Shissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov et al., 2005). The Fedorov deposit is characterized by the presence of mineralized taxitic gabbronorite zone with the thickness of 150 - 300 m. The zone contains great amounts of orthopyroxenite and norite xenoliths (Shissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov et al., 2005). Besides, the stratigraphy of the Fedorov deposit includes the second-phase rocks, gabbronorites cementing the xenoliths with sulphide mineralization (Shissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov et al., 2005). This is the non-stratiform type of ore-bearing bodies, and the previously defined age for this ore-forming stage was 2485+/-9 Ma (Nitkina, 2006). The basement of the Fedorov deposit, where sulphides (2-5 vol.per.) are spread widely, but irregularly includes several low-sulphide PGE-bearing horizons occurring conformably to the massif layering. This is the stratiform type of ore-bearing bodies. The thickness of the sulphide mineralization interval varies from 10-20 to 100 m. This zone is divided into the lower and upper ore bodies with the total PGE content of about 1 ppm (Shissel et al., 2002; Mitrofanov et al., 2005; Mitrofanov, 2005). The isotope U-Pb zircon dating was made on the core samples from the upper ore body (gabbro F10-B weighing 7,35 kg), and from the lower ore body (gabbro with olivine F10-D weighing 20,5 kg). Four zircon populations from gabbro F10-B were separated from electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic fractions for isotope U-Pb dating that yielded an age of 2518+/-9 Ma. The isotope U-Pb dating of olivine gabbro F10-D was carried out on five zircon populations separated from fractions of different size; the age of the ore-bearing rocks has been estimat

  17. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES efficiency increases with increased in-pipe circulation rates; 2) BTES efficiency increases with decreasing soil thermal conductivity due to lateral heat loss from the system; and 3) BTES efficiency increases only slightly with decreasing soil permeability.

  18. Importance of neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis in relatively dry, low-porosity rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Philbin, P.W.; Boynton, G.R.; Wager, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of variations in the neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis, capture gamma-ray measurements were made in relatively dry, low-porosity gabbro of the Duluth Complex. Although sections of over a meter of solid rock were encountered in the borehole, there was significant fracturing with interstitial water leading to a substantial variation of water with depth in the borehole. The linear-correlation coefficients calculated for the peak intensities of several elements compared to the chemical core analyses were generally poor throughout the depth investigated. The data suggest and arguments are given which indicate that the variation of the thermal-to-intermediate-to-fast neutron flux density as a function of borehole depth is a serious source of error and is a major cause of the changes observed in the capture gamma-ray peak intensities. These variations in neutron energy may also cause a shift in the observed capture gamma-ray energy.

  19. Estimation of percolation flux from borehole temperature data at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

    PubMed

    Bodvarsson, G S; Kwicklis, E; Shan, C; Wu, Y S

    2003-01-01

    Temperature data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain are analyzed to estimate percolation-flux rates and overall heat flux. A multilayer, one-dimensional analytical solution is presented for determining percolation flux from temperature data. Case studies have shown that the analytical solution agrees very well with results from the numerical code, TOUGH2. The results of the analysis yield percolation fluxes in the range from 0 to 20 mm/year for most of the deep boreholes. This range is in good agreement with the results of infiltration studies at Yucca Mountain. Percolation flux for the shallower boreholes, however, cannot be accurately determined from temperature data alone because large gas flow in the shallow system alters the temperature profiles. Percolation-flux estimates for boreholes located near or intersecting major faults are significantly higher than those for other boreholes. These estimates may be affected by gas flow in the faults. PMID:12714282

  20. Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Stanley H.

    1989-01-01

    Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth.

  1. Borehole Gravity Measurements In The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. The borehole gravimetric densities matched the well logs, but the surface gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected. When the borehole observations are corrected for the observed free air gradient above ground, they produce densities which are nearly uniformly higher than log densities by about 0.07 gm/cm{sup 3}. These measurements require densities in the depth range .5 to 3 km, for a radius of a few kilometers around State 2-14 to be as dense as those found in State 2-14. Combining the borehole gravity and calculated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone covers much of a broad thermal anomaly to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

  2. Borehole Gravity Measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2-14 in the depth range 0.5 to 3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The above-ground gradient was found to be 4.1 {micro}gal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, they find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

  3. Classification of hydraulic borehole mining technological processes during pay zone development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarchuk, I. B.; Shenderova, I. V.

    2015-02-01

    Relevance of the work is defined by the need of solid mineral deposits development by hydraulic borehole mining. The main advantage of the method is that the extraction of minerals could be carried out in difficult geological conditions, excluding tunneling of mine workings and quarries construction. The article presents a generalized and systematic classification of hydraulic borehole mining technological processes during pay zones development. According to the classification three groups of technological processes were defined: main, auxiliary and hydraulic borehole cutting head monitoring. The main technological processes are: rocks fracturing, suction and lifting of the slurry to the surface, delivery of the slurry to the slurry pump. Auxiliary processes include: cleaning of intake ports of slurry retrieval device, drilling of pilot hole and maintenance of mining chambers roof sustainability. To hydraulic borehole cutting head monitoring processes refer: operation modes control, tripping operation and rotation.

  4. The effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of borehole strainmeters into the ground locally distorts the strain in the rock, these strainmeters require calibration from a known source which typically is the Earth tide. Consequently, the accuracy of the observed strain changes from borehole strainmeters depends upon the calibration derived from modeling the Earth tide. Previous work from the mid-1970s, which is replicated here, demonstrate that the theoretical tide can differ by 30% from the tide observed at surface-mounted, long-baseline strainmeters. In spite of possible inaccurate tidal models, many of the 74 borehole strainmeters installed since 2005 can be “calibrated”. However, inaccurate tidal models affect the amplitude and phase of observed transient strain changes which needs to be considered along with the precision of the data from the inherent drift of these borehole instruments. In particular, the error from inaccurate tidal model dominates the error budget in the observation of impulsive, sub-daily, strain-transients.

  5. Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.

    1994-12-27

    Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins.

  6. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Borehole Gravity Measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2-14 in the depth range 0.5 to 3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The above-ground gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, they find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

  8. Borehole gravity measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well State 2--14

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P.W.; Hearst, J.R.

    1988-11-10

    Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well State 2--14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2--14 in the depth range 0.5--3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The aboveground gradient was found to be 4.1 ..mu..Gal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea geothermal field. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  9. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  10. Deep well process for slurry pick-up in hydraulic borehole mining devices

    SciTech Connect

    Uhri, D.C.

    1985-07-09

    A hydraulic borehole mining method and device used to recover subterranean coal, oil shale and other minerals from depths exceeding 1500 ft. where a gas lift is utilized to lift the mined slurry to the surface.

  11. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  12. Case studies suggest a better approach to analyzing collapse of inclined boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, B.; Hareland, G.; Boonyapaluk, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses the comparison and selection of failure criteria for in-situ rocks in borehole stability analysis. Five commonly used criteria are compared with field cases for mud weight design. The result of case studies indicates that the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, Inner Drucker-Prager criterion and Middle Drucker-Prager criterion are overly conservative, and that the Outer Drucker-Prager criterion is underestimating for designing wellbore pressure to control borehole collapse. It is concluded that the von Mises criterion is more reliable than other failure criteria and should be used for borehole collapse analysis and mud weight design. Based on triaxial test data, this paper also provides failure diagrams for some reservoir rocks. These diagrams can be used as references for borehole stability analysis when similar rocks are encountered in petroleum drilling.

  13. Multi-scale groundwater modelling for the assessment of sustainable borehole yields under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Kirsty; Butler, Adrian; Jackson, Chris; Jones, Mike

    2014-05-01

    A new multi-scale groundwater modelling methodology is presented for simulating abstraction boreholes in regional groundwater models. This provides a robust tool for assessing the sustainable yield of supply boreholes, thus improving our understanding of groundwater availability during droughts. The yield of an abstraction well is dependent on a number of factors. These include antecedent recharge and groundwater conditions; the properties of a regional aquifer system; requirements on a groundwater system to maintain river flows or sites of ecological significance; the properties of an individual abstraction borehole; small-scale aquifer heterogeneity around a borehole; the rate of abstraction; and the way in which neighboring abstraction boreholes interact. These factors can all be represented in the multi-scale model, which couples a small-scale radial flow model of an abstraction borehole with a regional-scale groundwater model. The regional groundwater model, ZOOMQ3D, represents the large-scale groundwater system, including lateral and vertical aquifer heterogeneity, rivers, and spatially varying recharge. The 3D radial flow model, SPIDERR, represents linear and non-linear flow to a borehole, local vertical heterogeneity, well storage and pump location. The multi-scale model is applied to a supply borehole (operated by Thames Water) located in the Chalk aquifer within the catchment of the River Thames in southern England. Groundwater abstraction from the Chalk aquifer accounts for 40-70% of the total public water supply in this region. Drought is a recurring feature of the UK climate, and in particular the south and east of England. Since 1850, nine major groundwater droughts have occurred, all of which lasted longer than one year. The most recent occurred in 2010-2012, during which seven water supply companies introduced water usage restrictions, affecting over 20 million people. The radial flow model is initially calibrated against pumping test data from the supply borehole. It is then coupled with an existing regional groundwater model, which covers a significant part of the unconfined Chalk aquifer within the Thames Basin. The fully coupled model is run over the historic simulation period, 1971-2012, using operational abstraction rates at the supply borehole. Simulated heads at the borehole are compared with observed data over the period 2003-2012 allowing further calibration of the small-scale model. Several abstraction scenarios are then applied over the historic simulation period. Analysis of the pumped water levels allows us to develop an improved understanding of the sustainable yield of the source under drought conditions. The multi-scale model also provides a tool for assessing future changes to groundwater availability due to potential changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of droughts under climate change, and under scenarios of increasing demand.

  14. Borehole breakout analysis: results from the AnDrill-2A well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.; Jarrard, R. D.; Wilson, T. J.; Paulsen, T. S.; Wonik, T.; Handwerger, D.

    2010-12-01

    To define the present-day stress field in the upper crust and to understand the recent tectonic activity in Antarctica, a study of breakout measurements along AND-2A well was performed. The borehole breakout is an important indicator of horizontal stress orientation and occurs when the stresses around the borehole exceed that required to cause compressive failure of the borehole wall (Bell and Gough, 1979; Zoback et al., 1985, Bell, 1990). The enlargement of the wellbore is caused by the development of intersecting conjugate shear planes that cause pieces of the borehole wall to spall off. Around a vertical borehole, stress concentration is greatest in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress (Shmin), hence, the long axes of borehole breakouts are oriented approximately perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress orientation (SHmax). The orientation of breakouts along the AND-2A well was measured using acoustic (BHTV) and mechanical (Four-Arm Caliper) tools. Borehole televiewer (BHTV) provides an acoustic "image" of the borehole wall (360 degree coverage) and gives detailed information for investigation of fractures and stress analysis. The four-arm caliper is the oldest technique for borehole breakout identification and it is included in routine dipmeter logs. A quality value has been assigned to the well results in agreement with the World Stress Map quality ranking scheme (Zoback, 1992; Heidback et al., 2010) based mainly on the number, accuracy, and length of breakout measurements. The result is presented as rose diagram of the breakout directions where the length of each peak is proportional to the frequency and the width to the variance of its gaussian curve. We have analyzed the following curves to recognize the breakout: the azimuth of Pad 1 (P1az), the drift azimuth (HAZI), the two calipers with respect to the bit size (BZ) curve and the curve relative to the deviation of the well. The AND-2A Four-Arm Caliper data cover a depth interval between 637 down to 997 mbsl, that corresponds to 360 m of logged interval. We have distinguished breakouts and some washouts only in the interval from 753 to 825 mbsl. From borehole televiewer images, we have data from 398 mbsl down to 1136 mbsl. The BHTV worked well showing a lot of interesting features such as many bedding, lamination and fractures (natural and induced) but poor breakouts. The rare breakouts have also a small size (called proto-breakouts) but they are consistent with induced features. Considering the breakout result from caliper and BHTV, the AND-2A borehole is unfortunately classified as D quality. This means that to obtain a reliable active stress field of the area it is necessary to compare this result with other available data.

  15. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.S.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. PSVE takes advantage of the naturally occurring tendency of soil vapor to leave the subsurface during periods of low barometric pressure. PSVE seeks to expedite the release of volatile contaminants through the use of boreholes and technological enhancements. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of PSVE to the remediation problems they face. The report provides: stakeholders` final evaluation of the acceptability of PSVE in light of the technology`s field test; stakeholders` principal comments concerning PSVE; requirements that stakeholders have of any remediation technology. Technology decision makers should take these conclusions into account in evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of any remedial method proposed for their site. In addition, the report presents data requirements for the technology`s field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on PSVE from stakeholders from Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  16. Analysis of induced temperature anomalies along borehole heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Michael; Schelenz, Sophie; Stollberg, Reiner; Gossel, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Over the last years, the thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling, and thermal energy storage has increased. However, the injection or extraction of heat potentially drives changes in the subsurface temperature regime; especially in urban areas. The presented case study investigates the intensive use of borehole heat exchangers (BHE) and their potential thermal impacts on subsurface temperatures, as well as thermal interactions between individual BHE's for a residential neighborhood in Cologne, Germany. Based on on-site subsurface parameterization, a 3D subsurface model was designed, using the finite element software FEFLOW (DHI WASY). The model contains five BHE, extracting 8.2 kW, with a maximum BHE depth of 38 m, whereby the thickness of the unsaturated zone is 22 m. The simulated time span is 10 years. This study focusses on two questions: How will different BHE arrangements vary in terms of temperature plume formation and potential system interaction and what is the influence of seasonal subsurface heat storage on soil and ground water temperatures.

  17. Borehole-inclusion stressmeter measurements in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.W.; Ames, E.S.

    1980-07-01

    Sandia purchased borehole-inclusion stressmeters from a commercial supplier to measure in situ stress changes in bedded salt. However, the supplied stressmeters were difficult to set in place and gave erratic results in bedded salt. These problems were overcome with a new extended platen design. Also a straingaged transducer was designed which can be read with a conventional data logger. Due to the nonlinear behavior of bedded salt under uniaxial loading, a new empirical calibration scheme was devised. In essence, the stressmeters are calibrated as force transducers and this calibration curve is then used to determine the relationship between uniaxial stress changes in bedded salt and the gage's output. The stressmeter and calibration procedures have been applied under mine conditions and produced viable results. Future work will involve finite element analysis to calculate the observed behavior of the stressmeters. The response of the stressmeters in bedded salt is neither that of a true stressmeter or of a true strainmeter. However, repeatable calibrations make the gages very useful.

  18. Application of borehole geophysics to water-resources investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.; MacCary, L.M.

    1971-01-01

    This manual is intended to be a guide for hydrologists using borehole geophysics in ground-water studies. The emphasis is on the application and interpretation of geophysical well logs, and not on the operation of a logger. It describes in detail those logging techniques that have been utilized within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and those used in petroleum investigations that have potential application to hydrologic problems. Most of the logs described can be made by commercial logging service companies, and many can be made with small water-well loggers. The general principles of each technique and the rules of log interpretation are the same, regardless of differences in instrumentation. Geophysical well logs can be interpreted to determine the lithology, geometry, resistivity, formation factor, bulk density, porosity, permeability, moisture content, and specific yield of water-bearing rocks, and to define the source, movement, and chemical and physical characteristics of ground water. Numerous examples of logs are used to illustrate applications and interpretation in various ground-water environments. The interrelations between various types of logs are emphasized, and the following aspects are described for each of the important logging techniques: Principles and applications, instrumentation, calibration and standardization, radius of investigation, and extraneous effects.

  19. Tailored-pulse fracturing in cased and perforated boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A propellant-based technology, High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF), has been applied to fracturing through perforations in cased boreholes. The use of propellants that deflagrate or burn, rather than high-order explosives that detonate, permits controlled buildup of pressure in the wellbore. The key to successful stimulation in cased and perforated wellbores is to control the pressure buildup of the combustion gases to maximize fracturing obtained, without destroying the casing. Eight experiments have been conducted in a tunnel complex at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site. This location provided a realistic in situ stress environment (7 MPa (1000 psi) overburden stress) and access for mineback to directly observe fracturing obtained. Primary variables in the experiments include propellant burn rate and amount of propellant used; presence or absence of liquid in the wellbore; in situ stress orientation; and perforation diameter, density, and phasing. Fracture surfaces propagate outward along lines of perforations, then gradually turn toward the hydraulic-fracture direction. Fracture lengths of 3 m (10 ft) or more are observed. It is shown that such fractures, with proper choice of propellant and perforation design, can be created with no attendant casing damage. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Response of borehole extensometers to explosively generated dynamic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.C.; Brough, W.G.

    1980-08-25

    Commercially available, hydraulically anchored, multiple-point borehole extensometers (MPBX) were evaluated with respect to response to dynamic loads produced by explosions. This study is part of the DOE-funded Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C), currently being conducted in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. The SFT-C is an investigation of the feasibility of short-term storage and retrieval of spent nuclear reactor fuel assemblies at a plausible repository depth in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies are stored at a depth of 420 m for three to five years, and will then be retrieved. MPBX units are used in the SFT-C to measure both excavation-induced and thermally induced rock displacements. Long-term reliability of extensometers in this hostile environment is essential in order to obtain valid data during the course of this test. Research to date shows conclusively that extensometers of this type continue to function reliably even though subjected to accelerations of 1.8 g; research also implies that they function well though subjected to accelerations in excess of 100 g. MPBX survivability during the first four months of testing at ambient temperatures was about 90 percent.

  1. KTB completes first year of drilling on ultradeep borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1991-11-11

    This paper reports on the third phase in the world's deep drilling project which ended with the borehole at a depth of 3,003 m or 9,852 ft. The scientific probe into the lithosphere near the German/Czechoslovakian border in Bavaria is on schedule and now well into the fourth phase that will carry it to a depth of 6,000 m (19,684 ft). At mid-September, the hole depth was 4,250 m. The final objective is a depth of 10-12 km or some 33,000-40,000 ft. The operations reflect the intense planning that has gone into the project, designated the German Continental Deep Drilling Program, or KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohr-programm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland). Although all the drilling has been and will be in crystalline rock, it is certain that many of the new procedures, hardware, and measuring systems developed and being used will have practical application in conventional oil and gas drilling.

  2. Investigations of tilt measurements using shallow borehole tiltmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, F.; Berger, J.

    1980-01-01

    An array of shallow borehole tiltmeters has been operated at Pinon Flat Observatory since early in 1977. The data from this array are examined for coherence between the individual instruments and compared with the corresponding data from three 732-m laser strainmeters. In general, there is no significant coherence between the signals from the tiltmeters outside the microseismic and tidal bands even though they are spaced as closely as 10 m apart. Comparisons with the strain records show that the observed tilt noise power exceeds the strain noise power by 25-40 dB over the band from 0.000001 to 1 Hz. Analysis of the coherence estimates establishes the necessity for an unacceptably large (approximately 1000) array of instruments in order to determine the common tectonic signals. The observed secular tilt rates are from 40 to 450 times the observed secular strain rates for the same period. The theoretical noise power limit of the tilt transducer renders the instrument incapable of recording background noise at a quiet site over the band from 0.0001 to 0.1 Hz.

  3. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J., II

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of an ultrasonic televiewer system for investigating borehole integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Searls, C.A.

    1988-10-01

    The acoustic borehole televiewer provides the best prospect for meeting the well integrity assessment needs of the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Existing ultrasonic televiewer technology does not provide sufficient spatial resolution to evaluate external degradation of the casing which is the primary failure mode anticipated for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve wells. This report develops numerical processing techniques to improve the spatial resolution of the data from commercial televiewer systems. Using these techniques it is demonstrated that the radial resolution for existing systems can be improved by an order of magnitude. The improved resolution eliminates the overlap of the reflected waveforms from the front and back face of the casing, which, if implemented in the receiver portion of the televiewer, significantly reduces the dynamic range requirements for data acquisition. Additionally, data were recorded with a commercial acoustic televiewer in a series of acoustic phantoms simulating a well. These data, coupled with the numerical processing, establish the presence of the reflection from the back face of the casing wall, and quantify the noise levels for existing systems. This information allowed the author to identify the system components which need to be improved to meet the needs of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. 67 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  6. Calibration models for density borehole logging - construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Two machined blocks of magnesium and aluminum alloys form the basis for Hanford`s density models. The blocks provide known densities of 1.780 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} and 2.804 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} for calibrating borehole logging tools that measure density based on gamma-ray scattering from a source in the tool. Each block is approximately 33 x 58 x 91 cm (13 x 23 x 36 in.) with cylindrical grooves cut into the sides of the blocks to hold steel casings of inner diameter 15 cm (6 in.) and 20 cm (8 in.). Spacers that can be inserted between the blocks and casings can create air gaps of thickness 0.64, 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 cm (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in.), simulating air gaps that can occur in actual wells from hole enlargements behind the casing.

  7. Determining resistivity of a geological formation using circuitry located within a borehole casing

    DOEpatents

    Vail III, William Banning

    2006-01-17

    Geological formation resistivity is determined. Circuitry is located within the borehole casing that is adjacent to the geological formation. The circuitry can measure one or more voltages across two or more voltage measurement electrodes associated with the borehole casing. The measured voltages are used by a processor to determine the resistivity of the geological formation. A common mode signal can also be reduced using the circuitry.

  8. Cross-borehole flowmeter tests for transient heads in heterogeneous aquifers.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, Tanguy; Paillet, Frederick; Bour, Olivier; Caudal, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Cross-borehole flowmeter tests have been proposed as an efficient method to investigate preferential flowpaths in heterogeneous aquifers, which is a major task in the characterization of fractured aquifers. Cross-borehole flowmeter tests are based on the idea that changing the pumping conditions in a given aquifer will modify the hydraulic head distribution in large-scale flowpaths, producing measurable changes in the vertical flow profiles in observation boreholes. However, inversion of flow measurements to derive flowpath geometry and connectivity and to characterize their hydraulic properties is still a subject of research. In this study, we propose a framework for cross-borehole flowmeter test interpretation that is based on a two-scale conceptual model: discrete fractures at the borehole scale and zones of interconnected fractures at the aquifer scale. We propose that the two problems may be solved independently. The first inverse problem consists of estimating the hydraulic head variations that drive the transient borehole flow observed in the cross-borehole flowmeter experiments. The second inverse problem is related to estimating the geometry and hydraulic properties of large-scale flowpaths in the region between pumping and observation wells that are compatible with the head variations deduced from the first problem. To solve the borehole-scale problem, we treat the transient flow data as a series of quasi-steady flow conditions and solve for the hydraulic head changes in individual fractures required to produce these data. The consistency of the method is verified using field experiments performed in a fractured-rock aquifer. PMID:16681524

  9. Challenges for Induced Polarization Measurements in Single and Cross Borehole Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Curatola, F.; Evdokimov, K.

    2013-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) surveys have been traditionally used for mineral exploration. These surveys involve large surface arrays, cover wide areas and target strong signals from metallic minerals (e.g. sulfides). In recent years, the IP method has increasingly been used for environmental applications where smaller arrays are employed to measure smaller signals. Due to its unique sensitivity to interfacial properties, the IP method might be used to track and identify processes associated with remediation efforts, and also characterize and delineate contaminant plumes. Recent laboratory experiments have significantly advanced the IP method, improving the detection and interpretation of relatively small signals. However, IP data acquisition from a borehole, either as a vertical profile down a string of electrodes installed in a well or in a cross borehole configuration is more challenging. This is in part due to higher noise levels associated with coupling effects between wiring and earth in the borehole. In this study, we simulated borehole conditions in the laboratory and examined sources of noise during borehole IP measurements. We simulated a vertical array of electrodes, with electrodes placed around a PVC pipe, and performed measurements in a 3D tank. While in traditional single borehole configurations (e.g. Wenner, Schlumberger) the IP data were contaminated with low frequency errors associated with electrode arrangement. Modifications on the electrode configurations and the potential electrode design, led to acquisition of high quality data comparable to that obtained in the laboratory. We show that, while borehole IP measurements can be challenging, appropriate consideration of electrode placement and design permits acquisition of high quality data that can be used to sense variations in interfacial properties around a borehole.

  10. Seismic monitoring with a shallow borehole-geophone array at the COSC-1 drilling site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzbach, Cedric; Juhlin, Christopher; Giese, Rdiger; Malin, Peter; Maurer, Hansruedi; Robertsson, Johan; Reiser, Fabienne; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Brlocher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    An array of borehole geophones was installed at the COSC-1 drilling site with the aim to continuously monitor seismic signals originating from controlled source experiments, ambient and drill-bit noise as well as natural seismicity. These seismic data can provide detailed information on the structure of the elastic parameter distribution around the COSC-1 borehole at the 10's to 100's of meter scale. For this monitoring experiment, nine three-component seismic sensors were deployed in the depth interval from 20 to 100 m below the surface in two shallow boreholes next to the COSC-1 main borehole and the output signals were continuously recorded over five months from late April to late September 2014. This time period includes a short 'quiet' time interval just before the start of the drilling in May, the entire drilling activities until August, and the subsequent vertical-seismic profiling (VSP) experiment in September. In total, around 2.6 terabytes of seismic data were recorded and will be jointly analyzed with other seismic data and supporting geological information. The seismic-data analysis of the five-month records will focus on several aspects. For example, we will explore, what information on the geological structure along the main borehole can be extracted by continuously listening to the drill-bit noise. The data acquired with the shallow monitoring array during the VSP experiments complements the VSP recordings with a geophone chain located at greater depths in the main borehole. The VSP data recorded with the monitoring array can aid in, for example, the seismic-reflection and seismic-refraction processing to image the shallow structure around the borehole (top most few 100's of meters). In addition, recordings of ambient noise from the borehole array may provide information on the shallow subsurface structure at the COSC-1 drilling site. Finally, signals from local earthquakes may be identified, providing information on the natural seismicity of the area.

  11. Quantification of Natural Gradient Flow Using Active Fiber Optic DTS in Sealed Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Munn, J. D.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature has been used for many years to characterize flow in fractured rock systems. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was adopted by the oil/gas industry over two decades ago for monitoring processes in deep fractured rock environments. Improvements in DTS system resolutions, methodology advancements, and improved data processing techniques have caused recent popularity for shallow fractured rock hydrogeologic applications. A powerful advance in DTS methodology is the use of response data collected during active cable heating. When applied to borehole applications active heating creates a thermal disequilibrium in the aquifer system that enhances the detection of groundwater flow. Active DTS has been applied to open borehole environments; however, characterization methods based on open borehole measurements are limited in that only the effects of unnatural flow (i.e. vertical cross-connection and redistribution of flow creating local, induced flows) can be observed. To characterize natural gradient flow processes borehole effects need to be minimized.The literature shows borehole sealing using flexible impervious fabric liners creates a static water column in the well that eliminates the negative effects of cross-connection. Measurements in this sealed environment have been shown by others to be representative of natural gradient flow conditions, rather than the conditions created by the borehole short circuiting units or fractures with varying hydraulic head. A new method for flow system characterization using active DTS in sealed boreholes has been developed with excellent prospects for quantitation of natural gradient groundwater fluxes and related hydraulic properties. This project demonstrates the utility of using an analytical solution for calculating apparent thermal conductivities and natural gradient groundwater fluxes at depth-discrete intervals observed continuously along a borehole using active DTS. Groundwater flux data can then be used in conjunction with other site datasets (e.g. gradients) to estimate profiles of formation hydraulic properties including transmissivity.

  12. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  13. Thermal data from recently drilled boreholes near Bergen, Stavanger and Moss, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Y. P.; Olesen, O.; Rnning, J. S.; Elvebakk, H. K.; Ganerd, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    We have done an attempt to reveal the major features of the thermal pattern in the Fyllingsdalen, the Ullrigg and the rvollskogen boreholes, which are located near Bergen, Stavanger and Moss, respectively. Based on 2D gravity and magnetic modelling, the 2D structural models have been constructed for the Bergen, Stavanger and Moss areas. All available shallow and deep structural data have been used to constrain these models. The constructed 2D models were used as a structural base during the 2D thermal modelling. The results of the 2D thermal modelling indicate that a significant decrease of the Earth's surface temperatures during the two last glaciations still affects the subsurface thermal field of the study areas in terms of the reduced temperatures within the uppermost crystalline crust. Besides, the advective cooling due to groundwater flow is an additional factor for the reduction of temperatures within the Bergen and Stavanger areas where the normal annual precipitation is one of the highest in Europe, reaching roughly 4000 mm/year. On the other hand, the influence of the groundwater flow on subsurface temperatures is not clearly recognizable in the Moss area. The modelled temperatures are higher in the Fyllingsdalen and rvollskogen boreholes compared to the Ullrigg borehole. This difference is in agreement with the low measured thermal gradient in the Ullrigg borehole which is less than 13.0 C/km compared to 16.5 C/km in the case of the Fyllingsdalen borehole and 19.3 C/km in the rvollskogen borehole. The differentiation in radiogenic heat production of the crystalline crust is one of the main reasons for the higher measured and modelled temperatures within the Bergen and Moss areas. This resulted in a higher heat flux in the Fyllingsdalen and the rvollskogen boreholes in comparison with the Ullrigg borehole.

  14. Closed form flow model of a damped slug test in a fractured bedrock borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.; Lukas, William G.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2015-10-01

    An existing closed form model is modified to describe the damped response of groundwater in a fractured bedrock borehole with variable apertures and dips to a slug test. The existing theory, which requires single sized horizontal fractures, is accurately calibrated by slug test data from three uncased bedrock boreholes in the Dedham Granite and an observation well screened just below the contact surface with a till drumlin. Apertures and dips vary however, so the ability of the modified theory to accommodate different sizes and inclinations improves upon the physical validity of its predecessor when fracture information accompanies slug test data. Geophysical logs identify a large number and dip of fractures in the uncased boreholes in the Dedham Granite in this regard. A lognormally distributed, horizontal aperture calibration of the slug tests in the uncased boreholes retains the accuracy of the single size model, and yields aperture statistics more consistent with literature values. The slug test in the screened observation well is accurately calibrated with the modified horizontal theory for discrete (two) sizes, based upon the average fracture spacing found in the uncased boreholes. All four results yield comparable compressibility estimates, which depend on fracture spacing but not size or dip. The calibrated aperture size and calculated fracture porosity and permeability decrease with length of the borehole into the Dedham Granite. The measured dip and aperture for flowing and nonflowing fractures in one of the boreholes accurately calibrates the modified theory. The inclusion of dip reduces the calibrated permeability because of the increased ellipsoidal area at the interface of the borehole and the inclined fractures.

  15. Pressure in a fluid-filled borehole caused by a seismic source in stratified media

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.; Lee, J.M.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1996-01-01

    A method for numerically simulating hydrophone vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and crosswell data measured i na fluid-filled borehole (either open or cased) embedded in stratified media is presented. The method makes use of both the borehole coupling theory and the global matrix formulation for computing synthetic seismograms in a stratified medium. The global matrix formation is used to calculate the stress field at the borehole location. Borehole coupling theory is then employed to obtain the pressure in the borehole fluid. Comparisons with exact solutions for an open borehole in a homogeneous and unbounded formation show that this method is accurate for frequencies below 2 kHz. This method is used to model the Kent Cliffs hydrophone VSP data, where good agreement between the numerical simulations and the field measurements has been found, in both traveltimes and rms amplitudes of the direct P-wave. Examples show that this method is efficient and accurate, and can be applied to model VSP and crosswell experiments using an array of hydrophones.

  16. Method of using a borehole televiewer dipmeter for determining true dip and azimuth

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.

    1987-10-13

    This patent describes a method for determining the true dip and azimuth, in the earth's reference frame, of a bedding or fracture plane in a formation penetrated by a deviated borehole, comprising: (a) obtaining a BHTV log of the formation, (b) determining, with respect to the earth's reference frame, the deviation and deviation azimuth of the portion of the borehole that penetrates the formation, (c) determining the earth's magnetic inclination in the vicinity of the borehole, (d) utilizing the BHTV log measurements to compute the dip and dip azimuth of the bedding or fracture plane in the borehole reference frame, and (e) at least in part by rotating the axes of the earth's reference frame to the axes of the BHTV in the borehole, and by utilizing the computed dip and dip azimuth of the bedding or fracture plane, the deviation and deviation azimuth of the borehole portion, and the earth's magnetic inclination, computing true dip and dip azimuth of the bedding or fracture plane in the earth's reference frame.

  17. Fracture identification and evaluation using borehole imaging and full wave form logs in the Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, L. )

    1994-03-01

    The borehole imaging and acoustic full wave form logs provide an excellent means for identifying and evaluating naturally occurring fractures. The natural fractures can provide the porosity and permeability essential for a productive reservoir. The detection of these fractures may be accomplished by tow types of wireline logging tools: borehole imaging devices and acoustic full wave form tools. The borehole imaging tools produce images based upon the electromagnetic or the acoustic properties of the borehole wall. Fractures will appear as darker images that are distinct from the nonfracture formation. These images are coupled with a reference azimuth that allows for the determination of the orientation of the fracture image. The acoustic full wave form logs are used to detect fractures by analyzing various acoustic properties of the formation. The travel time, amplitude, and frequency responses of fractured formations differ remarkably from the responses of nonfractured formations because of the reduction of the acoustic energy in the fractures. The various field examples from the Queen sandstone to the Ellenburger formation demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages unique to the borehole imaging and the acoustic full wave form devices. Within this geologic framework, comparisons are made among the data extracted from whole cores, borehole imaging devices, and the acoustic full wave form tools in establishing a systematic approach for the identification and evaluation of fractures.

  18. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  19. Applications of a downhole programmable microprocessor for a geothermal borehole inspection tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jermance, R.L.; Moore, T.K.; Archuleta, J.; Hinz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The high-temperature scanning borehole inspection system is currently being developed jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany. The downhole instrument is a digital televiewer that utilized a microprocessor to digitize, process and transmit the acoustic information to the surface acquisition and control system. The primary operation of the downhole acoustic assembly uses a piezoelectric crystal acting as a receiver-transmitter which is mounted on the rotating head. The crystal emits a burst of acoustic energy that propagates through the borehole fluid with a portion of the energy reflected by the borehole wall back to the crystal. The time of travel and the amplitude of the reflected signal are conditioned by the microprocessor and transmitted along with other pertinent data to the surface data processing center. This instrument has been designed specifically for use in geothermal borehole environments to determine the location of fractures intersecting the borehole and provide information concerning overall borehole conditions. It may also be used for definitive casing inspection. The instrument essentially eliminates operator interaction for downhole control and simplifies assembly and maintenance procedures.

  20. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs at the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund site, Mercer County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    On April 14?15, 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in five open-borehole wells in and adjacent to the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund Site, Mercer County, Pa. Geophysical-logging tools used included caliper, natural gamma, single-point resistance, fluid temperature, and heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to determine casing depth, locate subsurface fractures, identify water-bearing fractures, and identify and measure direction and rate of vertical flow within the borehole. The results of the geophysical logging were used to determine the placement of borehole screens, which allows monitoring of water levels and sampling of water-bearing zones so that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can conduct an investigation of contaminant movement in the fractured bedrock. Water-bearing zones were identified in three of five boreholes at depths ranging from 46 to 119 feet below land surface. Borehole MR-3310 (MW03D) showed upward vertical flow from 71 to 74 feet below land surface to a receiving zone at 63-68 feet below land surface, permitting potential movement of ground water, and possibly contaminants, from deep to shallow zones. No vertical flow was measured in the other four boreholes.

  1. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite (Mg,Mn2+)5(Ba, Sr)(PO4)48H2O from Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Lpez, Andrs; Theiss, Federick L.; Aaro, Guilherme Marcos; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    We have studied aspect of the molecular structure of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite from Zheleznyi iron mine, Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, using SEM with EDX and vibrational spectroscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis shows a homogeneous phase, composed by P, Mg, Ba, Mn and Ca. Small amounts of Si were also observed. An intense Raman peak at 975 cm-1 is assigned to the PO43- ?1 symmetric stretching mode. The Raman band at 964 cm-1 is attributed to the HPO42- ?1 symmetric stretching vibration. Raman bands observed at 1016, 1035, 1052, 1073, 1105 and 1135 cm-1 are attributed to the ?3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations of the HPO42- and PO43- units. Complexity in the spectra of the phosphate bending region is observed. The broad Raman band at 3272 cm-1 is assigned to the water stretching vibration. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects on the molecular structure of rimkorolgite to be undertaken.

  2. The rare-metal ore potential of the Proterozoic alkaline ultramafic massifs from eastern part of the Baltic Shield in the Kola alkaline province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokhtina, Natalia; Kogarko, Lia

    2014-05-01

    The Kola Alkaline Province consists of intrusions of two main stages of the intraplate alkaline magmatism. The early stage of igneous activity occurred in Proterozoic 1.9 billion years ago, the next in Paleozoic at 380 million years. The Proterozoic alkaline magmatism produced Gremyakha-Vyrmes and Elet'ozero large alkaline-ultrabasic massifs, Tiksheozero carbonatite massif and numerous small syenite complexes. Paleozoic magmatism on Baltic Shield exhibited more widely, than Proterozoic. The world largest Khibiny and Lovozero alkaline intrusions, numerous alkaline-ultrabasic massifs with carbonanites, alkaline dike swarms and diatremes were formed. It is well known that carbonatites of Paleozoic alkaline-ultrabasic massifs contain large-scale deposits of rare-metal ores (Afanasiev et al., 1998). The metasomatic rocks on foidolites and carbonatites of Gremyakha-Vyrmes are final products of differentiation of Proterozoic alkaline-ultrabasic magma enriched in incompatible elements, including Nb and Zr similar to Paleozoic carbonatites. The massif Gremyakha-Vyrmes is one of the largest titanomagnetite-ilmenite deposits in Russia associated with ultrabasites. Our investigation showed that albite-microcline and aegirine-albite metasomatites formed rich rare-metal ores consisting of 3.2 wt. % Nb2O5 and 0.7 ZrO2. Zircon and pyrochlore-group minerals represent the main minerals of rare-metal ores. The following evolutionary sequences of pyrochlore group minerals has been observed: betafite or U pyrochlore - Na-Ca pyrochlore - Ba-Sr pyrochlore - "silicified" pyrochlore - Fe-Nb, Al-Nb silicates. Such evolution from primary Nb oxides to secondary silicates under low temperature hydrothermal conditions is similar to the evolution of rare metal phases in Paleozoic alkaline massifs analogous to Lovozero syenites and in carbonatites. The rare metal minerals of Gremyakha-Vyrmes crystallized in high alkaline hydrothermal environment at increased activity of Nb, Ta, Zr, U, Th and at temperature near 600-650°C (according to isotopic graphite-calcite, biotite-pyroxene and zircon-rutile thermometers). The minerals of latest stages occurred under low-temperature, decrease of pH and high activity of Si, REE, Sr, Ba, Fe and Al. Isotope data obtained for carbonatites and metasomatites of the Gremiakha-Vyrmes massif linked to a mantle source. We suggest that carbonatites were the source of Nb, U, Th, Zr and REE. Metasomatic rocks accumulate rare metals and could be formed during the metasomatism triggered by intrusion of carbonatites into the alkaline and basic-ultrabasic complexes of the massif. The nepheline-feldspathoid-aegirine pegmatoids, carbonatite veins and breccia of Elet'ozero Proterozoic alkaline-ultrabasic massif formed rare-metal ores and showed genetic similarity to final products of differentiation of the Gremyakha-Vyrmes. Research covered by RFBR grant 13-05-12021.

  3. Middendorfite, K3Na2Mn5Si12(O,OH)36 2H2O, a new mineral species from the Khibiny pluton, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Dubinchuk, V. T.; Zadov, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    Middendorfite, a new mineral species, has been found in a hydrothermal assemblage in Hilairite hyperperalkaline pegmatite at the Kirovsky Mine, Mount Kukisvumchorr apatite deposit, Khibiny alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Microcline, sodalite, cancrisilite, aegirine, calcite, natrolite, fluorite, narsarsukite, labuntsovite-Mn, mangan-neptunite, and donnayite are associated minerals. Middendorfite occurs as rhombshaped lamellar and tabular crystals up to 0.1 0.2 0.4 mm in size, which are combined in worm-and fanlike segregations up to 1 mm in size. The color is dark to bright orange, with a yellowish streak and vitreous luster. The mineral is transparent. The cleavage (001) is perfect, micalike; the fracture is scaly; flakes are flexible but not elastic. The Mohs hardness is 3 to 3.5. Density is 2.60 g/cm3 (meas.) and 2.65 g/cm3 (calc.). Middendorfite is biaxial (-), ? = 1.534, ? = 1.562, and ? = 1.563; 2 V (meas.) = 10. The mineral is pleochroic strongly from yellowish to colorless on X through brown on Y and to deep brown on Z. Optical orientation: X = c. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, H2O determined with Penfield method) is as follows (wt %): 4.55 Na2O, 10.16 K2O, 0.11 CaO, 0.18 MgO, 24.88 MnO, 0.68 FeO, 0.15 ZnO, 0.20 Al2O3, 50.87 SiO2, 0.17 TiO2, 0.23 F, 7.73 H2O; -O=F2-0.10, total is 99.81. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (Si,Al)12(O,OH,F)36 is K3.04(Na2.07Ca0.03)?2.10(Mn4.95Fe0.13Mg0.06Ti0.03Zn0.03)?5.20(Si11.94Al0.06)?12O27.57(OH)8.26F0.17 1.92H2O. The simplified formula is K3Na2Mn5Si12(O,OH)36 2H2O. Middenforite is monoclinic, space group: P21/ m or P21. The unit cell dimensions are a = 12.55, b = 5.721, c = 26.86 ; ? = 114.04, V = 1761 3, Z = 2. The strongest lines in the X-ray powder pattern [ d, , ( I)( hkl)] are: 12.28(100)(002), 4.31(81)(11overline 4 ), 3.555(62)(301, 212), 3.063(52)(008, 31overline 6 ), 2.840(90)(312, 021, 30overline 9 ), 2.634(88)(21overline 9 , 1.0.overline 1 0, 12overline 4 ), 2.366(76)(22overline 6 , 3.1.overline 1 0, 32overline 3 ), 2.109(54)(42 33, 42 44, 51overline 9 , 414), 1.669(64)(2.2.overline 1 3, 3.2.overline 1 3, 62overline 3 , 6.1.overline 1 3), 1.614(56)(5.0.overline 1 6, 137, 333, 71overline 1 ). The infrared spectrum is given. Middendorfite is a phyllosilicate related to bannisterite, parsenttensite, and the minerals of the ganophyllite and stilpnomelane groups. The new mineral is named in memory of A.F. von Middendorff (1815 1894), an outstanding scientist, who carried out the first mineralogical investigations in the Khibiny pluton. The type material of middenforite has been deposited at the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  4. Ar/Ar age data of muscovite from the Keivy Terrane (central Kola Peninsula, arctic European Russia) imply a prolonged fluid-assisted recrystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, K.; Ruffet, G.; Marker, M.

    2012-04-01

    Single grain muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age data from metasediments of the Keivy Terrane point to a prolonged recrystallisation, and imply that the younger age set in metamorphic terranes with a long history cannot always be simply interpreted as due to late and slow cooling. The Keivy terrane is an element of the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional belt developed along the northern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield. It comprises a lower series of late Archaean meta-volcanic rocks, intruded by earliest Palaeoproterozoic alkali granites that are covered by strongly deformed quartz-rich kyanite-staurolite-garnet-micaschists of the Keivy unit that have yielded magmatic zircons as young as ~2.35 Ga, which were derived from the substratum's alkaline granite. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating with a defocussed laser beam of muscovite grains from seven metasediments of the Keivy unit yielded saddle-shaped age spectra in most experiments. In five out of seven cases the base of the saddle corresponded to a plateau age in the range of 1667 to 1593 Ma (60-90% of the gas release; 1 sigma errors: 1.0-1.2 Ma). We do not simply interpret these 40Ar/39Ar ages in the classical way as due to cooling, because the saddle shape of the spectra enables a more complete and detailed interpretation. Saddle-shaped age spectra may result from the presence of different argon reservoirs in partially recrystallised and chemically distinct micas that degas over a different energy interval: a primary, not recrystallised or inherited domain (low and high temperature steps) and a newly formed or recrystallised one (saddle minimum in the intermediate steps). The younger subdomains formed by growth or recrystallisation could characterise the last isotopic record during an extended (re)crystallisation history. It is striking that 1612 and 1615 Ma saddle minimum ages in two samples correspond to a plateau age of 1612 Ma in another sample. Also elevated high and/or low temperature apparent ages of about 1654 Ma in one sample agree to a plateau age of 1657 Ma in another sample. These data would point to recrystallisation lasting about 45 million years, or even around 75 million years, taking the difference between the oldest and youngest plateau ages. The age difference between elevated apparent ages of high and/or low temperature steps and the plateau in individual age spectra can amount to similar lengths of time. The occurrence of overgrowth rims with uniform high-U/low-Th ratios and 1.70-1.72 Ga ages around older zircons, previously revealed by NORDSIM ion probe dating of some of the samples we used, also points to low-temperature fluid alteration. The tectonic meaning of the 1.67-1.59 Ga muscovite ages is unclear, but the age range is comparable to the Gothian orogeny (1.75-1.55 Ga) and the voluminous anorthosite-rapakivi magmatism (1.67-1.45Ga) in the southern Baltic Shield. The latter event has been linked to the Gothian orogeny when a long-lived calc-alkaline Cordilleran-type continental margin arc was developed along the western margin of the Baltic Shield, but also to rifting around the Palaeoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic boundary.

  5. Scots pine needle surfaces on radial transects across the north boreal area of Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.

    PubMed

    Turunen, M; Huttunen, S

    1996-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the characteristics of the needle surfaces of naturally regenerated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and their geographical distribution, eight physicochemical variables were investigated within the north boreal forest area. The visibly undamaged needles were collected in autumn 1990 from 114 plots (3-5 pines per plot) along radial transects from the Monchegorsk and Nikel smelters, emitting SO2 and heavy metals, on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, to Finnish Lapland. The needles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measured for surface wettability using the droplet contact angle (DCA) method. Significant geographical south-north and west-east patterns could be observed in needle surface characteristics, correlating with emissions from the smelters and to climate. Despite the slightly higher initial DCAs (61.4-87.6 degrees) towards the north, the pine needle surfaces of the northernmost transects exhibited higher annual needle wettability change (ANWC) and wax erosion rate (AWER), expressed as the reduction in DCAs and epistomatal wax tube distribution (WTD) during one year, respectively, but a lower occurrence of particles and fungal hyphae than those of more southern transects. The higher ANWC was related to higher atmospheric SO2 concentration, and to the lower long-term temperature sum, but not clearly to annual precipitation. In the Monchegorsk smelter area, the current needles exhibited, on average, a 15% higher WTD and seven degree larger DCA, resulting in more hydrophobic needle surfaces than in Finnish Lapland, but during their first year, both the AWER and ANWC, were greatly increased. In Finnish Lapland, 30%, of all the epistomatal wax tubes disappeared from the needle surface during the first year, the value being 70% for the pines located 8 km from the smelter. The mineral composition of the particles deposited on the needle surfaces mirrored that of the minerals being produced by the smelters (e.g. FexSx, CuFeS2, NixSx, FexOx). Stomatal densities were in the range of 71.1-141.7 stomata mm(-2). The lower densities of stomata on needles close to the smelters correlated with reduced number of needle age classes of the pines, higher dry weights, higher pollutant accumulation and lower Mn and Zn concentrations in the needles. The AWER and ANWC were able to indicate the most seriously deteriorated needle surfaces on a regional scale, e.g. including the surroundings of both smelters, although the plot-specific relationships between 'needle surface variables' and 'pollution variables' were generally weak. The present study showed that the exposure of pine needles to the combined effects of ambient pollutants and harsh climate led to a deterioration in the physicochemical characteristics of the epicuticular wax, which may have serious ecophysiological consequences in the long term. PMID:15091357

  6. Mantle sources and origin of the Middle Paleoproterozoic Jatulian Large Igneous Province of the Fennoscandian shield: evidence from isotope geochemical data on the Kuetsjarvi volcanics, Kola Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Chistyakov, Alexeii; Evgenii, Sharkov

    2014-05-01

    Paleoproterozoic is one of the most important stages in the Earth's evolution as marking a cardinal change in a style of tectonomagmatic processes at 2.2-2.0 Ga, which corresponds to the formation of the Jatulian Large Igneous Province at the Fennoscandian Shield. The fragment of this province is represented by the volcanics of the Kuetsjarvi Group in the Kola Craton. These rocks differ in the extremely wide rock diversity and prominent role of alkaline rocks, the extremely rare rocks in the Precambrian. The rocks of the group are subdivided into the alkaline and tholeiitic basaltic series. The tholeiites are highly fractionated (mg# 38) high-Ti rocks enriched in HFSE. The alkaline series show wider mg# variations (32-52), which is inconsistent with a single fractionation sequence of these series. All rocks have high HFSE, at extremely wide LILE variations. Tholeiites show moderate LREE fractionation pattern at practically flat HREE: La/YbN = 3.6-4.5; La/SmN = 2.2-2.4, Gd/YbN = 1.5-1.7 and slight Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.80-0.85). The alkaline rocks display much more fractionated LREE and fractionated HREE (La/YbN = 43.9-5.8; La/SmN = 2.2-2.4, Gd/YbN = 2.04-3.92) patterns at Eu anomaly varying from 0.53 to 1. The spidergrams of both series reveal negative Nb and Sr anomalies at sign-variable Ti anomaly. The alkaline rocks are enriched relative to tholeiites in U, Th, and Nb. Examination of behavior of incompatible trace elements offers an opportunity to compare the conditions of generation of parental mantle magmas of the studied series. In particular, the tholeiitic basalts have higher Zr/Nb ratios than the alkaline rocks, which in combination with their lower La/Yb ratios indicates their formation under the higher melting degree of mantle source as compared to the alkaline rocks. Simultaneous increase in Ce/Y ratio in the alkaline rocks may indicate their formation at greater depths. Tholeiitic basalts have lower Nb/U ratio, which testifies some crustal contamination of the melts. In addition, they have low Ti/Y (323-449) ratios and high Lu/Hf (0.11-0.16), which is typical of the rocks formed by melting of spinel peridotites. The alkaline basalts were derived from a deeper garnet-bearing mantle source (Ti/Y = 640-1140, Lu/Hf = 0.03-0.05). Isotope-geochemical study showed that these rocks have very similar Nd isotope composition ((eNd (2200) = +1.5 in the alkaline basalt and +1.9 in the tholeiites). It was found that the studied alkaline rocks are similar in composition to the OIB-type Tristan da Kunha basalts, while tholeiites are closer to the high-Ti rocks of the Parana plateau, which experienced significant lithospheric contribution. Obtained data confirm the within-plate setting at the Jatulian stage of the Fennoscandian Shield. The Kutesjarvi Group consists of two rock types: OIB-type alkaline and E-MORB-type tholeiitic, which is typical of most Phanerozoic large igneous provinces. However, unlike the latters, the rocks of this area were too much tectonized and eroded to compile a systematic sequence. But, the Kuetsjarvi Group may be considered as the fragment of the oldest large igneous province.

  7. Calculation of unmitigated release from reverse circulation drilling of a borehole three meters south of borehole 41-15-09 near SST 241-SX-115

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT, D.L.

    1999-05-27

    To more fully characterize the vadose zone near Single Shell Tank 241-SX-115, another borehole will be drilled and sampled by using reverse circulation drilling equipment. Compressed air propels the drill and sweeps out cuttings. Dose calculations in this document are performed for an unmitigated airborne release from the drill string. Doses were found not to exceed TWRS risk guideline values.

  8. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

  9. Multiple-aquifer characterization from single borehole extensometer records.

    PubMed

    Pope, Jason P; Burbey, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of aquifer-system compaction have been used to characterize aquifer and confining unit properties when other techniques such as flow modeling have been ineffective at adequately quantifying storage properties or matching historical water levels in environments experiencing land subsidence. In the southeastern coastal plain of Virginia, high-sensitivity borehole pipe extensometers were used to measure 24.2 mm of total compaction at Franklin from 1979 through 1995 (1.5 mm/year) and 50.2 mm of total compaction at Suffolk from 1982 through 1995 (3.7 mm/year). Analysis of the extensometer data reveals that the small rates of aquifer-system compaction appear to be correlated with withdrawals of water from confined aquifers. One-dimensional vertical compaction modeling indicates measured compaction is the result of nonrecoverable hydrodynamic consolidation of the fine-grained confining units and interbeds, as well as recoverable compaction and expansion of coarse-grained aquifer units. The calibrated modeling results indicate that nonrecoverable specific storage values decrease with depth and range from 1.5 x 10(-5)/m for aquifer units to 1.5 x 10(-4)/m for confining units and interbeds. The aquifer and Potomac system recoverable specific storage values were all estimated to be 4.5 x 10(-6)/m, while the confining units and interbeds had values of 6.0 x 10(-6)/m. The calibrated vertical hydraulic conductivity values of the confining units and interbeds ranged from 6.6 x 10(-4) m/year to 2.0 x 10(-3) m/year. These parameter values will be useful in future management and modeling of ground water in the Virginia Coastal Plain. PMID:14763616

  10. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization, volume of investigation, extraneous effects, and interpretation and applications.

  11. Borehole dilatometer installation, operation, and maintenance at sites in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myren, G.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other instrumentation. These instruments are capable of providing continuous monitoring of the magma movement under Mauna Loa. Each site was planned to provide multi-parameter monitoring of volcanic activity. In June of 2000, a contract was let for the core drilling of three of these four sites. They are located at Hokukano (west side of Mauna Loa) above Captain Cook, Hawaii; at Mauna Loa Observatory (11,737 feet near the summit), and at Mauna Loa Strip Road (east side of Mauna Loa). Another site was chosen near Halema'uma u' and Kilauea's summit, in the Keller deep well. (See maps). The locations of these instruments are shown in Figure 1 with their latitude and longitude in Table 1. The purpose of this network is to monitor crustal deformation associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. This report describes the methods used to locate sites, install dilatometers, other instrumentation, and telemetry. We also provide a detailed description of the electronics used for signal amplification and telemetry, plus techniques used for instrument maintenance. Instrument sites were selected in regions of hard volcanic rock where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of earthquakes with magnitude 4 or greater is large. At each location, an attempt was made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources for each instrument type.

  12. Insights into aquifer vulnerability and potential recharge zones from the borehole response to barometric pressure changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Araby, Mahmoud; Odling, Noelle; Clark, Roger; West, Jared

    2010-05-01

    Borehole water levels fluctuate in response to deformation of the surrounding aquifer caused by surface loading due to barometric pressure or strain caused by Earth and ocean tides. The magnitude and nature of this response mainly depend on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer and overlying units and borehole design. Thus water level responses reflect the effectiveness of a confining unit as a protective layer against aquifer contamination (and therefore groundwater vulnerability) and to potential aquifer recharge/discharge zones. In this study, time series of borehole water levels and barometric pressure are being investigated using time series analysis and signal processing techniques with the aim of developing a methodology for assessing recharge/discharge distribution and groundwater vulnerability in the confined/semi-confined part of the Chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK. The chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire is an important source for industrial and domestic water supply. The aquifer water quality is threatened by surface pollution particularly by nitrates from agricultural fertilizers. The confined/semi-confined part of this aquifer is covered by various types of superficial deposits resulting in a wide range of the aquifer's degree of confinement. A number of boreholes have been selected for monitoring to cover all these various types of confining units. Automatic pressure transducers are installed to record water levels and barometric pressure measurements at each borehole on 15 minutes recording intervals. In strictly confined aquifers, borehole water level response to barometric pressure is an un-drained instantaneous response and is a constant fraction of the barometric pressure changes. This static confined constant is called the barometric efficiency which can be estimated simply by the slope of a regression plot of water levels versus barometric pressure. However, in the semi confined aquifer case this response is lagged due to water movement between the aquifer and the confining layer. In this case the static constant barometric efficiency is not applicable and the response is represented by a barometric response function which reflects the timing and frequency of the barometric pressure loading. In this study, the barometric response function is estimated using de-convolution techniques both in the time domain (least squares regression de-convolution) and in the frequency domain (discrete Fourier transform de-convolution). In order to estimate the barometric response function, borehole water level fluctuations due to factors other than barometric pressure should be removed (de-trended) as otherwise they will mask the response relation of interest. It is shown from the collected borehole data records that the main four factors other than barometric pressure contribute to borehole water level fluctuations. These are the rainfall recharge, Earth tides, sea tides and pumping activities close to the borehole location. Due to the highly variable nature of the UK weather, rainfall recharge shows a wide variation throughout the winter and summer seasons. This gives a complicated recharge signal over a wide range of frequencies which must be de-trended from the borehole water level data in order to estimate the barometric response function. Methods for removing this recharge signal are developed and discussed. Earth tides are calculated theoretically at each borehole location taking into account oceanic loading effects. Ocean tide effects on water levels fluctuations are clear for the boreholes located close to the coast. A Matlab code has been designed to calculate and de-trend the periodic fluctuations in borehole water levels due to Earth and ocean tides using the least squares regression technique based on a sum of sine and cosine fitting model functions. The program results have been confirmed using spectral analysis techniques.

  13. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-11-05

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating a first low frequency acoustic wave within the borehole, wherein the first low frequency acoustic wave induces a linear and a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a radius of the borehole; directing a first sequence of high frequency pulses in a direction perpendicularly with respect to the longitudinal axis of the borehole into the material contemporaneously with the first acoustic wave; and receiving one or more second high frequency pulses at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole produced by an interaction between the first sequence of high frequency pulses and the one or more features undergoing linear and nonlinear elastic distortion due to the first low frequency acoustic wave to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  14. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  15. Stress Analysis in Boreholes Drag Bh and Leknes Bh, Nordland, North Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, Maria V. S.; Ask, Daniel; Elvebakk, Harald; Olesen, Odleiv

    2015-07-01

    Nordland in northern Norway is characterized by enhanced seismicity and uplift that makes it the most tectonically active area in Norway. This study is part of a project entitled Neotectonics in Norway—Implications for Petroleum Exploration, which aims at enhancing the understanding of regional-scale stress and strain dynamics in Nordland, and to impact risk and hazard assessment and petroleum exploration. This paper attempts to constrain the orientation of in situ horizontal stress using high-resolution acoustic televiewer logging data. The Geological Survey of Norway has drilled two 0.8 km deep near-vertical boreholes on opposite sides of the Vestfjord in Nordland, the open bight of sea that separates the Lofoten archipelago from the Norwegian mainland. Both boreholes are drilled just North of 68°N, with borehole Leknes Bh located near the geographic center of the Lofoten archipelago, and borehole Drag Bh located on approximate equal distance from the shore, on the Norwegian mainland. The results of this study are in most practical aspects inconclusive, mainly due to poor data quality. The data analysis has revealed erroneously high-borehole diameter, and several artifacts such as eccentric logging tool, rugose borehole wall, spiral hole, tool sticking and missing data. Four intervals with passive in situ stress indicators (borehole breakout and drilling-induced fractures) were found in travel time and amplitude images of the Drag Bh, suggesting approximately N-S orientation of maximum horizontal stress. However, these intervals are not found in cross-plots. Either result yields the lowest World Stress Map ranking quality (E).

  16. Monitoring borehole flow dynamics using heated fiber optic DTS in a fractured rock aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas; Chalari, Athena; Parker, Beth; Munn, Jonathan; Mondanos, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Temperature profiles in fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation or in the borehole. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a tool that allows for continuous borehole temperature profiling in space and time. Recent technology advancements in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolutions of DTS systems now allow temperature profiling methods to offer improved insight into fractured rock hydrogeologic processes. An innovation in shallow borehole temperature logging utilizes high resolution DTS temperature profiling in sealed and heated boreholes to identify fractures with natural gradient groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. This technique can also be applied to open well conditions to monitor borehole flow distributions caused by hydraulic perturbations such as pumping or injection. A field trial was conducted in Guelph, Ontario, Canada to determine the capabilities of heated DTS for flow monitoring in both open and sealed wells. Intelligent distributed acoustic sensing (iDAS) measurements for vertical seismic profiling were carried out simultaneously with the DTS measurements to assist with characterization of the fractured aquifer system. DTS heat pulse tests were conducted in a single well under sealed conditions for natural gradient flow measurements and open conditions to monitor flow distributions during injection and pumping. The results of these tests indicate that borehole flow distributions can be monitored using DTS and that active heating allows for further information about the hydrogeologic system to be determined than from the passive measurements alone. Depth-continuous transmissivity data from the borehole correlate well with the DTS testing results. DTS based flow monitoring systems may be useful for monitoring transient production and injection processes for a variety of applications including groundwater remediation, aquifer storage and recovery, and geothermal systems. Further advancements to this method are possible to allow for quantitative flow distributions to be determined.

  17. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, March 1994 to June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes lithologic logging of core from boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conducted from March 1994 to June 1994. Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium and colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, and Tertiary Calico Hills Formation. Logging results are presented in a table of contact depths for core from unsaturated zone neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphic lithologic logs for core from north ramp geology (NRG) boreholes.

  18. Characteristics of fractures in crystalline bedrock determined by surface and borehole geophysical surveys, Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, B.P.; Stone, J.R.; Lane, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Surface and borehole geophysical methods were used to determine fracture orientation in crystalline bedrock at the Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine. Fracture-orientation information is needed to address concerns about the fate of contaminants in ground water at the site. Azimuthal square-array resistivity surveys were conducted at 3 locations at the site, borehole-acoustic televiewer and borehole-video logs were collected in 10 wells, and single-hole directional radar surveys were conducted in 9 wells.

  19. Drag-out effect of piezomagnetic signals due to a borehole: The Mogi source as an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasai, Y.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Tanaka, Y.; Mueller, R.; Hashimoto, T.; Utsugi, M.; Sakanaka, S.; Uyeshima, M.; Zlotnicki, J.; Yvetot, P.

    2007-01-01

    We show that using borehole measurements in tectonomagnetic experiments allows enhancement of the observed signals. New magnetic dipoles, which vary with stress changes from mechanical sources, are produced on the walls of the borehole. We evaluate such an effect quantitatively. First we formulate a general expression for the borehole effect due to any arbitrary source models. This is valid everywhere above the ground surface as well as within the cylindrical hole. A first-order approximate solution is given by a line of horizontal dipoles and vertical quadrupoles along the central axis of the borehole, which is valid above the ground surface and a slightly away (several tens of cm) from the top of the borehole. Selecting the Mogi model as an example, we numerically evaluated the borehole effect. It turned out that the vertical quadrupoles produce two orders of magnitude more intense magnetic field than the horizontal dipoles. The borehole effect is very local, i.e. detectable only within a few m from its outlet, since it is of the same order or more than the case without a borehole. However, magnetic lines of force cannot reach the ground surface from a deeper portion (> 10 m) of a borehole.

  20. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  1. Initial Borehole Accelerometer Array Observations Near the North Portal of the ESF

    SciTech Connect

    David von Seggern

    2005-08-17

    This report addresses observed ground motions at the site of the proposed surface facilities associated with the designated repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In 2003 an accelerometer array was installed at three boreholes on the pad of the north portal of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, by the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL). These boreholes, roughly 150 m apart and initially used for extensive geological and geophysical surveys, were ideal locations to measure the subsurface ground motions at the proposed site of surface facilities such as the Waste Handling Building. Such measurements will impact the design of the facilities. Accelerometer emplacement depths of approximately 15 m from the surface and then at the bottom of the boreholes, roughly 100 m, were chosen. Accelerometers were also placed at the surface next to the boreholes, for a total of nine accelerometers, all three-component. Data recording was accomplished with onsite recorders, with the onsite data transmitted to a central computer at a trailer on the pad. All requirements were met to qualify these data as ''Q''. Due to the lack of significant recordings during 2003, several low signal-to-noise (S/N) quality events were chosen for processing. The maximum horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded at the pad was approximately 1 cm/s2 in 2003; the corresponding peak ground velocity (PGV) was approximately 0.01 cm/s. PGA and PGV were obtained at all nine accelerometers for most of these events, and spectra were computed. Ground motion amplitudes varied significantly across the boreholes. Higher ground amplifications were observed at the surface for the two boreholes that penetrated a thick amount ({approx} 30 m) of fill and Quaternary alluvium compared to the one that had less than 2 m of such. Additionally, surface-to-deep recordings showed as much as a factor of five amplification at these two boreholes. Signal correlation with inter-borehole distance agrees with basic scattering theory, and the recorded signals across the wavefront correlate more strongly than those along the propagation path. Transfer functions computed from layered models for each borehole reflect some of the actual signal attributes fairly well, but many more signals need to be recorded and used to provide a good basis of comparison.

  2. New heat flow data from three boreholes near Bergen, Stavanger and Moss, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Rønning, Jan S.; Elvebakk, Harald

    2014-05-01

    An attempt has been made to reveal the major features of the subsurface temperature distribution in the Fyllingsdalen, the Ullrigg and the Årvollskogen boreholes, which are located near Bergen, Stavanger and Moss, respectively. Based on 2D gravity and magnetic modelling, the lithosphere-scale 2D models have been constructed for the Bergen, Stavanger and Moss areas. All available shallow and deep data have been used to construct these 2D structural models which, therefore, represent a current state of our knowledge of the bedrock structure beneath these three study areas. These 2D models were used during the 2D thermal modelling to understand the thermal regime within the crystalline crust of the study areas. The results of the 2D thermal modelling demonstrate that a significant decrease of the Earth's surface temperatures during the two last glaciations still affects the subsurface thermal field of the study areas in terms of the reduced temperatures within the uppermost crystalline crust. Tentative palaeoclimatic corrections for the investigated boreholes vary from 21-23 to 26-28 mW/m². Besides, the advective cooling due to groundwater flow is an additional factor for the reduction of temperatures within the Bergen and Stavanger areas where the normal annual precipitation is one of the highest in Europe, reaching roughly 4000 mm/year. On the other hand, the influence of the groundwater flow on subsurface temperatures is most likely very low within the Moss area. According to the results of 2D thermal modelling, the modelled temperatures are higher in the Fyllingsdalen and Årvollskogen boreholes compared to the Ullrigg borehole. This difference is in agreement with the low measured thermal gradient in the Ullrigg borehole which is less than 13.0 °C/km compared to 16.5 °C/km in the case of the Fyllingsdalen borehole and 19.3 °C/km in the Årvollskogen borehole. The differentiation in radiogenic heat production of the crystalline crust is one of the main reasons for the higher measured and modelled temperatures within the Bergen and Moss areas in comparison to the Stavanger area. This resulted in a higher heat flux in the Fyllingsdalen and the Årvollskogen boreholes in comparison with the Ullrigg borehole.

  3. Mapping permeable fractures at depth in crystalline metamorphic shield rocks using borehole seismic, logging, and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of major fluid pathways in subsurface exploration can be identified by understanding the effects of fractures, cracks, and microcracks in the subsurface. Part of a feasibility study of geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of the investigation of subsurface fluid pathways in the Precambrian basement rocks. One of the selected sites for this study is in the Fort McMurray area, where the deepest well drilled in the oilsands region in Northeastern Alberta is located. This deep borehole has a depth of 2.3 km which offers substantial depth coverage to study the metamorphic rocks in the Precambrian crystalline basement of this study area. Seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the borehole reveal NW-SE dipping reflectors within the metamorphic shield rocks some of which appear to intersect the wellbore. An extensive logging and borehole seismic program was carried out in the borehole in July, 2011. Gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, acoustic televiewer, electrical resistivity, and full-waveform sonic logs were acquired to study the finer scale structure of the rock formations, with vertical resolutions in the range of 0.05 cm to 80 cm. These logs supplement earlier electrical microscanner images obtained by the well operator when it was drilled. In addition, we are also interested in identifying other geological features such as zones of fractures that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The interpretation of the borehole logs reveals a highly conductive 13 m thick zone at 1409 m depth that may indicate communication of natural brines in fractures with the wellbore fluid. The photoelectric factor and magnetic susceptibility also appear anomalous in this zone. Formation MicroImager (FMI) log was used to verify the presence of fractures in the borehole in this conductive zone. This fracture zone may coincide with the dipping seismic reflectors in the reflection profile. To better understand the velocity structure and to look for the effects of fractures, a high resolution zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was conducted to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. VSP data can be used to delineate the structural and stratigraphic features surrounding the borehole that could not otherwise be resolved from surface seismic reflection data. A comparison of VSP data with borehole logging data is expected to provide information on the local lithological changes, mineral composition of rocks and on the presence of fractures.

  4. In situ capture gamma-ray analysis of coal in an oversize borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Dotson, D.W.; Senftle, F.E.; Zych, R.S.; Koger, J.; Goldman, L.

    1983-01-01

    In situ capture gamma-ray analysis in a coal seam using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in a close-fitting borehole has been reported previously. In order to check the accuracy of the method under adverse conditions, similar measurements were made by means of a small-diameter sonde in an oversize borehole in the Pittsburgh seam, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The hole was 5 times the diameter of the sonde, a ratio that substantially increased the contribution of water (hydrogen) to the total spectral count and reduced the size of the sample measured by the detector. The total natural count, the 40K,count, and the intensities of capture gamma rays from Si, Ca, H, and Al were determined as a function of depth above, through, and below the coal seam. From these logs, the depth and width of the coal seam and its partings were determined. Spectra were accumulated in the seam for 1 h periods by using neutron sources of different strengths. From the spectra obtained by means of several 252Cf neutron sources of different sizes, the ultimate elemental analysis and ash content were determined. The results were not as good as those obtained previously in a close-fitting borehole. However, the results did improve with successively larger source-to-detector distances, i.e.,as the count contribution due to hydrogen in the water decreased. It was concluded that in situ borehole analyses should be made in relatively close-fitting boreholes. ?? 1983.

  5. Preliminary Heat Flow Measurements from Plate Boundary Observatory Boreholes along the San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. J.; Harris, R. N.; Williams, C.; Grubb, F. V.; Fulton, P. M.; Chapman, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of the subsurface thermal regime is critical for understanding lithospheric rheology, fault mechanics and geodynamic processes. We report new heat flow values from boreholes drilled during the installation of borehole strain meters as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) help constrain the role of temperature in determining the spatial and temporal pattern of deformation within along strike-slip faults in California. The new boreholes sites along this plate boundary system are clustered in the San Francisco Bay Area (n=5), San Juan Batista (n=5), Parkfield (n=7), and Anza (n=5). The boreholes vary in depth from 97 to 245 m. Temperature profiles were measured in each borehole and more than 899 thermal conductivity measurements were determined from drill cuttings and core samples. Heat production measurements are currently in progress. Temperature gradients have been corrected for the perturbing effects of terrain and combined with thermal conductivity to form thermal resistance plots and calculate heat flow. In general these plots indicate constant heat flow in the lower parts of the holes consistent with conductive heat transfer. Overall heat flow values are consistent with elevated heat flow that characterizes much of the California Coast Ranges. This study will help constrain the role of temperature in determining the spatial and temporal pattern of deformation within and along strike-slip faults in California.

  6. Cement technology for borehole plugging: an interim report on permeability measurements of cementitious solids

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of borehole plug solids and plug-wall rock junctions is a property of major interest in the Borehole Plugging Program. This report describes the equipment and techniques used to determine the permeabilities of possible borehole plugging materials and presents results from tests on various cementitious solids and plug-rock combinations. The cementitious solids were made from mixtures of cement, sand, salt, fly ash, and water. Three different types of cement and four different fly ashes were used. Permeabilities ranged from a high value of 3 x 10/sup -4/ darcy for a neat cement paste to a low of 5 x 10/sup -8/ darcy for a saltcrete containing 30 wt % sodium chloride. Miniature boreholes were made in the following four different types of rock: Westerly granite, Dresser basalt, Sioux quartzite, and St. Cloud granodiorite. These small holes were plugged with a mix consisting of 23 wt % Type I Portland cement, 20 wt % bituminous fy ash, 43.2 wt % sand, and 13.8 wt % water. After curing for 91 days at ambient temperature, the permeability of the plug-wall rock junctions ranged from 3 x 10/sup -5/ to < 1 x 10/sup -8/ darcy. Three of the four miniature plugged boreholes exhibited permeabilities of < 10 microdarcys.

  7. Using the Hypergeometric Model to analyze the buckling of drillstrings in curved boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, J.H.B. Jr.; Eustes, A.W. III

    1998-12-31

    Current methodologies for analytically determining the onset of buckling of drillstrings within curved boreholes are limited. In this paper, the Hypergeometric Model is shown to be an effective model to determine drillstring buckling within curved boreholes. With the Hypergeometric Model, the analysis of drillstring buckling results in curves expressing the local buckling force versus the angle of inclination. The local buckling force alone, however, does not contain all the information required for a practical analysis. From the local buckling force curve, the positional buckling force is derived. The positional buckling force considers the distributed weight of the drillstring and the friction between the drillstring and the borehole wall. From this curve, the point of minimum resistance to buckling of the drillstring is determined. Using the local and positional buckling force curves, experimental results and simulations are presented. When multiple configurations exist (for example tapered drillstrings, tapered boreholes, multi-curved boreholes, or any combination of these), the analysis procedure uses superposition of two or more single configuration curves and a graphical algorithm. The Hypergeometric Model permits the optimization of the position of the crossing points (cross-over positioning, casing-shoe positioning, and change of curvature) to achieve extended reach with less risk and cost. The procedure for this model and examples are presented in this paper.

  8. Influence of natural convection in a porous medium when producing from borehole heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringedal, C.; Berre, I.; Nordbotten, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    Convection currents in a porous medium form when the medium is subject to sufficient heating from below (or equivalently, cooling from above) or when cooled or heated from the side. In the context of geothermal energy extraction, we are interested in how the convection currents transport heat when a sealed borehole containing cold fluid extracts heat from the porous medium; also known as a borehole heat exchanger. Using pseudospectral methods together with domain decomposition, we consider two scenarios for heat extraction from a borehole; one system where the porous medium is initialized with constant temperature in the vertical direction and one system initialized with a vertical temperature gradient. We find the convection currents to have a positive effect on the heat extraction for the case with a constant initial temperature in the porous medium, and a negative effect for some of the systems with an initial temperature gradient in the porous medium: Convection gives a negative effect when the borehole temperature is close the initial temperature in the porous medium, but gradually provides a positive effect if the borehole temperature is decreased and the Rayleigh number is larger.

  9. Geostatistical borehole image-based mapping of karst-carbonate aquifer pores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael Sukop; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the character and spatial distribution of porosity in carbonate aquifers is important as input into computer models used in the calculation of intrinsic permeability and for next-generation, high-resolution groundwater flow simulations. Digital, optical, borehole-wall image data from three closely spaced boreholes in the karst-carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida are used in geostatistical experiments to assess the capabilities of various methods to create realistic two-dimensional models of vuggy megaporosity and matrix-porosity distribution in the limestone that composes the aquifer. When the borehole image data alone were used as the model training image, multiple-point geostatistics failed to detect the known spatial autocorrelation of vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes, which were only 10 m apart. Variogram analysis and subsequent Gaussian simulation produced results that showed a realistic conceptualization of horizontal continuity of strata dominated by vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes.

  10. CORK Borehole Observatory Meets NEPTUNE Canada Cabled Observatory: First Experiences and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.; Scherwath, M.

    2011-12-01

    The connection between the CORK ("Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit") borehole observatory monitoring Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) borehole 1026B and the NEPTUNE Canada ocean network in September of 2009 marks the beginning of a new era of cabled subseafloor observations. The electrical power and real-time data access provided by cables improve the sampling rate, life time, and timing accuracy of existing borehole instrumentation. Cabled observatories also provide the opportunity to deploy advanced instruments that consume more power and produce more data than ever before. Using data from the 1026B CORK, we demonstrate how the higher sampling rate of cabled CORK observatories enables us to study phenomena like ocean weather and hydrologic responses to seismic waves. In an outlook we show how CORKs and new borehole instruments-planned for future connection to the NEPTUNE Canada ocean network-can help to yield critical information on the accumulation of stress and resulting strain of plate-scale crustal movements. In the future, these CORKs and new geodetic borehole instrumentation will provide a time-series of strain signals associated with the Cascadia subduction zone that would not have been possible with remote sensing or land-based monitoring. These CORKs will not only represent a new approach for earthquake research but the high-frequency, real-time data could also directly contribute to earthquake and tsunami early warning systems.

  11. Geostatistical Borehole Image-Based Mapping of Karst-Carbonate Aquifer Pores.

    PubMed

    Sukop, Michael C; Cunningham, Kevin J

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of the character and spatial distribution of porosity in carbonate aquifers is important as input into computer models used in the calculation of intrinsic permeability and for next-generation, high-resolution groundwater flow simulations. Digital, optical, borehole-wall image data from three closely spaced boreholes in the karst-carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida are used in geostatistical experiments to assess the capabilities of various methods to create realistic two-dimensional models of vuggy megaporosity and matrix-porosity distribution in the limestone that composes the aquifer. When the borehole image data alone were used as the model training image, multiple-point geostatistics failed to detect the known spatial autocorrelation of vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes, which were only 10 m apart. Variogram analysis and subsequent Gaussian simulation produced results that showed a realistic conceptualization of horizontal continuity of strata dominated by vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes. PMID:26174850

  12. Combined simulation-optimization of borehole heat exchanger fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Beck, Markus; Hecht-Mendez, Jozsef; de Paly, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Currently, far more than one million ground-source heat pump systems are installed in Europe for space heating of buildings. Most of these are single, closed, vertical systems, with borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) that penetrate shallow aquifers down to a depth of about 100-200 m. Multiple BHE fields that are implemented for large-scale geothermal energy supply of buildings or district heating systems are of increasing importance. In comparison to the straightforward design of single BHE systems, concerted operation of several BHEs is more challenging. Multiple adjacent BHEs can interact and affect each other. Large-scale, non-uniform thermal anomalies are potentially generated in the ground. Mutual interaction among BHEs could have an influence on the overall system's performance and therefore, should be either circumvented or integrated in the operation strategy. However, so far strategic tuning of energy extraction rates of the individual BHEs in space and time has not been considered in practice. In our presentation, a combined simulation-optimization approach is presented to regulate the individual operation of BHEs. The BHE field is simulated analytically, by temporally and spatially superimposed line source equations, as well as in more detail in numerical models. Both conditions with and without horizontal groundwater flow are studied. Groundwater flow means an additional advective energy supply, which is advantageous but also complicates apposite multiple BHE adjustment. The optimization task is formulated in an objective function to minimize the thermal impact in the ground, to avoid extreme temperature anomalies, and by this, enhance heat pump performance. We select linear programming to optimize the time-dependent loads in a computationally efficient way. Evolutionary algorithms are utilized when the BHE positions are adjusted. In different hypothetical applications with given seasonal changing load profiles and variable BHE configurations we show that either individual BHE heat extraction or position optimization is sufficient, and that only little improvement potential exists for joint optimization of both aspects. It is also demonstrated that groundwater flow direction and velocity has substantial influence on the identified ideal BHE operation patterns. Increase of groundwater flow velocity means more energy supply, and thus a better thermal recovery for given energy extraction rates. As a consequence, this mitigates the benefit from optimized BHE operation.

  13. Determination of thermal dispersivity using a borehole heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Bayer, P.; Bisch, G.; Braun, J.; Klaas, N.; Blum, P.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow geothermal energy is a popular option for the heating and air-conditioning of buildings, because it is a regenerative energy and modern heat-pump-based low-enthalpy geothermal systems are often economically advantageous to alternative technologies. Geothermal systems extract heat from the ground, or inject waste heat. This may cause temperature anomalies in the subsurface, and when shallow aquifers exist, these anomalies can be observed in the groundwater. To ensure an efficiently operating, and in the long-run, sustainable, geothermal system, a precise knowledge of the evolving temperature anomaly is desirable. When planning a system, among the subsurface heat transport processes, advection due to flowing groundwater is not often considered. Accordingly, the role of thermal dispersion is rarely inspected. To determine the thermal dispersion influencing the temperature plume around a borehole heat extractor (BHE), a geothermal lab experiment is performed in an artificial aquifer. The size of the aquifer is 9 m × 6 m × 4.5 m, it is heterogeneous and composed of five different sand layers. In the lab, a specific hydraulic gradient is imposed. A BHE is installed in this aquifer, and the exact size and temporal evolution of the induced temperature anomaly is measured by a monitoring network of over 100 temperature sensors. Based on the known hydraulic and thermal properties of the different sand layers, a high-resolution finite element model is built, which simulates the transient conditions during the experiment. This model contains a fully discretized BHE, with an integrated heat carrier fluid flow inside the U-pipes, located inside the BHE. Therefore, the model is able to consider the coupled processes between the temperature development of the heat carrier fluid and the heat propagation in the subsurface. Except the longitudinal and transversal dispersivity, all material properties and boundary conditions are known, thus the dispersivities can be determined by parameter estimation. The results confirm previous findings that the effect of longitudinal and transversal dispersion should be considered for the temperature plume calculation caused by BHEs in advection influenced systems.

  14. Understanding the relationship between audiomagnetotelluric data and models, and borehole data in a hydrological environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Pellerin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data and resulting models are analyzed with respect to geophysical and geological borehole logs in order to clarify the relationship between the two methodologies of investigation of a hydrological environment. Several profiles of AMT data collected in basins in southwestern United States are being used for groundwater exploration and hydrogeological framework studies. In a systematic manner, the AMT data and models are compared to borehole data by computing the equivalent one-dimensional AMT model and comparing with the two-dimensional (2-D) inverse AMT model. The spatial length is used to determine if the well is near enough to the AMT profile to quantify the relationship between the two datasets, and determine the required resolution of the AMT data and models. The significance of the quality of the borehole data when compared to the AMT data is also examined.

  15. A heat-pulse flowmeter for measuring minimal discharge rates in boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has tested a borehole-configured heat-pulse flowmeter which has good low-velocity flow-measuring sensitivity. The flowmeter was tested in the laboratory in 51-, 102-, and 152-millimeter-diameter columns using water velocities ranging from 0.35 to 250 millimeters per second. The heat-pulse flowmeter also was tested in a 15-meter-deep granite test pit with controlled water flow, and in a 58-meter-deep borehole in sedimentary materials. The flowmeter's capability to detect and measure naturally occurring, low-velocity, thermally induced convection currents in boreholes was demonstrated. Further improvements to the heat-pulse-flowmeter system are needed to increase its reliability and improve its response through four-conductor logging cable.

  16. Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.; Schimschal, U.

    1993-05-01

    Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

  17. Physical and chemical changes to rock near electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Durham, W.B.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sections of Climax Stock quartz monzonite taken from the vicinity of two electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy for signs of changes in crack structure and in mineralogy resulting from operations at SFT-C. The crack structure, as measured by density of cracks and average crack lengths was found not to have changed as a result of heating, regardless of distance from the heater hole. However, rock near the heater borehole sampled in the north heater drift was found to be more cracked than rock near the borehole sampled in the south heater drift. Mineralogically, the post-test samples are identical to the pre-test samples. No new phases have been formed as a result of the test. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. A simple borehole dilution technique in measuring horizontal ground water flow.

    PubMed

    Pitrak, M; Mares, S; Kobr, M

    2007-01-01

    Borehole dilution techniques use repeated fluid column profiling after establishment of an initial uniform condition to monitor the rate at which ambient ground water moves into a borehole. Application of the dilution technique in a monitoring well makes it possible to estimate the horizontal Darcy flow velocity of ground water in the aquifer surrounding the borehole. Previous investigators have demonstrated the technique using either relatively concentrated saline solutions or deionized water to produce a fluid column with properties distinctly different from those of local ground water. We present a new dilution technique using the food color Brilliant Blue FCF (Euro code E-133) to mark the fluid column and using a specially constructed photometric sensor to characterize the dilution of this dye over time. The effective application of this technique is documented by two practical examples. PMID:17257343

  19. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.

  20. Petrophysical properties, mineralogy, fractures, and flow tests in 25 deep boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Kibler, Joyce E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a site investigation for the disposal of radioactive waste, numerous boreholes were drilled into a sequence of Miocene pyroclastic flows and related deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report contains displays of data from 25 boreholes drilled during 19791984, relatively early in the site investigation program. Geophysical logs and hydrological tests were conducted in the boreholes; core and cuttings analyses yielded data on mineralogy, fractures, and physical properties; and geologic descriptions provided lithology boundaries and the degree of welding of the rock units. Porosity and water content were computed from the geophysical logs, and porosity results were combined with mineralogy from x-ray diffraction to provide whole-rock volume fractions. These data were composited on plates and used by project personnel during the 1990s. Improvements in scanning and computer technology now make it possible to publish these displays.

  1. High-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.

    2000-05-25

    A literature survey and technical evaluation was carried out of past and present battery technologies with the goal of identifying appropriate candidates for use in geothermal borehole and, to a lesser extent, oil/gas boreholes. The various constraints that are posed by such an environment are discussed. The promise as well as the limitations of various candidate technologies are presented. Data for limited testing of a number of candidate systems are presented and the areas for additional future work are detailed. The use of low-temperature molten salts shows the most promise for such applications and includes those that are liquid at room temperature. The greatest challenges are to develop an appropriate electrochemical couple that is kinetically stable with the most promising electrolytes--both organic as well as inorganic--over the wide operating window that spans both borehole environments.

  2. Borehole radar investigations for locating ice ring formed by cryogenic condition in an underground cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Park, Sam-Gyu; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Son, Jeong-Sul; Cho, Seong-Jun

    2007-07-01

    A small underground pilot plant was constructed and operated at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources for investigating the feasibility of a new concept of storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in a lined hard rock cavern. In the real operation of the pilot plant, liquid nitrogen (LN2) was stored instead of LNG for safety purpose. A drainage system controls the development of an impervious ring of ice formed due to storage of LN2 in extremely low temperature. The ice ring formed around the storage cavern is very important because this can act as the final barrier to secure the LNG storage. We carried out borehole radar surveys to study the applicability of the borehole radar reflection method to locating the ice ring formation. Prior to conducting the fieldwork, we performed numerical experiments of borehole radar reflection survey; through the analysis of the numerical modeled data we obtained the most appropriate interpretation strategies for locating the ice rings. Before and after storing the LN2 in the underground cavern, we conducted borehole radar reflection and crosshole level scanning surveys. The data obtained at the two stages of the surveys were compared in order to identify changes occurring in basement rock after storing the LN2. The interpretation of the borehole radar data clearly showed that the ice rings only developed under and in front of the LNG storage cavern of the pilot plant, but not over it. Through the numerical modeling experiments and field monitoring exercises, we were able to know that borehole radar reflection technique is an effective method for locating ice rings formed in basement rock for storing material of extremely low temperature in an underground cavern.

  3. Numerical modelling of resolution and sensitivity of ERT in horizontal boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsen, Berit E.; Dahlin, Torleif

    2010-03-01

    Resistivity in horizontal boreholes can give useful detailed information about the geological conditions for construction in rock, i.e. in front of a tunnel bore machine. This paper is an attempt to identify a suitable methodology for an effective measuring routine for this type of geophysical measurements under actual construction site conditions. Prior to any measurements numerical modelling was done in order to evaluate the resolution of different electrode arrays. Four different arrays were tested; dipole-pole, cross-hole dipole-dipole, cross-hole pole-tripole and multiple gradient array. Additionally the resolution of a combination of cross-hole dipole-dipole and multiple gradient was assessed. The 2D sensitivity patterns for various arrangements of the cross-hole dipole-dipole and multiple gradient array were examined. The sensitivity towards inaccurate borehole geometry and the influence of water in the boreholes were also investigated. Based on the model study the cross-hole dipole-dipole array, multiple gradient array and a combination of these were found to give the best result and therefore were used for test measurements in horizontal boreholes. The boreholes were 28.5 m long and drilled 6.5 m apart. Prototypes of semi-rigid borehole cables made it possible to insert multi electrode cables in an efficient way, allowing fast measurement routines. These measurements were then studied to determine their accuracy and applicability. The results showed a high resistivity rock mass at the site. A transition from high resistivity to slightly lower resistivity coincides well with a change in lithology from gneiss-granite to gneiss. It is likely that the shotcrete on the tunnel wall is seen as a low resistivity zone. The measurements are a valuable tool, but further development of the cables and streamlining of measuring routines have to be performed before the resistivity tomography can be used routinely in pilot holes during construction in rocks.

  4. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and ?-? density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the stratigraphy of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  5. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in borehole USW G-2, 1996, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.M.

    1998-08-01

    Borehole USW G-2 is located north of Yucca Mountain in a large-hydraulic-gradient area. Two single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in the borehole during 1996. A 54.9-hour pumping period was conducted February 6--8, 1996, and a 408-hour pumping period was conducted April 8--25, 1996. The purpose of testing was to obtain estimates of the aquifer-system transmissivity and to determine if perched water was affecting the observed water level in borehole USW G-2. This report presents and analyzes data collected between February 6 and December 17, 1996. Analysis of the aquifer-test data indicated that fracture flow, dual-porosity flow, and boundary-affected flow conditions were observed in the drawdown and recovery data. Transmissivity estimates ranged from 2.3 to 12 meters squared per day. The most representative transmissivity estimate for the interval tested is the early-time mean transmissivity of 9.4 meters squared per day. The Calico Hills Formation was the primary formation tested, but the top 3 meters of the nonpumping water column was within the overlying Topopah Spring Tuff. Persistent residual drawdown following pumping more than 6 million liters of water during aquifer testing may indicate that the bore-hole intersected a perched water body. After 236 days of recovery, residual drawdown was 0.5 meter. The quantitative effect of the perched water on the observed water level in borehole USW G-2, however, cannot be determined with the available data.

  6. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sterling, S.N.; Parker, B.L.; Cherry, J.A.; Williams, J.H.; Lane, J.W., Jr.; Haeni, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surf