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1

New heat flow data from the immediate vicinity of the Kola super-deep borehole: Vertical variation in heat flow confirmed and attributed to advection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new heat flow values and other geothermal data in the upper crystalline crust in the immediate vicinity of the 12.4-km deep Kola super-deep borehole, NW Russia. Our results show a systematic vertical increase in geothermal gradient and heat flow density as deep as we could measure (1.6 km). Our results confirm earlier results on vertical heat flow trends of in the uppermost part of the Kola super-deep hole, and imply that the thermal regime is not in steady-state conductive conditions. In an area of 3-km × 5-km measurements were performed in 1 2-km deep boreholes surrounding the Kola super-deep hole and on core samples from these holes. Temperature logs are available from 36 holes. Core data exists from 23 boreholes with a total length of 11.5 km at a vertical resolution of 10 m. We carried out a very detailed study on thermal conductivity with regard to anisotropy, inhomogeneity and temperature dependence. Tensor components of thermal conductivity were determined on 1375 core samples from 21 boreholes in 3400 measurements. Additionally, we measured specific heat capacity, heat generation rate, density, porosity, and permeability on selected subsets of core samples. Heat flow from 19 boreholes varies between 31 and 45 mW m-2 with an average value of 38 mW m-2. In most boreholes the vertical heat flow profiles show a considerable variation with depth. This is consistent with observations in the upper part of the Kola super-deep borehole. We conclude that this variation is not caused by technical operations but reflects a natural process. It is considered to be due to a combination of advective, structural and paleoclimatic effects. Preliminary 3-D numerical modeling of heat and flow in the study area provides an indication of relative contributions of each of these factors: advective heat transfer turns out to have a major influence on the vertical variation of heat flow, although transient changes in surface temperature may also cause a significant variation. Heterogeneity of the rocks in the study area is less important.

Mottaghy, D.; Schellschmidt, R.; Popov, Y. A.; Clauser, C.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Nover, G.; Milanovsky, S.; Romushkevich, R. A.

2005-05-01

2

Fault mechanisms of induced seismicity at the superdeep German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) borehole and their relation to fault structure and stress field  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred twenty-five fault plane solutions for microearthquakes induced during a long-term fluid injection experiment at the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) boreholes (Germany) in 2000 are investigated. A predominant strike-slip mechanism is observed, partly with components of normal but also with reverse faulting. Adding 54 fault plane solutions of an earlier injection experiment at the KTB, we determine

Marco Bohnhoff; Stefan Baisch; Hans-Peter Harjes

2004-01-01

3

Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of the German KTB superdeep well in the 4100-7100 m depth range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KTB German Superdeep Well (Germany, Windischeschenbach) has limiting depth of 9101 m. It is one of the world deepest well among the continental boreholes. A study of physical parameters including elastic ones of the massif intersected by the well allowed to represent a real pattern of changing properties and the state of crystalline rocks in upper and middle part of the Earth crust. Such a deep section enables performing analyses of large spectrum of geological and geophysical objects, such as minerals, crystalline rocks, geological strata, formation complexes et al. Recently obtained results permit to get a general idea of elastic-anisotropic properties of crystalline rocks extracted from great depths. A study of properties and state of rocks along the KTB section will make it possible to most precisely determine regular changes of the Earth's rock properties within a large range of depths. Below are the results of investigation of elastic-anisotropic properties for 13 core samples of the KTB rocks in the range of 4.1 to 7.1 km. In this interval the well has penetrated metamorphosed rocks [1]. The measurements have been done by an acoustopolarization method with recent improvements and with devices for determination of sample elastic properties [2 3]. The data obtained are the result of extended study into the KTB rock samples by the method [4]. Study of rock samples from the KTB Superdeep Well in the 4100-7100 m depth range showed that they all are elastic anisotropic and pertain to a orthorhombic symmetry type. Virtually the degree of linear acoustic anisotropic absorption (LAAA) effect has been detected in all samples. Its appearance is likely related to directional orientation of mineral grains as well as to the generation of microcracks during drilling and lithostatic stress release. The several samples showed an angular unconformity between the LAAA orientation and elastic symmetry elements. The shear waves depolarization (DSW) effect was detected in garnet amphibolites samples. There was observed a tendency to persistence in propagation rate of compression and shear wave velocities. The pattern of change in anisotropy factors for compression and shear waves in depth shows itself in a similar way. There is an inverse correlation between density and anisotropy. R E F E R E N C E S 1. Emmermann R., Althaus E., Giese P., Stockhert B.. KTB Hauptbohrung. Results of Geoscientific Investigation in the KTB Field Laboratory. Final Report: 0-9101m. KTB Report 95-2. Hannover. 1995. 2. Gorbatsevich F.F. Acoustopolariscopy of rock forming minerals and crystalline rocks. Apatity, Kola Science Centre RAS, 2002, p. 140. (In Russian) 3. Kovalevskiy M.V. Automated hardware-software complex Acoustpol: Tutorial: Apatity, «K & M» Publ., 2009. 54p. (In Russian). 4. Kovalevsky M.V., Gorbatsevich F.F., Harms U., Dahlheim H.-A. Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of German KTB Superdeep Well // Geophysical magazine.- Geophysics Institute of NAS of Ukraine. -2012.- Issue 34.-#2.-P. 36-48. (In Russian)

Kovalevskiy, Mikhail

2013-04-01

4

Superdeep diamonds from the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alluvial diamonds from the Juina area in Mato Grosso, Brazil, have been characterized in terms of their morphology, syngenetic mineral inclusions, carbon isotopes and nitrogen contents. Morphologically, they are similar to other Brazilian diamonds, showing a strong predominance of rounded dodecahedral crystals. However, other characteristics of the Juina diamonds make them unique. The inclusion parageneses of Juina diamonds are dominated by ultra-high-pressure ("superdeep") phases that differ both from "traditional" syngenetic minerals associated with diamonds and, in detail, from most other superdeep assemblages. Ferropericlase is the dominant inclusion in the Juina diamonds. It coexists with ilmenite, Cr-Ti spinel, a phase with the major-element composition of olivine, and SiO2. CaSi-perovskite inclusions coexist with titanite (sphene), "olivine" and native Ni. MgSi-perovskite coexists with TAPP (tetragonal almandine-pyrope phase). Majoritic garnet occurs in one diamond, associated with CaTi-perovskite, Mn-ilmenite and an unidentified Si-Mg phase. Neither Cr-pyrope nor Mg-chromite was found as inclusions. The spinel inclusions are low in Cr and Mg, and high in Ti (Cr2O3<36.5 wt%, and TiO2>10 wt%). Most ilmenite inclusions have low MgO contents, and some have very high (up to 11.5 wt%) MnO contents. The rare "olivine" inclusions coexisting with ferropericlase have low Mg# (87-89), and higher Ca, Cr and Zn contents than typical diamond-inclusion olivines. They are interpreted as inverted from spinel-structured (Mg, Fe)2Si2O4. This suite of inclusions is consistent with derivation of most of the diamonds from depths near 670 km, and adds ilmenite and relatively low-Cr, high-Ti spinel to the known phases of the superdeep paragenesis. Diamonds from the Juina area are characterized by a narrow range of carbon isotopic composition (?13C=-7.8 to -2.5‰), except for the one majorite-bearing diamond (?13C=-11.4‰). There are high proportions of nitrogen-free and low-nitrogen diamonds, and the aggregated B center is predominant in nitrogen-containing diamonds. These observations have practical consequences for diamond exploration: Low-Mg olivine, low-Mg and high-Mn ilmenite, and low-Cr spinel should be included in the list of diamond indicator minerals, and the role of high-Cr, low-Ti spinel as the only spinel associated with diamond, and hence as a criterion of diamond grade in kimberlites, should be reconsidered.

Kaminsky, F. V.; Zakharchenko, O. D.; Davies, R.; Griffin, W. L.; Khachatryan-Blinova, G. K.; Shiryaev, A. A.

2001-02-01

5

Stishovite paradox in genesis of the superdeep diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stishovite was experimentally discovered [1] as high-density polymorph of SiO2 stable at 9 - 50 GPa. A paradoxical paragenesis of stishovite and magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O was disclosed among primary inclusions in lower-mantle superdeep diamonds [2]. This contradicts to a common knowledge that SiO2 and MgO paragenesis is forbidden for low-pressure SiO2 polymorphs - quartz and coesite. The "stishovite paradox" does not manifest itself in the lower mantle ultrabasic compositions as is seen from experimental pyrolite assembly magnesiowustite+Mg-perovskite+Ca-perovskite at 50 GPa. In basic basalt composition stishovite is formed together with Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite and Al-bearing phases under the lower mantle PT-parameters [3]. In this case stishovite is taken as product of oceanic basalt subducted into lower mantle, but not in situ lower-mantle primary mineral. Paragenesis of stishovite and superdeep diamond has opened up fresh opportunity for detailed study. Magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O inclusions in superdeep diamonds are characterized by a wide variation of FeO content between 10 and 64 mol. % [2]. It is interesting that ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 solid solutions are decomposed into Mg-perovskite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 + magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 (within 30 - 42 mol. % Fe2SiO4) and magnesiowustite + stishovite (within 42 - 100 mol. % Fe2SiO4). Based on experimental data, melting phase diagram of MgO - SiO2 - FeO system at 30 GPa is constructed [4]. Subsolidus assembly includes solid solutions of (Mg,Fe)-perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O. With increase in FeO content in the system, liquidus relations are determined by two univariant cotectics L + (Mg,Fe)O + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and L + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 having come to invariant peritectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3. Mg-perovskite is eliminated by peritectic reaction L + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 = (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 that gives rise to third univariant cotectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2. The physicochemical peritectic mechanism is also operating in the MgO - SiO2 - FeO - CaSiO3 system where Ca-perovskite is stable. Thus, the "stishovite paradox" has physicochemical substantiation. Fractional crystallization of magnesiowustite in ultrabasic lower-mantle magma could lead to a rise of FeO content in the residual melts and activate the peritectic mechanism of the "stishovite paradox' formation. This is resulted in a transfer to basic residual melts and in situ formation of stishovite-magnesiowustite-Ca-perovskite rocks where stishovite is a primary lower-mantle mineral. This mechanism can be extended to the origin of stishovite and "stishovite paradox" in the superdeep diamond inclusions. By mantle-carbonatite model [5], the parental media of upper-mantle diamonds and inclusions are presented by carbonate-silicate-carbon melts. Carbonate-based parental media are applicable to origin of lower-mantle superdeep diamonds and inclusions. In this case the reasons arise from the presence of primary Na-, Mg-, Fe-, Ca-carbonate inclusions in superdeep diamonds and experimental evidence for congruent melting of carbonates under PT-conditions of the lower mantle [6, 7]. Support: RFBR grant 11-05-00401. 1. Stishov S.M., Popova S.V. (1961). Doklady USSR Academy of Sciences ????? 2. Kaminsky F. (2012). Earth-Science Review 110 . 127-147. 3. Akaogi M. ln E. Ohtani, ed. Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 2007. # 421. P. 1-13. 4. Litvin Yu.A. Doklady Earth Sciences, 2013 (accepted). 5. Litvin Yu.A. ln E. Ohtani, ed. Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 2007. # 421. P.83-103. 6. Spivak A.V., Litvin Yu.A., S.V. Ovsyannikov, et al. // Journal of Solid State Chemistry 2012,. 191, 102-106. 7. Solopova N.A., Litvin Yu.A., Spivak A.V. et al. Doklady Earth Sciences, 2013 (accepted).

Litvin, Yuriy

2013-04-01

6

Motion of particles through the interface of different-density metal specimens under the conditions of superdeep penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of motion of particles in a thin layer of material adjacent to the plane boundary of two semi-infinite specimens\\u000a of different densities under the conditions of superdeep penetration are calculated on the basis of the hydrodynamic model.\\u000a Results of the calculations are checked experimentally. The efficiency of superdeep penetration for different-density materials\\u000a (aluminum, steel, copper) and their combinations

S. K. Andilevko; O. V. Roman; S. S. Karpenko

2000-01-01

7

The bronchodilator effect of Garcinia Kola.  

PubMed

This work investigated the bronchodilator effect of Garcinia Kola (Bitter Kola) in normal Nigerians. Nineteen undergraduate male students (17-25 years) were used for the study which involved the consumption of Garcinia Kola (15 grammes per subject) and the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at intervals of 30 minutes up to a maximum of 90 minutes. Each subject served as his own control. There was time-dependent increases in the measured parameters. However, only the PEFR showed significant (p < 0.05) increase and this was observed at the 60th minute. This probably shows a mild bronchodilator effect of this Kola. PMID:8261939

Orie, N N; Ekon, E U

1993-03-01

8

Postharvest Storage Characteristics of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola Heckel.) in Imo State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) as carried out by peasant farmers cum traders in Imo State, Nigeria, was studied to evaluate the most appropriate storage material relative to the extension of its shelf life. Five storage material namely: Polyethylene Bags (PB), Cement Bag Paper (CBP), Dry Plantain Leaves (DPL), Fresh Plantain Leaves FPL) and Sawdust were utilized in a

M. O. Ofor; M. I. Nwufo; I. J. Ogoke; A. A. Ngwuta; I. I Ibeawuchi; C. I. Duruigbo

2010-01-01

9

Anticariogenic potentials of clove, tobacco and bitter kola  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate three tropical plant materials – clove seeds [Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum)], bitter kola fruits [Garcinia kola (G. kola)] and tobacco leaves (Nicotiana species) as potential targeted killers of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), a cavity-causing bacterium (gram-positive, facultative anaerobe) that resides in a multispecies microbial community (dental plaque) for the treatment of dental caries (tooth decay).

Dibua Esther Uju; Nnamani Petra Obioma

2011-01-01

10

The Deep Mantle Volatile Cycle Revealed in Superdeep Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamonds crystallize in the mantle primarily as a consequence of fluid or melt metasomatism. In doing so they sample the fluid-melt-solid equilibria directly by incorporation of carbon and its isotopic flavours, and by entrapping other phases as they grow. Superdeep diamonds from the transition zone and lower mantle provide evidence for crystallization from melts derived from subducted materials [1, 2]. The presence of deeply subducted volatile components such as carbon and water are important because they lower the solidus of subducted materials. The source of carbon may ultimately be via deposition of biogenic or abiogenic carbon in subducted crust, and water may become available via dehydration of high-pressure hydrous phases in the slab (e.g. superhydrous B, Phase D) [3]. Foundering of slabs around 700 km due to density inversion and thermalization with surrounding mantle leads to the generation of low-degree, volatile-charged melts. Melts from subducted oceanic crust may be carbonated, and diamond crystallization occurs as a consequence of 'redox freezing' when the oxidized slab melts react with reducing mantle rocks [4]. Reaction of slab melts with mantle peridotite may precipitate phases such as Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite, majorite and ferropericlase. Here we will survey evidence from the chemistry of superdeep mineral inclusions for a record of this deep mantle reactive transport process, and speculate on the role of deep mantle volatiles. 1. Bulanova, G.P., et al., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2010. 160: p. 489-510. 2. Walter, M.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 454: p. 622-U30. 3. Harte, B., Mineralogical Magazine, 2010. 74: p. 189-215. 4. Rohrbach, A. and M.W. Schmidt, Nature, 2011. 472: p. 209-212.

Walter, Michael; Thomson, Andrew; Frost, Jennifer; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony

2013-04-01

11

Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate “Phase Egg” in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusions in alluvial diamond from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) have been investigated by TEM methods (electron diffraction, HRTEM, AEM, HAADF, EELS) and Raman spectroscopy. The inclusion paragenesis of Juina diamonds is dominated by ultrahigh-pressure (“superdeep”) phases. One of these diamonds, sample #1.1\\/4, contains several micrometer-sized (approximately 200 ?m by 50–70 ?m) inclusions, which have been studied. TEM foils prepared applying Focused Ion

Richard Wirth; Christian Vollmer; Frank Brenker; Stanislav Matsyuk; Felix Kaminsky

2007-01-01

12

Novel Environment Friendly Method of Preparing Nanoreinforced Composites Based on Metallic, Ceramic and Polymer Matrixes – Superdeep Penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

At superdeep penetration (SDP) process of penetration of discrete micro-particles and stitching of metals, ceramics and polymers\\u000a by the synthesized filaments, on depths in tens and hundreds millimeters is realized. Contrary to the basic models at SDP\\u000a intensive energy release is observed: local melting, synthesis, radiation and forming of massive composite materials. Process\\u000a of SDP occurs in the boundaries of

S. Usherenko; O. Figovsky

2009-01-01

13

Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. Patients and methods Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking). Results 143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on Garcinia kola as compared to the placebo. The mid term outcome of eleven Garcinia kola subjects after cessation of use had a mean pain relief period of 17.27 +/- 5.15 days (range: 9–26 days). There was no significant cardiovascular, renal or drug induced adverse reaction to Garcinia kola. Conclusion Garcinia kola appeared to have clinically significant analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects in knee osteoarthritis patients. Garcinia kola is a potential osteoarthritis disease activity modifier with good mid term outcome. Further studies are required for standardization of dosages and to determine long-term effects.

Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O; Adesanya, Saburi A; Idowu, Thomas O; Okimi, Oluwakemi C; Oyelami, Oyesiku A; Iwalewa, Ezekiel O

2008-01-01

14

Potential use of Garcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave

G. N. Aniche; G. U. Uwakwe

1990-01-01

15

Global mantle convection: Evidence from carbon and nitrogen isotopes in super-deep diamonds (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraining the convective regime of the Earth’s mantle has profound implications for our understanding of the Earth’s cooling and the geodynamics of plate tectonics. Although subducting plates seem to be occasionally deflected at 660 km, evidence from seismic tomography and fluid dynamics suggest that substantial amounts of material reach the core-mantle boundary. Most geochemists, on the other hand, based on evidence from noble gases, would argue for the presence of separate upper and lower mantle reservoirs. Diamond provides a unique opportunity to sample those parts of the mantle that remains inaccessible by any other means. Some mineral associations in diamond, such as majoritic garnet, calcic and magnesian perovskite and manganoan ilmenite with ferropericlase have been recognised as originated from the transition zone down to the lower mantle (Stachel et al., 1999; Kaminsky et al., 2001). In addition, nitrogen in these diamonds is potentially a good tracer for mantle geodynamics. Exchanges between an inner reservoir (characterised by negative ?15N) via degassing at oceanic ridges with an outer reservoir (characterised by positive ?15N) via recycling at a subduction zones can lead to isotopic contrast in a stratified mantle. Because of common super-deep mineral inclusion assemblages in diamonds from Juina (Brazil) and Kankan (Guinea), we carried out a detailed study of nitrogen and carbon isotopes. The Juina diamonds show broadly similar ranges of ?15N from +3.8‰ down to -8.8‰ for both upper (UM) and lower (LM) mantle diamonds. This important feature is also found for UM and LM diamonds from Kankan, although the range of ?15N differs with values from +9.6‰ down to -39.4‰. Both sets of results suggest extensive material-isotopic exchange through the 660km discontinuity, contrary to the idea of an isolated reservoir. Transition zone (TZ) diamonds are enriched in 13C with ?13C from -3.1‰ up to +3.8‰ at Kankan but those of Juina are depleted in 13C with ?13C from -4.2‰ down to -12.8‰. Three zoned TZ and LM diamonds demonstrate more than 3.5‰ ?13C variations, two from Kankan with ?13C up to +0.1‰ and +1.4‰ and one from Juina with ?13C down to -9.8‰. These diamonds may have initiated their growth in the LM and following slow uplift in a convective mantle have equilibrated in the TZ, and in doing so show an evolution in carbon isotopic composition. Therefore the C- and N- independent isotopic tracers suggest that significant amounts of material are exchanged across the 660km discontinuity. Subsequent preservation of a large range of ?13C and ?15N compositions may be compatible with the model of global thermochemical convection with a small amplitude of density heterogeneities inferred from seismology and mineral physics. Kaminsky, F. V. et al., 2001. Superdeep diamonds from Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140: 734-753. Stachel, T. et al., 2001. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: ?13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds. Contrib Mineral Petrol 142: 465-475.

Palot, M.; Cartigny, P.; Harris, J.; Kaminsky, F. V.; Stachel, T.

2009-12-01

16

Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site

Michael Stakhiv; Slava Avezniyazov; Alexander Savkin; Denis Fedorov; Sergei Dmitriev; Vladimir Kornev

2007-01-01

17

Laser drilling of superdeep micron holes in various materials with a programmable control of laser radiation parameters  

SciTech Connect

The possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of laser drilling of micron holes, increasing their depth, and eliminating their conic shape are studied by using a single-mode loop Nd:YAG laser with self-phase conjugation on the gain gratings and passive Q-switching by a scanned gradiently coloured F{sub 2}{sup -}:LiF crystal. Holes of diameters 15-150 {mu}m and depth up to 20 mm with the aspect ratio (ratio of the hole depth to its diameter) of 50-155 are drilled in various metals and alloys. It is shown that passive Q-switch scanning during drilling provides the increase in the depth and speed of the laser drilling of superdeep holes by a factor of 1.5-2. (laser technologies)

Basiev, Tasoltan T; Osiko, Vyacheslav V [Laser Materials and Technology Research Center, A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, A V; Smetanin, S N; Fedin, A V [V.A.Degtyarev Kovrov State Technological Academy, Kovrov, Vladimir region (Russian Federation)

2007-01-31

18

Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Kola (Bitter Kola) on Some Selected Pathogens from University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial and antifungal activity of Garcinia kola of small and large seeds varieties were extracted in ethanol and water (cold and hot) and tested against some selected clinical bacterial and fungal isolates; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 mg\\/ml. The same concentrations were used against the fungi

AREKEMASE M. O; ALIYU Muhammed Babandoko; KAYODE Rowland Monday Ojo; AJIBOYE Adeyinka Elizabeth; AJIJOLAKEWU Abiodun Kamoldeen

2012-01-01

19

The use of bitter kola Garcinia kola dry seed powder as a natural growth-promoting agent for African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed meal on growth and body composition was investigated in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Fingerlings of about 50 g were fed diets supplemented with four concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 g kg) of G. kola seed powder for eight weeks. Fish fed supplemented diets showed significantly improved growth performance and feed utilisation over the

A A Dada; N E Oviawe

2011-01-01

20

Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP  

SciTech Connect

At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m{sup 3} of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava [Kola Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation); Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei [SUE SIA 'Radon', Moscow (Russian Federation); Kornev, Vladimir [JSC 'Alliance Gamma' (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

21

Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical

Olayinka O Adegbehingbe; Saburi A Adesanya; Thomas O Idowu; Oluwakemi C Okimi; Oyesiku A Oyelami; Ezekiel O Iwalewa

2008-01-01

22

Determination of thermal conductivity for deep boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for thermal conductivity determinations on rock cores and fragments were tested on a suite of samples from the Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (KTB) superdeep drill hole in Germany. They were also compared with estimates of thermal conductivity using the mineral composition of the rock and physical well logs and with in situ thermal conductivity measurements. Laboratory methods

Daniel F. C. Pribnow; John H. Sass

1995-01-01

23

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

24

PBO Borehole Strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States in hopes of increasing our understanding of the causes and mechanisms associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. This represents almost a tripling of all installed borehole strainmeters in North America. Since the initial deployment of strainmeters in the early 1980's, borehole strainmeters have contributed valuable data at periods ranging from minutes to weeks with sensitivities two to three orders of magnitude better than continuous GPS at periods of days to weeks. Borehole strainmeters have been used to image earthquakes, slow earthquakes, creep events and volcanic eruptions in the US, Iceland and Japan. Initial PBO strainmeter deployments show promising results but there are still major hurdles to overcome in production, installation processes, data quality control, data processing and near real time delivery of calibrated strain data. PBO has made significant steps forward with the installation of 19 borehole strainmeters as of September 1st, 2006 with 28 total instruments planned by early December. In addition to strainmeters, each borehole contains a three-component geophone and a pore pressure transducer. A subset of the boreholes are also used for heat flow measurements. When completed the PBO borehole strainmeter network will be the largest network of strainmeters installed to date and one of the world's largest borehole seismic networks. These instruments will bridge the gap between seismology and space-geodetic techniques and represents the first dense, geographically distributed observations in this temporal regime in the US.

David, M.; Hasting, M.; Jackson, M.; Dittmann, S. T.; Johnson, W.; Venator, S.; Andersen, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Mueller, B.; Prescott, W.

2006-12-01

25

Isotope composition and concentrations of helium in magmatic rocks of Monchegorsk region (Kola Peninsula, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Proterozoic ore-bearing intrusions taken root in the Archean basement rocks, are wide-spread within the central part of the Kola Peninsula. They are the Monchegorsk layered intrusion (2,51-2,50 Ga), the Main Ridge intrusion of gabbro-anorthosite, the largest in the region (2,50-2,47 Ga), and a series of smaller intrusions. An anomalous composition of the source (eNd = -1, -2) for the Monchepluton has been established. Thus, investigation of isotope composition of noble gases, in particular of helium, in the rocks attracts an interest of researchers. A great work on examination of helium composition in the rocks of the Monchegorsk region was earlier made by Tolstikhin et al. (Tolstikhin et al., 1992). New boreholes were recently drilled out in the Monchegorsk region that allows now investigating the rocks at a depth. The analysis of noble gases extracted by sample crushing were prolonged, while in a previous work samples were only melted. Such a method makes it possible to uncover fluid microinclusions within minerals, where helium is mainly trapped. On the basis of results obtained by crushing and melting of samples, and also on previously acquired data, it is concluded that: (1) helium in all studied rocks and minerals separated from the rocks of the Monchepluton, Main Ridge intrusion and from the Archean basement is entrapped, and contains 2-7 % (3Íå/4Íå ~ (20 - 76) x10-8) of mantle component, whereas the rest is a crustal component; (2) as a water with a helium ratio 3Íå/4Íå ~ 20 x10-8, that is similar to that ratio of minerals (bronzite, amphibole) which were formed during their ancient crystallization, circulates in the rocks of the region under the consideration in modern time. So, it is still undecided, when and which minerals entrapped helium? Tolstikhin I.N., Dokuchaeva V. S., Kamensky I. L, Amelin Yu. V. (1992) // Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. V. 56. P. 987-999

Novikov, D.

2003-04-01

26

Isotope composition and concentrations of helium in magmatic rocks of Monchegorsk region (Kola Peninsula, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Proterozoic ore-bearing intrusions intruding the Archean basement rocks are wide-spread within the central part of the Kola Peninsula. They are the Monchegorsk layered intrusion (2,51-2,50 Ga), the Main Ridge intrusion of gabbro-anorthocite, the largest in the region (2,50-2,47 Ga), and a series of smaller intrusions. An anomalous composition of the source (?Nd = -1, -2) for the Monchepluton has been esrablished. Thus, investigation of isotope composition of noble gases, in particular of helium, in the rocks attracts an interest of researchers. A great work on examination of helium composition in the rocks of the Monchegorsk region was earlier made by Tolstikhin et al. (Tolstikhin et al., 1992). New boreholes were recently drilled out in the Monchegorsk region that allows now investigating the rocks at a depth. The examinations of noble gases extracted by sample crushing were prolonged, while in a previous work samples were only melted. Such a method makes it possible to uncover fluid microinclusions within minerals, where helium is mainly trapped. On the basis of results obtained by crushing and melting of samples, and also on previously acquired data (Tolstikhin et al., 1992), it is concluded that: (1) helium in all studied samples separated from the rocks of the Monchepluton, Main Ridge intrusion and from the Archean basement is entrapped, and contains 2-7 % of mantle component, whereas the rest is a crustal component; (2) a water with a helium ratio 3He/4He ˜ 20 x 10-8, that is similar to that of minerals (bronzite, amphibole)during their crystallization, circulates in the rocks of the region under the consideration. So, it is still undecided, when and which minerals entrapped helium? Tolstikhin I.N., Dokuchaeva V. S., Kamensky I. L, Amelin Yu. V. (1992) // Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. V. 56. P. 987-999

Novikov, D.; Smolkin, V.; Tolstikhin, I.; Kamensky, I.

2003-04-01

27

Supracrustal intraplate thickening of Variscan basement due to Alpine foreland compression: Results from the superdeep well KTB (Bohemian Massif, Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until its final depth of 9101 m the superdeep well KTB (Kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) drilled through Variscan basement rocks which suffered strong brittle-ductile and brittle deformation during late- and post-Variscan times. Investigations of faults and mineralized tension gashes revealed the following deformation stages: (1) Upper Carboniferous subvertical tension gashes, (2) Upper Carboniferous reverse faults, (3) Cretaceous subhorizontal tension gashes and reverse faults, (4) ?Neogene normal faults. Clear depth-dependent variations of metamorphic conditions of the post-Variscan deformation structures are obvious, whereas the Upper Carboniferous structures show almost no variations with depth. This refers to the metamorphic index minerals as well as to the deformation fabrics in quartz. We explain this considerable lack of gradients as being the result of reactivative reverse faulting that led to considerable vertical thickening of the upper crust. The fault geometry indicates an antiformal stack, the frontal ramp of which was drilled by KTB at 7000 m depth. There is strong evidence that this frontal ramp, referred to as the Franconian Lineament at the surface, rises from a subhorizontal detachment at about 10 km depth which corresponds to the brittle-ductile boundary layer of quartz-bearing rocks. The considerable amount of supracrustal vertical thickening above the Franconian Lineament results from repeated movements along this detachment since Upper Carboniferous times. It seems reasonable to suppose that in intraplate tectonic settings the brittle-ductile boundary layer is prone to form a long-lived decoupling horizon along which the upper brittle crust is detached from the viscous middle and lower crust.

Zulauf, G.; Duyster, J.

1997-10-01

28

MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

1998-08-01

29

Analysis of radioactive particles from the Kola Bay area.  

PubMed

Two types of radioactive particle were identified in marine sediment and lichen samples collected from the Kola Bay, NW Russia. The particles were identified by means of gamma-ray spectrometry and autoradiography, separated and subjected to various analysis techniques. Several complementary techniques are needed to characterise particle properties thoroughly. 137Cs was present in the sediment matrix in large (approximately 100 microns) greenish particles that were most probably pieces of paint. Although their element composition was heterogeneous, 137Cs was found to be evenly distributed. 60Co in the lichen matrix was present in small (approximately 1 micron) particles. No U or transuranium elements were detected in either type of particle. PMID:11394323

Pöllänen, R; Klemola, S; Ikäheimonen, T K; Rissanen, K; Juhanoja, J; Paavolainen, S; Likonen, J

2001-05-01

30

Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate “Phase Egg” in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusions in alluvial diamond from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) have been investigated by TEM methods (electron diffraction, HRTEM, AEM, HAADF, EELS) and Raman spectroscopy. The inclusion paragenesis of Juina diamonds is dominated by ultrahigh-pressure ("superdeep") phases. One of these diamonds, sample #1.1/4, contains several micrometer-sized (approximately 200 ?m by 50-70 ?m) inclusions, which have been studied. TEM foils prepared applying Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique revealed that these inclusions consist of a porous, nanocrystalline groundmass, which is composed of nanometre-sized crystals of a hydrous aluminium silicate phase with Al:Si approximately 1:1 and chemical composition of phase "Egg" (AlSiO 3(OH)), a minor volume fraction of nanocrystalline stishovite and pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate phase is idiomorphic, randomly oriented (approximately 20-30 nm in size) predominantly with tetragonal crystal structure ( a0 = 0.743 nm, c0 = 0.706 nm). The monoclinic structure of synthetic phase "Egg" determined at ambient conditions [M.W. Schmidt, L.W. Finger, R.J. Ross, R.E. Dinnebier, Synthesis, crystal structure, and phase relations of AlSiO 3OH, a high-pressure hydrous phase, American Mineralogist 83 (1998) 881 - 888] is only occasionally observed. The fluid filling in the porosity has been released into the vacuum of the FIB during TEM specimen preparation. Quench products of the fluid containing minor concentrations of F- P- S- Cl- K- Ca and Ba were detected at the walls of the pores. In addition phase "Egg" is identified by ?-Raman spectroscopy within a second sample (RS 43a) from the same location. The presence of Phase "Egg" in the inclusions in diamond may suggest that crustal material has been subducted to a depth of the lower Transition Zone. Although, metastable growth of nanocrystalline high-pressure phases or extension of their respective stability fields to lower pressure can not ruled out completely.

Wirth, Richard; Vollmer, Christian; Brenker, Frank; Matsyuk, Stanislav; Kaminsky, Felix

2007-07-01

31

Borehole survey instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole survey instrument is provided having a meniscus type floating compass member with indicia thereon for indicating azimuth and inclination. A light source is disposed below the indicia for illuminating the indicia upward through the liquid through which the meniscus type floating compass member floats. A lens system is provided for focusing the image of the illuminated compass member

H. E. Sharp; J. W. Lin; E. S. Macha; M. A. Smither

1984-01-01

32

Borehole seismic unit  

SciTech Connect

Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. Reported herein is a description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task.

Seavey, R.W.

1982-05-01

33

Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

2009-03-20

34

Isotope composition and concentrations of helium in magmatic rocks of Monchegorsk region (Kola Peninsula, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Proterozoic ore-bearing intrusions taken root in the Archean basement rocks, are wide-spread within the central part of the Kola Peninsula. They are the Monchegorsk layered intrusion (2,51-2,50 Ga), the Main Ridge intrusion of gabbro-anorthosite, the largest in the region (2,50-2,47 Ga), and a series of smaller intrusions. An anomalous composition of the source (eNd = -1, -2) for the Monchepluton has been established. Thus, investigation of isotope composition of noble gases, in particular of helium, in the rocks attracts an interest of researchers. A great work on examination of helium composition in the rocks of the Monchegorsk region was earlier made by Tolstikhin et al. (Tolstikhin et al., 1992). New boreholes were recently drilled out in the Monchegorsk region that allows now investigating the rocks at a depth. The analysis of noble gases extracted by sample crushing were prolonged, while in a previous work samples were only melted. Such a method makes it possible to uncover fluid microinclusions within minerals, where helium is mainly trapped. On the basis of results obtained by crushing and melting of samples, and also on previously acquired data, it is concluded that: (1) helium in all studied rocks and minerals separated from the rocks of the Monchepluton, Main Ridge intrusion and from the Archean basement is entrapped, and contains 2-7 % (3Íå/4Íå ~ (20-76) x10-8) of mantle component, whereas the rest is a crustal component; (2) as a water with a helium ratio 3Íå/4Íå ~ 20 x10-8, that is similar to that ratio of minerals (bronzite, amphibole) which were formed during their ancient crystallization, circulates in the rocks of the region under the consideration in modern time. So, it is still undecided, when and which minerals entrapped helium? Tolstikhin I.N., Dokuchaeva V. S., Kamensky I. L, Amelin Yu. V. (1992) // Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. V. 56. P. 987-999

Novikov, D.

2003-04-01

35

Apparatus for forming boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Drilling apparatus is disclosed adapted for drilling upwardly a deviated hole from a carriage assembly disposed in a cased vertical hole below a target zone of a hydrocarbon bearing formation. The drilling apparatus includes a drill motor assembly having a drill bit driven by a shaft of a drill bit mud pressure driven motor. A weight on bit assembly is provided below the drill bit motor for imparting ''weight-on-bit'' drilling force to the drilling bit against the face of the borehole. The weight on bit assembly includes an anti-rotation assembly for preventing rotation of the drill bit motor with respect to the borehole and an axial drive assembly for applying axial force to the drill bit. Apparatus is provided to reverse the direction of the axial force generated by the weight on bit assembly. Apparatus is also provided to limit the axial force applied to the drill bit to a predetermined level.

Burton, J. A.

1985-11-26

36

Micro borehole drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

NONE

1996-10-01

37

Borehole science platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For planetary exploration missions, payload mass power and volume are critical. It is believed that designing an integrated instrument platform for subsurface science exploration will lower risk and allow maximum science return. Over the past eight years, Honeybee Robotics has developed numerous subsurface access and sampling technologies for NASA. Honeybee has recently been developing innovative 1m &10m drilling and sampling systems that allow the transmission of power and data down the borehole. This capability makes the drill string itself a potential platform for science instruments. The compact sample acquisition system is imbedded in the drill stem and thus allows a large volume for integrated instruments for borehole observations. Collaboration has begun to develop a baseline integrated downhole instrument suite. Near-term plans for an instrumented subsurface sampling system will be presented; including a temperature sensor, microscopic imager, and water sensor. Concepts for other borehole science-compatible instruments (such as infrared and neutron spectrometers) as well as long-term implications for autonomous science exploration will also be presented.

Gorevan, S.; Myrick, T.; Batting, C.; Mukherjee, S.

2003-04-01

38

Behoite and mimetite from the Saharjok alkaline intrusion, Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detailed study of the mineral composition of the nepheline syenite pegmatite from the Saharjok Intrusion has resulted in the finding of behoite and mimetite, a mineral species identified in the Kola region for the first time. The pegmatite body at the contact between nepheline syenite and essexite is unusual in textural and structural features and combination of mineral assemblages including unique beryllium mineralization. Behoite Be(OH)2 is an extremely rare beryllium mineral. It occurs as powderlike aggregates in the leaching cavities between euhedral pyroxene crystals. Behoite was identified by comparison of X-ray powder diffraction data of the studied mineral phase and behoite from the Be-bearing tuff in the type locality of this mineral (Utah, United States). Mimetite was found in the same pegmatite of the Saharjok intrusion. It forms unusual parallel-fibrous aggregates with individual fibers as long as ˜1 mm and only ˜1 ?m across. X-ray powder diffraction data and the chemical composition characterize the mineral as hexagonal phase Pb5[AsO4]3Cl. Both behoite and mimetite are the products of late hydrothermal alteration of primary minerals (meliphanite, galena, arsenopyrite, and loellingite). The secondary phases freely crystallized in the cavities remaining after the leached nepheline.

Lyalina, L. M.; Savchenko, Ye. E.; Selivanova, E. A.; Zozulya, D. R.

2010-12-01

39

Borehole Deformation and Failure in Anisotropic Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole breakouts develop due to compressive shear failure along the borehole wall and subsequent spalling of near wellbore rock. These compressive shear failures can occur during drilling and lead to a borehole enlargement in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress. In order to investigate the initiation of borehole breakouts in anisotropic media a numerical analysis of the borehole deformation

Oliver Gaede; Klaus Regenauer-Lieb; David Lumley

2010-01-01

40

Borehole radar for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

An initial evaluation of a continuous wave borehole radar system with steerable antennas has been completed. Candidate antennas have been identified which meet the size requirements for borehole applications. The patterns of these antennas are not dependent on the properties of the surrounding media when the antenna dimensions are less than one-tenth wavelength. The beam patterns can be steered adequately to allow the volume of earth within several meters of a borehole to be investigated. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Scott, M.W.; Caffey, T.W.H.

1991-01-01

41

Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

Nikonov, V.V.

1981-01-01

42

The geochemistry of rare earth elements in the metamorphic rocks of the Kola series  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of rare earth element redistribution in the processes of sodium and potassium metasomatism of the metamorphic rocks of the Archean age plagiogranitic sequences of the Kola series are examined with reference to the results of neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses of 43 samples. It is found that as a result of potassium metasomatism, the total concentration of

V. D. Nartikoev; M. Z. Abdrakhimov; N. E. Galdin; A. V. Gurevich

1982-01-01

43

MICRO AND NANOSCALE GRAPHITE CONES AND TUBES FROM HACKMAN VALLEY, KOLA PENINSULA, RUSSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several unusual forms of natural graphite from an alkaline pegmatite that crosscuts rischorrite in the Hackman Valley, Khibiny Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia are described. The graphite occurs macroscopically in two forms: as spherical aggregates up to 2 cm in diameter of friable, radially-aligned fibers ~20 ?m in cross section, and as fine- grained surface coatings in cavities covering aegirine, strontian

John A. JASZCZAK; Svetlana DIMOVSKI; Stephen A. HACKNEY; George W. ROBINSON; Paolo BOSIO; Yury GOGOTSI

2007-01-01

44

Anthropogenic noble-metal enrichment of topsoil in the Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight catchments, an area of 15 to 35 km2, have been studied within an ecogeochemical mapping programme in the western Kola Peninsula and contiguous parts of Finland and Norway. Three catchments, one northeast of Zapolyarniy (1) and two, 5 and 25 km south of Monchegorsk (2 and 4) show high levels of deposition of heavy metals, especially nickel (Ni) and

Rognvald Boyd; Heikki Niskavaara; Esko Kontas; Victor Chekushin; Vladimir Pavlov; Clemens Reimann

1997-01-01

45

An ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated forest soils from the Kola Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Point source copper and nickel contamination emanating from smelters of the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, has been observed since the mid-1960s. Previous studies have concentrated on the spatial distribution of heavy metals and their effects on forest ecology and indigenous mammals and birds. Soil is perceived as the major repository for the metal pollutants but there is a need to

Graeme I. Paton; Jurate Kumpene; Michael J. Wilson; Hedda J. Weitz; Julian J. C. Dawson

2006-01-01

46

Growth variation of Scots pine across a pollution gradient on the Kola Peninsula, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decadal exposure to emissions from a non-ferrous smelter has damaged the forest ecosystems surrounding the city of Monchegorsk located on the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. We use the methods of tree-ring analysis to study the areal extent and timing of recent growth reductions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the region surrounding the smelter in Monchegorsk. Reduced growth

Pekka Nöjd; Gregory A. Reams

1996-01-01

47

Pleistocene marine deposits in the coastal areas of Kola Peninsula (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of field data, datings from both electron spin resonance – and optically stimulated luminescence, and micro- and macrofauna, in addition to presence of diatoms, three Late Pleistocene marine units have been identified in the coastal areas of the Kola Peninsula. The stratigraphically lowest sequence is correlated to the Ponoi Beds and the Boreal transgression, attributed to the

Olga P. Korsakova

2009-01-01

48

Effects of ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola seeds on growth and haematology of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 day study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus broodstock on growth performance and basic haematological indices. Catfish broodstock (mean weight, 245.20 - 255.00 g) were randomly distributed into concrete tanks (2 x 2 x 1.2 m) at 10 fish\\/tank in triplicate treatments. 5 diets

A. A. Dada; M. Ikuerowo

49

Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines. Some factors were observed enabling or disabling first (tropospheric) arrivals of such signals depending on weather conditions. Systematic backazimuth deviations for stratospheric arrivals have been observed caused by strong stratospheric winds. In 2009 mobile infrasound arrays were developed in KRSC. Each array comprises 3 low-frequency microphones, GPS, digitizer and PC with data acquisition system. Aperture of such arrays is about 250 m, deployment time is less than 1 hour. These arrays are used in experimental work with Roskosmos space agency to search space debris reentering places. In 2012 a wireless version of such mobile array was created. Each acquisition point comprises a microphone, GPS and ADC chips, microcontroller and radio modem to send data to a central unit. This enabled us to increase aperture (up to 500 m) and decrease deployment time.

Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

2013-04-01

50

Protection against 2- acetyl aminofluorene-induced toxicity in mice by garlic (Allium sativum), bitter kola (Garcina kola seed) and honey.  

PubMed

The effects of honey (Hoc) and aqueous suspensions of garlic (Allium sativum) (Ga) and bitter kola (Garcina kola seed) (Bi) on the toxicities induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) a model carcinogen, were investigated in mice. The animals were dosed for seven consecutive days with Ho, Ga and Bi as dietary supplements. They were then challenged with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of 2-AAF at 50 mg/kg bd. wt on the seventh day. The degree of clastogenicity was assessed using the mouse micronucleus assay while liver damage was monitored by measuring the level of gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) in serum and liver homogenates respectively. The results revealed that 2-AAF induced micronuclei formation in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) of the bone marrow by about five fold in comparison to the PCEs formed in control mice. Ho, Ga, and Bi also induced micronucleus formation on their own. However. feeding of any of Ho, Ga or Bi and the administration (i.p) of 2-AAF reduced significantly, the ability of 2-AAF to induce micronuclei formation in the order Ho>Ga>Bi. Furthermore, 2-AAF induced gamma-GT activity in the serum and liver homogenate by about two and a half and three folds respectively. A combination of 2-AAF and any of Ga or Bi or Ho significantly decreased 2-AAF-induced activity of gamma-GT in the order Ho>Bi>Ga (serum) and Bi>Ga=Ho (liver). These findings suggest that honey, garlic and bitter kola protect against 2-AAF-induced gamma-GTactivity and micronuleated PCEs formation. PMID:16749342

Odunola, O A; Adetutu, A; Olorunnisola, O S; Ola-Davis, O

2005-06-01

51

Good News for Borehole Climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the investigation of observed borehole temperatures has proved to be a valuable tool for the reconstruction of ground surface temperature histories, there are many open questions concerning the significance and accuracy of the reconstructions from these data. In particular, the temperature signal of the warming after the Last glacial Maximum (LGM) is still present in borehole temperature profiles. It influences the relatively shallow boreholes used in current paleoclimate inversions to estimate temperature changes in the last centuries. This is shown using Monte Carlo experiments on past surface temperature change, using plausible distributions for the most important parameters, i.e.,amplitude and timing of the glacial-interglacial transition, the prior average temperature, and petrophysical properties. It has been argued that the signature of the last glacial-interglacial transition could be responsible for the high amplitudes of millennial temperature reconstructions. However, in shallow boreholes the additional effect of past climate can reasonably approximated by a linear variation of temperature with depth, and thus be accommodated by a "biased" background heat flow. This is good news for borehole climate, but implies that the geological heat flow values have to be interpreted accordingly. Borehole climate reconstructions from these shallow are most probably underestimating past variability due to the diffusive character of the heat conduction process, and the smoothness constraints necessary for obtaining stable solutions of this ill-posed inverse problem. A simple correction based on subtracting an appropriate prior surface temperature history shows promising results reducing these errors considerably, also with deeper boreholes, where the heat flow signal can not be approximated linearly, and improves the comparisons with AOGCM modeling results.

Rath, Volker; Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco, J.; Goosse, Hugues

2010-05-01

52

Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic

E. A. Kasatkina; O. I. Shumilov; M. Timonen; K. Mielikainen; S. Helama; A. G. Kanatjev; I. Yu. Kirtsideli

2010-01-01

53

Cultural contextualization of indicators of human-environment interaction: the case of the Kola mining network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the important but overlooked socio-cultural dimension of sustainability indicators. We use cultural theory to assess indicators of human-environment interaction in different cultural contexts in a case study of a mining-industrial complex in the Kola Peninsula, North-West Russia. The analysis yields results with implications on two levels. First, the article contributes to indicator theory by illustrating with the

Olli H. Salmi; Janne I. Hukkinen

2007-01-01

54

Terrain corrections for borehole gravity measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This note presents examples of terrain corrections calculated for borehole gravity surveys made in a variety of topographic settings. The effect of terrain corrections on vertical density profiles calculated from borehole gravity measurements also is shown.

Beyer, Larry A.

1979-01-01

55

Geophysical Logging of the Harwell Boreholes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estim...

M. A. Brightman

1983-01-01

56

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Investigations of the pharmacologic profile of medicinal plants have revealed that a number of plants with purported anxiolytic activity bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. This finding is intriguing in view of the proposed involvement of CCK in the pathophysiology of fear and anxiety. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) in healthy subjects. Gotu Kola has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Recent studies in the rat have shown that long-term pretreatment with Gotu Kola decreases locomotor activity, enhances elevated-plus maze performance, and attenuates the acoustic startle response (ASR). In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of Gotu Kola on the ASR in humans. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a single 12-g orally administered dose of Gotu Kola (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20). The results revealed that compared with placebo, Gotu Kola significantly attenuated the peak ASR amplitude 30 and 60 minutes after treatment. Gotu Kola had no significant effect on self-rated mood, heart rate, or blood pressure. These preliminary findings suggest that Gotu Kola has anxiolytic activity in humans as revealed by the ASR. It remains to be seen whether this herb has therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of anxiety syndromes. PMID:11106141

Bradwejn, J; Zhou, Y; Koszycki, D; Shlik, J

2000-12-01

57

Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone Glycoside 4I,5, 7-Trihydroxy Flavanone Rhamnoglucose from Garcinia kola Seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, Heckel (Guttiferae), which had previously been shown to have biological activity were studied. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins and saponins. The ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds resulted in the isolation and characterization of flavanone glycoside 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavonone rhamnoglucose (that is naringin-7-rharmnoglucoseside) from its spectral data. IHNMR spin system analysis and acid hydrolysis were performed to characterize the higher order rhamnoglucosyl moiety comprising glucose and rhamnose linked to carbon 7 of the flavanone ring system of the isolate. It is concluded that 4I, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone rhamnoglucose may be a contributor to the antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-hepatotoxic properties exhibited by Garcinia kola seed.

Okwu, D. E.; Morah, F. N. I.

58

Nanoinclusions Of Phase Egg AlSiO3(OH), In Superdeep Diamonds From Juina (Brazil): Evidence For Subduction Of Crustal Components To Earth's Mantle Transition Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for a possible deep subduction of crustal materials comes from (i) ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terranes related to continental collisions, (ii) studies of geochemical reservoirs of basalts and (iii) experimental synthesis and investigation of typical crustal minerals at extreme pressures and temperatures. Here, we present additional evidence for deep subduction of crustal material: inclusions in kimberlitic diamonds. Most of the mineral inclusions in kimberlitic diamonds belong to mantle sections of the Earth's interior. Inclusions such as ferropericlase, Ca-Si-perovskite, Mg-Si-perovskite, perovskite, tetragonal almandine-pyrope phase (TAPP) are indicators for a deep seated origin of the diamonds up to 1700 km ( Kaminsky, Zakharchenko et al. 2001). First evidence of traces of crustal materials was found in diamond from Guaniamo (Venezuela), containing coesite with crustal oxygen isotope signature, which is in the range of ?18O = 10.2 to 16.9 ° (Schulze, Harte et al. 2003). We report the first finding of an hydrous aluminum silicate phase Egg (AlSiO3(OH)) in alluvial diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil), which indicates that continental material was subducted to the mantle Transition zone. Phase Egg is present in diamond in several larger inclusions (a few hundred micron in size) as nanometer-sized, idiomorphic crystals (20 30 nm). Phase Egg is always associated with a small volume fraction of stishovite and a significant amount of pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The finding of phase Egg proves the existence of an Al-phase in the lower mantle and Transition zone environment. The presence of OH-groups in phase Egg strongly supports the idea of subduction processes reaching the depth of Transition zone and lower mantle. References Kaminsky, F. V., O. D. Zakharchenko, et al. (2001). "Superdeep diamonds form the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil." Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 140(6): 734-753. Schulze, D. J., B. Harte, et al. (2003). "Extreme crustal oxygen isotope signatures preserved in coesite in diamond." Nature (London) 423(6935): 68-70.

Wirth, R.; Kaminsky, F.; Matsyuk, S.

2006-12-01

59

Radiogenic nature of argon-40 in the oldest biotites of the Kola peninsula  

SciTech Connect

It is shown by three graphical methods that ancient biotite aged 5.1.10/sup 9/ yr. and older does not contain excess /sup 40/Ar and that the whole /sup 40/Ar was formed via radioactive decay of /sup 40/K present in the minerals. It is suggested that due to variation in the force of gravitational interaction with the age of the universe, the K-decay of the /sup 40/K nucleus slowed down, which indeed is the cause of enhanced age of the Kola biotite.

Gerling, E.K.; Gorokhovskii, B.M.

1986-07-01

60

Alpine-type tectonics in the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kola region in the northeastern Baltic Shield is characterized by diverse Paleoproterozoic collision processes. The Keivy Terrane is one of the major tectonic units in the northeastern foreland of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Collisional Orogen, which markedly differs in a number of parameters from other tectonic units of the Kola region. The study of the Keivy Terrane allowed us to unravel one more basic difference: the large Paleoproterozoic sheath synform of the Serpovidny (Crescentic) Range localized in this terrane. Its core is occupied by volcanic and sedimentary rocks, which correlate with the fill of the Imandra-Varzuga Rift; the limbs are composed of metamorphosed mature sedimentary rocks known as Keivy paraschists of Neoarchean or Paleoproterozoic age. The lower limb of the Serpovidny Synform is strongly squeezed, whereas the upper limb consists of almost undeformed rocks. The deformed rocks underwent ductile flow under conditions of simple or general shear. In the degree of its asymmetry and main parameters, the Serpovidny Synform is similar to the plunging and recumbent anticlines in the Helvetic nappes of the Alps. It is concluded that the Paleoproterozoic core of the Serpovidny Sheath Synform, or plunging anticline, is a fragment of the almost completely eroded deep Serpovidny Nappe of the Helvetic type. During the collision related to the Lapland-Kola Orogeny (1.9-2.0 Ga), this nappe was pushed out northward from the Paleoproterozoic Imandra-Varzuga Rift, which is situated 50 km south of the Serpovidny structure, and thrust over the Keivy paraschists. The latter, together with underlying the Lebyazhka Gneiss, were folded in the process of thrusting and were involved in the structure of the Serpovidny Synform. The Keivy paraschists make up a para-autochthon or a separate nappe of the Pennine type. The Archean Lebyazhka metafelsic volcanics underlie the Keivy paraschists and overlie granitoids of the Archean basement that remained undeformed during thrusting. Most likely, they also belong to the para-autochthon; however, it cannot be ruled out that, like the Keivy paraschists, they occur as a Pennine-type nappe. The large sheath folds known in the Paleoproterozoic and Phanerozoic orogens are genetically related to deep-seated nappes or channel-flow tectonics. Paleoproterozoic and Phanerozoic orogens are similar in this respect.

Mudruk, S. V.; Balagansky, V. V.; Gorbunov, I. A.; Raevsky, A. B.

2013-07-01

61

Borehole survey instrument control circuitry  

SciTech Connect

A borehole survey instrument and control circuitry are described. The borehole survey instrument includes indicators for measuring angle of deviation from the vertical and angle of deviation from magnetic north and a photographic recording means for recording the output of the indicators at selected times. A lighting system is utilized in conjunction with the photographic recording means to expose photographic film and a novel time control circuit is utilized in conjunction with the lighting system to alter the length of time of illumination in accordance with the operativeness of individual bulbs within the lighting system. In this manner, the failure of one or more bulbs within the lighting system will not substantially affect the amount of illumination to which the film in the photographic recording means is exposed.

Sharp, H.E.; Smither, M.A.

1984-11-06

62

Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

GARDNER, M.G.

2000-07-19

63

The Antarctic Ice Borehole Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-January 2001, that will acquire visible-light images and video in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antarctic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking

A. Behar; F. Carsey; A. Lane; H. Engelhardt

2001-01-01

64

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

65

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980, at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 317/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. The materials development programs cover all aspects of geothermal energy extraction. Research on drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and wellbore logging were necessary to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the hot dry rock concepts.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.; Cruz, J.

1982-01-01

66

Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

Traeger, R.K.

1984-05-01

67

A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel non-ferrous metallurgy plant was missing from the EMEP inventory, as well as from some others, being in some cases misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much lower bias - up to 6 times for the most-affected sites - for SO2 with regard to the measured concentrations of 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations in the region. Temporal correlation improved moderately (10-20%) but homogeneously over Lapland. The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kukkonen, J.

2010-06-01

68

A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study reviews the emission estimates of sulphur oxides (SOx) and primary particulate matter (PM) from the major industrial sources of Kola Peninsula. Analysis of the disagreements between the existing emission inventories for the Kola region combined with forward and inverse ensemble dispersion modelling, analysis of observation time-series and model-measurement comparison showed that the emission of the Nikel metallurgy plant was missing or strongly under-estimated in the major European emission inventories, such as EMEP, EDGAR, TNO-GEMS, and PAREST-MEGAPOLI. In some cases it was misplaced or mis-attributed to other sources of the region. A more consistent inventory of the anthropogenic emissions of SOx and PM has been compiled for the Peninsula, compared with the existing estimates and verified by means of dispersion modelling. In particular, the SILAM model simulations for 2003 and 2006 with the revised emission data showed much smaller under-estimation of SO2 concentrations at 8 Finnish and Norwegian observational stations. For the nearest site to the plant the 10-fold underestimation turned to a 1.5-fold over-prediction. Temporal correlation improved more moderately (up to 45% for concentrations, up to 3 times for deposition). The study demonstrates the value of a combined usage of forward and inverse ensemble modelling for source apportionment in case of limited observational data.

Prank, M.; Sofiev, M.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Kaasik, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kukkonen, J.

2010-11-01

69

GIS Analysis of Surface Water Chemistry Susceptibility and Response to Industrial Air Pollution in the Kola Peninsula, Northern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kola Peninsula (Figure 1) is the most industrially developed and urbanized region in the Russian North. The main pollution sources are the large smelters Severonickel and Pechenganickel, which are responsible for > 80 % of SO2 emission and nearly 100 % of the Ni and Cu emission in the region. The heterogeneous structure of the hydrologic network and geochemistry

Olga Rigina

1998-01-01

70

Effects of lithology and depth on the permeability of core samples from the Kola and KTB drill holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability measurements were conducted on intact core samples from the Kola drill hole in Russia and the Continental Deep Well Drilling Program (KTB) drill hole in Germany. Samples included granodiorite gneisses, basalts and amphibolites from depths up to 11 km. The tests were intended to determine the pressure sensitivity of permeability and to compare the effects of stress relief and

C. Morrow; D. Lockner; S. Hickman; M. Rusanov; T. Roeckel

1994-01-01

71

Holocene climatic and environmental changes inferred from midge records (Diptera: Chironomidae, Chaoboridae, Ceratopogonidae) at Lake Berkut, southern Kola Peninsula, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiocarbon-dated sediment sequence from Lake Berkut in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia, was investigated by means of midge analysis in order to reconstruct the Holocene climatic and environmental history of the region. Past mean July air temperatures at the study site and hypolimnetic oxygen contents of the lake water were inferred from chironomid-based transfer functions.

Elena A. Ilyashuk; Boris P. Ilyashuk; Dan Hammarlund; Isabelle Larocque

2005-01-01

72

The microstructural effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola (Linn) on the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the neuroprotective effects of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola on neurotoxin administered malnourished mice adopting histological procedure. Methods The study was carried out using thirty-two adult malnourished mice which were randomly assigned into four groups (n=8): A, B, C and D. Group A served as control, while the other groups served as the experimental groups. Animals in group A were fed malnourished diet ad libitum and given water liberally. Animals in group B were administered with 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) (neurotoxin) only at 20 mg/kg body weight, group C were given only Garcinia kola extracts, and group D were pre-treated with Garcinia kola extracts at 200 mg/kg for seven days prior to administration of neurotoxin at 20 mg/kg body weight. After three days of neurotoxins administration in the relevant groups, the brains were excised and fixed in formal calcium for histological processing. Results The study showed that hippocampal and cerebellar neurons of animals in group B exhibited some cellular degeneration and blood vessel blockage, which were not seen in groups A, C and D. Cresyl violet staining was least intense in group B than in groups A, C and D. Despite the fact that animals in group D has equal administration of 3-Nitropropionic acid concentration, there were no traces of neural degeneration as it was evidenced in group B. Conclusions It is concluded that Garcinia kola has protective effects on the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum of malnourished mice.

Ajayi, Sunday A; Ofusori, David A; Ojo, Gideon B; Ayoka, Oladele A; Abayomi, Taiwo A; Tijani, Adekilekun A

2011-01-01

73

Azimuthal velocity variations caused by borehole stress concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, borehole stress concentrations caused by far-field uniaxial stress produce measurable variations in compressional wave velocities near the borehole. Uniaxial stress was applied perpendicular to the axis of a borehole drilled through a sandstone block. Inside the fluid-filled borehole, refracted compressional waves were propagated in the rock parallel to the borehole axis at discrete azimuths, producing a scan

Kenneth W. Winkler

1996-01-01

74

Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

2006-12-15

75

Borehole Summary Report for C4997 Rotary Drilling, WTP Seismic Boreholes Project, CY 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following Final Geologic Borehole Report briefly describes the drilling of a single borehole at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford, Washington, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation. The borehole was designated as C4997, and was dril...

T. J. DiFebbo

2007-01-01

76

Cross-Borehole Geophysical Probing for Site Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ground structure is commonly estimated from core samples taken from boreholes. However, knowledge of the structure exterior to the borehole can only be extrapolated from core data. By using seismic and electromagnetic cross-borehole geophysical probing, r...

R. J. Lytle

1979-01-01

77

Pilot study on the distribution of (sup 137)Cs between vegetation and soil in an industrial pollution gradient at the Kola peninsula.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The activity concentration of radiocesium in dwarf shrubs, mosses, organic and inorganic soil was studied in an industrial pollution gradient from the Monchegorsk smelter at the Kola peninsula. As expected the highest values for vegetation was found in mo...

T. Nylen I. Bergman R. Bergman V. Nikonov

1997-01-01

78

Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: The impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfur emissions from the Kola Peninsula smelter industry have been decreasing over the past two decades. We investigated the effect of this to new particle formation at SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, using long-term measurements of trace gases and aerosol size distributions. We show that the number of events per year has decreased and can be linked with the decreasing sulfur emissions from Kola.

Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Dal Maso, Miikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Nieminen, Tuomo; Petäjä, Tuukka; Aalto, Pasi P.; Keronen, Petri; Riipinen, Ilona; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

2013-05-01

79

Coupled aquifer-borehole simulation.  

PubMed

A model coupling fluid hydraulics in a borehole with fluid flow in an aquifer is developed in this paper. Conservation of momentum is used to create a one-dimensional steady-state model of vertical flow in an open borehole combined with radially symmetric flow in an aquifer and with inflow to the well through the wellbore screen. Both laminar and turbulent wellbore conditions are treated. The influence of inflow through the wellbore screen on vertical flow in the wellbore is included, using a relation developed by Siwo? (1987). The influence of inflow reduces the predicted vertical variation in head up to 15% compared to a calculation of head losses due to fluid acceleration and the conventional Colebrook-White formulation of friction losses in a circular pipe. The wellbore flow model is embedded into the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. The nonlinear conservation of momentum equations are iteratively linearized to calculate the conductance terms for vertical flow in the wellbore. The resulting simulations agree favorably with previously published results when the model is adjusted to meet the assumptions of the previous coupled models. PMID:19682095

Clemo, Tom

2009-07-24

80

Climate change inferred from borehole temperatures: minimal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about surface ground temperature histories over time scales of several centuries and in particular prior to the widespread availability of surface air temperature records [Huang et al, Nature, 2000; Harris and Chapman, GRL, 2001]. Borehole-based reconstructions on the regional and hemispheric scale yield significantly different magnitudes of warming in the past 500 years when compared

M. G. Bartlett; R. N. Harris; D. S. Chapman

2004-01-01

81

Borehole Effects on Downhole Seismic Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, a complete and systematic investigation was carried out on borehole coupling theory, modeling techniques for VSP and crosswell surveys, and downhole hydrophone data processing. Our principal goal was to understand the borehole effects on downhole seismic measurements and consequently develop both modeling methods that take them into account and processing techniques that remove them from field data.

Chengbin Peng

1994-01-01

82

Borehole Seismic Observatories for Monitoring Crustal Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1991 the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its successor the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have developed an observatory technology to monitor hydrological processes (temperature, pressure, and pore fluid sampling) in boreholes drilled on the deep seafloor. The borehole observatory equipment is called Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). Adding seismometers to CORKs (SeisCORKs) would enable monitoring of small earthquake

Ralph Stephen; Robert Petitt; Thomas Pettigrew

2010-01-01

83

[Parasite fauna of the perch fishes Percidae in waterbodies of the Kola Region].  

PubMed

Results of the parasitological investigation of two species of perch fisches (perch Perca fluviatilis and ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus) from Kola Region are given. 63 species of parasites were found on perch in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Myxosporea--3, Pleurostomata--1, Suctoria--2, Peritricha--21, Protozoa incertae sedis--1, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--10, Nemadota--8, Acanthocephala--4, Hirudinea--1, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--3). 33 species of parasites were found on ruff in 5 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea basin (Cyrtostomata--1, Hymenostomata--1, Peritricha--8, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--9, Nematoda--2, Acanthospehala--2, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--1). Data on the infestation of perch and ruff by different parasite species are obtained, occurrence of the parasites in the examined waterbodies is shown. PMID:16755725

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

84

Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

2010-05-01

85

Surveying of a borehole for position determination  

SciTech Connect

A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

1985-04-02

86

Numerical Simulation and Analyses of the Loss of Feedwater Transient at the Unit 4 of Kola NPP  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional numerical simulation of the loss-of-feed water transient at the horizontal steam generator of the Kola nuclear power plant is performed. Presented numerical results show transient change of integral steam generator parameters, such as steam generation rate, water mass inventory, outlet reactor coolant temperature, as well as detailed distribution of shell side thermal-hydraulic parameters: swell and collapsed levels, void fraction distributions, mass flux vectors, etc. Numerical results are compared with measurements at the Kola NPP. The agreement is satisfactory, while differences are close to or below the measurement uncertainties. Obtained numerical results are the first ones that give complete insight into the three-dimensional and transient horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics. Also, the presented results serve as benchmark tests for the assessment and further improvement of one-dimensional models of horizontal steam generator built with safety codes. (authors)

Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Stosic, Zoran V.; Kiera, Michael; Stoll, Uwe [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01

87

Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver  

DOEpatents

A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

1993-02-23

88

Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993  

SciTech Connect

A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

2007-02-28

89

Which boreholes do we need to resolve the Common Era in borehole paleoclimatology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global database of borehole temperature profiles used to estimate paleoclimatic ground surface temperature histories (GSTHs) has typically focused on the last 500 years. his is mainly due to the fact that the borehole database is dominated by shallow boreholes (~200-300 m). Nevertheless, it has been shown that these boreholes may be too shallow for proper separation of the downwelling climatic transient and the long-term background steady-state signal associated with heat loss from the earth's interior. The mere inclusion of deeper boreholes, however, does not necessarily mitigate the problem. Borehole temperature profiles of any depth show the signatures of earlier climatic changes, including the strong warming following the last glacial maximum (LGM). In shallow boreholes this effect is very similar to a linear trend, usually cannot be discriminated from a steady-state geotherm, and is unlikely to strongly impact estimates of GSTHs spanning common-era timescales. In deeper boreholes, however, the signature of the LGM cannot be approximated linearly, and biases associated with the LGM may impact GSTH reconstructions during the Common Era. The combined incentive to employ deep boreholes for reliable estimation of the background steady-state signal, while limiting the LGM impacts on reconstructions of Common-Era GSTHs thus leads to an multi-objective optimization problem seeking a trade-off between the impacts of the two effects. Such an optimization of the borehole maximum depth criterion is investigated in this study using numerical models. A Monte Carlo ensemble approach is used to quantify the impact of various reconstruction decisions as temperature histories, error characteristics, thermophysical properties, and maximum borehole depths. The findings have implications for interpretations of current global reconstruction products and future efforts to analyze the global borehole database for Common-Era GSTH reconstructions. (http://palma.fis.ucm.es/~volker/)

Rath, V.; Smerdon, J. E.; González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.

2012-04-01

90

System for controlled drilling of boreholes along planned profile  

SciTech Connect

A system for controlled drilling of a borehole is described, comprising: means for drilling a borehole; means positioned in said borehole for storing a planned borehole path; means positioned in said borehole for obtaining instantaneous downhole information relating to the depth of said drilling means within said borehole for providing a profile of an actual drilled path of said borehole; means positioned in said borehole for comparing said actual drilled path with said planned path and for generating a correction signal representing the difference between said actual drilled path and said planned path; and means responsive to said correction signal to cause said drilling means to drill said borehole along a corrected path to cause the drilled borehole path to coincide with said planned path.

Patton, B.J.

1993-06-22

91

Borehole Inspection System for Large Diameter Holes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A color camera developed for underwater applications has been adapted for use as a large diameter Borehole Inspection System (BIS). This video/photographic system has pan and tilt capabilities and remotely interchangeable lenses. A compass provides an azi...

W. L. Hawkins R. D. Oliver M. J. Lavelle

1987-01-01

92

Assessment of Borehole Seismic Fracture Diagnostics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A five year effort to apply triaxial borehole seismometer technology to mapping hydraulic fractures by detecting microseismic events associated with the fracturing process has been completed. During this time, a number of evolutionary improvements to thee...

1988-01-01

93

Application of the Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the operation and application of the TVA prototype EM borehole flowmeters, including theory, design, calibration, basic field applications, data analysis, and potential effects of various well construction and development procedures ...

S. C. Young H. E. Julian H. S. Pearson F. J. Molz G. K. Boman

1998-01-01

94

Method for effecting seals in earth boreholes  

SciTech Connect

A well fluid and method for borehole sealing such as grouting or plugging, is disclosed the fluid being comprised of water, a water swellable clay and a water dispersible polymer which prevents immediate hydration of the clay.

Mason, C.E.; Geffen, S.E.

1984-08-07

95

Hydrologic Testing in Borehole DC-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of hydraulic conductivity tests made in Borehole DC-2 on the Hanford Reservation are reported. The hydraulic conductivity of the basalt formations is one of several parameters being investigated in relation to disposal of radioactive wastes in thi...

1978-01-01

96

Modelling and Inversion of Borehole Electromagnetic Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forward modelling and inversion of induction data are reviewed. Induction oilfield tools are designed to measure the conductivity of formation rock as a function of the borehole axis coordinate z. The logging technique is described. Using the response of ...

A. Q. Howard

1988-01-01

97

Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3) at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

Sorensen, James P R; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K; Lapworth, Daniel J; Read, Daniel S; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Townsend, Barry R; Williams, Peter J

2013-07-31

98

PBO Borehole Strain and Siesmic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters\\/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific

D. Mencin; M. Jackson; G. Anderson; K. Hodgkinson; M. Hasting; T. Dittman; W. Johnson; C. Meertens

2007-01-01

99

Borehole Inspection System for large diameter holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A color camera developed for underwater applications has been adapted for use as a large diameter Borehole Inspection System (BIS). This video\\/photographic system has pan and tilt capabilities and remotely interchangeable lenses. A compass provides an azimuth for orientation. It is designed to operate in boreholes ranging in diameter from 1.2 m to 3.0 m. The system has a 180

W. L. Hawkins; R. D. Oliver; M. J. Lavelle

1987-01-01

100

Bit sticking caused by borehole deformation  

SciTech Connect

The stress relaxation associated with drilling a hole in the earth causes the borehole wall to deform toward the center of the hole. Usually this deformation is inconsequential, but sometimes the deformations are sufficient to cause the borehole to be smaller than the bit. The problems associated with this phenomenon are related largely to the magnitude of the lateral earth stresses, formation mechanical properties, and drilling-tool geometry.

Dunbar, M.E.; Warren, T.M.; Kadaster, A.G.

1986-12-01

101

Secondary shear waves from source boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of radiation from point sources in fluid-filled boreholes have most often been based on far-field, stationary phase analysis. In these papers, the explicit contribution of the borehole itself acting as a waveguide has not been properly considered, with a few exceptions. In general, these studies accurately describe S-wave radiation in high-velocity rocks such as granites and limestones and

J. A. Meredith; M. N. Toksoez; C. H. Cheng

1993-01-01

102

Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the operation and application of the TVA prototype EM borehole flowmeters, including theory, design, calibration, basic field applications, data analysis, and potential effects of various well construction and development procedures on data. The majority of these results are also applicable to the commercial version of this meter and other vertical component borehole flowmeters, including heat pulse and impeller tools. Several case studies illustrating specific uses of these tools are also discussed.

Young, S.C.; Julian, H.E.; Pearson, H.S.; Molz, F.J.; Boman, G.K.

1998-08-01

103

Experiments on stress dependent borehole acoustic waves.  

PubMed

In the laboratory setup, a borehole traverses a dry sandstone formation, which is subjected to a controlled uniaxial stress in the direction perpendicular to the borehole axis. Measurements are made in a single loading-unloading stress cycle from zero to 10 MPa and then back down to zero stress. The applied stress and the presence of the borehole induce anisotropy in the bulk of the material and stress concentration around the borehole, both azimuthally and radially. Acoustic waves are generated and detected in the water-filled borehole, including compressional and shear headwaves, as well as modes of monopole, dipole, quadrupole, and higher order azimuthal symmetries. The linear and non-linear elastic parameters of the formation material are independently quantified, and utilized in conjunction with elastic theories to predict the characteristics of various borehole waves at zero and finite stress conditions. For example, an analytic theory is developed which is successfully used to estimate the changes of monopole tube mode at low frequency resulted from uniaxial stress, utilizing the measured material third order elasticity parameters. Comparisons between various measurements as well as that between experiments and theories are also presented. PMID:21973333

Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Kane, Michael R; Winkler, Kenneth; Wang, Canyun; Johnson, David Linton

2011-10-01

104

The comparative effects of chronic consumption of kola nut (Cola nitida) and caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice.  

PubMed

The comparative effects of chronic [28 days] consumption of kola nut and its active constituent, caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice were investigated. Thirty adult Swiss white mice [15-30 g body weight], were used for the study. The open field-maze was employed for the evaluation of locomotor behaviour. Mice in the control group [n=10] were fed normal rodent chow, mice in the kola nut-fed group [n=10] were fed kola diet [25 % wt/wt of rodent chow] while those in the caffeine-fed group [n=10] were fed caffeine diet [0.66% wt/wt of rodent chow] for 4 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Daily food intake, water intake and body weight change were also measured. Daily food intake in the kola nut and caffeine-fed group of mice was significantly [P<0.001 respectively] lower than the control. There was also a significant [P<0.001] decrease in daily water intake in the caffeine-fed group compared to the control whereas, the apparent decrease of water intake in the kola nut-fed group was not significantly different from the control. Body weight change was also significantly [P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively] lower in the kola nut and caffeine-fed groups of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of rearing in the open field was significantly [P<0.01] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of grooming was also significantly [P<0.05] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. There was also a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the frequency of light-dark transitions in the light/dark transition box for the caffeine-fed group when compared to the control. The results showed that chronic consumption of kola nut and caffeine diets caused decrease in food intake and body weight. Consumption of caffeine-diet also significantly decreased water intake and locomotor activity. The effect of kola nut-diets on water intake and locomotor activity was not significant. Hence, the effect of kola nut on locomotor behaviour and water intake may not be due to caffeine only. PMID:19826468

Umoren, E B; Osim, E E; Udoh, P B

2009-06-01

105

Isotope U-Pb dating of the Ingozero TTG complexes (Kola Peninsula).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [Mitrofanov, 2001]. The processes of applying ultrametamorphism and melting in the basement complexes led to a change in the composition of rocks and minerals [Mitrofanov, 2001], including changes in isotopic zircon systems, that is the "rejuvenation" of age-dating. Different sizes of rocks and minerals, including zircon, which has the most stable structure, can be those relicts in the complexes. More than 3.0 billion years dating of detrital zircons on the Kola Peninsula are widely known [Kozhevnikov et al, 2010; Vrevsky et al, 2010], which, according to Acad. F.P.Mitrofanov, shows a small transfer of material, i.e. massifs, of which this is brought zircon, are probably not far from the places of the zircons findings. In addition Archaean rocks are metamorphosed in the granulite facies metamorphism and there are small amounts of the terranes where the basement complex was metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies, including Ingozersky massiv. Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [Batieva and Belkov 1968, Kozlov et al, 2006; Kharitonov, 1966]. In the previous studies [Batieva and Belkov 1968, Precambrian tectonics ..., 1992, Zagorodny and Radchenko, 1978; Kozlov et al, 2006; Explanatory Note…, 1994] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [Belkov et al, 1971]. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of samples held for biotite gneisses (H-10-01), amphibole-biotite gneisses (H-10-07) and biotite-amphibole gneisses (H-10-08). Thus, some U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 11-05-00817.

Nitkina, E.

2012-04-01

106

Distribution and pathways of heavy metals and sulphur in the vicinity of the copper-nickel smelters in Nikel and Zapoljarnij, Kola Peninsula, Russia, as revealed by different sample media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot project for a regional environmental geochemical mapping project covering 188,000 km2 of an area exposed to severe airborne deposition of heavy metals and sulphur originating from the Nismelters of the Kola Peninsula, Russia, was initiated by the Central Kola Expedition and the Geological Surveys of Finland and Norway in 1992. To select the best suited sample media as

Viktor Chekushin; C REIMANN

1996-01-01

107

Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol in the European subarctic: Contribution of the Kola Peninsula smelter areas, central Europe, and the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 18-month set of concentration data of various elements in fine (diameter D <2.5 ?m) and coarse (2.5 ?mKola Peninsula, Russia. The concentrations in aerosol arriving from the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean are very close to the values observed at more remote Arctic sites. In air from the Kola Peninsula, approximately one third of the samples, concentrations of some trace elements were ˜2 orders of magnitude above the background concentrations. The elements most clearly transported in the pollution plumes from Kola Peninsula were Cd, Ni, Cu, V, Pb, As, Fe, and Co. Penner et al. [1993] presented a method for estimating black carbon (BC) emissions by comparing BC/SO2 (S) close to the sources and used a ratio 0.6 for the former USSR. We found that this ratio was <0.1 in the clearest pollution plumes from Kola peninsula. The ratio of the chemical mass to the gravimetric mass of the aerosol samples was ˜80% both for the fine and coarse particle filters, regardless of the source area. Comparison of the aerosol concentrations with the concentrations of elements in snow showed that the deposition was proportional to the aerosol exposure. The contribution of Kola Peninsula to the deposition is high, ˜80% for Ni, Cu, and Co and somewhat lower for other anthropogenic elements.

Virkkula, Aki; Aurela, Minna; Hillamo, Risto; MäKelä, Timo; Pakkanen, Tuomo; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Maenhaut, Willy; FrançOis, Filip; Cafmeyer, Jan

1999-10-01

108

Assessment of environmental impact zones in the Kola Peninsula forest ecosystems.  

PubMed

This paper describes the condition of forest ecosystems subjected to smelter pollution in the Kola peninsula. This assessment is based on the parameters of the biogeochemical cycle. The defoliation index was used to delimit three basic forest states: background, defoliating, sparse. Close to the smelter, due to expansion of the area not covered by vegetation, a fourth type of state, so-called "industrial deserts", has been observed. The concentrations of sulphur, copper and nickel in the precipitation in the forests generally declined with distance from the smelter. The defoliating forests are noted for the highest Ca, Mg, K concentrations in the summer precipitation. In sparse forests and industrial deserts a decrease in the Ca, Mg, K concentrations in the summer precipitation in comparison with the defoliating forests, despite the particle emissions, could be attributed to the reduction in forest biomass. The higher levels of soil and soil leachate carbon and acidity in the defoliating forests was due to higher litterfall and to the higher dissolution of fulvic acids by the acidic precipitation. This increase in organic matter levels affects soil cation exchange capacity and cation saturation. The pine trees demonstrated significant changes in the uptake of elements in all types of forests under pollution. Elevated levels of S, Ni, Cu and K and reduced levels of Mg, Mn and Zn were found in the needles of different age classes. PMID:11142914

Lukina, N; Nikonov, V

2001-01-01

109

Identification and antibacterial evaluation of bioactive compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0-24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04-1.25 mg/mL and 0.081-2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF) solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006-2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3), CEF 11 (F11) and CEF 12 (F12) revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials. PMID:22728354

Seanego, Christinah T; Ndip, Roland N

2012-05-31

110

Characterization of HANARO neutron radiography facility in accordance with ASTM standard E545-91/E803-91 for KOLAS/ISO17025.  

PubMed

As neutron radiography is even more in demand for industrial applications of aircraft, turbine blade, automobile, explosive igniters, etc, it is necessary to review the standards which are the most appropriate for preparing the procedures for setting up the QA system. Recently, Korea Of Lab Accreditation Scheme (KOLAS) was originated from ISO 17025. It is widely recognized by research peer groups for conducting valid tests. The neutron radiography facility (NRF) of High Flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO), which started ion 1996, is the preliminary stages of KOLAS. The HANARO NRF is not only characterized using ASTM standards E545-91/E803-91 to satisfy the requirements of KOLAS, but in the design phase of the tomography system. PMID:15246410

Cheul-Muu, Sim; Ki-Yong, Nam; In-Cheol, Lim; Chang-Hee, Lee; Ha-Lim, Choi

2004-10-01

111

Borehole survey system utilizing strapdown inertial navigation  

SciTech Connect

A signal processing method is described for use in borehole surveys, consisting of: (a) transforming the acceleration signals in the first coordinate system to obtain inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in a second coordinate system that is fixed relative to the earth, the inertial signals in the second coordinate system including probe velocity signals; (b) generating a signal representative of the amount of cable being fed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (c) processing the signal representative of the amount of cable being feed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (d) transforming the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system into inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system; (e) combining the signal representative of the progress of the probe along the borehole with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system to obtain error signals; (f) transforming the error signals into the second coordinate system to obtain error correction signals; (g) combining the error correction signals with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system to obtain corrected probe velocity signals; and (h) integrating the corrected probe velocity signals to obtain signals representative of the course of the borehole relative to the second coordinate system.

Hulsing, R.H.

1989-03-14

112

Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer  

SciTech Connect

Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

1983-08-01

113

VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurement devices. The report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consist of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogeneous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment.

Okko, Olli; Hassinen, Pertti; Front, Kai

1994-02-01

114

Recent advances in borehole imaging based on the circumferential borehole imaging log (CBIL)  

SciTech Connect

The recently introduced Circumferential Borehole Imaging Log (CBIL) is recorded by an acoustic borehole imaging device that utilizes a rotating pulse-echo transducer to scan and provide an image of the entire (360{degree}) circumference of the borehole wall. A transducer rotates at the rate of six times per second and acquires 250 measurement per revolution. Two key parameters are being measured: the amplitude of the reflected acoustic wave (which corresponds to variations in the rock properties) and the acoustic travel time (which is indicative of the distance from the transducer to the wellbore wall). The CBIL provides a complete, detailed 360{degree} borehole image in fresh, salt, and oilbased drilling fluids. Applications are manyfold and include: detection and orientation of fractures, vugs, and borehole breakouts (washouts); orientation and correlation of whole cores; sand/shale ratios in thin-bedded intervals; recognition of depositional features (e.g., highly laminated and/or crossbedded intervals); borehole geometry via high-resolution acoustic caliper data; generation of borehole cross sections and synthetic cores, bed orientation, etc. Field examples illustrate these various applications in detailed reservoir description.

Fertl, W.H. (Atlas Wireline Services, Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

115

Borehole Summary Report for C4997 Rotary Drilling, WTP Seismic Boreholes Project, CY 2006  

SciTech Connect

The following Final Geologic Borehole Report briefly describes the drilling of a single borehole at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford, Washington, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reservation. The location of the WTP is illustrated in Figure 1-1. The borehole was designated as “C4997”, and was drilled to obtain seismic and lithologic data for the Pretreatment Facility and High-Level Waste Vitrification Plant in the WTP. Borehole C4997 was drilled and logged to a total depth of 1428 ft below ground surface (bgs) on October 8, 2006, and was located approximately 150 ft from a recently cored borehole, designated as “C4998”. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) determined the locations for C4997, C4998, and other boreholes at the WTP in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Review Panel, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The total depth of Borehole C4997 was also determined by PNNL.

Difebbo, Thomas J.

2007-02-28

116

Technologies for scientific drilling and borehole research  

SciTech Connect

Use of the drill bit to access the third dimension of the earth's crust provides an exciting opportunity for geoscientists to evaluate hypotheses on the structure and processes occurring in the crust. The Continental Scientific Drilling Programs (CSDP) being initiated in many places can provide this opportunity but scientific enthusiasm is dampened by a perceived technology limitation to provide the needed research facility (drillhole) and instrumentation. This paper discusses the borehole as a research facility using currently active research drilling to illustrate technological solutions. Subsequent discussion summarizes the status of drilling technologies and borehole instrumentation capabilities. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Traeger, R.K.

1985-01-01

117

Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

Ellefsen, K. J.; Wright, D. L.

2002-01-01

118

Borehole Sealing. Final Report, March 1, 1973--October 31, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to evaluate existing materials and techniques to permanently plug boreholes penetrating salt strata near prospective radioactive waste depository sites is described. A new subcontract No. 78X-33542C has been issued to seal a borehole near Lyons,...

L. H. Eilers

1977-01-01

119

Erythropoietic and anti-obesity effects of Garcinia cambogia (bitter kola) in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The anti-obesity and erythropoietic effects of crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia cambogia (bitter kola) seeds on Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. The rats were divided into three dosage groups: A (0 mg/kg of body weight), B (200 mg/kg) and C (400 mg/kg). Weight changes, plasma lipoprotein levels and the lipid profile of the liver, gastrointestinal system and adipose tissue were monitored as indices for anti-obesity, while the RBC (red blood cell) count (assessed by using a haemocytometer) was monitored as a measure of erythropoiesis. The extract was administered by gavage for 5 weeks. The results for each test group was compared statistically with those for the control (P<0.05). Analysis of the results showed a significant increase in RBC counts in both test groups and a decrease in weights of experimental animals. There was a dose-dependent decrease in the plasma level of very-low-density lipoprotein and a dose-dependent increase in the level of chylomicrons. There was a slight, but significant, decrease in the level of high-density lipoprotein and a significant increase in the level of LDL (low-density lipoprotein). There was significant dose-dependent decrease in the TAG (triacylglycerol) pool of adipose tissue and the liver of the test groups, but a significant increase in the TAG pool of the gastrointestinal system. The increase in the TAG pool of the gastrointestinal system is possibly compensatory. The results therefore confirm that ethanolic extracts of G. cambogia seeds have both haematologically enhancing and anti-obesity effects. The decrease in the high-density-lipoprotein level and an increase in the LDL level may play an important role in cardiovascular disease. PMID:16984227

Oluyemi, Kayode Alaba; Omotuyi, Idowu O; Jimoh, Olusegun R; Adesanya, Olamide A; Saalu, Chia L; Josiah, Sunday J

2007-01-01

120

Spatiotemporal relationships of dike magmatism in the Kola region, the Fennoscandian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief geological and petrographic characterization of the Early Precambrian dike complexes of the Kola region is given along with data on new estimates of dike age and analysis of their distribution over the entire Fennoscandian Shield. The emplacement of dikes in the Archean core of the shield continued after consolidation of the sialic crust 2.74-1.76 Ga ago. After the Svecofennian Orogeny, dikes continued to form in the west in the area of newly formed crust, while the amagmatic period began in the Archean domain. The intense formation of dikes in the Svecofennian domain lasted approximately for 1 Ga (1.8-0.84 Ga). The younger igneous rocks in the crustal domains of different age are less abundant and localized at their margins. A similar distribution of dikes is characteristic of other shields in different continents. This implies that the formation of the sialic crust in the shields is not completed by its consolidation and formation of the craton. For 1 Ga after completion of this process, the crust is underplated by mantle-derived magmas. This process is reflected at the Earth's surface in the development of mantle-derived mafic and anorogenic granitoid magmatism. The process of crust formation is ended as the subcratonic lithosphere cools and the amagmatic period of the craton history is started. Beginning from this moment, the manifestations of cratonic magmatism were related either to the superposed tectonomagmatic reactivation of the cold craton under the effect of crust formation in the adjacent mobile belts or to the ascent of mantle plumes.

Fedotov, Zh. A.; Bayanova, T. B.; Serov, P. A.

2012-11-01

121

Jinshanjiangite and bafertisite from the Gremyakha-Vyrmes Alkaline Complex, Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jinshanjiangite (acicular crystals up to 2 mm in length) and bafertisite (lamellar crystals up to 3 × 4 mm in size) have been found in alkali granite pegmatite of the Gremyakha-Vyrmes Complex, Kola Peninsula. Albite, microcline, quartz, arfvedsonite, zircon, and apatite are associated minerals. The dimensions of a monoclinic unit cell of jinshanjiangite and bafertisite are: a = 10.72(2), b=13.80(2), c = 20.94(6) Å, ? = 97.0(5)° and a = 10.654(6), b = 13.724(6), c = 10.863(8) Å, ? = 94.47(8)°, respectively. The typical compositions (electron microprobe data) of jinshanjiangite and bafertisite are: (Na0.57Ca0.44)?1.01(Ba0.57K0.44)?1.01 (Fe3.53Mn0.30Mg0.04Zn0.01)?3.88(Ti1.97Nb0.06Zr0.01)?2.04(Si3.97Al0.03O14)O2.00(OH2.25F0.73O0.02)?3.00 and (Ba1.98Na0.04K0.03)?2.05(Fe3.43Mn0.37Mg0.03)?3.83(Ti2.02Nb0.03)?2.05 (Si3.92Al0.08O14)(O1.84OH0.16)?2.00(OH2.39F1.61)?3.00, respectively. The minerals studied are the Fe-richest members of the bafertisite structural family.

Lykova, I. S.; Pekov, I. V.; Kononkova, N. N.; Shpachenko, A. K.

2010-12-01

122

Nevirapine induces testicular toxicity in Wistar rats: reversal effect of kolaviron (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds).  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Nevirapine (NVP) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV infections and has been reported to be toxic to the male reproductive system. This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola, on NVP-induced testicular toxicity. Methods: The adult male Wistar rats were given two and four times therapeutic doses of NVP (NVP-2T and NVP-4T; 18 and 36 mg/kg NVP) alone or in combination with KV (200 mg/kg). NVP was given daily, whereas KV was administered five times in a week by oral gavage. Results: Treatment with NVP did not alter the body weight gain and relative weight of testis of the rats. NVP-4T significantly (p<0.05) decreased the sperm motility, protein content, and live-dead ratio and also increased the percentage sperm abnormalities of the rats. Although NVP-4T significantly increased sperm abnormalities, it has no effect on epididymal sperm count. Also, NVP-4T caused a significant (p<0.05) elevation of serum aminotransferases and ?-glutamyl transferase activities. In addition, NVP-4T significantly (p<0.05) decreased the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione with marked elevation of malondialdehyde (index of lipid peroxidation) in the rats. In contrast, NVP-2T did not produce an adverse effect on the biochemical indices studied in testes and sperm of rats. Supplementation with KV significantly ameliorated the biochemical changes caused by NVP-4T. Conclusions: Taken together, KV reversed the adverse effects of NVP-4T on testicular antioxidant enzymes and markers of oxidative stress in the rats. PMID:23751390

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Akanni, Olubukola O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

2013-06-01

123

Dimethyl siloxane oils as an alternative borehole fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding a new safe and ecologically friendly borehole fluid is one of the most pressing problems for forthcoming ice-drilling projects. Not all recent borehole fluids qualify as intelligent choices from safety, environmental and other technological standpoints. We propose the use of silicone oils as the borehole fluid. The most suitable type of silicone oils for deep ice drilling are low-molecular

P. G. Talalay

2007-01-01

124

Non-contact infrared temperature measurements in dry permafrost boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While planning the COAST Expedition to the Siberian Laptev Sea in 2005, the question of how to make a short equilibrium temperature measurement in a dry borehole arose. As a result, an infrared borehole tool was developed and used in three dry boreholes (up to 60.2 m deep) in the coastal transition zone from terrestrial to sub-sea permafrost near Mamontovy

Ralf Junker; Mikhail N. Grigoriev; Norbert Kaul

2008-01-01

125

A borehole temperature during drilling in a fractured rock formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling in brittle crystalline rocks is often accompanied by a fluid loss through the finite number of the major fractures intercepting the borehole. These fractures affect the flow regime and temperature distributions in the borehole and rock formation. In this study, the problem of borehole temperature variation during drilling of the fractured rock is analyzed analytically by applying the approximate

S. Fomin; T. Hashida; V. Chugunov; A. V. Kuznetsov

2005-01-01

126

BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

127

BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

128

Borehole Locations on Seven Interior Salt Domes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered sal...

A. C. Simcox S. L. Wampler

1982-01-01

129

California Fault Zone Orphan Borehole Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California is tectonically active and has many abandoned boreholes across the state. With information on these boreholes provided by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), we have been able to create several interactive maps on Google Earth for a public website and database accessible at: http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/ . These maps locate abandoned and adoptable wells near active quaternary fault traces and are linked to relevant subsurface information. The links on the website include complete histories, logs, lithologies, stratigraphic columns, and casing information (when available). Earthquake scientists may utilize these wells for monitoring subsurface changes prior, during, and after an earthquake in California. The boreholes could be used for the measurements of several subsurface observables, including: repeat temperature logs, stress measurements, geophysical logging, repeat active-source seismic experiments, sampling of mud/ gas/ fluids, long-term monitoring of temperature and pore fluid pressure, passive seismicity, etc. The “Adopt a Well Program” with DOGGR allows the orphaned well to be tested for 90 days without liability then purchased upon approval. With the science of seismology expanding its limits, these boreholes offer the depth necessary to have accurate subsurface data in order to make informed implications about what occurs deep beneath the surface.

Avila, J.; Brodsky, E. E.

2009-12-01

130

Subsurface fracture measurement with polarimetric borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-polarimetric borehole radar system is presented with combinations of dipole antennas and axial slot antennas and is applied to subsurface fracture measurement. First, to determine a scattering matrix from measurements with antennas having different antenna transfer functions between orthogonal polarizations, the authors present an antenna compensation algorithm that is achieved by an inverse filtering method with the antenna transfer

Takashi Miwa; Motoyuki Sato; Hiroaki Niitsuma

1999-01-01

131

USGS Training on Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS hydrologist holds an electromagnetic induction borehole logging tool while the tool is calibrated. The hydrologist was participating in a USGS class on how to use electromagnetic induction geophysical methods for groundwater investigations, conducted by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch o...

2009-05-01

132

Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

Ellefsen, K. J.; Wright, D. L.

2005-01-01

133

Low Frequency Electromagnetic Cross-Borehole Imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the research in cross-borehole electromagnetic (EM) imaging has been done at high frequencies (17 to 200 Mhz). At these frequencies, the propagation distance through-the-earth is limited to less than 8 meters and the attenuation of the signal depe...

M. Pihlman P. E. Harben

1988-01-01

134

Test plan for Shallow Borehole Plugging Tests  

SciTech Connect

This test plan describes the Shallow Borehole Plugging Tests to be conducted at Gable Mountain. Part I of the test plan provides the objective, scope, and justification of the tests and a brief summary of proposed advanced tests. Part II provides a description of the tests, equipment, materials, test installation procedures, operational procedures and data analysis approach. 6 refs., 45 figs., 4 tabs.

Cashman, J.M.

1981-02-04

135

Borehole Inspection System for large diameter holes  

SciTech Connect

A color camera developed for underwater applications has been adapted for use as a large diameter Borehole Inspection System (BIS). This video/photographic system has pan and tilt capabilities and remotely interchangeable lenses. A compass provides an azimuth for orientation. It is designed to operate in boreholes ranging in diameter from 1.2 m to 3.0 m. The system has a 180 degree ''fisheye'' lens and an inspection lens with zoom. 35 mm photographs can be taken of the same view as the video for precise location. Video tape and 35 mm film is annotated. The primary function of the BIS is geologic investigation. Various characteristics of the geologic medium can be viewed. Lithologic types and textures can be determined. Structural features such as faults, fractures, and bedding can be scrutinized. Detail descriptions of stratigraphic sequences and contacts are possible. In combination with other borehole data and sample information, many questions about hole conditions and the geologic medium can be resolved. Field operations often demand immediate resolution of borehole problems. This system offers on-the-spot visual inspection of the drill hole and associated hardware. Large eroded zones can be evaluated and casings and liners can be inspected. Other applications such as the location and configuration of hardware left in the hole and fluid entry points are possible.

Hawkins, W.L.; Oliver, R.D.; Lavelle, M.J.

1987-01-01

136

Borehole flexural modes in anisotropic formations  

SciTech Connect

A perturbation method of solution is an efficient way of analyzing elastic wave propagation along a borehole in anisotropic formations. The perturbation model allows one to calculate changes in the modal dispersion curves caused by the differences in elastic constants between the anisotropic formation of interest and a reference, or unperturbed, isotropic formation. The equivalent isotropic constants in the reference formation are obtained from the appropriate compressional and shear-wave velocities for the selected propagation and polarization directions of the flexural mode. This choice of the unperturbed solution means that the required perturbation is minimal, resulting in enhanced accuracy of the perturbed solution. Computational results are presented for the dispersion curves of borehole flexural waves in a transversely isotropic (TI) formation as a function of borehole deviation from the TI symmetry axis. In addition, radial distributions of displacement and stress fields associated with the flexural wave are obtained as a function of frequency. These provide qualitative information on the radial depth of investigation with flexural wave logging. The flexural wave excitation function is a measure of the energy that a source converts to flexural motion. The authors deduce an expression for the flexural wave excitation and show that its bandlimited characteristic is influenced by both the borehole diameter and formation parameters. From the dispersion curves and excitation functions, they can compute the flexural waveforms caused by a dipole source with arbitrary orientation in the borehole. In the numerical computations, they have used the unperturbed mode shapes for an equivalent isotropic medium together with the perturbed dispersion relations caused by the formation anisotropy.

Sinha, B.K.; Chang, S.K. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Norris, A.N. (Rutgers-the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)

1994-07-01

137

Phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of combined effect of extracts of the leaves of Garcinia kola, Vernonia amygdalina and honey on some medically important microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm water extracts of the leaves of Garcinia kola and Vernonia amygdalina suspended in honey traditionally employed for the treatment of post circumcision wounds, fresh wounds and chronic skin ulcers was prepared and evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical analysis of the preparation revealed the presence of polyphenol, reducing sugars, tannins, glycoside, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and

C. I. Mboto; M. E. Eja; A. A Adegoke; G. D. Iwatt; B. E. Asikong; I. Takon; S. M. Udo; M. Akeh

138

Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) extract enhances phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in neuroblastoma cells expressing amyloid beta peptide.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that shows cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Extract from the leaves of Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) have been used as an alternative medicine for memory improvement in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for a long time. Although several studies have revealed its effect in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in rat models of AD and stimulating property on neuronal dendrites of hippocampal region, the molecular mechanism of Gotu Kola on neuroprotection still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we report that phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is enhanced in both a neuroblastoma cell line expressing amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta) and in rat embryonic cortical primary cell culture. In addition, the contribution of two major single components to the enhanced CREB phosphorylatioin was examined. Furthermore, inhibitors were applied in this study revealing that ERK/RSK signaling pathway might mediate this effect of Gotu Kola extract. Taken together, we provide a possible molecular mechanism for memory enhancing property of Gotu Kola extract for the first time. PMID:18431001

Xu, Yanan; Cao, Zhiming; Khan, Ikhlas; Luo, Yuan

2008-04-01

139

Chemical weathering of silicate rocks in Karelia region and Kola peninsula, NW Russia: Assessing the effect of rock composition, wetlands and vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is aimed at assessing the effect of factors including lithology, forest\\/peatland coverage, dissolved organic carbon, and vegetation on chemical fluxes and concentrations of major elements in rivers. The mean annual element concentrations and dissolved fluxes of acid and basic rock dominated watersheds of the Karelia region and Kola peninsula, NW Russia, have been estimated from the chemical composition

E. A. Zakharova; O. S. Pokrovsky; B. Dupré; J. Gaillardet; L. E. Efimova

2007-01-01

140

Growth Response, Nutrient Digestibility and Organ Characteristics of Broiler Chicken Fed Graded Levels of Kola Pod Husk Meal (KPHM) in a Derived Savannah Zone of Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: One hundred and forty-four (144) day old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used to investigate the growth response as well as organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed graded levels of kola pod husk meal (KPHM). The birds were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments groups containing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% KPHM. There were two replicates per treatments

2006-01-01

141

The borehole-fluid effect in electrical resistivity imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid that fills boreholes in crosswell electrical-resistivity investigations provides the necessary electrical contact between the electrodes and the rock formation, but it is also the source of image artifacts in standard inversions that do not account for the effects of the boreholes. The image distortions can be severe for large resistivity contrasts between the rock formation and borehole fluid and for large borehole diameters. We have carried out 3-D finite-element modeling using an unstructured-grid approach to quantify the magnitude of borehole effects for different resistivity contrasts, borehole diameters, and electrode configurations. Relatively common resistivity contrasts of 100 : 1 and borehole diameters of 10 and 20 cm yielded, for a bipole length 5 m, underestimates of apparent resistivity by ~12% and ~32% when using AB-MN configurations and overestimates of apparent resistivity by ~24% and ~95% when using AM-BN configurations. Effects are generally more severe at shorter bipole spacings. We report here the results obtained by either including or ignoring the boreholes in inversions of 3D field data from a test site in Switzerland, where ~10,000 crosswell resistivity tomography measurements were made across 6 acquisition planes between 4 boreholes. Inversions of raw data that ignored the boreholes filled with low resistivity fluid paradoxically produced high resistivity artifacts around the boreholes. Including correction factors based on the modeling results for a 1-D model with and without the boreholes did not markedly improve the images. The only satisfactory approach was to use a 3-D inversion code that explicitly incorporated the boreholes in the actual inversion. This new approach yielded an electrical resistivity image that was devoid of artifacts around the boreholes and that correlated well with co-incident crosswell radar images.

Doetsch, Joseph; Coscia, Ilaria; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Linde, Niklas; Green, Alan G.; Günther, Thomas

2010-05-01

142

Detection and Analysis of Near-Surface Explosions on the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic and infrasonic observations of signals from a sequence of near-surface explosions at a site on the Kola Peninsula have been analyzed. NORSAR's automatic network processing of these events shows a significant scatter in the location estimates and, to improve the automatic classification of the events, we have performed full waveform cross-correlation on the data set. Although the signals from the different events share many characteristics, the waveforms do not exhibit a ripple-for-ripple correspondence and cross-correlation does not result in the classic delta-function indicative of repeating signals. Using recordings from the ARCES seismic array (250 km W of the events), we find that a correlation detector on a single channel or three-component station would not be able to detect subsequent events from this source without an unacceptable false alarm rate. However, performing the correlation on each channel of the full ARCES array, and stacking the resulting traces, generates a correlation detection statistic with a suppressed background level which is exceeded by many times its standard deviation on only very few occasions. Performing f- k analysis on the individual correlation coefficient traces, and rejecting detections indicating a non-zero slowness vector, results in a detection list with essentially no false alarms. Applying the algorithm to 8 years of continuous ARCES data identified over 350 events which we confidently assign to this sequence. The large event population provides additional confidence in relative travel-time estimates and this, together with the occurrence of many events between 2002 and 2004 when a temporary network was deployed in the region, reduces the variability in location estimates. The best seismic location estimate, incorporating phase information for many hundreds of events, is consistent with backazimuth measurements for infrasound arrivals at several stations at regional distances. At Lycksele, 800 km SW of the events, as well as at ARCES, infrasound is detected for most of the events in the summer and for few in the winter. At Apatity, some 230 km S of the estimated source location, infrasound is detected for most events. As a first step to providing a Ground Truth database for this useful source of infrasound, we provide the times of explosions for over 50 events spanning 1 year.

Gibbons, Steven J.; Ringdal, Frode

2010-05-01

143

Predicting variability in joint frequencies from boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Joints in rock are not evenly spaced, but commonly show clustering. This suggests that boreholes that are a short distance apart can intersect very different numbers of joints. A simple 1D model is used to illustrate variability in joint frequencies from vertical wells intersecting steeply dipping joints. The model indicates that raw joint frequencies logged from core or borehole images can give unreliable inputs into reservoir models, especially when the joints are clustered and variations occur over scales that are much smaller than the resolution of seismic surveys or the grid blocks used in reservoir simulations. Variability in joint frequencies from deviated or horizontal wells can be used, however, to test the variability in joint frequencies from vertical wells.

Peacock, D. C. P.

2006-02-01

144

Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

2006-11-06

145

Borehole neutron activation: The rare earths  

SciTech Connect

Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods offer the mining geologist techniques for mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them as analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the new application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can assist the mining geologist.

Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

1988-02-01

146

A Borehole Fiber-Optic Strainmeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAFOD project provides an opportunity to study the basic mechanics of a fault that undergoes relatively frequent events. Magnitude 2 earthquakes within a few km of the borehole occur several times per year and produce strain signals on the order of a nanostrain. We installed a vertical fiber-optic strainmeter in the annulus of cement between the inner and outer casings of the borehole. The sensor consists of an optical fiber cable stretched from the surface to a depth of 864 m. The optical length of the fiber is monitored with a laser interferometer sampled at 50,000 samples per second. The strainmeter noise is about 0.01 nanostrain at 1 Hz, which provides clear records of coseismic offsets.

Zumberge, M. A.

2005-12-01

147

FDTD modeling of borehole georadar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstracf-High-frequency electromagnetic wave phenomena associated with borehole georadar experiments are complex. To improve our understanding of the governing physical processes, we have developed an advanced finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of Maxwell’s equations in cylindrical coordinates. The computational domain is bounded by cylindrical symmetry conditions along the left model edge and by suitably adapted uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) absorbing boundary

J. R. Ernst; Klaus Holliger; Hansruedi Maurer

2004-01-01

148

Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium silicate--and aluminosilicate--compositions based on mixtures of fine grained quartz with various cements or calcium silicate compounds have been investigated under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range 110-250°C and pressure range 1,000-10,000 psi, pressures which are always in excess of that required to maintain liquid HO, and approximate the confining pressures which might be anticipated in deep boreholes. All silicate

D. M. Roy; W. B. White

1976-01-01

149

Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling  

SciTech Connect

The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

A.A. Lipin [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch

2005-03-15

150

Modelling and Evaluation of Environmental Impact due to Continuous Emissions of the Severonickel Plant (Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, evaluation of potential impact - through concentration, deposition and loadings patterns - on population and environment due to continuous anthropogenic emissions (on example of sulfates) of the Cu-Ni smelters of the Russian North is given. To estimate impact, the Danish Emergency Response Model for Atmosphere (DERMA) was employed to perform long-term simulations of air concentration, time integrated air concentration (TIAC), dry (DD) and wet (WD) deposition patterns resulting from continuous emissions of the Severonickel smelters located on the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk region, Russia). To perform such simulations the 3D meteorological fields (from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF) for the year 2000 were used as input. For simplicity, it has been assumed that normalized releases of sulfates from smelters location occurred at a constant rate every day. For each daily release the atmospheric transport, dispersion, dry and wet deposition due to removal processes were estimated during 10 day interval. Output from these long-term simulations is an essential input for evaluation of impact, doses, risks, and short- and long-term consequences, etc. Detailed analyses of simulated concentration and deposition fields allowed evaluating the spatial and temporal variability of resulted patterns on different scales. Temporal variability of both wet and dry deposition as well as their contribution into total deposition have been estimated. On an annual scale, the concentration and deposition patterns were estimated for the most populated cities of the North-West Russia. The modeled annual fields were also integrated into GIS environment as well as layers with population density (from the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, CIESIN) and standard administrative division of the North-West Russia and bordering countries. Furthermore, the estimation of deposited amounts (loadings) of sulfates for selected regions of Russia and border countries has been performed. It has been found that for the "mild emission scenario" (i.e. approx. 31.6 ths. ton), for the Severonickel smelters, the annual average daily dry deposition value is 5.79 ton (with the highest - 10.4 ton - in September, and the lowest - 2.9 ton - in March). The annual average daily wet deposition is 22.7 tons, and a strong month-to-month variability is seen compared with dry deposition. The highest average WD (46.3 ton) is in January, and the lowest - 5.5 ton - in July. There are also differences in amount deposited in total from daily releases. On an annual scale, on average, 32.9% of emitted amount could be deposited at the surface during the considered duration (i.e. 10 days) of atmospheric transport. The highest deposited amount of 57.2% is observed in January and the lowest of 14.3% - in July. Taking into account actual annual (on example of year 2000) emissions of sulfur dioxide as 45.3 ths. ton (Severonickel smelters, city of Monchegorsk), the summary annual time integrated air concentration, dry and wet deposition were re-scaled and these have been estimated for most populated cities (Arkhangelsk, Petrozavodsk, Sankt-Petersburg, Syktyvkar, Pskov, and Vologda) of the North-West Russia. It was found that among these cities, the TIAC is the highest - 86 ?g•h/m3 - for Arkhangelsk and the lowest - 4 ?g•h/m3 - for Pskov. Both dry and wet depositions were also the highest for Arkhangelsk - 0.5 and 2.2 mg/m2, respectively. Detailed analysis also showed that for regions surrounding the Kola Peninsula, on average (maximum), the total (dry plus wet) deposition was 0.6 (3.0), 1.8 (5.1), and 28.3 (122) mg/m2 for the territories of the Arkhangelsk, Karelia, and Murmansk regions of Russia. For border regions with Scandinavian countries, on average (maximum), the total deposition was 2.2 (6.7) mg/m2 in Finnmark (Norway); 0.2 (0.4) in Norrbotten and 0.03 (0.1) mg/m2 in Vsterbotten counties (Sweden); 0.6 (1.2) in Eastern Finland, 2.2 (7.2) in Lapland, and 1.4 (2.9) mg/m2 in Oulu provinces of Finland. For urban

Mahura, A.; Gonzalez-Aparicio, I.; Nuterman, R.; Baklanov, A.

2012-04-01

151

Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging  

SciTech Connect

The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations.

Christensen, C. L.; Statler, R. D.; Peterson, E. W.

1980-05-01

152

Continuous monitoring of volcanoes with borehole strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of volcanoes using various physical techniques has the potential to provide important information about the shape, size and location of the underlying magma bodies. Volcanoes erupt when the pressure in a magma chamber some kilometers below the surface overcomes the strength of the intervening rock, resulting in detectable deformations of the surrounding crust. Seismic activity may accompany and precede eruptions and, from the patterns of earthquake locations, inferences may be made about the location of magma and its movement. Ground deformation near volcanoes provides more direct evidence on these, but continuous monitoring of such deformation is necessary for all the important aspects of an eruption to be recorded. Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have recorded strain changes associated with eruptions of Hekla, Iceland and Izu-Oshima, Japan. Those data have made possible well-constrained models of the geometry of the magma reservoirs and of the changes in their geometry during the eruption. The Hekla eruption produced clear changes in strain at the nearest instrument (15 km from the volcano) starting about 30 minutes before the surface breakout. The borehole instrument on Oshima showed an unequivocal increase in the amplitude of the solid earth tides beginning some years before the eruption. Deformational changes, detected by a borehole strainmeter and a very long baseline tiltmeter, and corresponding to the remote triggered seismicity at Long Valley, California in the several days immediately following the Landers earthquake are indicative of pressure changes in the magma body under Long Valley, raising the question of whether such transients are of more general importance in the eruption process. We extrapolate the experience with borehole strainmeters to estimate what could be learned from an installation of a small network of such instruments on Mauna Loa. Since the process of conduit formation from the magma sources in Mauna Loa and other volcanic regions should be observable, continuous high sensitivity strain monitoring of volcanoes provides the potential to give short time warnings of impending eruptions. Current technology allows transmission and processing of rapidly sampled borehole strain data in real-time. Such monitoring of potentially dangerous volcanoes on a global scale would provide not only a wealth of scientific information but also significant social benefit, including the capability of diverting nearby in-flight aircraft.

Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

153

Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

Glowka, D.A.

1990-09-01

154

Acoustic detection of stress-induced effects around a borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine if borehole stress concentrations produce compressional velocity variations that are measureable from within the borehole. Experimentally, an azimuthal microsonic measurement technique is used to measure the azimuthally resolved, axially propagating, refracted compressional wave in the 50–100 kHz band and to detect the stress-induced damage around a 10 cm borehole in a 0.5

T. J. Plona; K. Winkler; R. D'Angelo; B. Sinha; P. Papanastasiou; J. M. Cook

1997-01-01

155

Automated analysis of ice properties from glacier borehole images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical televiewing provides a continuous, true-colour, orientated 360° optical image of a borehole wall. The recent application of this technology in ice boreholes has yielded far more detail relating to the internal structure of ice masses than has been previously available using traditional borehole TV video or acoustic televiewers. From the optical televiewer logs, which are allied to true orientation, the dip and strike of each planar structure that intersects the borehole can be calculated. We present a number of methods which aid the user in the annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images by automatically detecting layers and inclusions present in borehole image logs. The techniques used include a modified version of the Canny Edge Detector to highlight edges in the image, and a number of edge processing and fitting algorithms to extract sinusoidal layers from these edges. Active Contours have also been used to provide a semi-automatic inclusion detection tool. These techniques have been implemented as part of a software tool designed to allow the manual and automatic annotation of borehole features. A Genetic Algorithm has also been developed as part of a separate tool which allows for the fine tuning of parameters in the above algorithms. Results to date have shown good correspondence with manual operators in terms of layering and inclusions present in borehole images from a number of ice masses including Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica; the NEEM deep borehole, Greenland; Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard; and Tsanfleuron Glacier, Switzerland.

Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

2013-04-01

156

Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City (United States))

1993-09-01

157

Fiber optic communication in borehole applications  

SciTech Connect

The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

1997-04-01

158

Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes  

SciTech Connect

The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Tyler, S.

1985-11-19

159

Borehole survey instrumentation development for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

The creation and subsequent study of hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs requires sophisticated tools and instruments that can function for relatively long periods of time in the hostile downhole environment. Detection of fracture dimensions and orientation of the geothermal reservoir is critical for the successful completion of the hot dry rock energy extraction system. The development of downhole instrumentation capable of characterizing the hydraulic-fracture systems must emphasize reliability of measuring devices and electro-mechanical components to function properly at borehole temperature exceeding 275/sup 0/C and pressures of 69 MPa (10,000 psi).

Dennis, B.R.

1980-01-01

160

Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi (Kola Peninsula, Russia). A LA-ICP-MS study of apatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the petrogenetic links between carbonatites and associated silicate rocks is still under discussion (i.e., [Gittins J., Harmer R.E., 2003. Myth and reality of the carbonatite–silicate rock “association”. Period di Mineral. 72, 19–26.]). In the Paleozoic Kola alkaline province (NW Russia), the carbonatites are spatially and temporally associated to ultramafic cumulates (clinopyroxenite, wehrlite and dunite) and alkaline silicate

S. Brassinnes; E. Balaganskaya; D. Demaiffe

2005-01-01

161

Sr and Nd isotope data of apatite, calcite and dolomite as indicators of source, and the relationships of phoscorites and carbonatites from the Kovdor massif, Kola peninsula, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed Sr?Nd isotopic study of primary apatite, calcite and dolomite from phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kovdor massif\\u000a (380 Ma), Kola peninsula, Russia, reveals a complicated evolutionary history. At least six types of phoscorites and five types\\u000a of carbonatite have been identified from Kovdor by previous investigators based on relative ages and their major and accessory\\u000a minerals. Isotopic data

Anatoly Zaitsev; Keith Bell

1995-01-01

162

Rare gas isotopes and parent trace elements in ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes, Kola Peninsula: identification of lower mantle plume component  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Devonian magmatism (370 Ma ago) ?20 ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes (UACC) were formed in the Kola Peninsula (north-east of the Baltic Shield). In order to understand mantle and crust sources and processes having set these complexes, rare gases were studied in ?300 rocks and mineral separates from 9 UACC, and concentrations of parent Li, K, U, and Th were measured

I. N. Tolstikhin; I. L. Kamensky; B. Marty; V. A. Nivin; V. R. Vetrin; E. G. Balaganskaya; S. V. Ikorsky; M. A. Gannibal; D. Weiss; A. Verhulst; D. Demaiffe

2002-01-01

163

THE CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF MALINKOITE, NaBSiO4, AND LISITSYNITE, KBSi2O6, FROM THE KHIBINA LOVOZERO COMPLEX, KOLA PENINSULA, RUSSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystal structure of malinkoite, NaBSiO 4, a 13.8964(4) Å, c 7.7001(2) Å, P63, Z = 18, Dx = 2.922 g cm-3, from the Khibina-Lovozero complex, Kola peninsula, Russia, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an R index of 3.8% using 2094 unique observed (|Fo| > 4? F) reflections collected with a single-crystal diffractometer fitted with a

ELENA V. SOKOLOVA; FRANK C. HAWTHORNE; ALEXANDER P. KHOMYAKOV

2001-01-01

164

Morphological and biochemical investigation into the possible neuroprotective effects of kolaviron (Garcinia kola bioflavonoid) on the brains of rats exposed to vanadium.  

PubMed

In this study, the morphological and biochemical susceptibility of the rat brain to vanadium, in the form of sodium metavanadate, and the comparative ameliorative effect of Garcinia kola and kolaviron (G. kola extract), was examined. Brain regions examined were the cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. We showed that vanadium administration caused cellular vacuolation, congestion, and Purkinje cell degeneration and a marked reduction in myelin tracts. Biochemical tests revealed increased lipid peroxidation induced by vanadium, which was ameliorated with the administration of G. kola and kolaviron. Vanadium administration caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the cerebrum and hippocampus, whereas the administration of kolaviron resulted in a reduction of the TBARS level by 65.7 and 80%, respectively, in the regions aforementioned. Also, the administration of kolaviron resulted in an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (61.24%) in all brain regions assessed, when compared with the group administered vanadium alone. Results obtained from this study led to the conclusion that kolaviron reduces vanadium-induced oxidative stress in the brain. PMID:22288905

Igado, Olumayowa O; Olopade, James O; Adesida, Adebukola; Aina, Oluwasanmi O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

2012-01-31

165

The results of marine electromagnetic sounding with a high-power remote source in the Kola Bay in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Russian six-component seafloor electromagnetic (EM) receivers were tested in an experiment carried out in Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. The signals transmitted by a remote high-power ELF source at several frequencies in the decahertz range were recorded by six receivers deployed on the seafloor along the profile crossing the Kola Bay. Although not all the stations successfully recorded all the six components due to technical failures, the quality of the data overall is quite suitable for interpretation. The interpretation was carried out by the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of an electromagnetic field with neural network inversion. The a priori geoelectrical model of Kola Bay, which was reconstructed by generalizing the previous geological and geophysical data, including the data of the ground magnetotelluric sounding and magnetovariational profiling, provided the EM fields that are far from those measured in the experiment. However, by a step-by-step modification of the initial model, we achieved quite a satisfactory fit. The resulting model provides the basis for introducing the corrections into the previous notions concerning the regional geological and geophysical structure of the region and particularly the features associated with fault tectonics.

Grigoriev, V. F.; Korotaev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Schors, Yu. G.

2013-05-01

166

Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

SP Reidel

2000-08-10

167

Borehole Seismic Observatories for Monitoring Crustal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1991 the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its successor the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have developed an observatory technology to monitor hydrological processes (temperature, pressure, and pore fluid sampling) in boreholes drilled on the deep seafloor. The borehole observatory equipment is called Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). Adding seismometers to CORKs (SeisCORKs) would enable monitoring of small earthquake events (mb about -2 or -3) associated with the hydrological processes. For example: 1) After an earthquake event fluid may flow in the formation in response to the changing stress regime. Down to what magnitude of event do the pressure transients in the well respond? 2) Fluid flow causes small earthquakes. One mechanism for example is by changing the temperature of the rocks which expand and contract, altering the stress regime. 3) Laboratory studies of rock deformation show that shear fracture is preceded by the coalescence of interacting tensile microcracks which are observed as "acoustic emissions". By placing high frequency geophones (up to 2000sps sampling) next to faults it may be possible to observe these "acoustic" precursors to rock failure. SeisCORKs will acquire micro- and nano-earthquake information that is simultaneous and co-located with the pressure, temperature, pore water chemistry and pore water biology measurements in the seafloor.

Stephen, Ralph; Petitt, Robert; Pettigrew, Thomas

2010-05-01

168

Optical Seismometers: Borehole and Vault Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an interferometric seismometer which uses optics instead of electronics to infer ground motion. The sensor, assembled exclusively from glass and metal materials, could be deployed into deep boreholes where temperatures often exceed 150 °C. Our first prototype consists of a leaf-spring suspension and an optical-fiber-linked interferometer, which monitors vertical displacement of the seismic mass. Several years of testing and improvements have increased its performance at both low (e.g., tidal) and high (tens of Hz) frequencies. The prototype sensor performs as well as or better than most observatory grade seismometers and has an overall observed dynamic range of 109 or 30 bits of resolution (based on its observed noise floor and its maximum mass velocity). We have also built a simple horizontal component prototype which consists of a mass suspended from a vertical pendulum whose flexure is fabricated from a single block of material. Just as our vertical seismometer can serve as a gravity meter, the horizontal prototype can serve as a tiltmeter (both of their responses are flat to DC). Tests are currently being conducted with the new sensor in our Piñon Flat Seismic Test Facility (California). One advantage of our optical displacement transducer is its dynamic range, which relaxes the requirement that the horizontal component sensor be level, simplifying borehole installations. We have already achieved a dynamic range of ±5° and we expect that a range of ±10° is possible with some effort.

Otero, J. D.; Berger, J.; Wyatt, F. K.; Zumberge, M. A.

2009-12-01

169

Measuring hydraulic conductivity with the borehole flowmeter  

SciTech Connect

The variability of saturated hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer material is now recognized as a primary factor controlling the movement and spreading of solutes in ground water. The borehole flowmeter method discussed in this report is a promising field technique for measuring the vertical profile of horizontal hydraulic conductivity on a routine basis. By measuring profiles at different locations, a three-dimensional view of the hydraulic conductivity field is obtained. The flowmeter used in this study, which has a light-weight impeller (spinner) that rotates in responses to water moving vertically up or down the inside of the well, is calibrated in the laboratory to yield volumetric flow. For multiple flow states (i.e., before pumping the well and during pumping of the well, or during pumping at two different discharge rates) the flowmeter is used to obtain profiles of the discharge in the well along the entire screened length. From the vertical flow profiles, the mean radial flow to the well for each flow state is derived for each layer of a set of horizontal layers. This report contains detailed development of the theory, practical guidelines for flowmeter measurement, and a critical evaluation of the reliability and reproducibility of hydraulic conductivity data obtained with the borehole flowmeter method at the MADE site. Specific studies address the questions of the best method of well installation, the best method of well development, sensitivity of the method to parameter and measurement errors, and the adequacy of the assumptions in the theory. 47 refs.

Rehfeldt, K.R.; Hufschmied, P.; Gelhar, L.W.; Schaefer, M.E. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1989-09-01

170

Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole vhf radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole. Similar experiments were also conducted using seismic waves at 4.5 to 6 KHz. The transmitter and the receiver in this case were located in separate boreholes. During this experiment, reflections from the slot were obtained only with the transducers oriented for shear wave illumination and detection. These results suggest that a high-frequency shear wave can also be used to detect fractures away from a borehole.

Chang, H.T.; Suhler, S.A.; Owen, T.E.

1984-02-01

171

Borehole creep and relaxation tests in ice-rich permafrost  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience gained with the pressuremeter creep tests in the last ten years shows that, because of the equipment limitations, one such test can furnish creep data only for relatively short creep times and for a medium range of stress. Borehole relaxation tests are the alternative to borehole creep tests in the determination of the creep parameters of frozen soils.

B. LADANYI

172

Stability analysis of a borehole wall during horizontal directional drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, numerical simulation strategies are proposed and numerical analyses are performed to investigate the stability of a borehole wall during horizontal directional drilling in loose sand with an emphasis on the role of the filter cake in borehole stability. Two computational scenarios, one in the absence of a filter cake and one with the presence of a filter

X. Wang; R. L. Sterling

2007-01-01

173

Surface and Borehole Electromagnetic Imaging of Conducting Contaminant Plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The source field is a magnetic field generated by currents in wire coils. This source field is normally produced in one borehole, while the received signals are the measured small changes in magnetic field in another, distant borehole; however, the method may also be

Berryman; James G

2000-01-01

174

Borehole sealing. Final report, March 1, 1973October 31, 1973  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program to evaluate existing materials and techniques to permanently plug boreholes penetrating salt strata near prospective radioactive waste depository sites is described. A new subcontract No. 78X-33542C has been issued to seal a borehole near Lyons, Kansas, using the materials and techniques recommended in this report. It is recommended that the well be thoroughly cleaned including removing any casing

Eilers

1977-01-01

175

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality

Reidel; Steve P

2006-01-01

176

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be

Brouns; Thomas M

2007-01-01

177

BOREHOLE SLUG TESTING: VALUE AS A CONSTRUCTION GUIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zonal slug testing has been routinely performed on newly drilled water production wells within the Phoenix Basin. Reverse circulation pilot boreholes are evaluated with preliminary tests prior to reaming and final construction. Target zones for water quality sampling and slug testing are selected based on analysis of drill cuttings and borehole geophysics. Each zone is constructed and tested using standard

PETER GODFREY; JOSH BLAKEY; ERIN YOUNG

178

The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG complex rocks, the following age-formation stages are determined: protolith of the biotite gneisses - 3149±46 Ma; metamorphism, deformation of rocks, foliation - 2727±5 - 2725±2 - 2697±9 - 2667±7 Ma, granite bodies formation - 2615±8 Ma and biotite gneisses migmatization - 2549±30 Ma, formation of different pegmatite and granite veins -1644±7 Ma. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 12-05-31063, 11-05-00570. 1.Batieva I.D., Belkov I.V. Granitoidnie formacii Kolskogo poluostrova. // Ocgerki po petrologiy, mineralogiy i metallogeniy Kolskogo poluostrova. L.: Nauka. 1968. p. 5-143. (in russian) 2. Belkov I.V., Zagorodny V.G., Predovsky A.A. et al. Stratigraficheskoe raschlenenie i korrelyacia dokembria severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. L.: Nauka. 1971. p. 141-150. (in russian) 3. Docembriskaya tektonica severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita (Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k tektonicheskoi karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000) / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1992. 112 P. (in russian) 4. Zagorodny V.G., Radchenko A.T. Tectonika i glubinnoe stroenie severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita. Apatity: KFA SSSR. 1978. p. 3-12. (in russian) 5. Kozlov N.E., Sorohtin N.O., Glaznev V.N. et al. Geologia Arhea Baltiskogo shita. S.Pb.: Nauka. 2006. 329 p. (in russian) 6. Mitrofanov F.P. Sovremennie problemy i nekotorie resheniya dokembriskoy geologii kratonov. (2001) Litosphera.2001. V 1. P. 5-14. (in russian) 7. Ob'asnitelnaya zapiska k geologicheskoy karte severo-vostochoi chasty Baltiyskogo shita 1:500000 / ed.: F.P.Mitrofanov. Apatity: KFAN SSSR. 1994. 95 P. (in russian) 8. Haritonov L.Y. Structura i stratigraphia karelid vostoka Baltiskogo shita. M.: Nedra. 1966. 354 P. (in russian)

Nitkina, Elena

2013-04-01

179

Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparative wave planetology [1, 5] successfully overcomes the most principal martian test having now analyses of alkaline rocks from Columbia Hills [2, 3, 4]. This kind of rocks was predicted earlier on basis of the wave paradigm having stated that "the higher planetary relief range - the higher density difference between lithologies composing hypsometrically (tectonically) contrasting blocks [5]. This paradigm declares that "celestial bodies are dichotomic"(Theorem 1), "celestial bodies are sectoral" (Theorem 2), "celestial bodies are granular"(Theorem 3), "angular momenta of different level blocks tend to be equal" (Theorem 4)[1, 5]. Mars is a typical terrestrial planet but the farthest from Sun and thus with the smallest tide effects. Nevertheless it has the highest relief range and seems to be most distorted (ellipsoid in shape) and broken by deep fissures. The wave approach explains this by a warping action of standing waves of 4 ortho- and diagonal directions - they are the longest and highest in the martian case. These interfering warping waves caused by the elliptic keplerian orbits implying periodically changing accelerations and inertia-gravity forces produce inevitable tectonic dichotomy (the fundamental wave 1 long 2?R), sectoring (wave 2, ?R, and other overtones), granulation. A granule size depends on an orbital frequency: the higher frequency the smaller granule. The Earth's granule, as a scale, is ?R/4 (see it in NASA's PIA04159), Venus ` ?R/6, Mercury's ?R/16, Mars' ?R/2 (the sizes are strictly tied to orb. fr.). Along with the granule sizes increase relief ranges ( Mercury ˜5 km, Venus 14, Earth 20, Mars ˜30) and compositional (density) difference between lowland and highland lithologies [5]. The lowland compositions become Fericher and denser: enstatite (Mercury), Mg-basalt (Venus), tholeiite (Earth), Fe-basalt (Mars). The highland compositions get less dense, lighter: anorthosite, alkaline basalt, andesite and conditional "albitite" (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6] Mittlefehldt D.W.

Kochemasov, G.

180

Multiple position borehole extensometer procedure: Final draft  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Multiple Position Borehole Extensometer Procedure is to provide detailed information for MPBXs installed at the salt Deaf Smith County ESF. This procedure includes design of equipment, installation, instructions, instrument locations, measurement requirements, support requirements, quality assurance procedures, and data acquisition requirements. Data reduction procedures are also discussed; however, the relevance of the data is discussed elsewhere in the appropriate test plans. Sufficient detail is provided in this procedure to allow for integrating the requirements of this procedure into both the facility construction and overall underground testing programs; identifying necessary equipment for procurement; determining data acquisition requirements as input to Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) design; providing step-by-step procedures for training personnel as well as for directing field operations; establishing quality assurance (QA) checkpoints and implementation methods; and defining data reduction methods and providing the anticipated accuracy of the system. 11 refs., 14 figs.

Not Available

1986-08-01

181

Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

1997-04-01

182

Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

Cutler, R.P.

1998-04-01

183

Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

Morin, R. H.; Descamps, G. E.; Cecil, L. D.

2000-01-01

184

Characterizing secondary porosity of carbonate rocks using borehole data  

SciTech Connect

An approach for characterizing secondary porosity of carbonate rocks penetrated by boreholes was applied to the Floridan aquifer system at four test sites in southeast Florida. Data used in the approach were borehole television surveys, drilling records and caliper, flowmeter, and temperature logs. The goal underlying application of the approach was to identify secondary porosity features in boreholes that have their origin in geologic processes rather than being caused by drilling. The approach at each of the test sites consisted of three steps. First, the borehole television survey was interpreted to develop a log of apparent secondary porosity. The second step was a comparison of the apparent secondary porosity, drilling record, caliper, flowmeter, and temperature logs to identify correlations between the different logs. The third step was the interpretation of true effective secondary porosity or those secondary porosity features seen in borehole television surveys that are spatially interconnected beyond the immediate vicinity of a borehole and related to geologic processes. Application of the approach at the four test sites in southeast Florida led to two principal conclusions. One was that the true effective secondary porosity of dolomites within the lower part of the Floridan aquifer system was mainly fracture porosity. The other was that cavern porosity observed in video images of those dolomites was caused largely by drilling-induced collapse of fractured borehole walls.

Hickey, J.J. (Schreuder and Davis Inc., Tampa, FL (United States))

1993-03-01

185

Seasonal reorganization of subglacial drainage inferred from measurements in boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of the formation of a major subglacial drainage channel on the behaviour of the subglacial drainage system of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, was investigated using measurements of borehole water level and the electrical conductivity and turbidity of basal meltwaters. Electrical conductivity profiles were also measured within borehole water columns to identify the water sources driving water level changes, and to determine patterns of water circulation in boreholes. Prior to channel formation, boreholes showed idiosyncratic and poorly coordinated behaviour. Diurnal water level fluctuations were small and driven by supraglacial/englacial water inputs, even when boreholes were connected to a subglacial drainage system. This system appeared to consist of hydraulically impermeable patches interspersed with storage spaces, and transmitted a very low water flux. Drainage reorganization, which occurred around 31 July, 1993, in response to rapidly rising meltwater and rainfall inputs, seems to have involved the creation of a connection between an incipient channel and a well-established channelized system located further down-glacier. Once a major channel existed within the area of the borehole array, borehole water level fluctuations were forced by discharge-related changes in channel water pressure, although a diversity of responses was observed. These included (i) synchronous, (ii) damped and lagged, (iii) inverse, and (iv) alternating inverse/lagged responses. Synchronous responses occurred in boreholes connected directly to the channel, while damped and lagged responses occurred in boreholes connected to it by a more resistive drainage system. Pressure variations within the channel resulted in diurnal transfer of mechanical support for the ice overburden between connected and unconnected areas of the bed, producing inverse and alternating patterns of water level response.

Gordon, Shulamit; Sharp, Martin; Hubbard, Bryn; Smart, Chris; Ketterling, Brad; Willis, Ian

1998-01-01

186

Anti-ulcerogenic and proton pump (H+, K+ ATPase) inhibitory activity of Kolaviron from Garcinia kola Heckel in rodents.  

PubMed

Anti-ulcer potential and proton pump inhibitory activity of kolaviron (KV) isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel has been evaluated using different ulcer models. Cold-restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models were used to assess anti-ulcerogenic activity of KV in rats. Effects of KV on gastric juice for free and total acidity, peptic activity and mucin secretion were also evaluated. The H+, K+-ATPase activity was assayed in gastric microsomes, spectrophotometrically. Results of this study showed that KV (200 mg/kg) reduced the incidence of ulcers in CRU (69.0%), PL (67.6%), ASP (68.6%) and AL (51.5%). Reductions were also observed in free acidity (32.6%), total acidity (56.2%) and peptic activity (35.4%) with increase in mucin secretion by 40.1%. KV inhibited the H+,K+-ATPase activity with IC50 of 43.8 microg/ml compared with omeprazole with IC50 of 32.3 microg/ml. KV showed both cytoprotective and anti-secretory potentials against peptic ulcer models, and a proton pump inhibitory activity. KV may emerge as a potent anti-ulcer compound. PMID:21702226

Onasanwo, Samuel A; Singh, Neetu; Olaleye, Samuel B; Palit, Gautam

2011-06-01

187

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

Reidel, Steve P.

2006-05-26

188

Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT): A program for the automatic and manual annotation of glacier borehole images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stand-alone software platform, Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT), for the examination, annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images. This tool aids in the lengthy and often subjective process of annotating layers and other features in optical and acoustic glacier borehole televiewer logs. Since these view 360° around the full circumference of an exploratory borehole, intersecting planes are reconstructed on the televiewer image as sinusoids, the amplitude and phase of which can be used to calculate, respectively, the dip and direction of dip of each of these planes. The program aids in the annotation and examination of such planes, as well as a number of other features, including clusters and inclusions. BIFAT also provides an automatic layer detection option to aid and speed up the often lengthy process of identifying planar features in glacier borehole images. The software also shows promising results in rock borehole images and in the detection of planar layers in line-scan ice core images. We describe the capability and operation of BIFAT, and illustrate its application with reference to the automatic identification and annotation of sections from an optical televiewer (OPTV) borehole log from Roi Baudouin, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The software is freely available for download from http://users.aber.ac.uk/byh/iceoptv.

Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

2013-02-01

189

Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT): A program for the automatic and manual annotation of glacier borehole images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stand-alone software platform, Borehole and Ice Feature Annotation Tool (BIFAT), for the examination, annotation and analysis of glacier borehole images. This tool aids in the lengthy and often subjective process of annotating layers and other features in optical and acoustic glacier borehole televiewer logs. Since these view 360° around the full circumference of an exploratory borehole, intersecting planes are reconstructed on the televiewer image as sinusoids, the amplitude and phase of which can be used to calculate, respectively, the dip and direction of dip of each of these planes. The program suite aids in the annotation and examination of such planes, as well as a number of other features, including clusters and inclusions. BIFAT also provides an automatic layer detection option to aid and speed up the often lengthy process of identifying planar features in glacier borehole images, and a semi-automatic inclusion detection tool. The software shows promising results in rock borehole images and in the detection of planar layers in line-scan ice core images. We describe the capability and operation of BIFAT, and illustrate its application with reference to the automatic identification and annotation of sections from optical televiewer (OPTV) borehole logs from a variety of ice masses including Roi Baudouin, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and Tsanfleuron Glacier, Switzerland. The software is freely available for download from http://users.aber.ac.uk/byh/iceoptv.

Malone, Terry; Hubbard, Bryn; Merton-Lyn, Derek; Worthington, Paul; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

2013-04-01

190

A borehole radar system for South African gold and platinum mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole radar is an electromagnetic tool that can be applied to assist in the delineation of orebody geometry, ideally using routinely drilled cover and exploration boreholes. Successful trials of borehole radar for delineating reef horizons on South African gold and platinum mines have led to the development of a borehole radar system specifically designed for routine application in those enyironments.

Declan Vogt

2006-01-01

191

SURFACE AND BOREHOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING OF CONDUCTING CONTAMINANT PLUMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component ma...

192

Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performanc...

R. E. Finley D. H. Zeuch J. C. Stormont J. J. K. Daemen

1994-01-01

193

Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole  

DOEpatents

Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

2003-05-13

194

Digital GIS Catalog of Borehole Data for the Providence Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology and geotechnical properties is fundamental to the planning and development of transportation systems. Through dynamic coupling of readily available real GIS coverage and subsurface borehole data stored in a rela...

A. I. Veeger D. P. Murray J. C. Boothroyd N. A. Hamidzada O. D. Hermes

2007-01-01

195

Backfilling of Cavities Produced in Borehole Mining Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a program to develop backfilling techniques to mitigate undesirable effects of hydraulic borehole uranium mining. To prevent ground subsidence and to allow mining of adjacent uraniferous sandstone, large underground cav...

G. S. Knoke M. H. Marvin W. R. Archibald

1979-01-01

196

Borehole Flowmeter. Final Technical Report February 1984-October 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Prototype Borehole Flowmeter has been developed for the purpose of characterizing gas flow distributions within Devonian Shale gas wells. Current technology for locating and measuring the gas producing zones in the Devonian Shale well environment is ind...

E. G. DiBello K. R. Haack J. L. McWilliams G. E. Pax S. S. Waterbury

1987-01-01

197

Borehole Flowmeter. Annual Report February 1984-May 1985,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Prototype Borehole Flowmeter has been developed for the purpose of characterizing gas flow distributions within Devonian Shale gas wells. Current technology for locating and measuring the gas producing zones in the Devonian Shale well environment is ind...

E. G. DiBello J. L. McWilliams

1985-01-01

198

Calibrated Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), funded by NSF as part of the Earthscope program and installed and maintained by UNAVCO, includes 75 borehole strainmeters (BSMs), which makes it one of the largest strainmeter arrays in the world. Co-located with seismometers, and embedded within the PBO continuous GPS network, the strainmeters expand the bandwidth of the Observatory enabling the capture of signals with periods of days to minutes. Six years after installation of the first strainmeter, over 70% of the network is in compression and over 85% of the instruments have a strong signal to noise ratio in the M2 tidal band. UNAVCO's BSM engineers ensure the network usually collects over 95% percent of possible data. UNAVCO makes the BSM Level 0 (raw) and Level 2 (processed) data products available to the community via the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), the IRIS DMC and UNAVCO's own web site. Processed BSM data includes gauge, areal, differential and tensor shear strains plus data edits and time series corrections for barometric pressure, earth tides, ocean load and borehole trends. Before strain data can be incorporated into a geophysical model with confidence, however, an instrument response must be found that relates the gauge measurements to the regional strains (i.e., an in-situ calibration is needed). In this presentation we describe the method UNAVCO will use to calibrate PBO strainmeters using earth tides as a reference signal and assuming an anisotropic instrument setting. The calibrated data will be released in a simple delimited ASCII format and will be included with the processed data set that is currently updated every 24 hours. In addition to the 5-minute Level 2 data set, UNAVCO will include the calibrated areal and shear strains at 1-sps for significant events anywhere in the world as part of its Special Event series. In order to meet Earthscope goals of data transparency and processing repeatability, the expanded processed data sets will include a summary of the calibration method, tidal observations, predictions upon which the calibrations are based and the strain matrix used to generate the areal and shear data. This presentation will also describe the new file naming convention that will allow the user to 1.) select a preferred calibration method for their data and 2.) allow UNAVCO the flexibility of including new methods of calibration in the future.

Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A. A.; Fox, O.; Gallaher, W. W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, L.

2011-12-01

199

Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole

1984-01-01

200

Evidence of Recent Warming in Polar Latitudes from Borehole Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar regions have been warming significantly for the last 50 years, and not only near the coast. We present here two borehole temperature records: one from WAIS Divide (79°S, 112°W) in the center of West Antarctica, and one from NEEM in North Greenland (77°N, 51°W). Both of these sites have a mean annual temperature of -29°C. Borehole temperature records allow

A. J. Orsi; J. P. Severinghaus

2010-01-01

201

Predicting Stress-induced Anisotropy around a Borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the in situ stress state around a borehole is of primary importance for investigating the stability of the borehole, when estimating the likely orientations of open fractures, and for designing hydraulic fracture operations. Two major steps may be used to estimate the in situ stress: first, we measure the near-wellbore anisotropy from acoustic logs, which can be done using a relatively well-developed technique; second, we use some inversion scheme to estimate the in situ stress state by assuming that all near-wellbore anisotropy is caused by the anisotropic near-wellbore stress field that has been altered by the presence of the borehole. In order to develop an accurate and efficient inversion scheme, the relation between the stress and formation anisotropy needs to be quantitatively determined. Because the stress field near the wellbore is strongly influenced by the presence of the borehole, in this paper, we propose an iterative numerical approach to estimate the stress-induced anisotropy around a borehole for any given stress state by applying Mavko’s model (1995) and a finite-element method. The accuracy of our approach is validated through laboratory measurements of the stress-strain relation of Berea sandstone under uniaxial loading. Our numerical studies show that this approach can be applied to calculate the formation anisotropy around a borehole for a wide stress range. This approach could potentially provide a good forward model for the in situ stress inversion.

Fang, X.; Fehler, M.; Zhu, Z.; Toksoz, M. N.; Earth Resources Laboratory

2010-12-01

202

Acoustic evidence of mechanical damage surrounding stressed boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments demonstrate that acoustic waveforms recorded in a borehole provide evidence of stress-induced mechanical damage in surrounding rock. In the experiments, external uniaxial stress was applied perpendicular to the borehole. Stress concentrations near the borehole wall caused velocities of refracted compressional-wave to vary with azimuth. Low velocities occurred in zones of tensile stress, and high velocities occurred in zones of compressive stress. Velocity variations are on the order of 10%. At high values of externally applied uniaxial stress, rock exceeded its yield strength and permanent damage developed. This damage decreased the measured velocities by approximately 10%, especially in the zones of compressive stress concentration. The heterogeneous nature of the velocities surrounding the borehole resulted in low-velocity channels parallel to the borehole wall, caused either by tensile stress concentrations or by mechanical damage. These low-velocity channels may be responsible for high-amplitude bright-spots that appear on variable density plots of azimuthal waveform scans. The amplitude increases can be on the order of 500% and are associated with low-velocity zones, not with decreased attenuation. The hypothesized mechanism is acoustic focusing, whereby velocity gradients refract acoustic waves back towards the borehole.

Winkler, K.W. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)

1997-01-01

203

The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

2012-04-01

204

Correcting Borehole Temperture Profiles for the Effects of Postglacial Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though the investigation of observed borehole temperatures has proved to be a valuable tool for the reconstruction of ground surface temperature histories, there are many open questions concerning the signifcance and accuracy of the reconstructions from these data. In particular, the temperature signal of the warming after the Last glacial Maximum (LGM) is still present in borehole temperature proiles. It also influences the relatively shallow boreholes used in current paleoclimate inversions to estimate temperature changes in the last centuries. This is shown using Monte Carlo experiments on past surface temperature change, using plausible distributions for the most important parameters, i.e.,amplitude and timing of the glacial-interglacial transition, the prior average temperature, and petrophysical properties. It has been argued that the signature of the last glacial-interglacial transition could be responsible for the high amplitudes of millennial temperature reconstructions. However, in shallow boreholes the additional effect of past climate can reasonably approximated by a linear variation of temperature with depth, and thus be accommodated by a "biased" background heat flow. This is good news for borehole climatology. A simple correction based on subtracting an appropriate prior surface temperature history shows promising results reducing these errors considerably, in particular with deeper boreholes, where the warming signal in heat flow can no longer be approximated linearly. We will show examples from North America and Eurasia, comparing temperatures reduced the proposed algoritm with AOGCM modeling results.

Rath, V.; Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.

2010-09-01

205

Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi (Kola Peninsula, Russia). A LA-ICP-MS study of apatite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the petrogenetic links between carbonatites and associated silicate rocks is still under discussion (i.e., [Gittins J., Harmer R.E., 2003. Myth and reality of the carbonatite silicate rock “association”. Period di Mineral. 72, 19 26.]). In the Paleozoic Kola alkaline province (NW Russia), the carbonatites are spatially and temporally associated to ultramafic cumulates (clinopyroxenite, wehrlite and dunite) and alkaline silicate rocks of the ijolite melteigite series [Kogarko, L.N., 1987. Alkaline rocks of the eastern part of the Baltic Shield (Kola Peninsula). In: Fitton, J.G., and Upton, B.G.J. (eds). Alkaline igneous rocks. Geol. Soc. Special Publication 30, 531 544; Kogarko, L.N., Kononova, V.A., Orlova, M.P., Woolley, A.R., 1995. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. Part 2. Former USSR. Chapman and Hall, London, 225 pp; Verhulst, A., Balaganskya, E., Kirnarsky, Y., Demaiffe, D., 2000. Petrological and geochemical (trace elements and Sr Nd isotopes) characteristics of the Paleozoic Kovdor ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion (Kola Peninsula, NW Russia). Lithos 51, 1 25; Dunworth, E.A., Bell, K., 2001. The Turiy Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia; isotopic and geochemical evidence for a multi-source evolution. J. Petrol. 42, 377 405; Woolley, A.R., 2003. Igneous silicate rocks associated with carbonatites: their diversity, relative abundances and implications for carbonatite genesis. Period. di Mineral. 72, 9 17)]. In the small (? 20 km2) Vuoriyarvi massif, apatite is typically a liquidus phase during the magmatic evolution and so it can be used to test genetic relationships. Trace elements contents have been obtained for both whole rocks and apatite (by LA-ICP-MS). The apatites define a single continuous chemical evolution marked by an increase in REE and Na (belovite-type of substitution, i.e., 2Ca2+ = Na+ + REE3+). This evolution possibly reflects a fractional crystallisation process of a single batch of isotopically homogeneous, mantle-derived magma. The distribution of REE between apatite and their host carbonatite have been estimated from the apatite composition of a carbonatite vein, belonging to the Neskevara conical-ring-like vein system. This carbonatite vein is tentatively interpreted as a melt. So, the calculated distribution coefficients are close to partition coefficients. Rare earth elements are compatible in apatite (D > 1) with a higher compatibility for the middle REE (DSm : 6.1) than for the light (DLa : 4.1) and the heavy (DYb : 1) REE.

Brassinnes, S.; Balaganskaya, E.; Demaiffe, D.

2005-11-01

206

Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

McDonald, G. D.; Paillet, F. L.; Barton, C. C.; Johnson, C. D.

1997-01-01

207

Formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout within weakly cementedsandstones  

SciTech Connect

Breakout (wall failure) of boreholes within the earth can take several forms depending upon physical properties of the surrounding rock and the stress and flow conditions. Three distinctive modes of breakout are (I) extensile breakout observed in brittle rocks (e.g., Haimson and Herrick, 1986), (II) shear breakout in soft and clastic rocks (Zoback et al., 1985), and (III) fracture-like, slot-shaped breakout within highly porous granular rocks (Bessinger et al., 1997; Haimson and Song, 1998). During fluid production and injection within weakly cemented high-porosity rocks, the third type of failure could result in sustained and excessive sand production (disintegration of the rock's granular matrix and debris production). An objective of this research is to investigate the physical conditions that result in the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout, via laboratory experiments. Our laboratory borehole breakout experiment was conducted using synthetic high-porosity sandstone with controlled porosity and strength. Block samples containing a single through-goring borehole were subjected to anisotropic stresses within a specially designed tri-axial loading cell. A series of studies was conducted to examine the impact of (1) stress anisotropy around the borehole, (2) rock strength, and (3) fluid flow rate within the borehole on the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout. The geometry of the breakout was determined after the experiment using X-ray CT. As observed in other studies (Hamison and Song, 1998; Nakagawa and Myer, 2001), flow within a borehole plays a critical role in extending the slot-shaped breakout. The results of our experiments indicated that the width of the breakout was narrower for stronger rock, possibly due to higher resistance to erosion, and the orientation of the breakout plane was better defined for a borehole subjected to stronger stress anisotropy. In most cases, the breakout grew rapidly once the borehole wall started to fail. This 'run-away' failure growth is induced by monotonically increasing stress concentration at the breakout tips, although this effect may be augmented by the finite size of the sample.

Nakagawa, Seiji; Tomutsa, Liviu; Myer, Larry R.

2005-06-10

208

Platinum-group elements (Rh, Pt, Pd) and Au distribution in snow samples from the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 1996 snowpack samples were collected from the surroundings of the ore roasting and dressing plant at Zapoljarnij and the nickel smelters at Nikel and Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. In the laboratory, filter residues of snowpack samples (fraction>0.45 ?m) from 15 localities (close to the nickel processing centres) were chemically for precious metals (Rh, Pt, Pd, Au) and Te by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) analysis, and for Cu and Ni by ICP-MS. Values up to 2770 ng/l Pd, 650 ng/l Pt and 186 ng/l Au were found in the filter residues. Additionally, platinum-group elements (PGE) and Au contents in ore samples from Noril'sk , as well as in technogenic products ("Cu-Ni-feinstein" and copper concentrate) processed at the Monchegorsk smelter complex, were analysed using flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) for comparison with results obtained from snow. Rh, Pt, Pd and Au distribution data show the presence of two ore components (Noril'sk and Pechenga). Concentrations of these metals decrease with distance from the industrial sources and with the prevailing wind direction (generally north-south). Microscopic investigations and electron microprobe analysis of polished sections of snow filter residues (>0.45 ?m) also reveal differences between particles from the two sources. To avoid confusion the term "Noril'sk" is used throughout the paper to denote material and/or data from the Noril'sk area and its sub-district, Noril'sk while Pechenga relates to the local ore.

Gregurek, Dean; Melcher, Frank; Niskavaara, Heikki; Pavlov, Vladimir A.; Reimann, Clemens; Stumpfl, Eugen F.

209

Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, ameliorates ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male wistar rats.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we established that kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each; Group 1 (control) was administered corn oil, group 2 was given 45%v/v ethanol at 3g/kg body weight, group 3 received ethanol and KV (200mg/kg) simultaneously and group 4 received KV alone. All drugs were given daily by oral gavage for 21 consecutive days. Ethanol treatment resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in relative weight of testis of the animals. In the spermatozoa, ethanol intoxication resulted in 54%, 21% and 38% decreases in testicular protein content, sperm motility and count, respectively. In addition, ethanol administration enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) process assessed by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the testis. Precisely, MDA level was increased by 121% in the testis of ethanol-treated rats relative to the control. Furthermore, levels of testicular glutathione and activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in ethanol-treated rats. Histopathology showed extensive degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes in testis of ethanol-treated rats. Interestingly, co-administration of KV with ethanol led to almost complete inhibition of testicular LPO thereby enhancing antioxidant status of the testis. Overall, KV ameliorates ethanol-induced toxic assault on testis and improves seminal qualities of the rats. PMID:23955400

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Arisekola, Muritala

2013-06-30

210

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-02-28

211

The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes  

SciTech Connect

The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

Schenkel, C.J.

1991-05-01

212

Induced seismicity after borehole fluid injections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the temporal distribution of microseismic events induced by borehole fluid injections into reservoirs. We put the focus on seismicity induced after the stop of fluid injections. Here, our main concern is the identification of parameters controlling the decay rate of seismicity after injection stops. The particular importance of a theoretical model for the occurrence of seismicity after stop of injection is underlined by observations after stimulations of geothermal reservoirs at different locations. These stimulations have shown that the post injection phase contains a high seismic risk, which is up to now uncontrollable, because the processes leading to the occurrence of post injection events are not well understood. Based on the assumption that pore pressure diffusion is the governing mechanism leading to the triggering of seismic events, we develop a method to calculate the seismicity rate during and after fluid injections. We show that the obtained solution after injection is very similar to the frequency scaling law of aftershocks, namely the Omori law. We propose a modified Omori law, which describes how post injection seismicity depends on parameters of injection source and reservoir rock and the strength of a pre-existing fracture system in the reservoir. We analyze two end members of fracture strength, representing stable and unstable pre-existing fracture systems. Our results shows, that the decay rate of post injection seismicity is highly dependent on the strength of the fracture system. Furthermore, we show that the existence of an unstable fracture system in a reservoir results in a critical trend of seismic activity, which explains the occurrence of events with the largest magnitude close after the stop of injection. This result coincides with observations made after the stimulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We verify our theoretical model by an application to synthetic data sets resulting from finite element modeling and real data collected in case studies performed at Fenton Hill and Soultz-sous-Foret.

Langenbruch, Cornelius; Shapiro, Serge

2010-05-01

213

The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

2006-12-01

214

Rare gas isotopes and parent trace elements in ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes, Kola Peninsula: identification of lower mantle plume component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Devonian magmatism (370 Ma ago) ˜20 ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes (UACC) were formed in the Kola Peninsula (north-east of the Baltic Shield). In order to understand mantle and crust sources and processes having set these complexes, rare gases were studied in ˜300 rocks and mineral separates from 9 UACC, and concentrations of parent Li, K, U, and Th were measured in ˜70 samples. 4He/ 3He ratios in He released by fusion vary from pure radiogenic values ˜10 8 down to 6 × 10 4. The cosmogenic and extraterrestrial sources as well as the radiogenic production are unable to account for the extremely high abundances of 3He, up to 4 × 10 -9 cc/g, indicating a mantle-derived fluid in the Kola rocks. In some samples helium extracted by crushing shows quite low 4He/ 3He = 3 × 10 4, well below the mean ratio in mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), (8.9 ± 1.0) × 10 4, indicating the contribution of 3He-rich plume component. Magnetites are principal carriers of this component. Trapped 3He is extracted from these minerals at high temperatures 1100°C to 1600°C which may correspond to decrepitation or annealing primary fluid inclusions, whereas radiogenic 4He is manly released at a temperature range of 500°C to 1200°C, probably corresponding to activation of 4He sites degraded by U, Th decay. Similar 4He/ 3He ratios were observed in Oligocene flood basalts from the Ethiopian plume. According to a paleo-plate-tectonic reconstruction, 450 Ma ago the Baltica (including the Kola Peninsula) continent drifted not far from the present-day site of that plume. It appears that both magmatic provinces could relate to one and the same deep-seated mantle source. The neon isotopic compositions confirm the occurrence of a plume component since, within a conventional 20Ne/ 22Ne versus 21Ne/ 22Ne diagram, the regression line for Kola samples is indistinguishable from those typical of plumes, such as Loihi (Hawaii). 20Ne/ 22Ne ratios (up to 12.1) correlate well with 40Ar/ 36Ar ones, allowing to infer a source 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio of about 4000 for the mantle end-member, which is 10 times lower than that of the MORB source end-member. In ( 3He/ 22Ne) PRIM versus ( 4He/ 21Ne) RAD plot the Kola samples are within array established for plume and MORB samples; almost constant production ratio of ( 4He/ 21Ne) RAD ? 2 × 10 7 is translated via this array into ( 3He/ 22Ne) PRIM ˜ 10. The latter value approaches the solar ratio implying the non-fractionated solar-like rare gas pattern in a plume source. The Kola UACC show systematic variations in the respective contributions of in situ-produced radiogenic isotopes and mantle-derived isotopes. Since these complexes were essentially plutonic, we propose that the depth of emplacement exerted a primary control on the retention of both trapped and radiogenic species, which is consistent with geological observations. The available data allow to infer the following sequence of processes for the emplacement and evolution of Kola Devonian UACC: 1) Ascent of the plume from the lower mantle to the subcontinental lithosphere; the plume triggered mantle metasomatism not later than ˜700 to 400 Ma ago. 2) Metasomatism of the lithosphere (beneath the central part of the Kola Peninsula), including enrichment in volatile (e.g., He, Ne) and in incompatible (e.g., U, Th) elements. 3) Multistage intrusions of parental melts, their degassing, and crystallisation differentiation ˜370 Ma ago. 4) Postcrystallisation migration of fluids, including loss of radiogenic and of trapped helium. Based on model compositions of the principle terrestrial reservoirs we estimate the contributions (by mass) of the plume material, the upper mantle material, and the atmosphere (air-saturated groundwater), into the source of parent melt at ˜2%, 97.95%, and ˜0.05%, respectively.

Tolstikhin, I. N.; Kamensky, I. L.; Marty, B.; Nivin, V. A.; Vetrin, V. R.; Balaganskaya, E. G.; Ikorsky, S. V.; Gannibal, M. A.; Weiss, D.; Verhulst, A.; Demaiffe, D.

2002-03-01

215

Effects of use of sloping boreholes on vadose zone monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phillips (1989) introduced an analytical solution for the pressure distribution in the plane perpendicular to a sloping, infinite borehole in an unsaturated medium experiencing steady-state unit-gradient flow. We develop a numerical model to examine deviations from this solution for three-dimensional non-infinite media (e.g. proximal boundaries such as the ground surface). From our solution we develop guidelines for conditions that are amenable to the Phillips solution. Then, we relate the water content distribution to the pressure head distribution. Based on these results, we discuss the spatial distribution of water content in the plane perpendicular to a sloping borehole. We show that, for measurement methods with small sample areas (e.g. TDR), there are optimal angular locations around the borehole to recover the undisturbed water content. We also show that measurement methods with intermediate sample volumes (e.g. neutron probes) may be impacted by flow disruption caused by the sloping borehole. The optimal angular location for point methods and the degree of error for non-point methods vary with the medium properties, the applied flux, and the borehole design.

Hinnell, A. C.; Ferre, T. P.; Warrick, A. W.

2005-12-01

216

Multiscale Investigation of Fracture Permeability Within a Single Borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability controls mass and energy transfer through rocks and soils. Studies conducted in different hydrogeological environments suggest that permeability varies with measurement scale. In many cases this scale effect is evident from the comparison of permeability data obtained from: 1) core to borehole tests and 2) single borehole tests to larger scale pumping tests conducted between multiple boreholes. A pronounced permeability scale effect has been previously observed from the analyses of data from single- and cross-hole pneumatic injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Research Site (ALRS) in central Arizona, USA (Illman and Neuman, 2001; 2003; Vesselinov et al. 2001a-b). Here, I ask the question whether such an effect is seen at the ALRS when one examines permeability data collected at multiple measurement scales (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 20 m) within a single borehole. Results from the multiscale single-hole pneumatic injection tests show that permeability decreases with scale for the 0.5 through 3.0-m scale tests. However, permeability increases with scale when the data are compared against the 20-m scale data, but the increase is considerably lower than what has been previously surmised at the site. I hypothesize that the suppression in the magnitude of scale effect is due to the decreased connectivity of the fracture continuum when tests are conducted within a single borehole at this site.

Illman, W. A.

2003-12-01

217

A regularity-based modeling of oil borehole logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifractional Brownian motions (mBms) are successfully used to describe borehole logs behavior. These local fractal models allow to investigate the depth-evolution of regularity of the logs, quantified by the Hölder exponent (H). In this study, a regularity analysis is carried out on datasets recorded in Algerian oil boreholes located in different geological settings. The obtained regularity profiles show a clear correlation with lithology. Each lithological discontinuity corresponds to a jump in H value. Moreover, for a given borehole, all the regularity logs are significantly correlated and lead to similar lithological segmentations. Therefore, the Hölderian regularity is a robust property which can be used to characterize lithological heterogeneities. However, this study does not draw any relation between the recorded physical property and its estimated regularity degree for all the analyzed logs. Keywords: well logs, regularity, Hölder exponent, multifractional Brownian motion

Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima

2013-04-01

218

Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

Dennis, B.R.

1984-05-01

219

Endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, in rat superior mesenteric arteries.  

PubMed

Previous studies have established the hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of KV in isolated superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive rats. KV (1, 10, 30, 100, 300, 500 and 1,000 microg/ml) concentration-dependently inhibited the contractions induced by phenylephrine (PHE) (10 microM) and KCl (80 mM) in both endothelium-intact (E(max) = 58.3 +/- 1.7% and 51.4 +/- 1.3%, respectively) and -denuded rings (E(max) = 59.3 +/- 5.5% and 64.3 +/- 2.4%, respectively). Furthermore, KV reduced CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free medium containing KCl 60 mM, thus acting as a Ca(2+)-antagonist. In addition, KV inhibited the transient contraction by PHE in Ca(2+)-free medium containing EGTA, suggesting a possible action on the release of intracellular Ca(2+) via the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) pathway. KV is not a specific alpha-adrenoceptor blocker, since it also caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of contractile responses to KCl, suggesting that KV also blocks the L-type Ca(2+)-channel. As a Ca(2+) antagonist, KV (100 microg/ml) potentiates the relaxant effects of nifedipine in denuded rings (E(max) = 97.6 +/- 1.2%; control = 75.1 +/- 3.0%, P<0.05). Also, the vasorelaxation induced by KV was significantly inhibited after pre-treatment of the denuded rings with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) 1 mM, a selective blocker of voltage-dependent K(+) (K(v)) channels and, tetraethylammonium (TEA) 1 mM or charybdotoxin (ChTX) 0.1 microM, non-selective blockers of large and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels. In contrast, neither glibenclamide (10 microM), BaCl2 (1 mM) nor apamin (0.1 microM), blockers of K(ATP), K(IR) and SK(Ca) channels, respectively affected the KV-induced vasorelaxation. In conclusion, our results provide functional evidence that the vasorelaxant effects by KV involve extracellular Ca(2+) influx blockade, inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) release and the opening of K(+) channels sensitive to 4-AP and ChTX with a resultant membrane hyperpolarization/ repolarization. PMID:19377272

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Medeiros, Isac A

2009-02-01

220

Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.  

PubMed

Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus reducing atmospheric C concentration), as well as to select more appropriate species during forestation plan management at least in the north of Iran. PMID:22836390

Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

2012-07-26

221

Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990  

SciTech Connect

The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

1991-01-01

222

Apparatus for generating seismic vibration energy in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

A signal generating apparatus is described for use in fluid-filled boreholes, comprising: a frame for suspension in the borehole; a tube having first and second ends and disposed in the frame a first acoustic energy source mounted in the first end to direct energy to a central point; a second acoustic energy source mounted in the second end to direct energy to the central point; an energy deflector plate disposed at 45 degrees to and along the axis of the tube central point at an equal angle to each means for energizing the first and second acoustic energy sources.

Benzing, W.M.

1986-12-30

223

Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

Caffey, T.W.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geophysical Technology Dept.

1997-08-01

224

Observing ETS Evolution With Borehole Strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviour of along-strike propagation was recognized in the first report of the discovery of Cascadia slow slip [Dragert et al., 2001]. Even with very few and sparsely distributed GPS stations, it could be estimated that the slow slip in 1999 propagated in the northwest direction at ~6 km/day. It was later established that the occurrence of tremor at Cascadia tracks the along-strike propagation of the slips. Recent introduction of Gladwin borehole strainmeters (BSM) as well as the densification of GPS coverage under the Plate Boundary Observatory has enabled more detailed monitoring of the slip migration. In this study we analyze the behaviour of strategically located BSMs in ETS episodes and use the strain records to examine the along-strike migration of prolonged ETS in northern Cascadia. Consistent with the conclusion of a tidal calibration study [Roeloffs, 2010], we found that the BSM areal strains in this area are generally unusable, but the shear strains yield useful information. Although tidal calibration was conducted only for a subset of the BSMs, there appears to be a general correspondence between BSMs that yield good results in the tidal calibration and those that yield clear signals in multiple ETS episodes. BSMs are sensitive to many tectonic and nontectonic processes. Long-term trends caused by time-dependent adjustment of the surrounding formation and seasonal variations caused by surface and subsurface fluid pressure changes may be removed by analysis of long data records in conjunction with supplementary data, such as streamflow, from individual sites. Such corrections reduce uncertainties in the net strain remaining after a slow slip event. When detailed corrections are not feasible or possible, very simple processing of BSM data still provides useful information on the timing of the sudden change due to the slow slip and the sign of that change (increase or decrease). Despite various limitations, the BSM data have improved the characterization of the along-strike propagation of ETS slip. In a case study using the May 2008 ETS, the BSM data show remarkable consistency with GPS time series. The combination of BSM and GPS data reveals a pattern of bi-directional propagation of the slip from its initiation area west of northern Puget Sound. In a simple model, the speed of the northwest propagation varies from 8 km/day, to 2 km/day, and to 15 km/day, but that of the south propagation stays at 6 km/day. The tremors observed for this ETS episode show a similar bi-directional migration pattern and similar changes in northwest migration velocity, but the tremor migration front is slightly ahead of the slip propagation front. Finer details of the tremor migration such as rapid streaks in the dip direction and backward migration in the strike direction cannot be geodetically resolved and therefore must be limited in magnitude and/or areal extent. The results provide guidance for site selection of future BSM installations in this and other subduction zones. Dragert, H., K. Wang, and T. James (2001), Science 292, 1525-1528. Roeloffs (2010), JGR 115, B06405, doi:10.1029/2009JB006407.

Wang, K.; Dragert, H.; Roeloffs, E. A.

2011-12-01

225

Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging

D. Walsh; P. Turner; I. Frid; R. Shelby; E. D. Grunewald; E. Magnuson; J. J. Butler; C. D. Johnson; J. C. Cannia; D. A. Woodward; K. H. Williams

2010-01-01

226

Three-dimensional simulation and inversion of borehole temperatures for reconstructing past climate in complex settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of inversion methods used for inferring past ground surface temperatures (GST) from borehole temperature-depth profiles rely on the assumption that heat flow is in the vertical direction only. This means that accounting for certain effects caused by the local terrain of a borehole is not possible and consequently, many borehole profiles cannot be used with confidence. Here, we

Peter O. Hopcroft; Kerry Gallagher; Christopher C. Pain; Fangxin Fang

2009-01-01

227

The Seafloor Borehole Array Seismic System (SEABASS) and VLF ambient noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Seafloor Borehole Array Seismic System (SEABASS) has been developed to measure the pressure and threedimensional particle velocity of the VLF sound field (2–50 Hz) below the seafloor in the deep ocean. The system consists of four three-component borehole seismometers (with an optional hydrophone). a borehole digitizing unit, and a seafloor control and recording package. The system can be deployed

R. A. Stephen; D. E. Koelsch; H. Berteaux; A. Bocconcelli; S. Bolmer; J. Cretin; N. Etourmy; A. Fabre; R. Goldsborough; M. Gould; S. Kery; J. Laurent; G. Omnes; K. Peal; S. Swift; R. Turpening; C. Zani

1994-01-01

228

Thermal Hydrology Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in

T. Hadgu; B. W. Arnold

2010-01-01

229

Comparison of the thermal performance of double U-pipe borehole heat exchangers measured in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole heat exchanger is a ground heat exchanger devised for the extraction or injection of thermal energy from\\/into the ground. The thermal performance of a borehole heat exchanger can be assessed with a response test. The response test method allows the in situ determination of the thermal conductivity of the ground in the vicinity of a borehole heat exchanger,

D. Pahud; B. Matthey

2001-01-01

230

Sonde with rotatable pad for carrying out logging measurements in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

The sonde comprises a measuring wheel carried by an arm which holds it in contact with the borehole wall and rotates it around the sonde axis so that the measuring wheel follows a helical path on the borehole wall as the sonde is raised in the borehole.

Desbrandes, R.; Norel, G.

1981-09-15

231

Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal  

SciTech Connect

Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

1987-01-01

232

Borehole Sealing Project at the Grimsel Test Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the context of the phase IV (1994–1996) research and development activities at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), Nagra developed, in collaboration with the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Déchets Radioactifs (Andra), an investigation project for the sealing of boreholes drilled from underground. The project had the following goals:

Peter Blümling

2005-01-01

233

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.  

SciTech Connect

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

Brouns, Thomas M.

2007-07-15

234

Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection

U. Schimschal; P. H. Nelson

1991-01-01

235

Evolution of streaming potential near the borehole during drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical approach to the description of dynamics of an electric field near the borehole result? ing from penetration of drilling mud filtrate into the collector under the influence of excessive pressure during drilling is developed. Water based drilling mud containing a solid clay fraction, the most abundant in drilling procedures, is considered. The evolution of hydrophysical properties and electric

I. N. Eltsov; V. V. Shelukhin; M. I. Epov

2011-01-01

236

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

DOEpatents

An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

1999-06-22

237

Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are

Ray Finley; David Zeuch; John Stormont; Jaak Daemen

1994-01-01

238

Geomechanics laboratory characterization of borehole RRL-2 rock core  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of geomechanics laboratory tests were conducted on the basalt core from borehole RRL-2 for the purpose of characterizing the basalt with respect to its physical, mechanical, and thermal properties. The objectives of this testing were to characterize the basalt properties in the area of the proposed shaft and repository site. These rock properties will be used in designing

Sublette

1985-01-01

239

Free Oscillations of the Earth Observed by Closed Borehole Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made observations of pore pressure under undrained condition by an airtight borehole penetrating an artesian, or a confined aquifer in the Atotsu tunnel excavated in the Kamioka Mine, central Japan. We confirmed that the relation between pore pressure change and stress change is a zero-order system for a wide range of frequency and that stress change, strictly speaking

T. Yanagidani; Y. Kano

2007-01-01

240

Apparatus for vibrating a pipe string in a borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for vibrating a drill string having a central axis in a borehole. The apparatus comprising means for generating at a downhole location longitudinally directional vibrations along the central axis of the drill string in response to flow of fluid through the interior of the drill string and a shock absorbing element mounted in the drill

Robert N. Worail; Ivo P. J. M. Stulemeijer

1990-01-01

241

Apparatus for vibrating a pipe string in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for vibrating a drill string having a central axis in a borehole. The apparatus comprising means for generating at a downhole location longitudinally directional vibrations along the central axis of the drill string in response to flow of fluid through the interior of the drill string and a shock absorbing element mounted in the drill string between the apparatus and a drill bit carried by the drill string effective to substantially isolate the drill bit from the vibration induced in the drill string. Also described is a method of feeding a drill string through a mon-vertical section of borehole comprising: generating a downhole location a longitudinally directional vibration along the central axis of the drill string by oscillating a body in a axial direction relative to the drill string in response to flow of fluid through the interior of the drill string. The vibrations preventing frictional sticking of the drill string against the borehole wall; isolating a drill bit at the end of the drill string from the effects of the vibration during drilling operations; and moving the pipe longitudinally in the borehole.

Worrall, R.N.; Stulemeijer, I.P.J.M.

1990-01-02

242

Rotary drilling and borehole coring apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an apparatus and method of coring a borehole drilled with a rotary rig, the coring or sample-taking projectile will return to the barrel or casing irrespective of how far the projectile enters the formation. A collar in the drill string adjacent the bit contains a number of sample-taking devices and means for firing the devices responsive to a remotely

Bannister

1966-01-01

243

Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data  

SciTech Connect

Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

Burkhard, N.R.

1991-09-01

244

In-well hydraulics of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that head losses associated with the application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) can have important and detrimental effects on the use of the instrument for measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K) profiles. Head losses associated with flow through the meter may cause bypass flow around the packer if the well is gravel packed. In any type

Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Nicole A. Foley; Fred J. Molz

1999-01-01

245

Imaging for Borehole Wall by a Cylindrical Linear Phased Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new ultrasonic cylindrical linear phased array (CLPA) transducer is designed and fabricated for the borehole wall imaging in petroleum logging based on the previous theoretical researches. First, the CLPA transducer, which is made up of numbers of the piezoelectric elements distributed on the surface of a cylinder uniformly, is designed and fabricated. By transmitting and receiving acoustic waves with

Bi-Xing Zhang; Fang-Fang Shi; Xian-Mei Wu; Jun-Jie Gong; Cheng-Guang Zhang

2010-01-01

246

New Insights into Crustal Attenuation from Deep Borehole Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teleseismic and regional attenuation studies commonly find that S-waves are more attenuated than P-waves. Four recent studies that have estimated Q as part of the process of determining local earthquake source parameters using data recorded in deep boreholes (800 m to 2500 m), however, find the opposite result for ray paths that sample the seismogenic crust: P-waves are more strongly attenuated than S-waves. The difference in Qs/Qp between the borehole, regional, and teleseismic studies reflects the depth dependence of attenuation in the crust. In this presentation, we summarize attenuation measurements from the SAFOD Pilot Hole in Parkfield, California, the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVEW) in eastern California; the Cajon Pass borehole in southern California; and the Ontake borehole in western Nagano, Japan, and we discuss the implications these measurements have for physical properties of the seismogenic crust. The seismometers in all four boreholes were installed well below the water table in competent basement rock and were used to observe nearby earthquakes with focal depths from 2 to 10 km. At all sites S-waves are less attenuated than P-waves (Qs/Qp = 1.2-2). The ratio Qs/Qp does not vary systematically with the overall degree of attenuation; at Cajon Pass Qp ˜900 and at SAFOD Qp ˜250, yet Qs/Qp = 1.2 in both areas. In the case of Ontake, the only site where frequency dependent attenuation was estimated, Qs/Qp also does not vary with frequency. Furthermore, at all sites, neither Qp nor Qs varies systematically with corner frequency, as it would were Q to have a strong frequency dependence. Because these four boreholes are located in widely varying tectonic and lithologic environments, Qs>Qp may be a common property of the Earth's crust in the 1-10 km depth range. The two boreholes in geothermally active provinces that we have studied have higher Qs/Qp ratios than the other sites (LVEW Qs/Qp ˜2 and western Nagano Qs/Qp ˜1.7 versus Cajon Pass and SAFOD Qs/Qp ˜1.2). Theoretical calculations and laboratory rock mechanics experiments suggest that Qs/Qp reaches a maximum of 2-2.5 when pore spaces are 70-90% saturated (see Winkler and Nur, Geophysics, 1995 V. 47, p.1 for summary). Although it is not clear if these rock-physics observations are applicable to the crust at seismogenic depths, they suggest that pore spaces are not fully saturated. Particularly high Qs/Qp in Long Valley Caldera and Ontake might reflect the presence of a steam phase trapped in pore spaces.

Prejean, S. G.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Imanishi, K.; Ito, H.; Stork, A.

2003-12-01

247

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-05-11

248

Repeat Temperature Measurements in Boreholes may Quantify Climate Forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeat temperature vs. depth measurements acquired during a twenty-seven year period in three boreholes specifically drilled and completed for heat flow measurements provide a record of surface energy flux that may provide a measure of non-solar climate forcing. Because conductive diffusion of the surface temperature into the ground filters short-period temperature changes, using the air temperature record as forcing signal should yield computed temperature vs. depth profiles that agree with the observed profiles. The boreholes are located near the North Dakota- Manitoba border in the center of the North American continent. The terrain is flat and ground cover is grass and seasonal grain crops. The boreholes were drilled in a homogeneous shale (Pierre Shale, Cretaceous) which has a thermal conductivity of 1.2 W m-1K-2. We used time-series of surface air temperatures from an array of automated weather stations operated by the MidWest Regional Climate Center as a proxy for ground surface temperature for the twenty-seven year period during which the boreholes were logged. The initial borehole measurements (1984) were subtracted from each subsequent temperature profile (1995, 2002, 2007, 2009, 2011) for both the observations and the models to yield a record of changes. The results show close agreement between observation and models. The energy flux into the ground was determined to be approximately 40 mW m-2. We then used the daily TOA solar irradiance as a forcing signal (0.3 K per W) and found that solar forcing was only a fraction of the observed change. We propose that the difference between the observed temperature flux and that calculated from solar irradiance may yield a measurement of greenhouse gas forcing.

Gosnold, W.

2012-04-01

249

The PBO Borehole Strainmeter Program: Assessing Strainmeter Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between June 2005 and September 2008 UNAVCO installed 74 borehole strainmeters as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory, the geodetic component of the Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters, with sub- nanostrain sensitivity, were included in the observatory with the purpose of detecting short-lived strain transients along the Western US plate boundary. Less than a year after completion the strainmeter network has already provided a catalogue of plate boundary strain signals such as the recording of three Cascasdia episodic tremor and slip events, several aseismic creep events in Parkfield, California, and strain transients captured during the December 2008 Yellowstone earthquake swarm. PBO borehole sites are multi-instrumented stations, all collect strain, seismic and environmental data while volcanic sites include borehole tiltmeters. Combining the strain, seismic and tilt data with the measurements from over 800 PBO GPS sites provides an unprecedented continuous 3-dimensional record of plate boundary deformation processes. Knowledge of each strainmeter's performance is important, however, in deciding which strainmeters should be included when analyzing strain signals. We assess how well each PBO strainmeter, with at least 1 year of data, performs in three different frequency bands: the seismic, tidal and the long-term band of months to years. The metrics used are: the ability to record seismic shear signals and microseisms, instrument self consistency in measuring areal and shear tidal signals, the difference between observed areal and shear tides and those predicted by earth tide and ocean load models, the magnitude and variation in barometric response with time, the absence of steps in the data, the impact of cultural noise and state of borehole compression. Knowing how each strainmeter performs in these bands will allow a data user to select the best set of strain measurements to work with given the signal frequency they are interested in.

Hodgkinson, K.; Borsa, A.; Gallaher, W.; Gottlieb, M.; Henderson, B.; Jackson, M.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; van Boskirk, L.

2009-05-01

250

Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.  

PubMed

This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage. PMID:19826463

Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

2009-06-01

251

Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).  

PubMed

Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais. PMID:18257127

Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

2007-12-01

252

Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of interfacial seismoelectric effects that appear to be caused by the arrival of the P-wave at the water table located 3 to 14 m below surface. The signals can be observed arriving simultaneously across dipoles located up to 20 m below the water table and are also detected by dipoles located at surface. Polarity reversals are observed 5 to 11 m below the water table at the three sites. These reversals may be explained by our 2 m dipole receivers passing inside a vertical electric dipole produced by seismoelectric conversion, and thereby provide compelling new evidence in support of existing models for the generation of seismoelectric effects at interfaces.

Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

2006-12-01

253

Measuring and interpretation of three-component borehole magnetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of the magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using three fluxgate magnetometers and fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008 and in the Louisville Seamount Trail (IODP Expedition 330) from December 2010 until February 2011, and in several shallower boreholes. With the declination of the magnetic field, the GBM provides additional information compared to conventional tools, which reduces the ambiguity for structural interpretation. The position of ferromagnetic objects in the vicinity of the borehole can be computed with higher accuracy. In the case of drilled-through structures, three-component borehole magnetics allow the computation of the vector of magnetization. Using supplementary susceptibility data, the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vector can be derived, which yields information about the apparent polar wander curve and/or about the structural evolution of the rock units. The NRM vector can further be used to reorient core samples in regions of strong magnetization. The most important aspect in three-component borehole magnetics is the knowledge of the orientation of the probe along the drillhole. With the GBM we use three fibre-optic gyros (FOG), which are aligned orthogonal to each other. These instruments record the turning rate about the three main axes of the probe. The FOGs benefit from a high resolution (< 9 · 10-4 °) and a low drift (< 2 °/h). However, to reach optimal results, extensive data processing and calibration measurements are necessary. Properties to be taken into account are the misalignment, scaling factors and offsets of the fluxgate and FOG triplet, temperature dependent drift of the FOGs, misalignment of the fluxgate and FOG triplet in respect with each other, as well as start and end position of the probe with respect to Earth's reference frame. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth's reference frame North, East and Downwards. Based on the comparison of several logs, the estimated precision is 0.8 ° in azimuthal direction and 0.1 ° in inclination. Additionally, the orientation information provided by the GBM is used to compute the borehole path with a relative accuracy better than 0.35 %.

Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

2012-04-01

254

Comparative in-situ U–Th–Pb geochronology and trace element composition of baddeleyite and low-U zircon from carbonatites of the Palaeozoic Kovdor alkaline–ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widely used geochronometer for dating geological events is the U–Pb isotope system used on zircon crystals. However, in silica-undersaturated ultramafic and alkaline rocks, baddeleyite (ZrO2) is the predominant zirconium mineral. We present the results of 65 U–Th–Pb SIMS (SHRIMP-II) analyses of baddeleyite grains from carbonatite and phoscorite rocks of the Paleozoic Kovdor alkaline–ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. There

N. V. Rodionov; B. V. Belyatsky; A. V. Antonov; I. N. Kapitonov; S. A. Sergeev

255

Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits,\\u000a the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ\\u000a the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma\\u000a mass

L. N. Kogarko; Y. Lahaye; G. P. Brey

2010-01-01

256

The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements.  

PubMed

This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. PMID:19341370

Clemo, Tom; Barrash, Warren; Reboulet, Edward C; Johnson, Timothy C; Leven, Carsten

2009-04-01

257

Coseismic Offsets on PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Real, or Spurious?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed coseismic strain offsets during many significant earthquakes, at all locations in the 74-instrument PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network. The M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 induced the largest offsets thus far, on BSMs located within the San Jacinto fault zone - the "Anza cluster". Here we present analyses of trends in the observed offsets for the Anza cluster, as well as inspection of their inferred borehole lithology. We find that offsets rarely agree with elastic dislocation theory in magnitude and sign, and speculate that they are controlled more by localized geologic constraints than by triggered fault slip, as has been suggested in previous studies (e.g. Linde and Johnson, 1989).

Barbour, A. J.; Agnew, D. C.

2010-12-01

258

The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

Clemo, T.; Barrash, W.; Reboulet, E. C.; Johnson, T. C.; Leven, C.

2009-01-01

259

Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to

H. T. Chang; S. A. Suhler; T. E. Owen

1984-01-01

260

Borehole Strain Measurements on Volcanoes: Insights from Montserrat and Hekla  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Fall 2000 we reported that data from Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters allowed a short term (~20 minutes) warning of an eruption of Hekla, Iceland, in 2000 and showed clear changes before an eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986. In 2002-2003 (CALIPSO program) we installed a small net of strainmeters near Montserrat's Soufriere Hills Volcano, an active andesitic dome building volcano.

A. T. Linde; S. I. Sacks

2010-01-01

261

Heat transfer analysis of boreholes in vertical ground heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ground heat exchanger (GHE) is devised for extraction or injection of thermal energy from\\/into the ground. Bearing strong impact on GHE performance, the borehole thermal resistance is defined by the thermal properties of the construction materials and the arrangement of flow channels of the GHEs. Taking the fluid axial convective heat transfer and thermal “short-circuiting” among U-tube legs into

Heyi Zeng; Nairen Diao; Zhaohong Fang

2003-01-01

262

Seismic borehole tomography - Measurement system and field studies  

SciTech Connect

A system for seismic tomographic measurements is presented, and both hardware and software are described. The system is intended to operate in the distance range 100-1000 m. An explosive source is used to generate signals which are picked up by receivers at the surface and in boreholes. Tomographic results from two field experiments are presented. The first experiment concerns mapping of an ore body in a mine, whereas the second concerns rock quality determination.

Gustavsson, M.; Ivansson, S.; Moren, P.; Pihl, J.

1986-02-01

263

24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

Erik C. Westman

2002-07-01

264

Cross-measure borehole technology for gob gas control  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes work by the US Bureau of Mines and the mining industry to adapt European cross-measure borehole technology for methane drainage to retreat longwall mining in the US. A test in the Upper Kittanning Coalbed demonstrated the capture of 50% of the total CH/sub 4/ generated by the mining operation. A test in the Pittsburgh Coalbed was not so successful.

McCall, F.E.

1984-12-01

265

Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal mining. The three key techniques of the BHCMS, namely, hydraulic lift of jet pump, air lift, and water jet disintegration are discussed and analyzed in this paper based on theoretical analysis and field experiments. Some useful findings have been obtained: (1) The design of jet pump, air lift system, and water jet has to be integrated appropriately in order to improve mining efficiency and coal recovery rate, and to decrease energy consumption. The design of hydraulic lift jet pump must meet the requirement of the minimum floating speed of coal particles. The optimization of nondimensional parameters and prevention of cavitation have to be considered in the design; (2) With regard to selecting the nozzle types of jet pump, center nozzle or annular nozzle can be selected according to the size of the removed particles; (3) Through air-lift and back pressure, the water head can be decreased to improve the lift capacity of jet pump and decrease the power loss. The air lift has great limitation if it is used solely to extract coal, but if it is employed in conjunction with jet pump, the lift capacity of jet pump can be increased greatly; (4) With water jets, the air lift can improve the fragmentation radius and capacity. The main factors that affect the effect of water jet are the submergible status of jet, jet pressure, and flowrate. The ideal jet of the monitor in the borehole hydraulic coal-mining system is a nonsubmergible free jet. Through air lift, the nonsubmergible free jet can be set up in the mining hole.

XIA, Bairu; ZENG, Xiping; MAO, Zhixin

266

Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal

Joshua S. Stein; Geoffrey A. Freeze; Patrick Vane Brady; Peter N. Swift; Robert Paul Rechard; Bill Walter Arnold; Joseph F. Kanney; Stephen J. Bauer

2009-01-01

267

PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Data Products And Metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The borehole strainmeter network within the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 74 tensor strainmeters installed in arrays distributed between southern California and Vancouver Island, Canada. Borehole strainmeters, with nanostrain sensitivity, were included in the Observatory because of their ability to detect short-lived strain transients. In the first year of the operations and maintenance phase of the Observatory, the strainmeter network has recorded aseismic creep events in Parkfield, strain transients associated with ETS events in the Pacific Northwest, earthquake swarm related events in Yellowstone and deformation following the M6.9 August 3rd, 2009 Gulf of California earthquake. PBO has designed a set of metrics that can be used to both assess the overall network performance and assist researchers in deciding which strainmeters to include in the analysis of strain signals. The metrics include; state of borehole compression, number of unexplained data steps, the signal to noise ratio in tidal bands, and ability to record seismic shear. Combined, these metrics can provide an overview as to how well a strainmeter performs across the broad bandwith over which it operates. PBO strain data, plus the seismic and environmental data collected at all strainmeters sites, are archived at the NCEDC and the IRIS DMC and available from the Earthscope Portal. In addition, a processed data set consisting of tide, trend and barometric corrections is generated every ten to fourteen days by the UNAVCO Borehole Strainmeter Analysis Center, New Mexico Tech, Socorro. Information about PBO strainmeters and all other PBO instruments can be found at the UNAVCO PBO web site (http://pboweb.unavco.org).

Henderson, D. B.; Borsa, A. A.; Gallaher, W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Jackson, M. E.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Vanboskirk, E. J.

2009-12-01

268

Borehole Breakouts in Berea Sandstone Reveal a New Fracture Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- Vertical drilling experiments in high-porosity (22% and 25%) Berea sandstone subjected to critical true triaxial far-field stresses, in which ?H (maximum horizontal stress) >?v (vertical stress) >?h (least horizontal stress), revealed a new and non-dilatant failure mechanism that results in thin and very long tabular borehole breakouts that have the appearance of fractures, and which counterintuitively develop orthogonally to ?H. These breakouts are fundamentally different from those induced in crystalline rocks, as well as limestones and medium-porosity Berea sandstone. Breakouts in these rocks are typically dog-eared in shape, a result of dilatant multi-cracking tangential to the hole and subparallel to the maximum far-field horizontal stress ?H, followed by progressive buckling and shearing of detached rock flakes created by the cracks. In the high-porosity sandstone a narrow layer of grains compacted normal to ?H is observed just ahead of the breakout tip. This layer is nearly identical to ``compaction bands'' observed in the field. It is suggested that when a critical tangential stress concentration is reached along the ?h spring line at the borehole wall, grain bonding breaks down and a compaction band is formed normal to ?H. Debonded loose grains are expelled into the borehole, assisted by the circulating drilling fluid. As the breakout tip advances, the stress concentration ahead of it persists or may even increase, extending the compaction band, which in turn leads to breakout lengthening.

Haimson, B. C.

269

Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

1996-03-01

270

Wenchuan Fault Scientific Drilling Borehole No.1---Geophysical Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wenchuan Earthquake (May.12, 2008, M8.0) was located at the Longmenshan Fault, eastern margin of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The main rupture of the great earthquake had been drilled through at the mid of 2009 and the borehole was named as Borehole 1 of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD-1). Geophysical tests and experiments, including logging, vertical seismic profile (VSP) and periodic temperature measurement and etc., have been carried out in WFSD-1. Analysis combined data in geology, seismology, rock mechanism, geochemistry, fluid activity and rheology shows that at the depth of the main fault plane, some of geophysical parameters including seismic velocity decrease, the characteristics of amplitude response, the frequency of seismic waves, borehole temperature and etc. changed significantly. The observation and experiments have helped us to understand more about the physical and chemical process at the depth of the rupture during and after the great earthquakes, which would provide more information about the rupture-and-healing process near the fault plane and about the mechanism of the earthquakes at this fault. Key Words: Wenchuan earthquake; fault plane; geophysical characteristics

Yu, C.; Ma, D.; Li, H.; Yang, W.; Su, D.

2010-12-01

271

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

1999-07-20

272

Seasonal thermoelastic strain and postseismic effects in Parkfield borehole dilatometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strainmeter records in three 176-323 m deep boreholes near Parkfield, CA, are dominated by seasonal fluctuations. We show that a significant part of the seasonal data may result from thermoelastic strain induced by atmospheric temperature variations. We test this hypothesis by computing thermoelastic strain in an elastic half-space covered by a thin unconsolidated layer from atmospheric temperature and comparing the results to the borehole strain records. The strain at depth is produced by the temperature field at the bottom of the unconsolidated layer. The model provides reasonable fits to the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal borehole signals. The two key model parameters, thickness of the unconsolidated layer (˜0.3-1.2 m at the used sites) and wavelength of the temperature field (3 km), are sufficiently plausible to support the physical validity of the model. Two instances with persistent deviations between the trends of the predicted thermoelastic strain and observed records may reflect shallow postseismic effects of M?4 nearby earthquakes.

Ben-Zion, Y.; Allam, A. A.

2013-10-01

273

Quantifying Water Flow And Contaminant Flux In Boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method has been developed for measuring both contaminant and groundwater flux in aquifers. The method uses a sorptive permeable media that is placed either in a borehole or monitoring well to intercept contaminated groundwater and release resident tracers. The material is packed in a permeable sock and inserted into the borehole for a specified period of time. The sock is then removed and subsampled to analyze for tracers and contaminants. By quantifying the fraction of resident tracer lost and the mass of contaminant sorbed, contaminant flux and groundwater flow can be calculated. This approach requires knowledge of the tracer and contaminant partitioning or sorption characteristics with the media and an estimate of the media and aquifer permeability contrast. The method has been laboratory tested using both liquid hydrocarbon and activated carbon as the sorptive media. This method has also been field tested at the Borden research site in Canada. The field tests were conducted in a TCE/PCE plume that resulted from a controlled release of a DNAPL mixture. The contaminant flux is compared with estimates based on multilevel samplers located 1 m down gradient of the fully screened wells used for the borehole flux tests.

Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.; Cho, J.; Rao, S.; Parker, B.; Cherry, J.

2001-12-01

274

Brine resistance of window materials for a Borehole Televiewer tool  

SciTech Connect

The Borehole Televiewer is a data logging tool that was developed to inspect boreholes and evaluate geological formations. Window failures were observed after the manufacturer of the tool replaced the elastomeric windows with windows made from polyimide (Vespel), a plastic material noted for its high thermal stability. In this work, it was demonstrated that while Vespel was quite stable thermally at 250/sup 0/C in an inert environment (argon), stress cracking occurred in the presence of brine at these temperatures over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Somewhat longer exposures to brine (24 hours) at 260/sup 0/C and 20.7 MPa resulted in extensive chemical reversion of polyimides. Acids and amines were detected by infrared analysis. In contrast, the mechanical and chemical properties of Teflon (poly(tetrafluorethylene)) were unaffected after exposure to brine under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, it was recommended that acoustic windows for the Borehole Televiewer be made of Teflon. It was also recommended that the configuration of the window be modified to allow for the tendency of Teflon to flow under stress.

Arnold, C. Jr.

1982-02-01

275

Tsunami Signals Recorded By Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the US National Science Foundation funded Earthscope program, is designed to capture the continuous three-dimensional deformation field across the western United States plate boundary. Installed and maintained by UNAVCO, the observatory currently consists of over 1100 continuous GPS sites, 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters and 75 borehole strainmeters. PBO borehole strainmeters have recorded the arrival of tsunamis generated by the 2009 M8.0 Samoa, 2010 M8.8 Chile and 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquakes on the Pacific coast of North America. In our analysis of the strain data we find the following: the tsunami arrival times recorded by the strainmeters are consistent with those recorded by nearby tide-gauges, the data are of sufficient quality to compare the frequency content of the tidal signal in the days before and after the tsunami and, the strain measurements are comparable with those predicted by theory. In each case the strain measurements can be translated to water height estimates which are within centimeters of those recorded by tide gauges. It is possible that borehole strainmeters could play a role in providing a land-based, continuous, high-rate tsunami measurement system.

Hodgkinson, K.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A.; Henderson, B.; Johnson, W.

2012-04-01

276

Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other as a receiver (Rx) and they were lowered into the holes opposite each other. The Tx was operated in single shot mode, where an electromagnetic pulse was propagated and the time it took to penetrate the soil matrix and be detected by the Rx was measured. To allow for tomographic reconstruction of the vertical roots, a series of vectors were created by raising and lowering the antennas at intervals of 5 cm. Then the antennas were moved to opposite holes and the process was repeated creating 3200 unique travel-paths per tree. Borehole to surface measures were collected in a similar fashion, though the Rx was moved across the soil surface (10 cm interval) and the Tx was manipulated below ground (5 cm interval), generating 2400 unique travel-paths per tree. This is the first report of using borehole radar to study vertical tree roots. Cross-hole tomography provided excellent information on the depth of tree roots, but was less useful for imaging near surface features. Borehole to surface measures provided the best information on the near surface, where the bulk of roots are found (0-0.3 m). Cross-hole and borehole to surface data may be combined to further define vertical roots systems. Analysis of root mass and projected root mass is ongoing.

Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikström, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

2004-12-01

277

Depleted isotopic composition of super-large rare metal deposits from the Kola peninsula (First data on the Sm-Nd- Lu-Hf system)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central part of Kola Peninsula there are two world's largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites ( Khibina and Lovozero massifs). Rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits occur in the second (differentiated complex) and third intrusion ( eudialyte complex) of Lovozero. Our previous investigations, (Kram, Kogarko, 1994) demonstrated, that the mantle source of these world's largest alkaline intrusions exhibit significantly depleted signatures (?Nd +5-+2.5, 87Sr/86Sr- 0.70336-0.70400).It was of great interest to investigate minerals of rare metal ores by laser ablation to assess isotope characteristics also in Lu-Hf system.We investigated ?Nd, 87Sr/86Sr and??Hf of loparite , mozandrite, belovite , pyrochlore , apatite , eudialyte , parakeldishite ,zircon from the second and third complexes and also from pegmatites. Average ?Nd for loparite and mozandrite from second phase of Lovozero is equal to 2.99, 3.1 for the third phase and 2.77 for pegmatites. Loparite from Khibina pegmatite yields 3.03, 87Sr/86Sr was estimated in apatites, loparites ,belovites and pyrochlores. Average 87Sr/86Sr for the second phase of Lovozero -0.70392,0.70364-for the third phase. 87Sr/86Sr from Khibina loparite from pegmatite is very similar-0.70365.? Interestingly that belovite and pyrochlore from some pegmatites?are characterised by high radiogenic strontium-up to 87Sr/86Sr equel 0.71352 .??Hf was investigated mostly in eudialytes. Average value ???Hf in eudialytes of second and third phases of the Lovozero intrusion is 6.5 .Zircons and parakeldishite from pegmatites yeld the same value. The plotting of the obtained data on the mantle correlation diagrams ?Nd - ?Hf , 87Sr/86Sr -?Hf demonstrates that the alkaline rocks and ores of the Lovozero and Khibina rare metal deposits have depleted mantle sources similar to OIB. Alkaline rocks of the Kola peninsula are the most enriched in rare elements, and they were generated due to the partial melting of the depleted material. This is possibly explained by the rapid development of mantle metasomatism, which resulted in the transport of rare elements and alkalis to the zone of magma generation. . The accumulation of 87Sr in late minerals of pegmatites (belovite, pyrochlore) is likely to be related to the significant fractionation of Sr by early minerals (loparite, apatite) and enrichment of residual liquids in Rb. Late mineral in pegmatites-puatovite (CsFe2S3)contain 1.3% Rb.Very fast increase in Rb/Sr ratio in residual melts/fluids may results in the significant growth of radiogenic Sr in late minerals. Referenses Kramm U, Kogarko LN (1994) Nd and Sr isotope signatures of the Khibina and Lovozero agpaitic centres, Kola alkaline province, Russia. Lithos 32: 225-242

Kogarko, L.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G.

2009-04-01

278

Sr and Nd isotope data of apatite, calcite and dolomite as indicators of source, and the relationships of phoscorites and carbonatites from the Kovdor massif, Kola peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed Sr-Nd isotopic study of primary apatite, calcite and dolomite from phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kovdor massif (380 Ma), Kola peninsula, Russia, reveals a complicated evolutionary history. At least six types of phoscorites and five types of carbonatite have been identified from Kovdor by previous investigators based on relative ages and their major and accessory minerals. Isotopic data from apatite define at least two distinct groups of phoscorite and carbonatite. Apatite from the earlier phoscorites and carbonatites (group 1) are characterized by relatively low87Sr/86Sr (0.70330-0.70349) and143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.51230-0.51240) with F=2.01-2.23 wt%, Sr=2185-2975 ppm, Nd=275-660 ppm and Sm=31.7-96.2 ppm. Apatite from the second group has higher87Sr/86Sr (0.70350-0.70363) and143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.51240-0.51247) and higher F (2.63-3.16 wt%), Sr (4790-7500 ppm), Nd (457-1074 ppm) and Sm (68.7-147.6 ppm) contents. This group corresponds to the later phoscorites and carbonatites. One apatite sample from a carbonatite from the earlier group fits into neither of the two groups and is characterized by the highest initial87Sr/86Sr (0.70385) and lowest143Nd/144Nd (0.51229) of any of the apatites. Within both groups initial87Sr/86Sr and143Nd/144Nd ratios show negative correlations. Strontium isotope data from coexisting calcite and dolomite support the findings from the apatite study. The Sr and Nd isotopic similarities between carbonatites and phoscorites indicate a genetic relationship between the two rock types. Wide variations in Sr and Nd isotopic composition within some of the earlier carbonatites indicate several distinct intrusive phases. Oxygen isotopic data from calcite and dolomite (?18O=+7.2 to +7.7‰ SMOW) indicate the absence of any low-temerature secondary processes in phoscorites and carbonatites, and are consistent with a mantle origin for their parental melts. Apatite data from both groups of phoscorite plot in the depleted quadrant of an ?Nd versus ?Sr diagram. Data for the earlier group lie along the Kola Carbonatite Line (KCL) as defined by Kramm (1993) and data from the later group plot above the KCL. The evolution of the phoscorites and carbonatites cannot be explained by simple magmatic differentiation assuming closed system conditions. The Sr-Nd data can best be explained by the mixing of three components. Two of these are similar to the end-members that define the Kola Carbonatite Line and these were involved in the genesis of the early phoscorites and carbonatites. An additional component is needed to explain the isotopic characteristics of the later group. Our study shows that apatite from rocks of different mineralogy and age is ideal for placing constraints on mantle sources and for monitoring the Sr-Nd evolution of carbonatites.

Zaitsev, Anatoly; Bell, Keith

1995-09-01

279

Drilling-induced borehole-wall damage at spent fuel test-climax  

SciTech Connect

Microcracks in a sample of quartz monzonite from the Spent Fuel Test-Climax were measured by means of a scanning electron microscope in order to estimate the background level of damage near the borehole-wall. It appears that the hammer-drilling operation used to create the borehole has caused some microfracturing in a region 10 to 30 mm wide around the borehole. Beyond 30 mm, the level of microfracturing cannot be distinguished from background.

Weed, H.C.; Durham, W.B.

1982-12-01

280

Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically

Bill Walter Arnold; D. J. Clayton; C. G. Herrick; T. Hadgu

2010-01-01

281

Determination of correction factors for borehole natural gamma-ray measurements by Monte Carlo simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra measured in boreholes has to take into account borehole parameters such as the presence of casings and borehole diameter. For large, high-efficiency gamma-ray detectors, such as BGO-based systems, which employ full-spectrum data analysis, corresponding corrections were not previously determined. In a joint project of the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (NGD\\/KVI),

M. Maucec; P. H. G. M. Hendriks; J. Limburg; R. J. de Meijer

2009-01-01

282

Determination of correction factors for borehole natural gamma-ray measurements by Monte Carlo simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of natural ?-ray spectra measured in boreholes has to take into account borehole parameters such as the presence of casings and borehole diameter. For large, high-efficiency ?-ray detectors, such as BGO-based systems, which employ full-spectrum data analysis, corresponding corrections were not previously determined. In a joint project of the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (NGD\\/KVI),

M. Mau?ec; P. H. G. M. Hendriks; J. Limburg; R. J. de Meijer

2009-01-01

283

A numerical investigation of head waves and leaky modes in fluid- filled boreholes.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although synthetic borehole seismograms can be computed for a wide range of borehole conditions, the physical nature of shear and compressional head waves in fluid-filled boreholes is poorly understood. Presents a series of numerical experiments designed to explain the physical mechanisms controlling head-wave propagation in boreholes. These calculations demonstrate the existence of compressional normal modes equivalent to shear normal modes, or pseudo-Rayleigh waves, with sequential cutoff frequencies spaced between the cutoff frequencies for the shear normal modes.-from Authors

Paillet, F. L.; Cheng, C. H.

1986-01-01

284

Drilling and testing specifications for boreholes RRL-10 and RRL-16  

SciTech Connect

Boreholes RRL-10 and RRL-16, along with six existing boreholes (RRL-3, -4, -5, -7, -8, and -9) are required for implementation of the Seismic Surveillance Test Plan (SD-BWI-TP-021). Boreholes RRL-10 and RRL-16 are to provide housing for seismic sensors. In addition, data from chip samples and from geophysical logging will be used to refine the stratigraphy of the suprabasalt sediments. These specifications include details for drilling and testing of boreholes RRL-10 and RRL-16. Details of test specifications for seismic surveillance are in the Seismic Surveillance Test Plan (SD-BWI-TP-021). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Jackson, Z.

1983-08-01

285

Free Oscillations of the Earth Observed by Closed Borehole Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made observations of pore pressure under undrained condition by an airtight borehole penetrating an artesian, or a confined aquifer in the Atotsu tunnel excavated in the Kamioka Mine, central Japan. We confirmed that the relation between pore pressure change and stress change is a zero-order system for a wide range of frequency and that stress change, strictly speaking strain change, induced within the rock mass shared by the skeletal framework of rock and pore fluid. Examining the pore pressure measured using closed borehole wells, we detected free oscillations of the Earth excited by earthquakes such as the 26 December 2004 Mw = 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (epicentral distance ?= 51.1°) and other M7 to 8 events. We made a Fourier analysis of the pore pressure record produced by the earthquakes. We examined (1) whether the closed borehole has sufficient sensitivity to identify free oscillations, and (2) how the closed borehole responds to spheroidal modes and troidal modes. The poroelastic theory predicts that pore pressure should respond only to spheroidal modes since pore pressure change is proportional to volumetric strain change. No pore pressure response is expected from shear strain that is produced by troidal modes. However, it is controversial whether pore pressure responds to shear strain, since phases corresponding S- and Love waves have been usually detected on hydroseismograms. We calculated the spectrum of the 24 hours time windows (86400 points) with shifting the time window by 1 hour from 24 hours before the origin time of the event to 24 hours after that. The spectrum peaks correspond to entire fundamental spheroidal modes were clearly observed. The Q of each mode is calculated by fitting the decay of the amplitude of each peak. The peaks whose eigenfrequencies are less than 1 mHz (0S0, 0S2, 0S3, 0S4, and 0S5) clearly appear 5 hours after the event. On the other hand, no spectrum peak corresponding troidal modes was observed. These results confirm that the poroelastic theory correctly predicts the pore pressure response.

Yanagidani, T.; Kano, Y.

2007-12-01

286

24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

Erik C. Westman

2002-07-01

287

Transport of radon in flowing boreholes at Stripa, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granitic rock in an underground experimental waste storage site at Stripa, Sweden, is unusually high in natural radioelements (˜40 ppm uranium), with higher concentrations occurring locally in thin chloritic zones and fractures. Consequently, groundwater seeping through fractures into open boreholes is highly anomalous in its radon content, with activity as high as 1 ?Ci/1. When total count gamma-ray logs are run in boreholes where groundwater inflow is appreciable, the result is quite unusual: the radon daughter activity in the water adds considerably to the gamma contribution from the rock, and in fact often dominates the log. The total gamma activity increases where radon-charged groundwater enters a borehole and decays as the water flows along the hole in response to the hydraulic gradient. As a consequence the gamma log serves as a flow profile, locating zones of water entry (or loss) by an increase (or decrease) in the total gamma activity. If mixing within the borehole does not occur, the activity decreases exponentially along the hole away from the entry point because of the steady decay of radon and its daughter products as they migrate with the flow in the water column.This spatial decay rate can be converted to a linear flow rate since the 3.8-day half-life of radon governs the response time. For example, if the volumetric flow rate in a 76-mm hole falls within the range 0.5-50 liters per day and if observations are available from a 10-m length of hole, then the flow rate can be measured quantitatively. Proportionately higher rates can be measured if longer hole lengths are available for observation. A model for flow through a thin crack emanating radon at a rate E shows that the radon concentration of water entering a hole is E/?h, where ? is the radon decay rate and h the crack aperture, assuming that the flow rate and crack source area are such that an element of water resides within the source area for several radon half-lives or more. Using this simple relationship, independent measurements of emanation and concentration produce reasonable estimates of fracture aperture. Although uranium concentration values at Stripa are unusually high, neither the emanation coefficients nor the fracture properties appear to be unusual for granitic rock. It therefore seems likely that many granitic sites must exist where the radon content in groundwater is higher than in other geological terranes, although perhaps not as high as the microcurie per liter concentrations found at the Stripa site.

Nelson, P. H.; Rachiele, R.; Smith, A.

1983-03-01

288

Composition and method for effecting seals in earth boreholes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well servicing fluid consisting essentially of salt-free water, from about 2 to about 4 lbs. per gallon of bentonite, and from about 0.1% to about 1.5% by weight of a water dispersible polymer selected from the class consisting of polyacrylamide, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and mixtures thereof. The polymer is of a type which inhibits swelling of the clay for a period of time sufficient to permit emplacement of the servicing fluid at a predetermined location in a borehole.

Mason, C.E.; Geffen, S.E.

1986-02-04

289

24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

Erik C. Westman

2003-01-01

290

24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

Erik C. Westman

2003-06-01

291

24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

Erik C. Westman

2002-08-01

292

An overview of CORK borehole observatory microbiology experimentation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As CORK borehole observatories evolve in sophistication for measuring subseafloor hydrogeological conditions, they have also been co-opted and redesigned for investigating the microbiology of the subsurface. These observatories are critical for accessing the crustal subsurface, one of the largest habitats for life on Earth. We will provide an overview of the development of novel colonization devices and experimental techniques designed to study the form and function of the crustal deep biosphere, focusing on work conducted on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (warm and anoxic) and at the mid-Atlantic ridge system (cool and oxic).

Orcutt, B. N.; Edwards, K. J.; Haddad, A.; Wheat, C. G.

2011-12-01

293

Dual laterolog borehole correction based on dynamic tool constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The positive and negative difference of deep and shallow resisitivity in formation without invasion is caused mainly by the fixed two tool constants from numerical simulations. A dynamic calibration method for tool constants is proposed based on the effects of the mud and formation resisitivity ratio on the two constants calculated using the finite element method (FEM). Finally, four specific examples are given to validate the dynamic calibration method. It is an automatic borehole correction method and can give more accurate formation resistivity. The method is useful for dual laterolog logging.

Wang, Xin; Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiu-Ming

2012-12-01

294

24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for orienting the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) do not have the same orientation, the data will be essentially worthless. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

Erik C. Westman

2002-07-01

295

Global lightning formation at a minimum and maximum of solar activity according to the observations of the Schumann resonance on the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the two-component measurements of the atmospheric noise electromagnetic field on the Kola Peninsula, a change in the first Schumann resonance (SR-1) as an indicator of global lightning formation is studied depending on the level of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). It is found that the effect of GCRs is most evident during five months: in January and from September to December; in this case the SR-1 intensity in 2001 was higher than the level of 2007 by a factor of 1.5 and more. This effect almost disappears when the regime of the Northern Hemisphere changes into the summer regime. It is assumed that an increase in the GCR intensity results in an increase in the lightning occurrence frequency; however, the probability that the power of each lightning stroke decreases owing to an early disruption of the charge separation and accumulation processes in a thundercloud increases; on the contrary, a decrease in the GCR intensity decreases lightning stroke occurrence frequency and simultaneously increases the probability of accumulating a higher energy by a thundercloud and increasing the lightning power to the maximum possible values.

Beloglazov, M. I.; Akhmetov, O. I.

2010-12-01

296

Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone.  

PubMed

The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products. PMID:15291494

Rababah, Taha M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny

2004-08-11

297

Parameter telemetering from the bottom of a deep borehole  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for pumping a liquid from a borehold in the earth. The apparatus includes at least a string of tubing from the surface to a selected depth in the borehole, electric motor means and pump means supported at the bottom end of the tubing, and alternating current electrical power supply means at the surface, of a first selected frequency and a multiple conductor cable that is subject to varying resistance or insulation leakage. The cable connects to the power supply means at the surface end, and to the motor means at the bottom end of the cable. The apparatus comprises: (a) means at the surface for generating an intermediate frequency signal; (b) electrical coupling means at the surface for connecting the intermediate frequency signal between at least one conductor in the cable and ground; and (c) downhole instrument package means positioned in the borehole and connected to the at least one conductor and ground, the downhole instrument package means including.

Farque, C.A.

1986-10-28

298

Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989  

SciTech Connect

In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

1990-03-01

299

High resolution temperature measurements in the borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the frame of the International Continental Deep Drilling Program (ICDP) and as a part of the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), high resolution temperature measurements were performed in the borehole Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1). The temperature was logged to the depth of 858 m seven times between March 6-19, 2002, starting 10 days after the hole was shut in and mud circulation ceased. Successive logs revealed only small temperature variations in time and space, indicating a fast temperature recovery to almost undisturbed conditions prior to the first log. From these logs, a mean temperature gradient of ~37 mK/m was determined below the uppermost 250 m. Another temperature log was recorded on May 24, 2003 (15 months after the shut in) to a depth of 895 m. The obtained temperature profile is very similar to the 2002 profile, with an insignificantly higher mean gradient below 250 m that may indicate a long-term return to the pre-drilling temperature. The temperature in the uppermost part of the hole bears signs of considerable influence of a convective contribution to the vertical thermal heat transfer. The depth extent of the convection seems to have deepened from 150 m in March 2002 to 230 m in May 2003. Based on the observed temperature gradient and the rock types encountered in the borehole above 670 m, the conducted heat flow is expected to be in the range 65-80 mW/m2.

Wilhelm, H.; Heidinger, P.; Afanda, J.; Èermák, V.; Burkhardt, H.; Popov, Yu.

2004-06-01

300

New casing and backfill design for neutron logging access boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to enhance the usefulness of neutron logging for environmental applications, a new combination of backfill and casing materials for access boreholes has been developed. The combination of acrylic casing and polyurethane foam backfill has been tested under laboratory and field conditions. Acrylic casing does not significantly attenuate fluxes of either high energy or thermal neutrons, in contrast with polyvinyl chloride casing which reduces the thermal neutron flux by more than 40% due to neutron absorption by chlorine. Polyurethane foam, which is inert, hydrophobic, and insoluble in water, adheres well to both dry and wetted soils, sediments, and rocks. It can be formed in situ at a low, but controllable, bulk density. At a bulk density of 0.08 g cm{sup {minus}3}, and in combination with acrylic casing, polyurethane foam increases the thermal neutron count by less than 5% in a saturated sand, relative to background. In addition to its small effect on the neutron flux, polyurethane foam, unlike bentonite or cement, does not affect the moisture content of the surrounding formation during installation. Furthermore, because it is a closed-cell foam, its moisture content does not change under varying formation moisture conditions. As was shown in related field tests, polyurethane foam is especially well suited for backfilling boreholes in fractured rocks because of its fast set time which minimizes penetration into fractures. The design proved to be convenient and durable under rugged field conditions.

Zawislanski, P.T.; Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1999-01-01

301

New casing and backfill design for neutron logging access boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to enhance the usefulness of neutron logging for environmental applications, a new combination of backfill and casing materials for access boreholes has been developed. The combination of acrylic casing and polyurethane foam backfill has been tested under laboratory and field conditions. Acrylic casing does not significantly attenuate fluxes of either high energy or thermal neutrons, in contrast with polyvinyl chloride casing which reduces the thermal neutron flux by more than 40 percent due to neutron absorption by chlorine, Polyurethane foam, which is inert, hydrophobic, and insoluble in water, adheres well to both dry and wetted soils, sediments, and rocks. It can be formed in situ at a low but controllable, bulk density. At a bulk density of 0.08 g cm(-3), and in combination with acrylic casing, polyurethane foam increases the thermal neutron count by less than 5 percent in a saturated sand, relative to background. In addition to its small effect on the neutron flux, polyurethane foam, unlike bentonite or cement, does not affect the moisture content of the surrounding formation during installation. Furthermore, because it is a closed-cell foam, its moisture content does not change under varying formation moisture conditions. As was shown in related field tests, polyurethane foam is especially well suited for backfilling boreholes in fractured rocks because of its fast set time which minimizes penetration into fractures. The design proved to be convenient and durable under rugged field conditions.

Zawislanski, Peter T.; Faybishenko, Boris

1998-12-01

302

Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Parra, Jorge O. (Helotes, TX)

1992-01-01

303

Multi-barrier borehole canister designs for a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

Initial dimensions are presented for proposed multi-barrier spent fuel borehole canisters using coated shells combined with sacrificial anodes and alkaline, oxide barriers to adjust potential and pH of the exterior shell into thermodynamically passive or immune regions of the Pourbaix diagram. Configuration of the 3 PWR canister is similar to the 1983 Site Characterization Project (SCP) borehole design. Canister dimensions were determined by using material performance data to calculate wall thickness, criticality, and sacrificial anode life. For the 3-PWR canister. Incoloy 825 is the preferred exterior canister shell material; copper-nickel alloy CDA 715 is the preferred interior canister shell material. High-lime concrete or alumina is preferred for the alkaline filler. Magnesium alloy is the preferred sacrificial anode material. Coating the canister exterior would be necessary to reduce corrosion current density to the point where a 10,000 year design life is possible. A 1 PWR canister has lower mass, thinner walls and lower criticality than the 3 PWR design. Equilibrium calculations for the historical average composition of J-13 water using the aquatic chemical speciation program WQ4F show positive saturation indices for several minerals, indicating potential for deposition on the canister exterior over long time periods. Uniform deposition could reduce corrosion rate by hindering transport of corrosion products from the canister surface. If deposition is non-uniform, local corrosion could increase through development of differential oxygen concentration cells.

James, D.E.; Skaggs, R.L.; Mohansingh, S.

1994-05-01

304

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

1999-03-22

305

Subsurface thermal effects of deforestation and borehole climatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land surface conditions such as deforestation or forest fires modify the energy balance at the ground surface. Such energy imbalances appear as subsurface transient thermal signals superimposed on the climatic signal and the steady state geothermal field. Removal of the forest canopy increases the solar radiation reaching the ground surface. The associated increase in albedo is compensated by a decrease in evapotranspiration and the ground gains energy causing the surface temperature to increase. In the context of the ground surface energy balance and the thermal regime of the subsurface, the forest floor organic matter layer acts as a thermal insulator and moisture-retaining layer covering the ground. The integrated transient thermal signals caused by the rearrangement of the energy budget at the air-ground interface and by the variation of forest floor organic matter layer after deforestation are propagated and recorded in the subsurface. In this study, we examine the effects of deforestation on borehole temperature data by applying a first-order correction method to the subsurface data. We simulate the ground surface temperature variation following deforestation using a combined power and exponential function, based on data obtained from a chronosequence study of the evolution of forest floor organic matter mass. We show that the effects of deforestation on the subsurface temperatures, though important, are much smaller than previously thought. The application of this correction to the borehole temperature data from areas affected by land use changes may allow their incorporation into climatological studies.

Nitoiu, D.; Beltrami, H.

2004-12-01

306

Derivative analysis for layer selection of geophysical borehole logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of geophysical borehole data can often be hampered by too much information and noise in the trace leading to subjective interpretation of layer boundaries. Wavelet analysis of borehole data has provided an effective way of mitigating noise and delineating relevant boundaries. We extend wavelet analysis by providing a complete set of code and functions that will objectively block a geophysical trace based on a derivative operator algorithm that searches for inflection points in the bore log. Layer boundaries detected from the operator output are traced back to a zero-width operator so that boundaries are consistently and objectively detected. Layers are then classified based on importance and analysis is completed by selecting either total number of layers, a portion of the total number of layers, selection of minimum layer thickness, or layers detected by a specified minimum operator width. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the layer blocking technique by applying it to a case study for alluvial aquifer detection in the Gascoyne River area of Western Australia.

Davis, Aaron C.; Christensen, Niels B.

2013-10-01

307

Evidence of Recent Warming in Polar Latitudes from Borehole Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polar regions have been warming significantly for the last 50 years, and not only near the coast. We present here two borehole temperature records: one from WAIS Divide (79°S, 112°W) in the center of West Antarctica, and one from NEEM in North Greenland (77°N, 51°W). Both of these sites have a mean annual temperature of -29°C. Borehole temperature records allow us to put modern measurement in the context of a longer time series. At WAIS Divide, the 300m record takes us back 500 years, before the “Little Ice Age” minimum. The recent part of the record is in complete agreement with climate field reconstructions based on automatic weather station and satellite data, showing that WAIS Divide has warmed by more than 1°C since 1958. At NEEM, there is a 1°C temperature gradient in the firn between 20 and 80m, compared to 0.2°C at WAIS. This is evidence for an even faster rate of warming in recent decades. Significant warming inland is a concern for the stability of the ice sheets and eventually sea level rise.

Orsi, A. J.; Severinghaus, J. P.

2010-12-01

308

Field Test of Hydraulic Borehole Mining Systems in Shallow Uranium Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a program demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of uraniferous sandstone. A high-pressure cutting jet and a slurry jet pump make up the borehole mining tool, which is lowered ...

W. R. Archibald

1978-01-01

309

Borehole geophysical techniques to define stratigraphy, alteration and aquifers in basalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the interpretation of borehole geophysical data from basalt sequences, especially continental basalt sequences that host aquifers. Based on modifications of the rules used for interpreting borehole data from sedimentary rocks, new rules are proposed to identify the internal stratigraphy, aquifer boundaries, and alteration features in continental basalts.The value of several wireline tools is critiqued. Natural gamma logs

Catherine M Helm-Clark; David W Rodgers; Richard P Smith

2004-01-01

310

Research of Dust Control Technology of Coal Seam Infusion with Long Borehole Adding Infiltration Stick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal seam infusion technology is an effective measure for coal dust control on working face. At present in China, long borehole water injection technology is widely used. But due to the limited conditions, it has not-ideal effect with pure water. Under the premise of long borehole coal seam infusion technology, the experiment was carried out in the 15101 working face

Zhi-an Huang; Ying-hua Zhang; Jian-hua Gong; Li-ming Jiang; Meng-yu Huang

2011-01-01

311

Pulsed neutron-log applications in California - improved capability via borehole decay correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, pulsed neutron logs were distorted by fresh water in California oil reservoirs. A new pulsed neutron tool, the TMD, was introduced several years ago. A two-decay-component method is used to calculate the formation capture cross section (sigma). Log examples in California show that fresh water causes low formation sigma values. Large, fresh boreholes also exhibit low borehole

1986-01-01

312

Process for producing energy from water flowing down a borehole and recovery same  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a system for producing energy from water flow. It comprises: providing a vertical borehole of sufficient depth to convert liquid water to steam through geothermal energy as the water travels theredown; positioning an internal feed pipe into the borehole; providing an air turbine on the upper end of the feed pipe to allow air flowing into the

Daly

1992-01-01

313

Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

1998-09-25

314

COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance

Angela Colarusso; Bruce Crowe; John R. Cochran

2003-01-01

315

Surface and borehole electromagnetic imaging of conducting contaminant plumes. 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The source field is a magnetic field generated by currents in wire coils. This source field is normally produced in one borehole, while the received signals are the measured small changes in magnetic field in another, distant borehole; however, the method may also be

Berryman

1998-01-01

316

Completion of the PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Network Results and Review of Processing Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

By October 2008 the NSF funded geodetic component of Earthscope, the Plate Boundary Observatory will be complete. As of September 2008 the strainmeter network within PBO consists of 70 co-located borehole strainmeters and seismometers, with borehole tiltmeters included at volcanic sites. The instruments are installed in arrays from Vancouver Island, Canada, to Anza in southern California. The network provides an

K. Hodgkinson; A. Borsa; T. Dittmann; W. Gallaher; M. Gottlieb; B. Henderson; M. Jackson; W. Johnson; D. Mencin; J. Smith

2008-01-01

317

A Mechanical Model of Borehole Stability for Weak Plane Formation Under Porous Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on influence of porous flow on weak plane model, the authors established a mechanical model of borehole stability for weak plane formation under porous flow and analyzed effect of weak plane on borehole stability under porous flow. The results indicated that porous flow decreased strength of weak plane, enlarged the affecting domains of weak plane for rock mass strength,

Y. H. Lu; M. Chen; Y. Jin; G. Q. Zhang

2012-01-01

318

Method for determining borehole stress from MWD parameter and caliper measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for determining stress at the borehole boundary at a selected location within a borehole, comprising: measuring while drilling at the location a first parameter including the penetration rate or the torque-on-bit of a drill string under conditions from which the rock strength properties of the formation at the location are determinable from the first parameter; measuring

Fontenot

1986-01-01

319

Reduction of the frictional coefficient in a borehole by the use of vibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deviated borehole is drilled with a rotary drilling technique in which the drill string is vibrated at a suitable frequency and amplitude to reduce the friction of the drill string against the lower side of the borehole and to promote the free movement of the drill string therein.

T. B. Dellinger; W. F. Roper

1983-01-01

320

Backfilling of cavities produced in borehole mining operations. Open file report (final) July 1978June 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a program to develop backfilling techniques to mitigate undesirable effects of hydraulic borehole uranium mining. To prevent ground subsidence and to allow mining of adjacent uraniferous sandstone, large underground cavities, formed during the borehole mining process can be backfilled. Three techniques that were tested in the laboratory and the field with sand, and with

M. H. Marvin; G. S. Knoke; W. R. Archibald

1979-01-01

321

Influence of leaky boreholes on cross-formational groundwater flow and contaminant transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned and improperly sealed boreholes, monitoring wells, and water supply wells are common features at many contaminated sites. These features can act as conduits that transmit contaminants between aquifers separated by otherwise continuous aquitards. In this work the leaky boreholes are represented as highly conductive one-dimensional line elements superimposed onto a mesh of three-dimensional finite elements representing the porous medium.

S. Lacombe; E. A. Sudicky; S. K. Frape; A. J. A. Unger

1995-01-01

322

2. LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOENVIRONMENTS OF THE ISLAND BEACH BOREHOLE, NEW JERSEY COASTAL PLAIN DRILLING PROJECT1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present lithostratigraphic and paleoenvironmental interpretations of the Island Beach borehole. This borehole provides the only Upper Cretaceous to lower Eocene section recovered by the New Jersey Coastal Plain Drilling Project (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 150X). Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene sections were deposited in relatively deep marine paleoenvironments (typically outer middle to outer neritic; 50 -200 m paleowater depths) as

James P. Owens; Kenneth G. Miller; Peter J. Sugarman

323

Simulation of borehole acoustic measurements in axisymmetric media with hp-adaptive finite elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The numerical simulation of borehole acoustic measurements is of great relevance to improving the efficacy of acoustic logging tech- niques and to computationally estimating elastic formation properties. Such simulations require sound physical modeling combined with ac- curate and efficient numerical discretization and solution techniques. Our objective is to concomitantly model acoustic wave propagation in a fluid-filled borehole, elastic wave

Christian Michler; Leszek Demkowicz; Carlos Torres-Verdi?n

2007-01-01

324

FRACTURE-DISTRIBUTION MODELING IN ROCK MASS USING BOREHOLE DATA AND GEOSTATISTICAL SIMULAT ION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding spatial distribution of rock fractures is significant to various fields in geosciences. It is, however, difficult to obtain a realistic fracture model because the amount of fracture data is small and their locations are strongly biased in a study area. Data are usually taken by borehole investigations and then, spatial correlation structures of fractures among boreholes with different directions

Katsuaki Koike; Kazuya Komorida; Yuichi Ichikawa

325

Geostatistical Simulation of Three-dimensional Fracture Network Conditioned on Borehole Fracture Frequency Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a geostatistical method for modeling three-dimensional discrete fracture network (DFN) in a crystalline rock with depth-dependent degree of fracturing. Fracture traces observed in boreholes as well as from surface outcrops are used for deriving statistical properties of fracture parameters (attitude, length, aperture, and spacing). Noticeably, fracture frequency calculated from borehole data shows a spatial correlation structure. This

S. Huang; T. Liou

2008-01-01

326

A fully polarimetric borehole radar based numerical modelling: Fully polarimetric response to synthetic fractures and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully polarimetric borehole radar system with four combinations of dipole and cylindrical slot antennas was developed to acquire fully polarimetric data sets in drilled boreholes. To better under the fully polarimetric response to subsurface fractures with different roughness, in this study, synthetic fractures with different roughness are generated on a computer via fractal theory based simulation techniques. Quantitative assessment

J. G. Zhao; M. Sato

2010-01-01

327

Immobilized low-activity waste site borehole 299-E17-21  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is the group at the Hanford Site responsible for the safe underground storage of liquid waste from previous Hanford Site operations, the storage and disposal of immobilized tank waste, and closure of underground tanks. The current plan is to dispose of immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) in new facilities in the southcentral part of 200-East Area and in four existing vaults along the east side of 200-East Area. Boreholes 299-E17-21, B8501, and B8502 were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site in support of the Performance Assessment activities for the disposal options. This report summarizes the initial geologic findings, field tests conducted on those boreholes, and ongoing studies. One deep (480 feet) borehole and two shallow (50 feet) boreholes were drilled at the southwest corner of the ILAW site. The primary factor dictating the location of the boreholes was their characterization function with respect to developing the geohydrologic model for the site and satisfying associated Data Quality Objectives. The deep borehole was drilled to characterize subsurface conditions beneath the ILAW site, and two shallow boreholes were drilled to support an ongoing environmental tracer study. The tracer study will supply information to the Performance Assessment. All the boreholes provide data on the vadose zone and saturated zone in a previously uncharacterized area.

Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.; Horton, D.G.

1998-08-01

328

Climate Change in the Urals, Russia, Inferred from Borehole Temperature Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole temperatures in the central and south Urals were analysed for the past ground surface temperature (GST) signal. 31 highquality temperature logs were selected for this purpose and inverted with algorithms based on the generalised least squares theory. The signal to noise ratio was improved by averaging the results of individual borehole inversions. No distinct regional trends were found in

Petr Štulc; Inessa V. Golovanova; G. V. Selezniova

1997-01-01

329

Visualization of hydraulic connections using Borehole Array around LPG Underground Storage Cavern  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic approach to visualize the hydraulic connections within the fractured rock mass around the underground LPG storage caverns using array of water injection boreholes. By taking advantage that water injection boreholes are located so as to cover the storage caverns, a complete sketch of hydraulic conditions around the caverns, such as locations of water conducting fractures,

M. Shimo; H. Mashimo; T. Maejima; K. Aoki

2006-01-01

330

Geochemistry of Samples from Borehole C3177(299-E24-21)  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of geochemical and physical property analyses of twelve samples from the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) borehole #2. The borehole is in the middle of the 200 East Area, at the northeast corner of the ILAW disposal site.

Horton, Duane G.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Parker, Kent E.

2003-05-28

331

Climate change on the Colorado Plateau of eastern Utah inferred from borehole temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature profiles from boreholes on the Colorado Plateau of southeastern Utah have been examined for evidence of climate change. Because these boreholes penetrate layered sedimentary rocks with different thermal conductivities, Bullard plots (temperature versus integrated thermal resistance) are used to estimate background heat flow and surface temperature intercepts. Reduced temperatures, which represent departures from a constant heat flow condition, are

Robert N. Harris; David S. Chapman

1995-01-01

332

Seismoelectric Conversion Wave Propagation in a Fluid-Filled Borehole and Numerical Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical borehole model is established to explore the potential application of seismoelectric conversion in well logging. The responses of the borehole fluid, well logging tool and the formation are all considered. The acoustic wave equation, seismoelectric coupling wave governing equation and the electromagnetic wave equation have been solved with the potential function methods in the axial-symmetrical column coordinates system.

Zhang Yuan Zhong; Xiao Li Zhi

2006-01-01

333

Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole  

DOEpatents

In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

2013-10-08

334

Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole...

2005-01-01

335

Borehole Geologic Data for the 216-Z Crib Facilities, A Status of Data Assembled through the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assembling existing borehole geologic information to aid in determining the distribution and potential movement of contaminants released to the environment and to aid selection of remedial alternatives. This information is being assembled via the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS), which is being developed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, managed by PNNL, and the Remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this particular study was to assemble the existing borehole geologic data pertaining to sediments underlying the 216-Z Crib Facilities and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Closure Zone. The primary objective for Fiscal Year 2006 was to assemble the data, complete log plots, and interpret the location of major geologic contacts for each major borehole in and around the primary disposal facilities that received carbon tetrachloride. To date, 154 boreholes located within or immediately adjacent to 19 of the 216-Z crib facilities have been incorporated into HBGIS. Borehole geologic information for the remaining three Z-crib facilities is either lacking (e.g. 216-Z-13, -14, and -15), or has been identified as a lesser priority to be incorporated at a later date.

Last, George V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.

2006-09-25

336

Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

2011-01-01

337

Low-frequency radiation from point sources in a fluid-filled borehole.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Far-field displacement fields have been derived for an impulsive point force acting on a fluid-filled borehole wall under the assumption that the borehole diameter is small compared to the wavelength involved. The displacements due to an arbitrary source can be computed easily by combining the solutions for the impulsive sources. In general, the borehole source generates not only longitudinal and vertically polarized shear waves, but also horizontally polarized shear waves. This study also indicates that only the axisymmetric motion around the borehole due to normal stress is affected by the fluid in the borehole. In the long-wavelength limit, the presence of the fluid does not affect the radiation from tangential sources into the surrounding medium. -Author

Lee, M. W.

1986-01-01

338

Constraining in situ stress tensor in the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai, based on borehole wall failure analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report analysis results on the in situ stress field in the Kumano forearc basin sites, Nankai subduction zone. Two vertical boreholes drilled during the first stage of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment exhibit distinct features of borehole wall failures represented by borehole breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures (DITF). The azimuths of both rock failures indicate directions of far-field

C. Chang; W. Lin; L. C. McNeill; J. C. Moore; M. Conin

2009-01-01

339

Borehole-to-tunnel seismic measurements for monitoring radioactive waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Countries worldwide are seeking solutions for the permanent removal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) from the environment. A critical aspect of the disposal process is the need to be confident that the deposited waste is safely isolated from the biosphere. Seismic monitoring represents a potentially powerful option for non-intrusive monitoring. We conducted a series of seismic experiments in the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory, where a 1-m-diameter microtunnel simulates a HLRW repository downsized by a factor of ~2.5. The host rock at the laboratory is Opalinus clay. We had access to two water-filled boreholes, each approximately 25 m long (diameter 85 mm), with one inclined upwards and the other downwards. Both were oriented perpendicular to the microtunnel axis. Seismic signals were generated in the down-dipping borehole with a high frequency P-wave sparker source every 25 cm and received every 25 cm in the upward-dipping borehole on a multi-channel hydrophone chain. Additionally, the seismic waves were recorded on eight (100 Hz natural frequency) vertical-component geophones, mounted and distributed around the circumference of the microtunnel wall within the plane of the boreholes. The experiment was repeated with different material filling the microtunnel and under different physical conditions. So far, six experiments have been performed when the microtunnel was: a. air-filled with a dry excavation damage zone (EDZ), b. dry sand-filled with a dry EDZ, c. 50 % water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (experiments were conducted immediately after half water-saturation), d. water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (immediately after full water-saturation), e. water-saturated sand-filled with water-saturated EDZ (water was in the microtunnel for about 9.5 months), and f. water-saturated sand-filled and pressurized to 6 bars with water-saturated EDZ. The results of our seismic experiments yield several important conclusions. 1) Travel time inversion of cross-hole data is not able to detect the microtunnel. This is due to the small size and central location of the microtunnel. Consequently, waveform inversions need to be performed. 2) The geophone recordings around the periphery of the tunnel are strongly affected by changes within the microtunnel. For example, between the individual experiments there are changes in the polarity of the first arriving waves for some of the geophones. This is because the recorded wavefield is a superposition of two waves. One wave passes directly through the microtunnel and is, therefore, influenced by the fill material. The other wave is diffracted around the microtunnel and is thus influenced primarily by the EDZ. The first wave to arrive depends on the geophone location (top, bottom, side of tunnel) as well as the state of the microtunnel and its EDZ. 3) Water infiltration changes the elastic properties of the microtunnel very rapidly. Repeated shots within 30-40 minutes intervals show significant waveform changes for some of the geophones during experiments (c) and (d). 4) Water infiltration changes the coupling conditions of the geophones significantly. For experiment (d), the frequency content on some geophone traces decreases significantly, and there is a remarkable increase of higher frequencies for experiments (e) and (f). This is due to the clay-water interaction, which first weakens the clay and thus loosens the geophone anchorage. Later, the water penetrating into the EDZ leads to swelling of the clay, which firmly fixes the geophones. 5) Analyses of the geophones installed within the microtunnel allow elastic properties of the EDZ to be delineated. A simple analysis of the first-arrival traveltimes allows us to determine a relationship between some properties of the EDZ (elasticity, radius).

Manukyan, Edgar; Maurer, Hansruedi; Marelli, Stefano; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Green, Alan A.

2010-05-01

340

Qualitative performance assessment of a borehole disposal system  

SciTech Connect

A program for disposing disused sealed radiation sources (DSRS) in a deep borehole demands, besides engineering for construction, operation and closure, great effort to characterize the site and conduct a safety assessment of the disposal system. The cost of running a safety assessment may be much greater than the costs to build and operate the facility, and expenditures with the necessary expertise and analytical infrastructure may threaten the technical and economic feasibility of such enterprise in developing countries. In this paper we propose that the safety of repositories be evaluated in terms of compliance with a set of requirements. Besides, we present an example of a preliminary list of rules, based on IAEA and ICRP guidance documents, with which disposal systems for DSRS should comply to get approval. (authors)

Vicente, R. [Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2007-07-01

341

Comparative effects of vitamin E and kolaviron (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) on carbon tetrachloride-induced renal oxidative damage in mice.  

PubMed

It became evident in this study that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can induce renal oxidative damage. The hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E (Vit. E) and kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from the seeds of Garcinia kola are well documented. The present study was designed to investigate and compare the renal protective effects of Vit. E and KV in mice given CCl4 (1.2 g kg(-1)) intra-peritoneally thrice a week for two weeks. CCl4 caused a marked increase in serum and renal lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 106 and 225%, respectively. Treatment with KV at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) and Vit. E at 100 mg kg(-1) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the CCl4-mediated increase in LPO. Furthermore, CCl4-intoxication decreased the levels of renal reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) by 44, 56 and 43%, respectively. Treatment with KV and Vit. E significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated the GSH and SOD levels. Specifically, KV at 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) increased GSH by 32 and 27% and SOD levels by 50 and 53%, respectively. Likewise, treatment with Vit. E increased GSH and SOD levels by 31 and 53%, respectively. Effects on markers of renal functions showed that CCl4-intoxication significantly (p < 0.05) elevated serum urea and creatinine by 287 and 186%, respectively. While treatment with Vit. E decreased serum urea and creatinine by 60 and 55%, respectively, KV produced insignificant (p > 0.05) effect on these parameters. This study found KV unable to protect against CCl4-induced renal damage but confirmed the potency of Vit. E to enhance recovery from renal oxidative damage. PMID:19899326

Adaramoye, O A

2009-08-15

342

Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

2010-12-01

343

Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole.

Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

2010-12-01

344

Determination of correction factors for borehole natural gamma-ray measurements by Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of natural ?-ray spectra measured in boreholes has to take into account borehole parameters such as the presence of casings and borehole diameter. For large, high-efficiency ?-ray detectors, such as BGO-based systems, which employ full-spectrum data analysis, corresponding corrections were not previously determined. In a joint project of the Nuclear Geophysics Division of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (NGD/KVI), Groningen, Medusa Explorations B.V. and the Dutch Institute for Applied Geosciences (TNO-NITG) a catalogue of corrections was constructed. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNP, the influence of steel casings, borehole diameter, central axis probe position and the diameter of the ?-ray detector on the ?-ray spectra has been investigated for nearly 20 geometries. The calculated ?-ray spectra are compared qualitatively and quantitatively. In a case study, ?-ray spectra from a borehole measured in a cased and uncased configuration are analyzed with simulated spectra. When no corrections are used, the activity concentrations deviated by as much as 50% between the two measurements. Taking into account the specific measurement geometry, the activity concentrations were found to be identical within the statistical and systematic uncertainties of the experiment for the same borehole, with and without casing. These results illustrate the need for borehole-specific corrections and this study demonstrates that Monte Carlo methods are a fast and reliable way to calibrate well-logging tools for a wide variety of configurations.

Mau?ec, M.; Hendriks, P. H. G. M.; Limburg, J.; de Meijer, R. J.

2009-10-01

345

Inversion of waveforms from Xiangtang borehole seismic array for soil dynamic property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the site soil response of the Xiangtang borehole seismic array under real strong ground motion, reveal the site response, verify the technique of borehole exploration, and improve the precision of in-situ test and laboratory test, this paper presents a new approach, which is composed of two methods. One is the layered site seismic response method, whose layer transform matrix is always real. The other is a global-local optimization technique, which uses genetic algorithm (GA)-simplex method. An inversion of multi-component waveforms of P, SV and SH wave is carried out simultaneously. By inverting the records of three moderate and small earthquakes obtained from the Xiangtang borehole array (2#) site, the soil dynamic characteristic parameters, including P velocity, damping ratio and frequency-dependent coefficient b, which has not been given in previous literatures, are calculated. The results show that the soil S wave velocity of the Xiangtang 2# borehole is generally greater than that obtained from the 1994 in-situ test, and is close to the velocity of the 3# borehole, which is more than 200 m away from the 2# borehole. Meanwhile, perceptible soil nonlinear behavior under peak ground motion of about 60×10-2 m/s2 is detected by the inversion analysis. The presented method can be used for studying the soil response of other borehole array sites.

Chen, Xue-Liang; Jin, Xing; Tao, Xia-Xin; Wei, Yong-Xiang

2007-07-01

346

Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

Paillet, F. L.

2002-01-01

347

Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.  

SciTech Connect

During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

2007-02-01

348

Results of rock property measurements made on core samples from Yucca Mountain boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; Part 1, Boreholes UE25A-4, -5, -6, and -7; Part 2, Borehole UE25PNo.1  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory measurements of resistivity, bulk and grain density, porosity, compressional sonic velocity, water permeability, magnetic susceptibility, and remanent magnetization were made on core samples from Yucca Mountain boreholes located in Drill Hole Wash at the Nevada Test Site. The samples are representative of lithologic variations to be found in the Tiva Canyon, Yucca Mountain, Pah Canyon, and the upper Topopah Spring Members of the Paintbrush Tuff. Boreholes penetrated to a depth of approximately 152 meters (500 ft.). The Paintbrush Tuff consists primarily of nonwelded to densely welded rhyolitic ash-flow tuff with relatively thin beds of ash-fall tuff typically separating each Member. Resistivity and bulk density measurements were made on samples containing natural pore waters and repeated following resaturation with local tap water. Density comparisons indicate the samples to be undersaturated in their natural environment as expected in that the boreholes did not intersect the water table.

Anderson, L.A.

1991-12-31

349

Borehole field calibration and measurement of low-concentration manganese by decay gamma rays ( Maryland, USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mn concentration in the Arundel clay formation, Prince Georges County, Maryland, was determined from a borehole by using delayed neutron activation. Then neutrons were produced by a 100 mu g 252Cf source. The 847 keV gamma ray of Mn was detected continuously, and its counting rate was measured at intervals of 15 s as the measuring sonde was moved at a rate of 0.5 cm/s. The borehole measurements compared favourably with a chemical core analysis and were unaffected by water in the borehole.-from Authors

Mikesell, J. L.; Senftle, F. E.; Lloyd, T. A.; Tanner, A. B.; Merritt, C. T.; Force, E. R.

1986-01-01

350

Estimation of percolation flux from borehole temperature data at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  

PubMed

Temperature data from the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain are analyzed to estimate percolation-flux rates and overall heat flux. A multilayer, one-dimensional analytical solution is presented for determining percolation flux from temperature data. Case studies have shown that the analytical solution agrees very well with results from the numerical code, TOUGH2. The results of the analysis yield percolation fluxes in the range from 0 to 20 mm/year for most of the deep boreholes. This range is in good agreement with the results of infiltration studies at Yucca Mountain. Percolation flux for the shallower boreholes, however, cannot be accurately determined from temperature data alone because large gas flow in the shallow system alters the temperature profiles. Percolation-flux estimates for boreholes located near or intersecting major faults are significantly higher than those for other boreholes. These estimates may be affected by gas flow in the faults. PMID:12714282

Bodvarsson, G S; Kwicklis, E; Shan, C; Wu, Y S

351

The effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the installation of borehole strainmeters into the ground locally distorts the strain in the rock, these strainmeters require calibration from a known source which typically is the Earth tide. Consequently, the accuracy of the observed strain changes from borehole strainmeters depends upon the calibration derived from modeling the Earth tide. Previous work from the mid-1970s, which is replicated here, demonstrate that the theoretical tide can differ by 30% from the tide observed at surface-mounted, long-baseline strainmeters. In spite of possible inaccurate tidal models, many of the 74 borehole strainmeters installed since 2005 can be “calibrated”. However, inaccurate tidal models affect the amplitude and phase of observed transient strain changes which needs to be considered along with the precision of the data from the inherent drift of these borehole instruments. In particular, the error from inaccurate tidal model dominates the error budget in the observation of impulsive, sub-daily, strain-transients.

Langbein, John

2010-01-01

352

Rock Mass Sealing - Experimental Assessment of Borehole Plug Performance, Annual Report, June 1982 - May 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes primarily experimental borehole plugging performance assessments completed, started, or planned during June 1982 - May 1983. Flow testing of granite, basalt, and tuff cylinders with cement and bentonite plugs in coaxial holes demonst...

J. J. K. Daemen J. C. Stormont N. I. Colburn D. L. South S. A. Dischler

1983-01-01

353

Thermal Hydrology Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations. Coupled thermal-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact fluid flow and the associated migration of radionuclides. Numerical simulations of thermal hydrology in the deep borehole disposal system were carried out with waste emplaced between depths of 3 km and 5 km. The geometry of the system consisted of a disturbed zone of higher permeability within a radius of 1m from the borehole, and low permeability rock beyond the 1m radius. The simulations considered borehole spacing of 100m and 200m, and number of boreholes of 1, 9 and 25. The base case was taken to be 9 boreholes with 200m borehole spacing. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Physical, thermal, and hydrologic properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the boreholes. The results show that for all runs single phase liquid conditions persist throughout the model area due to the large hydrostatic pressures present at the specified depths. Simulated base case temperatures for fuel assemblies and vitrified waste showed peak temperature increases of about 30 °C and 180 °C, respectively. Temperatures near the boreholes peak within about 10 years of waste emplacement. Results show minimal thermal perturbations at depths above the top of the waste, for both types of radioactive waste. Axial temperature profiles are dominated by conduction, as convection is constrained by the low permeability and porosity of the host rock. Simulations with borehole spacing of 100m, and number of boreholes of 1 and 25 gave similar temperature results as the base case. For the base case, vertical flux profiles showed similar trends as the temperature profiles, peaking within about 10 years of waste emplacement due to the thermal expansion of water, followed by much lower flow rates at later times. The magnitude of peak vertical specific discharge varies along the length of the emplaced waste. Simulated peak upward vertical specific discharge values at 4000m depth (center of waste) were 3.6 mm/year and 57.0 mm/year for fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively, with fluxes of less than 1 mm/year beyond 100 years. Just as with temperature profiles, vertical upwards fluxes diminish above the depth of the top of the waste. Axial migration of fluid is constrained by the low permeability of the host rock. Simulations with borehole spacing of 100m, and number of boreholes of 1 and 25 gave similar flux results as the base case. Future simulations will model the effect of salinity on thermal hydrology of the deep borehole disposal system, as well as sensitivity studies on model geometry and rock properties.

Hadgu, T.; Arnold, B. W.

2010-12-01

354

Acoustic Emissions During Anelastic Strain Recovery of Cores from Deep Boreholes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acoustic emissions and compressional wave velocity measurements were monitored during anelastic strain recovery measurements on sandstone, siltstone, and chalk cores, immediately after the cores were retrieved from 2.7 to 3.2 km deep boreholes. Strain rec...

L. W. Teufel

1989-01-01

355

Borehole Gravity Measurements In The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. The borehole gravimetric densities matched the well logs, but the surface gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected. When the borehole observations are corrected for the observed free air gradient above ground, they produce densities which are nearly uniformly higher than log densities by about 0.07 gm/cm{sup 3}. These measurements require densities in the depth range .5 to 3 km, for a radius of a few kilometers around State 2-14 to be as dense as those found in State 2-14. Combining the borehole gravity and calculated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone covers much of a broad thermal anomaly to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

1987-01-01

356

Borehole Gravity Measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2-14 in the depth range 0.5 to 3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The above-ground gradient was found to be 4.1 {micro}gal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, they find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

1988-01-01

357

Deep well process for slurry pick-up in hydraulic borehole mining devices  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulic borehole mining method and device used to recover subterranean coal, oil shale and other minerals from depths exceeding 1500 ft. where a gas lift is utilized to lift the mined slurry to the surface.

Uhri, D.C.

1985-07-09

358

Comparisons of Surface and Borehole Broadband Ambient Seismic Noise at IRIS Station RAR: Raratonga, Cook Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses reduction of ambient broadband (.01 - 10 Hz) seismic noise achieved by a 100 m deep borehole deployment on a small oceanic island, Raratonga in the Cook Islands, relative to simultaneously recorded surface levels. Between .5 - 5 Hz, ...

H. K. Given

1992-01-01

359

Borehole Sonar Investigations at Idaho Springs, Colorado and Manatee Springs, Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tunnel and cavity detection are of paramount importance for security and construction requirements. The development and implementation of tools for detection is being sponsored by the Department of the Army to fulfill many of these needs. Borehole sonar, ...

1982-01-01

360

Requirements on borehole radiators based on analytical estimation of radiated acoustic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic action on a productive stratum is one method for intensification of hydrocarbon mining. The physical mechanisms of acoustic action can be divided into two main groups: force and energy. The effect of any mechanism is associated with the structure and characteristics of the acoustic fields created by the radiation sources in the borehole. Therefore, the force and energy characteristics of the acoustic fields in the vicinity of a borehole are of high importance. These characteristics make it possible to estimate the prospects of applying the acoustic action under different conditions. The analytical estimates of the force and energy characteristics of the acoustic fields in the vicinity of a borehole are presented, and the requirements imposed on new-generation of borehole radiators are formulated on this basis, the use of which would help to more effectively develop deposits of highly viscous oils and residual gas condensates.

Maksimov, G. A.

2013-05-01

361

Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, ...

G. Chen G. A. Chukwu S. Khataniar S. Patil

2008-01-01

362

Results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program at Avery Island: Topical report RSI-0211  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program conducted in the ONWI test facility in the Avery Island salt mine. The accelerated borehole closure tests were a part of a field testing program at Avery Island to provide data on the thermomechanical response of domal salt when subjected to conditions similar to those expected in a high-level nuclear waste repository. The primary objective of the accelerated borehole closure test is to provide data that can be used for validation of the numerical methods used to predict the creep behavior of salt. Two series of accelerated borehole closure tests were performed. The first of these (Phase I) was conducted during 1980, and the second (Phase II) was conducted during 1981 and 1982. 5 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

Stickney, R.G.

1985-04-01

363

Radiometric, Electrical and Acoustic Geophysical Borehole Studies of the Loviisa Power Plant Site in 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The borehole geophysical methods have been utilized on the Loviisa power plant site to resolve hydrogeological conditions. Late in 1983 radiometric, electrical and acoustic logging was performed by BPB Instruments Ltd. The types of sondes employed were ne...

P. Saksa

1984-01-01

364

Automated inverse computer modeling of borehole flow data in heterogeneous aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer model has been developed to simulate borehole flow in heterogeneous aquifers where the vertical distribution of permeability may vary significantly. In crystalline fractured aquifers, flow into or out of a borehole occurs at discrete locations of fracture intersection. Under these circumstances, flow simulations are defined by independent variables of transmissivity and far-field heads for each flow contributing fracture intersecting the borehole. The computer program, ADUCK (A Downhole Underwater Computational Kit), was developed to automatically calibrate model simulations to collected flowmeter data providing an inverse solution to fracture transmissivity and far-field head. ADUCK has been tested in variable borehole flow scenarios, and converges to reasonable solutions in each scenario. The computer program has been created using open-source software to make the ADUCK model widely available to anyone who could benefit from its utility.

Sawdey, J. R.; Reeve, A. S.

2012-09-01

365

The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability of borehole temperature data to resolve past climatic events is investigated using Backus-Gilbert inversion methods. Two experimental approaches are considered: (1) the data consist of a single borehole temperature profile, and (2) the data consist of climatically-induced temperature transients measured within a borehole during a monitoring experiment. The sensitivity of the data's resolving power to the vertical distribution of the measurements, temperature measurement errors, the inclusion of a local meteorological record, and the duration of a monitoring experiment, are investigated. The results can be used to help interpret existing surface temperature histories derived from borehole temperature data and to optimize future experiments for the detection of climatic signals. ?? 1992.

Clow, G. D.

1992-01-01

366

Test plan: Intermediate scale borehole test--WIPP in situ testing  

SciTech Connect

This Intermediate Scale Borehole Test is in response to a request by the WIPP Panel of the National Academy of Sciences to investigate influence of scale (i.e., the size of an underground opening) effects on the creep closure of a natural salt deposit, in situ. The purpose of this intermediate scale test is to evaluate the possible influence of test scale on the creep response of salt. The results are to be usedas partial input to the resolution of the discrepancy between calculated and measured in situ closures. The test consists of an instrumented, large diameter, horizontal borehole emplaced in the existing pillar between Rooms C2 and C1. The depth of the core hole will be at least 9.2 m (30 ft). Because most of the instruments will be emplaced prior to drilling of the intermediate scale borehole, the instruments will monitor the changes in ground displacements and stresses as the borehole is drilled.

Munson, D.E.

1989-08-01

367

Eastgate Geothermal Borehole Project: Predicting Fracture Geometry at Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 an exploratory borehole at the Eastgate Geothermal Project encountered part of a vein system within the Weardale granite. At 995m depth brine was at a temperature of around 46°C. The geothermal source is likely related to the Slitt vein system that cuts through c.270m of carboniferous sedimentary strata overlying the Weardale granite pluton. The economic success of the Eastgate geothermal project is dependent on exploiting this vein system in an otherwise low permeability and low geothermal gradient setting. The Slitt vein system has been extensively mined. Mining records show the attitude of the vein through the sedimentary strata, however, the trajectory and magnitude of the vein within the pluton itself is unknown. Using mine records, geological maps and published literature, models of the vein system up to the depth of the pluton were created. To extend this model into the pluton itself requires some knowledge regarding the geometry and evolution of the pluton and subsequently properties of vein systems and other fracture populations at depth. The properties of fracture and vein populations within the granite will depend on forming processes including; cooling and contraction of the pluton, deformation of host rocks during pluton emplacement, and post emplacement deformation. Using published literature and gravity data a 3D model of the geometry of the pluton was constructed. Shape analysis of the pluton allows an estimation of the orientation of fractures within the pluton. Further modelling of the structural evolution of the pluton will enable kinematic or geomechanical strain associated with the structural evolution to be captured and subsequently used as a proxy for modelling both intensity and orientation of fracturing within the pluton. The successful prediction of areas of high fracture intensity and thus increased permeability is critical to the development of potential geothermal resources in low geothermal gradient and low permeability settings. This is also important in EGS settings where stimulation will often re-activate existing fracture networks. The development at the Eastgate Geothermal Borehole project provides an opportunity to model fracture and vein populations within an intrusive body and validate those model predictions with production data from the site.

Beattie, Stewart; Shipton, Zoe K.; Johnson, Gareth; Younger, Paul L.

2013-04-01

368

Pressure drop in a borehole intersecting an active fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corinth Rift, in western Greece, is one of the most active continental Rift in the world, with an opening rate of 1.5cm/yr. Its deformation process is being monitored with a broad range of sensors dispatched across the rift, near the city of Aigio, some 40km east of Patras. In particular, a set of pressure transducers has been set in a 1000m-deep borehole that intersects the active 10km long Aigio fault at a depth of 760m. Below its upper 700m deep cased section, the well has been left open and intersects two artesian aquifers. The upper aquifer is fully hydraulically decoupled from surface aquifers and is developed in tectonized platy limestone, with a 0.5MPa original pressure. Below the fault, the limestone is heavily karstified and the artesian overpressure reaches about 0.85MPa. Hence the fault supports a 0.35MPa differential pressure through the 5m thick radiolarite clay layer that has been smeared along the 150m fault offset. In September 2003, the borehole was let produce water and then was plugged with a packer set at the top of the casing resulting in a direct connection between both aquifers. The pressure is monitored by sensors set just below the packer. Tidal waves are recorded with a resolution better than 1/100. In addition a variety of pressure anomalies have been observed. A 60Pa drop in pore pressure has been recorded at the onset of the S waves generated by the Mw=7.8 Rat Island Earthquake of November, 17th 2003. It is followed by a slow recovery which lasted about 30 minutes. This anomaly, compatible with a minor movement along the fault with a seismic moment of 109Nm, is one of the farthest local effects induced by teleseismic waves ever recorded. A 80Pa pressure drop has been detected 15 minutes before a ML=4.2 earthquake that occured about 15km west of the well. It is much sharper than the coseismic drop. This precursory event exhibits a 2-step recovery that lasted 10 minutes. As seismic sensors located near the well detected no major vibration, we assume the pressure anomaly is transmitted through the karstic conduits and give insight to events close to the hypocenter.

Doan, M.; Cornet, F. H.

2004-12-01

369

Full-scale borehole sealing test in anhydrite under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-scale borehole sealing test was conducted in anhydrite. The test was performed under the simulated in situ stress (4.83 MPa (700 psi) and temperature (30°C) of a theoretical deposit overlying a nuclear waste repository. The borehole sealing material was an expansive grout formulated by the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, under contract to the US Department

D. D. Bush; R. Lingle

1986-01-01

370

Distribution of borehole temperature at four high-altitude alpine glaciers in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of borehole temperature at four high-altitude alpine glaciers was investigated. The result shows that the\\u000a temperature ranges from ?13.4°C to ?1.84°C, indicating the glaciers are cold throughout the boreholes. The negative gradient\\u000a (i.e., the temperature decreasing with the increasing of depth) due to the advection of ice and climate warming, and the negative\\u000a gradient moving downwards relates to

Yaping Liu; Shugui Hou; Yetang Wang; Linlin Song

2009-01-01

371

The borehole temperature record of climate warming in the mid-continent of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-surface temperature (GST) histories, determined from a carefully selected set of twenty-nine borehole temperature profiles, show a warming trend over the last century that increases systematically with latitude in the mid-continent of North America. Except one site in north Texas, the borehole locations lie within a 500 × 1000 km transect that extends from the Kansas-Nebraska border into southern Manitoba.

W. D. Gosnold; P. E. Todhunter; W. Schmidt

1997-01-01

372

A Multilevel System for High-Resolution Monitoring in Rotasonic Boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular multilevel system was adapted for high-resolution, depth-discrete monitoring of hydraulic head and ground water quality in rotasonic boreholes or boreholes produced with similar dual-casing drilling methods. The system accommo- dates up to 15 monitoring intervals within one hole and can be used to monitor overburden and\\/or bedrock to depths of 100 m (330 feet) or more. It is

Beth L. Parker; John A. Cherry; Benjamin J. Swanson

2006-01-01

373

High resolution temperature monitoring in a borehole, detection of the deterministic signals in noisy environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature was monitored as a function of time at several selected depth levels in a slim experimental borehole. The hole\\u000a is 15 cm in diameter, 150 m deep, and effectively sealed from the influx of ground water by a plastic tube of 5 cm diameter.\\u000a The mean temperature gradient is 19.2 mK\\/m. The borehole was drilled in 1993 and has

V. ?ermák; J. Šafanda; M. Krešl

2008-01-01

374

Precise temperature monitoring in boreholes: evidence for oscillatory convection? Part 1: Experiments and field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature was monitored in two boreholes in Kamchatka (Russia) in years 2001–2003. Ten-min reading (sampling) interval was\\u000a selected for the first half-year run followed by shorter (12 days) experiment with 5-s reading interval. A similar experiment\\u000a was repeated later in the test borehole Sporilov (Prague, Czech Republic), where four temperature–time series were performed\\u000a with reading intervals varying from 1 to 20 s.

Vladimir Cermak; Jan Safanda; Louise Bodri

2008-01-01

375

Integrated Surface and Borehole Strong-Motion, Soil-Response Arrays in San Francisco, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An integrated set of four borehole arraysand ten surface installations is installed in the city of San Francisco, California\\u000a to measure the response of soft-soil deposits to strong earthquake ground motions. The borehole arrays extend through thick\\u000a layers of softwater-saturated soils of Holocene age and older more consolidated soils of Pleistocene age into bedrock at depths\\u000a up to 100 m.

R. D. Borcherdt; H. P. Lid; R. E. Westerlund; C. Dietel; J. F. Gibbs; R. E. Warrick

376

Borehole Radar Applied to the Characterization of Hydraulically Conductive Fracture Zones in Crystalline ROCK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the borehole radar system, RAMAC, developed within the framework of the International Stripa Project, which can be used in three different measuring modes; single-hole reflection, cross-hole reflection and cross-hole tomography. The reflection modes basically provide geometrical data on features located at some distance from the borehole. In addition the strength of the reflections indicate the contrast in

Olle Olsson; Lars Falk; Olof Forslund; Lars Lundmark; Eric Sandberg

1992-01-01

377

Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic sea-level estimates: backstripping analysis of borehole data, onshore New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backstripping analysis of the Bass River and Ancora boreholes from the New Jersey coastal plain (Ocean Drilling Project Leg 174AX) provides new Late Cretaceous sea-level estimates and corroborates previously published Cenozoic sea-level estimates. Compaction histories of all coastal plain boreholes were updated using porosity^depth relationships estimated from New Jersey coastal plain electric logs.The new porosity estimates are considerably lower than

William A. Van Sickel; Michelle A. Kominz; Kenneth G. Millerw; James V. Browningw

2004-01-01

378

Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff  

SciTech Connect

Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

1986-10-01

379

Four-Component Borehole Strain Meter: Observation and in-situ Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole strain meters are a key component of some important geo-scientific projects, such as PBO, to monitor seismic and aseismic tectonic strain phenomena. Observation using a four-component borehole strain meter, namely Ouyang borehole strain meter, has been kept continuous at Changping station, Beijing, for years. The plane strain changes are obtained at the depth of 120m and from 4 horizontal measurements, spaced 45 degrees apart, of the radial deformation of the borehole in which the instrument is installed. The challenge is that, according to the theory of elasticity, the sum of any two measurements perpendicular to each other should be the same as related to areal strain. The observation at Changping agrees pretty well with this rule and, with a relative in-situ calibration correction to the transducer factors based on the rule, the agreements can be yet much improved. Since the transducers were arranged well in the orientations of North, East, North West and North East, respectively, instrument shear strains can be simply given as the differences of the two correspondent perpendicular measurements. By applying theoretic Earth strain tide as a reference signal, in-situ absolute calibration can be carried out and the proportionality constants c and d, and the orientation error as well, can be calculated separately. Fore-component borehole strain meter has the advantages of giving more accurate and more reliable data for Earth strain and of easier processing as compared to three-component borehole strain meter.

Qiu, Z.; Shi, Y.; Ouyang, Z.

2004-12-01

380

Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux  

SciTech Connect

This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. PSVE takes advantage of the naturally occurring tendency of soil vapor to leave the subsurface during periods of low barometric pressure. PSVE seeks to expedite the release of volatile contaminants through the use of boreholes and technological enhancements. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders` perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of PSVE to the remediation problems they face. The report provides: stakeholders` final evaluation of the acceptability of PSVE in light of the technology`s field test; stakeholders` principal comments concerning PSVE; requirements that stakeholders have of any remediation technology. Technology decision makers should take these conclusions into account in evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of any remedial method proposed for their site. In addition, the report presents data requirements for the technology`s field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on PSVE from stakeholders from Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Peterson, T.S.

1995-12-01

381

24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES  

SciTech Connect

Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

Erik C. Westman

2003-10-24

382

Using borehole images to quantify reservoir quality and stratigraphic distribution  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the distribution of good-quality reservoir rock in a prospective formation is essential to improved reserves computation and maximized production. High-resolution borehole images provide a rapid and efficient method to evaluate reservoir quality over extended sequences. Microconductivity curves from images are evaluated using modal analysis on histograms to establish specific populations. These populations are assigned to electrofacies, which are discriminated using other logs and core data to generate a lithofacies column. Net pay, or sand counts, are computed based on the distribution of log-derived lithofacies. Reservoir distribution is based on the integration of structural and stratigraphic image analyses. This method is applied to two different reservoirs, the first example is of a well developed, valley-fill sequence comprising thick, stacked fluvial-deltaic channel sands. These sands are over 100 ft thick, have >20% porosity, and over 200 md permeability. The distribution and thickness of optimum quality reservoir is random, however. The second example is of multiple, small scale, depositional units between 3 in. and 24 in., which have 15% porosity with >500 md permeability. The net thickness and exact position of high-quality reservoir intervals is not apparent from standard logs, but becomes clear after image analysis.

Roestenburg, J.W. (Schlumberger Geophysics Nusantara, Jakarta (Indonesia))

1994-07-01

383

Tailored-pulse fracturing in cased and perforated boreholes  

SciTech Connect

A propellant-based technology, High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF), has been applied to fracturing through perforations in cased boreholes. The use of propellants that deflagrate or burn, rather than high-order explosives that detonate, permits controlled buildup of pressure in the wellbore. The key to successful stimulation in cased and perforated wellbores is to control the pressure buildup of the combustion gases to maximize fracturing obtained, without destroying the casing. Eight experiments have been conducted in a tunnel complex at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site. This location provided a realistic in situ stress environment (7 MPa (1000 psi) overburden stress) and access for mineback to directly observe fracturing obtained. Primary variables in the experiments include propellant burn rate and amount of propellant used; presence or absence of liquid in the wellbore; in situ stress orientation; and perforation diameter, density, and phasing. Fracture surfaces propagate outward along lines of perforations, then gradually turn toward the hydraulic-fracture direction. Fracture lengths of 3 m (10 ft) or more are observed. It is shown that such fractures, with proper choice of propellant and perforation design, can be created with no attendant casing damage. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Cuderman, J.F.

1986-01-01

384

Borehole flowmeter application in fluvial sediments: Methodology, results, and assessment  

SciTech Connect

In many situations, inadequate design or performance of ground-water remediation systems is the result of underestimation of aquifer hydraulic heterogeneity, and in particular, the vertical variation of hydraulic conductivity which plays an important role in contaminant migration. Described herein are applications of the electromagnetic (EM) borehole flowmeter to fluvial sediments in Louisiana and South Carolina. The direction of natural vertical flow in the test aquifers was defined easily, and short pumping tests enabled the calculation of hydraulic conductivity profiles for each test well. The results correlated well with other information obtained independently, including natural gamma logs, driller`s logs and a hydraulic conductivity profile based on grain size analysis. Large variations in hydraulic conductivity over short vertical and horizontal distances were documented. Tests in gravel-packed wells suggested that flowmeters produce misleading data for a variety of reasons in such situations. Among other things, an annulus of high permeability around a well screen allows flow to bypass the meter, and the phenomenon is amplified by high pumping rates. The resulting error is displayed as an erroneous high permeability zone at the top of the well screen. This observation deserves further study. In its present form the EM flowmeter is awkward to handle on a routine basis. However, none of the present design flaws preclude its effective use.

Boman, G.K. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Molz, F.J.; Boone, K.D. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Systems Engineering

1997-05-01

385

In-well hydraulics of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have suggested that head losses associated with the application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) can have important and detrimental effects on the use of the instrument for measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K) profiles. Head losses associated with flow through the meter may cause bypass flow around the packer if the well is gravel packed. In any type of well, changing head losses with meter position can cause changes in flow into the well that are not related directly to the K distribution. Such flow changes, or redistribution, can cause errors in the calculation of the K profile. Numerical simulations, based on measured head losses, indicate that bypass flow in gravel packed systems increases with increasing flow rate through the meter, increasing gravel pack conductivity, and increasing gravel pack thickness. Ideally, the EBF should not be used in gravel packed wells, due to the occurrence of bypass flow. Investigations into the flow redistribution phenomenon indicate that the top portion of the aquifer is where the greatest over-estimation of K occurs. The portion of the well below the flowmeter is isolated from the observed drawdown as measured from the surface. In this region, the well experiences a reduced drawdown, which differs from the observed drawdown by an amount equal to the head loss at that meter position. Flow redistribution causes a more pronounced effect in more highly conductive mediums and may be almost negligible in mediums of low conductivity.

Dinwiddie, C.L.; Foley, N.A.; Molz, F.J. [Clemson Univ., Anderson, SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science

1999-03-01

386

Calibration models for density borehole logging - construction report  

SciTech Connect

Two machined blocks of magnesium and aluminum alloys form the basis for Hanford`s density models. The blocks provide known densities of 1.780 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} and 2.804 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} for calibrating borehole logging tools that measure density based on gamma-ray scattering from a source in the tool. Each block is approximately 33 x 58 x 91 cm (13 x 23 x 36 in.) with cylindrical grooves cut into the sides of the blocks to hold steel casings of inner diameter 15 cm (6 in.) and 20 cm (8 in.). Spacers that can be inserted between the blocks and casings can create air gaps of thickness 0.64, 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 cm (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in.), simulating air gaps that can occur in actual wells from hole enlargements behind the casing.

Engelmann, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

1995-10-01

387

Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter Testing in R-Area  

SciTech Connect

Six constant-rate, multiple-well aquifer tests were recently conducted in R-area to provide site-specific in situ hydraulic parameters for assessing groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of R-Reactor Seepage Basins (RRSB) plume migration and RRSB remedial alternatives. The pumping tests were performed in the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers between December 1999 and February 2000. The tests provide reliable estimates of horizontal conductivity averaged over aquifer thickness, and a relatively large horizontal zone of influence. To complement these results, Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter (EBF) testing was subsequently performed to determine the vertical variation of horizontal conductivity for RPC-2PR, RPC-3PW, RPT-2PW, RPT-3PW, RPT-4PW and RPT-30PZ. The EBF data generally indicate significant aquifer heterogeneity over the tested screen intervals (Figures 14, 16-18, 20, 22, 24, 26 and 27-31). The vertical variation of groundwater flow in or out of the well screen under ambient conditions was also measured (Figures 13, 15, 19, 21, 23 and 25). These data have implications for contaminant monitoring.

Flach, G.P.

2000-10-12

388

Tidal calibration of plate boundary observatory borehole strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plate Boundary Observatory, the geodetic component of the EarthScope program, includes 74 borehole strainmeters installed in the western United States and on Vancouver Island, Canada. In this study, we calibrate 45 of the instruments by comparing the observed M2 and O1 Earth tides with those predicted using Earth tide models. For each strainmeter, we invert for a coupling matrix that relates the gauge measurements to the regional strain field assuming only that the measured strains are linear combinations of the regional areal and shear strains. We compare these matrices to those found when constraints are imposed which require the coupling coefficients to lie within expected ranges for this strainmeter design. Similar unconstrained and constrained coupling matrices suggest the instrument is functioning as expected as no other coupling matrix can be found that better reduces the misfit between observed and predicted tides when the inversion is unconstrained. Differences imply a coupling matrix with coefficients outside typical ranges gives a better fit between the observed and predicted tides. We find that 22 of the strainmeters examined have coupling matrices for which there is little difference between the constrained and unconstrained inversions. If we allow a greater divergence in the shear coupling coefficients and consider the possibility that one gauge may not function as expected, the discrepancies between the unconstrained and constrained coupling matrices are resolved for a subset of the remaining strainmeters. Our results also indicate that most of the strainmeters are less sensitive to areal strain than expected from theory.

Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Langbein, John; Henderson, Brent; Mencin, Dave; Borsa, Adrian

2013-01-01

389

Formation of Slot-Shaped Borehole Breakout Within Weakly Cemented Sandstones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breakout (wall failure) of boreholes within the earth can take several forms depending upon physical properties of the surrounding rock and the stress and flow conditions. Three distinctive modes of breakout are (I) extensile breakout observed in brittle rocks (e.g., Haimson and Herrick, 1986), (II) shear breakout in soft and clastic rocks (Zoback et al., 1985), and (III) fracture-like, slot-shaped breakout within highly porous granular rocks (Bessinger et al., 1997; Haimson and Song, 1998). During fluid production and injection within weakly cemented high-porosity rocks, the third type of failure could result in sustained and excessive sand production (disintegration of the rock's granular matrix and debris production). An objective of this research is to investigate the physical conditions that result in the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout, via laboratory experiments. Our laboratory borehole breakout experiment was conducted using synthetic high-porosity sandstone with controlled porosity and strength. Block samples containing a single through-goring borehole were subjected to anisotropic stresses within a specially designed tri-axial loading cell. A series of studies was conducted to examine the impact of (i) stress anisotropy around the borehole, (ii) rock strength, and (iii) fluid flow rate within the borehole on the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout. The geometry of the breakout was determined after the experiment using X-ray CT. As observed in other studies (Hamison and Song, 1998; Nakagawa and Myer, 2001), flow within a borehole plays a critical role in extending the slot-shaped breakout. The results of our experiments indicated that the width of the breakout was narrower for stronger rock, possibly due to higher resistance to erosion, and the orientation of the breakout plane was better defined for a borehole subjected to stronger stress anisotropy. In most cases, the breakout grew rapidly once the borehole wall started to fail. This "run-away" failure growth is induced by monotonically increasing stress concentration at the breakout tips, although this effect may be augmented by the finite size of the sample.

Nakagawa, S.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L. R.

2005-12-01

390

Method and apparatus for enhancing liquid hydrocarbon production from a single borehole in a slowly producing formation by non-uniform heating through optimized electrode arrays surrounding the borehole  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a slowly producing subsurface formation through a borehole extending from the surface of the earth into the formation which comprises: two ring-like electrodes disposed in the formation surrounding the borehole such that they create two nearly equipotential rings at least one of which has an inside diameter larger than the borehole; and a source of electric power.

Taflove, A.; Sresty, G.C.; Umashankar, K.

1987-05-05

391

Borehole-to-borehole hydrologic response across 2.4 km in the upper oceanic crust: Implications for crustal-scale properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subseafloor hydrologic observatories (CORKs) were installed in four boreholes in young seafloor on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge to evaluate the hydrogeology of the upper oceanic crust. Two CORKs installed at Site 1301 were incompletely sealed, allowing cold bottom water to flow into basement at 2–5 L\\/s and causing a pressure perturbation in a preexisting sealed

A. T. Fisher; E. E. Davis; K. Becker

2008-01-01

392

Assessment of preferential flow path connectivity and hydraulic properties at single-borehole and cross-borehole scales in a fractured aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preferential flow path connectivity is generally cited to explain scaling effects in hydraulic properties [Hsieh, P.A., 1998. Scale effects in fluid flow through fractured geological media, Scale dependence and scale invariance in hydrology. Cambridge University Press, pp. 335 353; Illman, W.A., in press. Strong evidence of directional permeability scale effect in fractured rock. Journal of Hydrology]. However, this information is rarely available in the field. In this study, we present a characterization of flow paths connectivity at the Plœmeur fractured crystalline aquifer from cross-borehole flowmeter tests. We show that high transmissivity zones are connected over distances of at least 150 m all over the site. In parallel, we synthesize hydraulic properties estimates obtained at this site from field techniques having distinct scales of investigation: single borehole flowmeter experiments, cross borehole flowmeter experiments and long term pumping tests. We find that borehole scale variability of transmissivity estimates vanishes at larger scale and that the transmissivity converges towards the high values of the transmissivity distribution. This effect may be explained by the organization of the flow field in the subsurface, and particularly the good connectivity of the permeable zones all over the site.

Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Paillet, F. L.; Caudal, J.-P.

2006-08-01

393

Calculation of unmitigated release from reverse circulation drilling of a borehole three meters south of borehole 41-15-09 near SST 241-SX-115  

SciTech Connect

To more fully characterize the vadose zone near Single Shell Tank 241-SX-115, another borehole will be drilled and sampled by using reverse circulation drilling equipment. Compressed air propels the drill and sweeps out cuttings. Dose calculations in this document are performed for an unmitigated airborne release from the drill string. Doses were found not to exceed TWRS risk guideline values.

SCOTT, D.L.

1999-05-27

394

Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39  

SciTech Connect

This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

2008-09-11

395

A Preliminary Study of Real-Time Seismic Event Amplitudes From the CALIPSO Borehole Dataset, Montserrat, 2002-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Caribbean Andesite Lava Island Precise-Geodetic Seismic Observatory (CALIPSO) project installed instruments at four sites around the Soufriere Hills Volcano beginning in December 2002. The instruments include Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, borehole tilt meter, borehole seismometers and continuous GPS with the borehole instruments installed at a depth of ~200m. Two seismometers and three strainmeters were operating during the July 12-13, 2003 lava

K. A. Coleman; G. S. Mattioli

2005-01-01

396

Characteristics of fractures in crystalline bedrock determined by surface and borehole geophysical surveys, Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine  

SciTech Connect

Surface and borehole geophysical methods were used to determine fracture orientation in crystalline bedrock at the Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine. Fracture-orientation information is needed to address concerns about the fate of contaminants in ground water at the site. Azimuthal square-array resistivity surveys were conducted at 3 locations at the site, borehole-acoustic televiewer and borehole-video logs were collected in 10 wells, and single-hole directional radar surveys were conducted in 9 wells.

Hansen, B.P.; Stone, J.R.; Lane, J.W.

1999-07-01

397

Simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in axis-symmetric open and cased boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical constraints with regard to permeability are particularly valuable because they tend to bridge the gap in terms of spatial coverage and resolution that exists for corresponding conventional hydrological techniques, such as laboratory measurements and pumping tests. A prominent geophysical technique for estimating the permeability along boreholes is based on the inversion of Stoneley waves. This technique is by now well established for the hydrocarbon exploration purposes, where the corresponding measurements are carried out in open boreholes and in consolidated sediments. Conversely, the sensitivity and potential of Stoneley-wave-based permeability estimates for shallow hydrological applications is still largely unknown. As opposed to their counterparts in hydrocarbon exploration, shallow boreholes tend to be located in unconsolidated alluvial sediments and hence tend to be cased with perforated or non-perforated plastic tubes. The corresponding effects on Stoneley wave attenuation and its sensitivity to in situ permeability of the formation behind the casing are largely unknown and can only be assessed through realistic modeling. To this end, we present a pseudo-spectral numerical modeling code in cylindrical coordinates that allows for the accurate simulation of complex seismic wave propagation phenomena in realistic surficial borehole environments. We employ Fourier operators along the borehole axis and Chebyshev operators in the radial direction. The Chebyshev operators allows for the use of individual computational sub-domains for the fluid-filled, acoustic borehole, the poro-elastic casing, and the poro-elastic formation surrounding the borehole. These computational sub-domains are connected through a domain decomposition method, which is needed to correctly account for the governing boundary conditions and also allows for substantially enhancing the computational efficiency of our simulations.

Sidler, R.; Holliger, K.; Carcione, J. M.

2012-04-01

398

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01

399

Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring Beneath Waste Disposal Pits Using Horizontal Boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vadose zone characterization and monitoring immediately below landfills using horizontal boreholes is an emerging technology. However, this topic has received little attention in the peer-reviewed literature. The value of this approach is that activities are conducted below the waste, providing clear and rapid verification of containment. Here we report on two studies that examined the utility of horizontal boreholes for environmental characterization and monitoring under radioactive waste disposal pits. Both studies used core sample analyses to determine the presence of various radionuclides, organics, or metals. At one borehole site, water content and pore-water chloride concentrations were also used to interpret vadose zone behavior. At another site, we examined the feasibility of using flexible membrane liners in uncased boreholes for periodic monitoring. For this demonstration, these retrievable liners were air-injected into boreholes on multiple occasions carrying different combinations of environmental surveillance equipment. Instrument packages included a neutron logging device to measure volumetric water at regular intervals, high-absorbency collectors that wicked available water from borehole walls, or vent tubes that were used to measure air permeability and collect air samples. The flexible and retrievable liner system was an effective way to monitor water content and collect air permeability data. The high-absorbency collectors were efficient at extracting liquid water for contaminant analyses even at volumetric water contents below 10 percent, and revealed vapor-phase tritium migration at one disposal pit. Both demonstration studies proved that effective characterization and periodic monitoring in horizontal boreholes is both feasible and adaptable to many waste disposal problems and locations.

McLin, S. G.; Newman, B. D.; Broxton, D. E.

2004-12-01

400

Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging tool are presented. This borehole NMR logging tool was developed for economical NMR logging of 100- to 200-mm-diameter boreholes, and specifically for characterizing hydraulic properties in the top 200 m of the subsurface. The tool has a vertical resolution of 0.5 m, a minimum echo spacing of 2.0 ms, and a radial depth of investigation of 178 to 203 mm, which typically is beyond the annulus of observation wells. It takes about 15 minutes to collect a data sample for each 0.5-m interval. The borehole NMR logging tool was field tested during spring 2010, in PVC-cased wells at sites in East Haddam and Storrs, Connecticut; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Lexington, Nebraska; Lawrence, Kansas; and Rifle, Colorado. NMR logging yielded estimates of bound water, free water, and total-water content, as well as continuous distributions of water content versus transverse relaxation time (T2) at all depth levels. The derived water-content data were compared to the available ground-truth hydrogeologic data from each well, including drilling logs, neutron and other geophysical logs, and direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate that the borehole NMR logging tool provides information on porosity, pore-size distribution, and estimated hydraulic conductivity that cannot be duplicated by any other single geophysical logging tool.

Walsh, D.; Turner, P.; Frid, I.; Shelby, R.; Grunewald, E. D.; Magnuson, E.; Butler, J. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Woodward, D. A.; Williams, K. H.; Lane, J. W.

2010-12-01

401

Enhanced Observations with Borehole Seismographic Networks. The Parkfield, California Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The data acquired in the Parkfield, California experiment are unique and they are producing results that force a new look at some conventional concepts and models for earthquake occurrence and fault-zone dynamics. No fault-zone drilling project can afford to neglect installation of such a network early enough in advance of the fault-zone penetration to have a well-defined picture of the seismicity details (probably at least 1000 microearthquakes--an easy 2-3 year goal for the M<0 detection of a borehole network). Analyses of nine years of Parkfield monitoring data have revealed significant and unambiguous departures from stationarity both in the seismicity characteristics and in wave propagation details within the S-wave coda for paths within the presumed M6 nucleation zone where we also have found a high Vp/Vs anomaly at depth, and where the three recent M4.7-5.0 sequences have occurred. Synchronous changes well above noise levels have also been seen among several independent parameters, including seismicity rate, average focal depth, S-wave coda velocities, characteristic sequence recurrence intervals, fault creep and water levels in monitoring wells. The significance of these findings lies in their apparent coupling and inter-relationships, from which models for fault-zone process can be fabricated and tested with time. The more general significance of the project is its production of a truly unique continuous baseline, at very high resolution, of both the microearthquake pathology and the subtle changes in wave propagation.

McEvilly, T.V.; Karageorgi, E.; Nadeau, R.M.

1997-01-02

402

Inversion of borehole weak motion records observed in Istanbul (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of shear wave velocity and attenuation in near-surface geology is of primary importance in engineering seismology. In fact, such knowledge is essential for site response studies when preparing improved seismic hazard scenarios. In this study, we propose a linear inversion of the spectra of a deconvolved wavefield collected by a borehole array in Istanbul, Turkey. The spectra are calculated using as a reference the recordings collected by a sensor at the surface. This allows us to minimize the effect of the deconvolution filter on the peaks' amplitudes. The feasibility of the proposed inversion scheme and the parametrization of the velocity and attenuation models were tested and assessed using synthetic data. The real data inversion is carried out using observation from three weak motion events. Several starting models are used for each event, changing the values of the quality factor Qs, whereas the starting Vs profiles are fixed to what was obtained by the analysis of the deconvolved wavefield in the time domain. Our results showed that fairly well-constrained Vs models can be obtained while the variability of the Qs profile, both between different inversions of the same data set, and between the inversions of different data sets, might be large. This indicates that Qs variations observed in models derived by strong motion data inversions should be considered with care. However, the high agreement of the estimated soil profiles in the uppermost layer, both when using different events and different starting models, suggests that any variation in the S-wave velocity that might be estimated when using strong motion data should be reliable.

Parolai, S.; Wang, R.; Bindi, D.

2012-02-01

403

Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

2012-01-01

404

Drag-out effect of piezomagnetic signals due to a borehole: The Mogi source as an example  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We show that using borehole measurements in tectonomagnetic experiments allows enhancement of the observed signals. New magnetic dipoles, which vary with stress changes from mechanical sources, are produced on the walls of the borehole. We evaluate such an effect quantitatively. First we formulate a general expression for the borehole effect due to any arbitrary source models. This is valid everywhere above the ground surface as well as within the cylindrical hole. A first-order approximate solution is given by a line of horizontal dipoles and vertical quadrupoles along the central axis of the borehole, which is valid above the ground surface and a slightly away (several tens of cm) from the top of the borehole. Selecting the Mogi model as an example, we numerically evaluated the borehole effect. It turned out that the vertical quadrupoles produce two orders of magnitude more intense magnetic field than the horizontal dipoles. The borehole effect is very local, i.e. detectable only within a few m from its outlet, since it is of the same order or more than the case without a borehole. However, magnetic lines of force cannot reach the ground surface from a deeper portion (> 10 m) of a borehole.

Sasai, Y.; Johnston, M. J. S.; Tanaka, Y.; Mueller, R.; Hashimoto, T.; Utsugi, M.; Sakanaka, S.; Uyeshima, M.; Zlotnicki, J.; Yvetot, P.

2007-01-01

405

Mapping permeable fractures at depth in crystalline metamorphic shield rocks using borehole seismic, logging, and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of major fluid pathways in subsurface exploration can be identified by understanding the effects of fractures, cracks, and microcracks in the subsurface. Part of a feasibility study of geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of the investigation of subsurface fluid pathways in the Precambrian basement rocks. One of the selected sites for this study is in the Fort McMurray area, where the deepest well drilled in the oilsands region in Northeastern Alberta is located. This deep borehole has a depth of 2.3 km which offers substantial depth coverage to study the metamorphic rocks in the Precambrian crystalline basement of this study area. Seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the borehole reveal NW-SE dipping reflectors within the metamorphic shield rocks some of which appear to intersect the wellbore. An extensive logging and borehole seismic program was carried out in the borehole in July, 2011. Gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, acoustic televiewer, electrical resistivity, and full-waveform sonic logs were acquired to study the finer scale structure of the rock formations, with vertical resolutions in the range of 0.05 cm to 80 cm. These logs supplement earlier electrical microscanner images obtained by the well operator when it was drilled. In addition, we are also interested in identifying other geological features such as zones of fractures that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The interpretation of the borehole logs reveals a highly conductive 13 m thick zone at 1409 m depth that may indicate communication of natural brines in fractures with the wellbore fluid. The photoelectric factor and magnetic susceptibility also appear anomalous in this zone. Formation MicroImager (FMI) log was used to verify the presence of fractures in the borehole in this conductive zone. This fracture zone may coincide with the dipping seismic reflectors in the reflection profile. To better understand the velocity structure and to look for the effects of fractures, a high resolution zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was conducted to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. VSP data can be used to delineate the structural and stratigraphic features surrounding the borehole that could not otherwise be resolved from surface seismic reflection data. A comparison of VSP data with borehole logging data is expected to provide information on the local lithological changes, mineral composition of rocks and on the presence of fractures.

Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

2012-04-01

406

Initial Borehole Accelerometer Array Observations Near the North Portal of the ESF  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses observed ground motions at the site of the proposed surface facilities associated with the designated repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In 2003 an accelerometer array was installed at three boreholes on the pad of the north portal of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, by the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL). These boreholes, roughly 150 m apart and initially used for extensive geological and geophysical surveys, were ideal locations to measure the subsurface ground motions at the proposed site of surface facilities such as the Waste Handling Building. Such measurements will impact the design of the facilities. Accelerometer emplacement depths of approximately 15 m from the surface and then at the bottom of the boreholes, roughly 100 m, were chosen. Accelerometers were also placed at the surface next to the boreholes, for a total of nine accelerometers, all three-component. Data recording was accomplished with onsite recorders, with the onsite data transmitted to a central computer at a trailer on the pad. All requirements were met to qualify these data as ''Q''. Due to the lack of significant recordings during 2003, several low signal-to-noise (S/N) quality events were chosen for processing. The maximum horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded at the pad was approximately 1 cm/s2 in 2003; the corresponding peak ground velocity (PGV) was approximately 0.01 cm/s. PGA and PGV were obtained at all nine accelerometers for most of these events, and spectra were computed. Ground motion amplitudes varied significantly across the boreholes. Higher ground amplifications were observed at the surface for the two boreholes that penetrated a thick amount ({approx} 30 m) of fill and Quaternary alluvium compared to the one that had less than 2 m of such. Additionally, surface-to-deep recordings showed as much as a factor of five amplification at these two boreholes. Signal correlation with inter-borehole distance agrees with basic scattering theory, and the recorded signals across the wavefront correlate more strongly than those along the propagation path. Transfer functions computed from layered models for each borehole reflect some of the actual signal attributes fairly well, but many more signals need to be recorded and used to provide a good basis of comparison.

David von Seggern

2005-08-17

407

In situ capture gamma-ray analysis of coal in an oversize borehole  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In situ capture gamma-ray analysis in a coal seam using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in a close-fitting borehole has been reported previously. In order to check the accuracy of the method under adverse conditions, similar measurements were made by means of a small-diameter sonde in an oversize borehole in the Pittsburgh seam, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The hole was 5 times the diameter of the sonde, a ratio that substantially increased the contribution of water (hydrogen) to the total spectral count and reduced the size of the sample measured by the detector. The total natural count, the 40K,count, and the intensities of capture gamma rays from Si, Ca, H, and Al were determined as a function of depth above, through, and below the coal seam. From these logs, the depth and width of the coal seam and its partings were determined. Spectra were accumulated in the seam for 1 h periods by using neutron sources of different strengths. From the spectra obtained by means of several 252Cf neutron sources of different sizes, the ultimate elemental analysis and ash content were determined. The results were not as good as those obtained previously in a close-fitting borehole. However, the results did improve with successively larger source-to-detector distances, i.e.,as the count contribution due to hydrogen in the water decreased. It was concluded that in situ borehole analyses should be made in relatively close-fitting boreholes. ?? 1983.

Mikesell, J. L.; Dotson, D. W.; Senftle, F. E.; Zych, R. S.; Koger, J.; Goldman, L.

1983-01-01

408

Scots pine needle surfaces on radial transects across the north boreal area of Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia.  

PubMed

To gain an understanding of the characteristics of the needle surfaces of naturally regenerated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and their geographical distribution, eight physicochemical variables were investigated within the north boreal forest area. The visibly undamaged needles were collected in autumn 1990 from 114 plots (3-5 pines per plot) along radial transects from the Monchegorsk and Nikel smelters, emitting SO2 and heavy metals, on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, to Finnish Lapland. The needles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measured for surface wettability using the droplet contact angle (DCA) method. Significant geographical south-north and west-east patterns could be observed in needle surface characteristics, correlating with emissions from the smelters and to climate. Despite the slightly higher initial DCAs (61.4-87.6 degrees) towards the north, the pine needle surfaces of the northernmost transects exhibited higher annual needle wettability change (ANWC) and wax erosion rate (AWER), expressed as the reduction in DCAs and epistomatal wax tube distribution (WTD) during one year, respectively, but a lower occurrence of particles and fungal hyphae than those of more southern transects. The higher ANWC was related to higher atmospheric SO2 concentration, and to the lower long-term temperature sum, but not clearly to annual precipitation. In the Monchegorsk smelter area, the current needles exhibited, on average, a 15% higher WTD and seven degree larger DCA, resulting in more hydrophobic needle surfaces than in Finnish Lapland, but during their first year, both the AWER and ANWC, were greatly increased. In Finnish Lapland, 30%, of all the epistomatal wax tubes disappeared from the needle surface during the first year, the value being 70% for the pines located 8 km from the smelter. The mineral composition of the particles deposited on the needle surfaces mirrored that of the minerals being produced by the smelters (e.g. FexSx, CuFeS2, NixSx, FexOx). Stomatal densities were in the range of 71.1-141.7 stomata mm(-2). The lower densities of stomata on needles close to the smelters correlated with reduced number of needle age classes of the pines, higher dry weights, higher pollutant accumulation and lower Mn and Zn concentrations in the needles. The AWER and ANWC were able to indicate the most seriously deteriorated needle surfaces on a regional scale, e.g. including the surroundings of both smelters, although the plot-specific relationships between 'needle surface variables' and 'pollution variables' were generally weak. The present study showed that the exposure of pine needles to the combined effects of ambient pollutants and harsh climate led to a deterioration in the physicochemical characteristics of the epicuticular wax, which may have serious ecophysiological consequences in the long term. PMID:15091357

Turunen, M; Huttunen, S

1996-01-01

409

A heat-pulse flowmeter for measuring minimal discharge rates in boreholes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has tested a borehole-configured heat-pulse flowmeter which has good low-velocity flow-measuring sensitivity. The flowmeter was tested in the laboratory in 51-, 102-, and 152-millimeter-diameter columns using water velocities ranging from 0.35 to 250 millimeters per second. The heat-pulse flowmeter also was tested in a 15-meter-deep granite test pit with controlled water flow, and in a 58-meter-deep borehole in sedimentary materials. The flowmeter's capability to detect and measure naturally occurring, low-velocity, thermally induced convection currents in boreholes was demonstrated. Further improvements to the heat-pulse-flowmeter system are needed to increase its reliability and improve its response through four-conductor logging cable.

Hess, A. E.

1982-01-01

410

Understanding the relationship between audiomagnetotelluric data and models, and borehole data in a hydrological environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data and resulting models are analyzed with respect to geophysical and geological borehole logs in order to clarify the relationship between the two methodologies of investigation of a hydrological environment. Several profiles of AMT data collected in basins in southwestern United States are being used for groundwater exploration and hydrogeological framework studies. In a systematic manner, the AMT data and models are compared to borehole data by computing the equivalent one-dimensional AMT model and comparing with the two-dimensional (2-D) inverse AMT model. The spatial length is used to determine if the well is near enough to the AMT profile to quantify the relationship between the two datasets, and determine the required resolution of the AMT data and models. The significance of the quality of the borehole data when compared to the AMT data is also examined.

McPhee, D. K.; Pellerin, L.

2008-01-01

411

High-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole applications  

SciTech Connect

A literature survey and technical evaluation was carried out of past and present battery technologies with the goal of identifying appropriate candidates for use in geothermal borehole and, to a lesser extent, oil/gas boreholes. The various constraints that are posed by such an environment are discussed. The promise as well as the limitations of various candidate technologies are presented. Data for limited testing of a number of candidate systems are presented and the areas for additional future work are detailed. The use of low-temperature molten salts shows the most promise for such applications and includes those that are liquid at room temperature. The greatest challenges are to develop an appropriate electrochemical couple that is kinetically stable with the most promising electrolytes--both organic as well as inorganic--over the wide operating window that spans both borehole environments.

GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.

2000-05-25

412

Method for locating underground anomalies by diffraction of electromagnetic waves passing between spaced boreholes  

DOEpatents

Underground anomalies or discontinuities, such as holes, tunnels, and caverns, are located by lowering an electromagnetic signal transmitting antenna down one borehole and a receiving antenna down another, the ground to be surveyed for anomalies being situated between the boreholes. Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment associated with the antennas is activated and the antennas are lowered in unison at the same rate down their respective boreholes a plurality of times, each time with the receiving antenna at a different level with respect to the transmitting antenna. The transmitted electromagnetic waves diffract at each edge of an anomaly. This causes minimal signal reception at the receiving antenna. Triangulation of the straight lines between the antennas for the depths at which the signal minimums are detected precisely locates the anomaly. Alternatively, phase shifts of the transmitted waves may be detected to locate an anomaly, the phase shift being distinctive for the waves directed at the anomaly.

Lytle, R. Jeffrey (Livermore, CA); Lager, Darrel L. (Livermore, CA); Laine, Edwin F. (Alamo, CA); Davis, Donald T. (Livermore, CA)

1979-01-01

413

Measurements in the 300-Metre Deep Dry-Drilled Borehole and Feasibility Study on the Dry-Drilling of a 600-Metre Deep Borehole in the Asse II Salt-Mine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1980 a borehole with a diameter of 300 millimeters and a depth of 300 meters was drilled with a dry-drilling technique in the Asse II salt-mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The borehole was used to perform a series of in-situ experiments to esta...

J. Prij D. Jansen W. Klerks G. B. Luyten A. de Ruiter

1986-01-01

414

Superposition of borehole-to-surface voltage residuals for Vadose Zone plume delineation.  

PubMed

An injected tracer field experiment was conducted at the University of Idaho Ground Water Field Laboratory to evaluate the application of borehole-to-surface voltage measurements for delineation of the tracer distribution in partially saturated, fractured basalt. A tap water tracer was injected into a fracture-dominated, salt-water plume formed during a previous salt-water injection experiment. The tap water tracer was injected into a central injection well under constant hydraulic head for 34 days. The injection well was surrounded by seven test boreholes. Each borehole contained several copper wire electrodes for borehole-to-surface potential measurements between a surface grid of 224 copper sulfate, porous pot electrodes. Eight pole-pole, borehole-to-surface voltage data sets were acquired during each measurement period by energization of a selected electrode in each of the eight boreholes. Predicted voltages for a uniform earth (homogeneous and isotropic) potential model (finite difference) were subtracted from each data set (for its respective current source location), and the voltage residuals superposed to create new data sets with greater measurement sensitivity and coverage, to aid in interpretation. These data sets were collected over four measurement periods during tap water injection and four measurement periods during the subsequent 64-day drainage phase. The data were interpreted with the use of three-dimensional models and by comparisons with other electrical and hydrological observations. Results indicate that superposition of multiple data sets of voltage residuals significantly improved the lateral resolution of subsurface bulk resistivity changes that occurred over time. PMID:16298016

Osiensky, James L; Belknap, Willard J; Donaldson, Paul R

2005-11-17

415

The data analysis of 4-component borehole strainmeters with high sampling rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two sets of 10 Hz YRY 4-component borehole strainmeters and one set of 100 Hz FBS-3B broadband seismometer are adopted to study the 11 April 2012 MW 8.6 earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, and compare the response characteristics during the coseismic stage after preprocessing the data. It is convenient to investigate the spectrum's dynamic process during the coseismic stage with the S transformation method, and analyze on the spectrum's details of different seismic phases. The time series of borehole strain observations display very good consistency between two sets of orthogonal strain sum, and show high signal to noise ratio during the earthquake. The relationship between observations of YRY 4-component borehole strainmeters at different locations disagree with the theoretical prediction, and that may mainly result from local structural complexity, coupling condition and sensitivity diversity. The S transformation results indicate that the components of high frequency in observational records soar immediately after the first arrival of seismic waves and cover a large range of frequency band. After the arrival of some seismic phases of P and S waves, the surface waves with dominant energy emerge in the records characterized by obvious frequency dispersion. The components of the surface waves with low frequency arrive first and then the other high frequency components. The frequency band of record narrows down and all the distinctive signals stay in a stable frequency range after the surface waves leaving. The S transformation results of colocated seismometer and borehole strainmeter show that the evolutions of the two coseismic spectrums have much in common, and so do the results of two borehole strainmeters which is not far from each other. Comparison between them can be helpful for indentifying the origins of specific wave signals. Therefore, it is reliable to observe the data at high frequency using the borehole strainmeters and to bridge the gap of observational frequency band between seismometers and GPS. Key words: high sampling rate; 4-component; strain; coseismic; time-frequency

Liu, Qi; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Rui; Wu, Yanqiang; Yan, Wei

2013-04-01

416

Permeability Distribution In A Confined Fracture Flow Aquifer Using Hydraulic Testing and Borehole Geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater is one of the main drinking water resources in the United Kingdom and the Chalk aquifer contributes over 50 % of the abstracted amount. The Chalk consists of a highly porous matrix which is intersected by hydraulically conductive fractures representing the main flow pathways. Hydraulic testing and borehole geophysics were carried out at a test site in East Yorkshire (Northern England), in order to characterise the permeability distribution at the site prior to conducting tracer tests. The Chalk at the fieldsite is confined by about 11m glacial and postglacial lacustrine deposits, and the upper 12m of Chalk has been affected by periglacial weathering. Five boreholes were drilled to 70 to 80m depth; one of these was cored. The intact Chalk contains stylolites (pressure dissolution surfaces), marl bands up to 1.5cm thick, faults, and several sets of inclined joints. The core and acoustic televiewer images from all five boreholes show a high fracture density in the depth interval from 25 to 32m, and discrete fractured zones below this depth. Packer tests on the cored borehole yielded hydraulic conductivities of 6.6OE10-5 to 3.7OE10-6m/s, which agree with the average hydraulic conductivity obtained from the pumping test. Fluid temperature and con- ductivity logging combined with static and pumped borehole flow logging showed that minor inflows and outflows were present throughout, but that several horizons of higher inflow/outflow were detected, which corresponded to highly fractured zones seen in acoustic televiewer images. Both packer tests and borehole geophysical log- ging indicate that most of the permeability of the aquifer is in the upper, highly frac- tured zone, but that discrete zones of high permeability are also present at depth. The acoustic televiewer was able to detect steep fractures that were not recognisable in the core, because the core was broken and fragmented during drilling due to the presence of these fractures.

Hartmann, S.; Odling, N. E.; West, L. J.

417

Climate change inferred from analysis of borehole temperatures: An example from western Utah  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-depth profiles measured in a suite of boreholes in western Utah are used to infer climate change in the region over the past century and to document how effectively the solid earth records secular changes in surface air temperature. The data for this analysis consist of (1) high-resolution temperature logs from six sites where terrain, hydrologic, and cultural disturbances to the temperature field are minimal, (2) surface air temperature records for the period 1891-1990 from seven meteorological stations geographically interspersed with the borehole sites, and (3) ground and air temperature records available from four weather stations. Deviations from linear temperature-depth profiles in the boreholes, interpreted in terms of a linear change of surface temperature with time, suggest changes of -0.8{degrees}C to +0.6{degrees}C (average +0.3{degrees}C) in surface temperature for western Utah over the last several decades. These changes are consistent in trend but smaller in amplitude than the 100-year linear trends in the surface air temperature data (average +0.8{degrees}C) for the same region. If the last 100 years of surface temperature change is assumed to be given by a nearby meteorological station record, then borehole temperatures yield additional information about the mean temperature prior to 1891. For three western Utah borehole sites the pre observational means are within {+-}0.3{degrees}C of the mean air temperatures for this century, indicating that up to 50% of the temperature increase seen in the 100 year record constitutes recovery from a cold period toward the end of the last century. The veracity with which our observed borehole temperature profiles match synthetic temperature-depth profiles computed from air temperature records leaves little doubt that the solid earth is a valuable recorder of climatic change. 56 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

Chisholm, T.J.; Chapman, D.S. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1992-09-10

418

Subseafloor seawater-basalt-microbe reactions: Continuous sampling of borehole fluids in a ridge flank environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole 1301A was drilled, cased, and instrumented with a long-term, subseafloor observatory (CORK) on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in summer 2004. This borehole is located 1 km south of ODP Hole 1026B and 5 km north of Baby Bare outcrop. Hole 1301A penetrates 262 m of sediment and 108 m of the uppermost 3.5 Ma basaltic basement in an area of warm (64°C) hydrothermal circulation. The borehole was instrumented, and those instruments were recovered 4 years later. Here we report chemical data from two continuous fluid samplers (OsmoSamplers) and temperature recording tools that monitored changes in the state of borehole (formation) fluids. These changes document the effects of drilling, fluid overpressure and flow, seawater-basalt interactions, and microbial metababolic activity. Initially, bottom seawater flowed into the borehole through a leak between concentric CORK casing strings. Eventually, the direction of flow reversed, and warm, altered formation fluid flowed into the borehole and discharged at the seafloor. This reversal occurred during 1 week in September 2007, 3 years after drilling operations ceased. The composition of the formation fluid around Hole 1301A generally lies within bounds defined by springs on Baby Bare outcrop (to the south) and fluids that discharged from Hole 1026B (to the north); deviations likely result from reactions with drilling products. Simple conservative mixing of two end-member fluids reveals reactions occurring within the crust, including nitrate reduction presumably by denitrifying microbes. The observed changes in borehole fluid composition provide the foundation for a conceptual model of chemical and microbial change during recharge of a warm ridge-flank hydrothermal system. This model can be tested through future scientific ocean drilling experiments.

Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Jannasch, Hans W.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Becker, Keir; Sharkey, Jessica; Hulme, Samuel

2010-07-01

419

Borehole Seismic Monitoring of Injected CO2 at the Frio Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently completed CO2 injection in the brine aquifer of the Frio Formation in southeast Texas provided an opportunity to test borehole seismic monitoring techniques. Designed tests included time-lapse VSP and crosswell surveys which investigated the detectability of CO2 with surface-to-borehole and borehole-to-borehole measurement. The VSP method uses surface seismic sources in conjunction with borehole sensors to measure the seismic properties ( such as velocity and reflection strength) in the vicinity of the borehole. By moving the source location, seismic properties can be mapped spatially around the sensor well. A large change (about 70%)in VSP reflection amplitude from the Frio zone was observed. Because of the relatively small amount of CO2 injected (about 1600 tons), and the thin injection interval (about 6 m thick at 1500 m depth), CO2 detectability by the VSP method was not an assumed certainty. The initial result is therefor quite promising for use of the VSP method. The crosswell method measures wave propagation between wells and can tomographically image the interwell volume. The crosswell survey was conducted using the injection well (for sensors) and a nearby monitoring well (for the source) which is about 30 m offset. Crosswell source locations were centered on the injection interval. The crosswell sensors were also centered on the injection interval, which is the 6-7 m thick, upper C sand in the Frio formation which is at a depth of about 1500 m. Initial analysis of the crosswell data shows good quality P- and S-wave direct arrivals. Time-lapse tomographic imaging maps the changes in velocity (up to 1 km/s) due to the CO2 plume.

Daley, T. M.; Myer, L.; Hoversten, G. M.; Peterson, J. E.

2005-12-01

420

Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook  

SciTech Connect

One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

1996-09-01

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