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1

The Kola superdeep borehole and U-Pb and Sm-Nd data synthesis (in memory of T. Krogh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kola superdeep borehole (SG-3) is drilled in the central part of the Central zone of the Pechenga rift down to a depth of 12 262 meters. The cross-section of the borehole from the surface down to a depth of 6842 meters consists of the Early Proterozoic volcano-sedimentary rocks. The Archaean amphibolite-gneiss complex (6842-12 262 meters depth) is characterized by laminar bedding and underlies the Proterozoic rock sequence of the Pechenga rift. The gneisses of the SG-3 cross-section were dated by traditional U-Pb isochron method on zircons and Sm-Nd method on rock-forming minerals. The tonalite gneiss formed in the interval of 2.93 - 2.81 Ga. The 2.77-2.55 Ga events reflect the Archaean stage of gneiss metamorphism and pegmatite rock emplacement. The interval of 1.9-1.7 Ga is the time of Svecofennian regional metamorphism and emplacement of the Litsa-Araguba granite that was dated on monazite, titanite, and zircon. The Sm-Nd isotope WR age of 3.15 Ga is thought to be the oldest for the protolyte of the local Archaean amphibolite. Three age groups of amphibolites have been distinguished, one Early Proteozoic and two Archaean, the oldest of whose (3.15-2.89 Ga) being the relic of the greenstone belt formed in the oceanic crust. The protolytic amphibolites mostly show negative values of ?Nd (-0.30….- 5.2) with a few positive (0.59-5.88). It indicates the predominant contribution of the mantle enriched in lithophile elements to their genesis. The total of the U-Pb and Sm-Nd data corroborates the polychronous nature of the local Archaean rock genesis and reflect laminar and blocky structure of the cross-section in contrast to the previously suggested rhythmic stratigraphy. New U-Pb data on baddeleyite and zircon of the Pechenga Cu-Ni deposit and surrounding rocks varying from 2.3 to 1.7 Ga reflect exact emplacement time (1980+/-10 Ma) of the ore-bearing gabbro-wehrlite intrusions and long-term magmatic (plume) activity. All investigations are supported by ???? 08-05-00324 and ITP K-0194.

Denisenko, O.; Bayanova, T.; Yakovlev, Y.

2009-04-01

2

Archean rock homologs in the Kola superdeep borehole section in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt, Voche-Lambina test site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archean Complex homologs of the Kola superdeep borehole (SG-3) were identified in the northern part of the White Sea mobile belt. Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneisses of the Voche-Lambina test site and metavolcanic dacite-rhyodacite rocks of the borehole SG-3 were formed at the stages of 2.97-2.82, ˜2.81, and 2.78-2.79 Ga. The Sm-Nd model ages of the studied rocks do not exceed 3.1 Ga, and their positive ?Nd(t) values vary from +0.5 to +3.34. They are characterized by Mg# = 0.20-0.44, similar concentrations (HFSE) of Zr, Nb, Y, and also Rb, Cr, and Ni, and sharply differentiated spectra of the REE distribution (Ce/Sm = 3.2-5.8; Gd/Yb = 2.6-7.1). Primary melts were formed in balance with garnetamphibole restite under P ? 15-16 kbar.

Morozova, L. N.; Mitrofanov, F. P.; Bayanova, T. B.; Vetrin, V. R.; Serov, P. A.

2012-01-01

3

Correlation Between Archean Rocks From Fhe Kola Superdeep Borehole and Their Surface Analogues: On The Data of Structural-petrological and Petrophysical Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of complex structural-petrological and petrophysical studies on core sam- ples from the Kola Superdeep borehole (SG-3) and their surface analogous are evi- dence in favour of choosing Mustantunturi site for correlation between Archean rocks of Kola series from the depths of 8-10 km and from the surface. The samples of the both groups show similarity in the mode of occurrence, mineral composition, tex- ture character and formation conditions. Using the data of the SG-3 investigations it was found that the degree of rock anisotropy has been increasing with depth, but such variations were not linear, being controlled by a combination of different fac- tors. It also depended on initial composition, intensities of plastic deformations syn- chronous with Early-Proterozoic zonal progressive metamorphism. Later overprinted fragile strains and regressive processes led to its decrease. Data on the northern flank of the Pechenga structure and its setting are in conflict with these observations, but generally, anisotropy of longitudinal waves at the surface is lower than that at the depth. This conclusion is verified by Avp determinations on reference gneiss and am- phibolite samples and their surface analogues. The investigations illuminate the con- tinuously debated issue of the anomalously high rock porosity and the anomalously low elastic wave velocities at the deep levels of the ancient continental crust cut by SG-3. The results of petrophysical and experimental study on the reference core sam- ples and their surface analogues show that the gneisses and amphibolites at the depths of 8-11 are characterized by normal values of density (2,71-2,74 and 3,05-3,06 g/cm3, respectively) typical for such rocks and by velocities of longitudinal (5,57-5,83 and 6,29-6,50 km/s) and shear (2,72-3,18 and 3,31-3,45 km/s) elastic waves. With lifting to the surface from the depth more than 7 km core undergo decompression and that leads to softening and loosening of rock material. As a result, the value of rock poros- ity may comprise 0,5- 0,8 %. The results of our petrophysical study give reason to believe that in situ porosity of the Archean gneisses and amphibolites is 0,5 % and permeability values are from 10-20 to 10-18 m2. This study was supported by the RFBR (projects nos. 01-05-64294, 01-05-64295).

Lobanov, K.; Kazansky, V.

4

Directional dependence of P- and S-wave propagation and polarization in foliated rocks from the Kola superdeep well: Evidence from laboratory measurements and calculations based on TOF neutron diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured P- and S-wave velocities on two amphibolite and two gneiss samples from the Kola superdeep borehole as a function of pressure (up to 600 MPa) and temperature (up to 600 °C). The velocity measurements include compressional (Vp) and shear wave velocities (Vs1, Vs2) propagating in three orthogonal directions which were in general not parallel to inherent rock

T. I. Ivankina; H. M. Kern; A. N. Nikitin

2005-01-01

5

Experience in applying acoustopolarization method for rock samples from the Kola (SG-3), German (KTB) and Finnish (OKU) investigation boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kola Superdeep Borehole (SG-3) was drilled in the NW-part of the Kola Peninsula [1]. The borehole intersected the lower Proterozoic complex (0-6848 m) of the Pechenga Formation and an Archaean granite and metamorphic complex (6848-12261 m). Our investigations show that rocks of the Archaean complex (paragneiss, metabasite, amphibolites) have high elastic anisotropy. It correlates with breakouts from the walls of the borehole and its inclination (deviation) from the vertical during drilling. Because of this when drilling SG-3 at a depth of 7.7 km to 10.1 km accidents occurred with the loss of the drill string part. Sinking the German drill hole ?-? (9101 m) was also accompanied by complications during its drilling [2]. The drill hole was drilled in the crystalline basement of the Bohemian massif in the south of Germany. The main rocks composing the massif are paragneiss, metabasite, granite and metasedimentary rocks. Our investigations of the ?-? samples from the 4.1-7.1 km interval also showed a high level of elastic anisotropy. The investigation drill hole Outokumpu (OKU) located in SE Finland, reached a final depth of 2516 m. The drill hole has passed through mica schists, biotite gneiss, serpentinite and pegmatite granite. Excluding pegmatite granite, all rocks have a high level of elastic anisotropy. Joint analyses of rock samples from SG-3, ?-? and OKU showed that the use of the acoustopolariscopy method can reveal intervals with breakouts and inclinations of the drill hole from the vertical. Elastic anisotropy monitoring of rocks performed by the acoustopolariscopy method will prevent accidents during sinking wells. 1. Gorbatsevich, F.F. & Smirnov, Yu.P. 2000. Kola Superdeep Borehole: 3-D model of elastic anisotropy of crystalline rocks in the upper and middle crust. In: The results of the study of the deep substance and physical processes in the Kola Superdeep Borehole section down to a depth of 12261 m. (Eds. F.P. Mitrofanov, F.F. Gorbatsevich). Apatity, Poligraf Publ., pp. 131-134. 2. Emmermann R. and Lauterjing J. The German Continental Deep Drilling Program KTB: Overview and major results // Journ. of Geoph. Res.-V.102. No. B8. - P18, 179-18,201. 3. Felix F. Gorbatsevich, Mikhail V. Kovalevsky, Olga M. Trishina. Characteristics of elastic properties of the crystalline rock samples from the Outokumpu deep drill hole: results of acoustopolariscopic laboratory measurements // Special Volume. Geological Survey of Finland. Special Paper 51, 2011. P. 207-218.

Gorbatsevich, Felix F.

2013-04-01

6

Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust in the region of superdeep boreholes of Yamal-Nenets autonomous district using the fields of natural and controlled sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic soundings with the fields of natural (magnetotelluric (MT), and audio magnetotelluric (AMT)) and high-power controlled sources have been carried out in the region of the SG-6 (Tyumen) and SG-7 (En-Yakhin) superdeep boreholes in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district (YaNAD). In the controlled-source soundings, the electromagnetic field was generated by the VL Urengoi-Pangody 220-kV industrial power transmission line (PTL), which has a length of 114 km, and ultralow-frequency (ULF) Zevs radiating antenna located at a distance of 2000 km from the signal recording sites. In the soundings with the Urengoi-Pangody PTL, the Energiya-2 generator capable of supplying up to 200 kW of power and Energiya-3 portable generator with a power of 2 kW were used as the sources. These generators were designed and manufactured at the Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The soundings with the Energiya-2 generator were conducted in the frequency range from 0.38 to 175 Hz. The external generator was connected to the PTL in upon the agreement with the Yamal-Nenets Enterprise of Main Electric Networks, a branch of OAO FSK ES of Western Siberia. The connection was carried out by the wire-ground scheme during the routine maintenance of PTL in the nighttime. The highest-quality signals were recorded in the region of the SG-7 (En-Yakhin) superdeep borehole, where the industrial noise is lowest. The results of the inversion of the soundings with PTL and Zevs ULF transmitter completely agree with each other and with the data of electric logging. The MT-AMT data provide additional information about the deep structure of the region in the low-frequency range (below 1Hz). It is established that the section of SG-6 and SG-7 boreholes contains conductive layers in the depth intervals from 0.15 to 0.3 km and from 1 to 1.5 km. These layers are associated with the variations in the lithological composition, porosity, and fluid saturation of the rocks. The top of the poorly conductive Permian-Triassic complex is identified at a depth of about 7 km. On the basis of the MT data in the lowest frequency band (hourly and longer periods) with the observations at the Novosibirsk observatory taken into account, the distribution of electric resistivity up to a depth of 800 km is reconstructed. This distribution can be used as additional information when calculating the temperature and rheology of the lithosphere and upper mantle in West Siberia. The results of our studies demonstrate the high potential of the complex electromagnetic soundings with natural and controlled sources in the study of deep structure of the lithosphere and tracing deep oil-and-gas-bearing horizons in the sedimentary cover of the West Siberian Platform within the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district.

Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Petrishchev, M. S.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Selivanov, V. N.; Barannik, M. B.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Grigoriev, V. F.; Sergushin, P. A.; Kopytenko, E. A.; Biryulya, M. A.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Esipko, O. A.; Damaskin, R. V.

2013-11-01

7

Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust in the vicinities of the SG-6 and SG-7 superdeep boreholes in the fields of natural and powerful controlled sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust in the vicinities of the SG-6 and SG-7 superdeep boreholes (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug) are presented. The studies were conducted in the fields of natural sources (AMT-MTS) and in the field of the Zevs ULF antenna located at a distance of more than 2000 km from the receiver points. In the vicinity of the SG-7 superdeep borehole, where the small industrial noise was observed, the results of inverse problem solution are completely consistent with the electric logging data. The conducting layers have been identified at the depths of 150 m and 1.1 km. The roof of rocks having small electrical conductivity and belonging to the Permian-Triassic trappean complex has been found at the depth of about 7 km. The response of the Zevs signal (the frequency range of 44-182 Hz) has indicated the properties of the upper part of the geoelectrical section better than audiomagnetotelluric sounding for both boreholes. Based on the sounding in the vicinity of the SG-6 superdeep borehole, with the data of the Novosobirsk observatory taken into account, the distribution of resistivity down to about 800 km depth has been obtained. This distribution can serve as additional information in calculation of the temperature and rheological regime of the lithosphere and the upper mantle in the region of Western Siberia.

Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Petrishchev, M. S.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Selivanov, V. N.; Esipko, O. A.; Kopytenko, E. A.; Grigorjev, V. F.

2012-07-01

8

SUPER-DEEP TEST SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general geologic problems which can be solved by deep drilling are listed. A super-deep drilling program which would satisfy all demands would involve about 12 tests and require international cooperation. —M. Russell.

Yu. M. Sheynmann

1962-01-01

9

Vertical Variations In Heat Flow Inferred From Experiments In Deep Boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep scientific and parametric continental boreholes allow to obtain representative experimental data on combination of the geothermal parameters of the crust - temperature, temperature gradient, rock thermal properties, and, as the result, heat flow density values - which are more reliable compared to the previous data from shallow boreholes. Special advantages of the scientific boreholes include also a possibility for many repeated temperature logging during long time intervals (several years often) after a finish of the drilling that allowed (1) to determine temperatures and temperature gradient values corresponding to thermal equilibrium of the formations studied, (2) to study temporal regularities in temperature and temperature gradient behaviour within different formation layers during the formation recovery process. Scientific boreholes are drilled with numerous coring (often - with continuous coring) that provides the possibility to obtain detailed information on a distribution of rock thermal conductivity along the borehole. As a result, the scientific deep and super-deep boreholes provided the unique possibility for the determination of vertical distributions of the heat flow density that can not be reached normally in other boreholes. Experimental geothermal and petrothermal investigations performed for the super-deep boreholes Kola, Ural, Vorotilovo, Tyumen, Yen-Yakha (all - Russia), Saatly (Azerbaidzhan), and deep scientific and parametric boreholes Kolva, Timano-Pechora, Tyrnyaus, (all - Russia), Krivoy Rog (Ukraine), Muruntau (Uzbekistan), Nordlingen-72 (Germany), Yaxcopoil-1 (Mexico) allowed us to establish the following important peculiarities in geothermal parameters of the crustal blocks studied with scientific deep drilling were established from the investigations: (1) temperature gradient recovery up to undisturbed values occurs essentially faster than it was assumed earlier; (2) a rate of temperature gradient recovery was found to be different for different formation layers; (3) significant variations in rock thermal properties vary significantly along boreholes within several thousands, hundreds and dozens meters as well as along short depth intervals of 0.5-1 m; (4) conductive component of the heat flow density varies up to 70-100% along boreholes often, regular increase in heat flow density within depth intervals of several kilometers is combined with essential local variations, (5) values of a conductive component of the heat flow density established from the measurements in deep and super-deep boreholes exceeds significantly (by 30-100%) and systematically the previous experimental estimates done earlier for shallow boreholes. The mentioned regularities in behaviour of the geothermic parameters were confirmed from new experimental data for the scientific and parametric boreholes Severo-Molokovo, Vysokovo, Yarudeyskaya (Russia), Eyreville (USA) and from the revision of previous experimental geothermic data for the Moscow syneclise (the East European platform) and Ural region. The new results obtained from studying vertical variations in the heat flow density demonstrate a regular essential (30-60%) increase in the conductive component of the heat flow density with a depth within upper depth intervals up to 2000-3000 m. The results show that the determination of heat flow values from averaging the geothermal parameters within long depth intervals can lead to essential underestimation of the crustal heat flow values.

Popov, Y.; Romushkevich, R.; Gorobtsov, D.; Korobkov, D.

2012-04-01

10

New borehole-derived results on temperatures at the base of the Fennoscandian ice sheet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last few years, a data base of deep boreholes (>1000 m )in the area of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has been collected, including boreholes from Russia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Norway. All of these are supposed to have recorded local basal ice conditions during the last glacial cycle. However, at each of these sites we are confronted with particular problems of interpretation. Here, we will concentrate on two very deep boreholes, namely the Outokumpu ICDP borehole (OKU, ?2500 m) and a set of boreholes of intermediate depth (up to 1300 m) in the immediate meighborhood of the Kola superdeep borehole SG3. In the first case, OKU, we have developed a strategy combining the use of a traditional variational inversion of thye Tikhonov type, with a MCMC approach for the exploration of the associated uncertainty. A wide distribution around the result of the variational approach was chosen, with a time dependent temporal correlation length reflecting the loss of resolution back in time. The results fit very well with region independent results from different proxies, multi-proxy reconstructions, and instrumental data. They also are consistent with surface temperatures derived from recent calibrated ice sheet models. The SAT-GST offset independently derived from shallow borehole observations in the area was a crucial step to obtain theses results. The second case, SG3, has been studied a long time, and no final result was obtained regarding the question whether the observed heat flow density profile is caused by paleoclimate, fluid flow, or both. Earlier studies, as well as forward modelling using the results of the aforementioned ice sheet model indicate that paleoclimate alone can not explain the observations. We tested the model derived from the set of shallow boreholes against the temperature log from the main superdeep SG3, which, in contrast to these, transects the main high-permeability zone. The comparison led to a favorable results, and is also qualitatively consistent with other data reported in earlier Russian publications. However, for the SG3 case, which involves fluid flow processes, there are still important open questions. These are related to some of the assumptions made in the modeling and inversion process. The temperature conditions at the base of the ice sheet are surely not it's only effect: the high pressures induced but the ice load are known to drive melt water deep into the subsurface, with unknown temperature effects. Moreover, the crustal deformation related to isostatic effects probably influence large-scale permeability, in particular if older structures can be reactivated. These questions will be discussed in the light or recent modelling results obtained by groups active in nuclear waste disposal research, and which may open new research perspectives in the future.

Rath, Volker; Vogt, Christian; Mottaghy, Darius; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Tarasov, Lev

2014-05-01

11

Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of the German KTB superdeep well in the 4100-7100 m depth range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The KTB German Superdeep Well (Germany, Windischeschenbach) has limiting depth of 9101 m. It is one of the world deepest well among the continental boreholes. A study of physical parameters including elastic ones of the massif intersected by the well allowed to represent a real pattern of changing properties and the state of crystalline rocks in upper and middle part of the Earth crust. Such a deep section enables performing analyses of large spectrum of geological and geophysical objects, such as minerals, crystalline rocks, geological strata, formation complexes et al. Recently obtained results permit to get a general idea of elastic-anisotropic properties of crystalline rocks extracted from great depths. A study of properties and state of rocks along the KTB section will make it possible to most precisely determine regular changes of the Earth's rock properties within a large range of depths. Below are the results of investigation of elastic-anisotropic properties for 13 core samples of the KTB rocks in the range of 4.1 to 7.1 km. In this interval the well has penetrated metamorphosed rocks [1]. The measurements have been done by an acoustopolarization method with recent improvements and with devices for determination of sample elastic properties [2 3]. The data obtained are the result of extended study into the KTB rock samples by the method [4]. Study of rock samples from the KTB Superdeep Well in the 4100-7100 m depth range showed that they all are elastic anisotropic and pertain to a orthorhombic symmetry type. Virtually the degree of linear acoustic anisotropic absorption (LAAA) effect has been detected in all samples. Its appearance is likely related to directional orientation of mineral grains as well as to the generation of microcracks during drilling and lithostatic stress release. The several samples showed an angular unconformity between the LAAA orientation and elastic symmetry elements. The shear waves depolarization (DSW) effect was detected in garnet amphibolites samples. There was observed a tendency to persistence in propagation rate of compression and shear wave velocities. The pattern of change in anisotropy factors for compression and shear waves in depth shows itself in a similar way. There is an inverse correlation between density and anisotropy. R E F E R E N C E S 1. Emmermann R., Althaus E., Giese P., Stockhert B.. KTB Hauptbohrung. Results of Geoscientific Investigation in the KTB Field Laboratory. Final Report: 0-9101m. KTB Report 95-2. Hannover. 1995. 2. Gorbatsevich F.F. Acoustopolariscopy of rock forming minerals and crystalline rocks. Apatity, Kola Science Centre RAS, 2002, p. 140. (In Russian) 3. Kovalevskiy M.V. Automated hardware-software complex Acoustpol: Tutorial: Apatity, «K & M» Publ., 2009. 54p. (In Russian). 4. Kovalevsky M.V., Gorbatsevich F.F., Harms U., Dahlheim H.-A. Ultrasonic polarization measurements of elastic-anisotropic properties of metamorphized rocks on the slit of German KTB Superdeep Well // Geophysical magazine.- Geophysics Institute of NAS of Ukraine. -2012.- Issue 34.-#2.-P. 36-48. (In Russian)

Kovalevskiy, Mikhail

2013-04-01

12

Stishovite paradox in genesis of the superdeep diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stishovite was experimentally discovered [1] as high-density polymorph of SiO2 stable at 9 - 50 GPa. A paradoxical paragenesis of stishovite and magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O was disclosed among primary inclusions in lower-mantle superdeep diamonds [2]. This contradicts to a common knowledge that SiO2 and MgO paragenesis is forbidden for low-pressure SiO2 polymorphs - quartz and coesite. The "stishovite paradox" does not manifest itself in the lower mantle ultrabasic compositions as is seen from experimental pyrolite assembly magnesiowustite+Mg-perovskite+Ca-perovskite at 50 GPa. In basic basalt composition stishovite is formed together with Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite and Al-bearing phases under the lower mantle PT-parameters [3]. In this case stishovite is taken as product of oceanic basalt subducted into lower mantle, but not in situ lower-mantle primary mineral. Paragenesis of stishovite and superdeep diamond has opened up fresh opportunity for detailed study. Magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O inclusions in superdeep diamonds are characterized by a wide variation of FeO content between 10 and 64 mol. % [2]. It is interesting that ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 solid solutions are decomposed into Mg-perovskite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 + magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 (within 30 - 42 mol. % Fe2SiO4) and magnesiowustite + stishovite (within 42 - 100 mol. % Fe2SiO4). Based on experimental data, melting phase diagram of MgO - SiO2 - FeO system at 30 GPa is constructed [4]. Subsolidus assembly includes solid solutions of (Mg,Fe)-perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O. With increase in FeO content in the system, liquidus relations are determined by two univariant cotectics L + (Mg,Fe)O + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and L + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 having come to invariant peritectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3. Mg-perovskite is eliminated by peritectic reaction L + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 = (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 that gives rise to third univariant cotectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2. The physicochemical peritectic mechanism is also operating in the MgO - SiO2 - FeO - CaSiO3 system where Ca-perovskite is stable. Thus, the "stishovite paradox" has physicochemical substantiation. Fractional crystallization of magnesiowustite in ultrabasic lower-mantle magma could lead to a rise of FeO content in the residual melts and activate the peritectic mechanism of the "stishovite paradox' formation. This is resulted in a transfer to basic residual melts and in situ formation of stishovite-magnesiowustite-Ca-perovskite rocks where stishovite is a primary lower-mantle mineral. This mechanism can be extended to the origin of stishovite and "stishovite paradox" in the superdeep diamond inclusions. By mantle-carbonatite model [5], the parental media of upper-mantle diamonds and inclusions are presented by carbonate-silicate-carbon melts. Carbonate-based parental media are applicable to origin of lower-mantle superdeep diamonds and inclusions. In this case the reasons arise from the presence of primary Na-, Mg-, Fe-, Ca-carbonate inclusions in superdeep diamonds and experimental evidence for congruent melting of carbonates under PT-conditions of the lower mantle [6, 7]. Support: RFBR grant 11-05-00401. 1. Stishov S.M., Popova S.V. (1961). Doklady USSR Academy of Sciences ????? 2. Kaminsky F. (2012). Earth-Science Review 110 . 127-147. 3. Akaogi M. ln E. Ohtani, ed. Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 2007. # 421. P. 1-13. 4. Litvin Yu.A. Doklady Earth Sciences, 2013 (accepted). 5. Litvin Yu.A. ln E. Ohtani, ed. Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy: Geological Society of America Special Paper 2007. # 421. P.83-103. 6. Spivak A.V., Litvin Yu.A., S.V. Ovsyannikov, et al. // Journal of Solid State Chemistry 2012,. 191, 102-106. 7. Solopova N.A., Litvin Yu.A., Spivak A.V. et al. Doklady Earth Sciences, 2013 (accepted).

Litvin, Yuriy

2013-04-01

13

Tracking Crust-Mantle Recycling through Superdeep Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sublithospheric, or 'superdeep' diamonds, originate in the deep upper mantle, transition zone, and at least as deep as the shallow lower mantle. When diamonds crystallize in the mantle from fluids or melts they occasionally entrap coexisting mineral phases. Because of their great physical resiliency, diamonds can potentially preserve information over long distance- and time-scales, revealing important information about the petrologic, tectonic and geodynamic environment in which the diamonds grew and were transported. Superdeep diamonds and their inclusions have proven especially powerful for probing processes related to subduction of slabs into the deep mantle [1-3]. In contrast to lithospheric diamonds that are effectively frozen-in geodynamically, mineral inclusions in superdeep diamonds often record hundreds of kilometers of uplift in the convecting mantle from their original depth of origin [3-5]. The phase equilibria of unmixing of original deep mantle phases such as Ca- and Mg-perovskite, NAL-phase, CF-phase, CAS-phase, and majorite provide a means to establish amounts of uplift. The few available age constraints indicate superdeep diamond growth from the Proterozoic to the Cretaceous, and further dating can potentially lead to constraining mantle upwelling rates [4]. Here we will provide several examples showing how superdeep diamonds and their inclusions record processes of subduction and slab foundering, and ultimately recycling of slab material from the transition zone and lower mantle into the shallow upper mantle. 1. Harte, B., Mineralogical Magazine, 2010. 74: p. 189-215. 2. Tappert, R., et al., Geology, 2005. 33: p. 565-568. 3. Walter, M.J., et al., Science, 2011. 333: p. 54-57. 4. Bulanova, G.P., et al., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2010. 160: p. 489-510. 5. Harte, B. and N. Cayzer, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 2007.

Walter, Michael; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Thomson, Andrew; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony

2013-04-01

14

Microbiology of the gut of the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae.  

PubMed

Reports have shown that many insects have microbes in their gut system. Gut microbes are very important for insect vitality and much of their nutrition is derived from products of microbial metabolism. The habitat of Balanogastris kolae (Desbrocher des Loges) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggests that they possess the ability to digest varieties of sugars particularly starch and protein materials present in the kola nut, Cola nitida Schott & Endlicher (Malvales: Malvaceae). The aim of this study was to characterize the gut bacterial communities of the kola weevil, B. kolae. To ascertain this, the gut bacterial community of a kola nut-feeding weevil, B. kolae was characterized using culture-dependent methods. The bacterial counts in the foregut, midgut and hindgut were 7.14 ± 0.11 × 10(6)cfu ml(-1), 2.68 ± 0.13 × 10(7) cfu ml(-1) and 1.43 ± 0.20 × 10(6) cfu ml(-1) respectively. There were no significant differences in the total bacterial count of the foregut, midgut and hindgut. The bacterial species were identified to be Fusobacterium nucleatum, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium fascians, Arthrobacter globiformis, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus brevis, Vibrio haemolyticus and Flavobacterium breve. The majority of these isolates were demonstrated to have both proteolytic and amylolytic activities. PMID:23421598

Femi-Ola, T O; Babalola, A G

2012-01-01

15

Kimberlitic sources of super-deep diamonds in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Juina diamond field, in the 1970-80s, was producing up to 5-6 million carats per year from rich placer deposits, but no economic primary deposits had been found in the area. In 2006-2007, Diagem Inc. discovered a group of diamondiferous kimberlitic pipes within the Chapadão Plateau (Chapadão, or Pandrea cluster), at the head of a drainage system which has produced most of the alluvial diamonds mined in the Juina area. Diamonds from placer deposits and newly discovered kimberlites are identical; they have super-deep origins from the upper-mantle and transition zone. Field observations and petrographic studies have identified crater-facies kimberlitic material at seven separate localities. Kimberlitic material is represented by tuffs, tuffisites and various epiclastic sediments containing chrome spinel, picroilmenite, manganoan ilmenite, zircon and diamond. The diamond grade varies from 0.2-1.8 ct/m 3. Chrome spinel has 30-61 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Picroilmenite contains 6-14 wt.% MgO and 0.2-4 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Manganoan ilmenite has less than 3 wt.% MgO and 0.38-1.41 wt.% MnO. The 176Hf/ 177Hf ratio in kimberlitic zircons is 0.028288-0.28295 with ?Hf = 5.9-8.3, and lies on the average kimberlite trend between depleted mantle and CHUR. The previously known barren and weakly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Juina area have ages of 79-80 Ma. In contrast, zircons from the newly discovered Chapadão kimberlites have a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 93.6 ± 0.4 Ma, corresponding to a time of magmatic activity related to the opening of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The most likely mechanism of the origin of kimberlitic magma is super-deep subduction process that initiated partial melting of zones in lower mantle with subsequent ascent of proto-kimberlitic magma.

Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Belousova, Elena A.; Andreazza, Paulo; Tremblay, Mousseau; Griffin, William L.

2010-01-01

16

The Deep Mantle Volatile Cycle Revealed in Superdeep Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamonds crystallize in the mantle primarily as a consequence of fluid or melt metasomatism. In doing so they sample the fluid-melt-solid equilibria directly by incorporation of carbon and its isotopic flavours, and by entrapping other phases as they grow. Superdeep diamonds from the transition zone and lower mantle provide evidence for crystallization from melts derived from subducted materials [1, 2]. The presence of deeply subducted volatile components such as carbon and water are important because they lower the solidus of subducted materials. The source of carbon may ultimately be via deposition of biogenic or abiogenic carbon in subducted crust, and water may become available via dehydration of high-pressure hydrous phases in the slab (e.g. superhydrous B, Phase D) [3]. Foundering of slabs around 700 km due to density inversion and thermalization with surrounding mantle leads to the generation of low-degree, volatile-charged melts. Melts from subducted oceanic crust may be carbonated, and diamond crystallization occurs as a consequence of 'redox freezing' when the oxidized slab melts react with reducing mantle rocks [4]. Reaction of slab melts with mantle peridotite may precipitate phases such as Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite, majorite and ferropericlase. Here we will survey evidence from the chemistry of superdeep mineral inclusions for a record of this deep mantle reactive transport process, and speculate on the role of deep mantle volatiles. 1. Bulanova, G.P., et al., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2010. 160: p. 489-510. 2. Walter, M.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 454: p. 622-U30. 3. Harte, B., Mineralogical Magazine, 2010. 74: p. 189-215. 4. Rohrbach, A. and M.W. Schmidt, Nature, 2011. 472: p. 209-212.

Walter, Michael; Thomson, Andrew; Frost, Jennifer; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony

2013-04-01

17

Borehole instabilities in the KTB main borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole instability has been a central problem for drilling operations and borehole measurements within the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB) main borehole, which has been drilled entirely through crystalline rocks, mostly paragneisses and metabasites. The types of borehole instabilities observed were drilling-induced tensile fractures, breakouts, and convergence zones. These were strongly dominated by foliated, graphitic gneisses with sometimes very

G. Borm; B. Engeser; B. Hoffers; H. K. Kutter; C. Lempp

1997-01-01

18

Potential use of Garcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave

G. N. Aniche; G. U. Uwakwe

1990-01-01

19

Physical mechanism of super-deep penetration of solid microparticles into solid targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of super-deep penetration of solid microparticles into solid targets under shock has not been interpreted convincingly until now. The concept of highly excited states, developed by V.E. Panin and others, has opened a new path for the interpretation of this phenomenon. According to this concept, under the condition of a highly excited state, the number of allowable structure states in crystals significantly exceeds the number of atoms, i.e., in crystals, new degrees of freedom arise. Highly excited crystals become, in essence, a superposition of several structures. Therefore, in highly excited states, the material of target may be looked at as a system of weakly interacting particles. The application of the theory of a system of weakly interacting particles in this article shows that when the velocity of penetrating particles exceeds the velocity of the thermal motion of particles of the target material, the friction coefficient is inversely proportional to the third power of the relative velocity of penetrating particles. In this way, the effect of losing friction in the penetration of solid particles into solid targets is interpreted.

Qi, Chengzhi; Chen, Jianjie

2014-05-01

20

Analysis of borehole breakouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreholes drilled into rock, which is subjected to stresses that amount to a significant fraction of the strength of the rock, may cause the rock to fail adjacent to the borehole surface. Often this results in the elongation of the cross section of the borehole in the direction of the minimum principal (compressive) stress orthogonal to the borehole axis. Such

Ziqiong Zheng; John Kemeny; Neville G. W. Cook

1989-01-01

21

Novel Environment Friendly Method of Preparing Nanoreinforced Composites Based on Metallic, Ceramic and Polymer Matrixes - Superdeep Penetration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At superdeep penetration (SDP) process of penetration of discrete micro-particles and stitching of metals, ceramics and polymers by the synthesized filaments, on depths in tens and hundreds millimeters is realized. Contrary to the basic models at SDP intensive energy release is observed: local melting, synthesis, radiation and forming of massive composite materials. Process of SDP occurs in the boundaries of the closed system. Products of interaction for example, carbon and silicon are saved in volume of preform and don't organize harmful waste at manufacture. The massive composite material is formed in a pulse regime and modified in volume by nano and micro structural elements. Manufacture of a durable material does not demand traditional process of sintering.

Usherenko, S.; Figovsky, O.

22

Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP  

SciTech Connect

At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m{sup 3} of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava [Kola Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation); Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei [SUE SIA 'Radon', Moscow (Russian Federation); Kornev, Vladimir [JSC 'Alliance Gamma' (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

23

Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Over the past years, there has been a growing number of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients who are not willing to comply with long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment and wish to use herbal anti- rheumatic medicine. This study assessed the clinical effects of Garcinia kola (GK) in KOA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical

Olayinka O Adegbehingbe; Saburi A Adesanya; Thomas O Idowu; Oluwakemi C Okimi; Oyesiku A Oyelami; Ezekiel O Iwalewa

2008-01-01

24

Tubular Mg-ferrite in Mg-wustite inclusions in diamond of superdeep origin: control of Fe-valence by crystallographic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusions of ferropericlase and Mg-wustite are frequently observed in diamond from the lower mantle. Diamond and inclusion are considered to form a closed system under mantle conditions. Therefore, the original oxygen activity fo inside inclusions in diamond remains constant. Here, we report on TEM investigations on FIB-cut foils of Mg-wustite inclusions in diamond from superdeep diamonds ( Sao Luiz, Brazil)1.

R. Wirth; L. Dobrzhinetskaya; B. Harte; H. W. Green

2009-01-01

25

Mg-ferrite precipitates in magnesiowüstite inclusions in diamond from superdeep origin: extraordinary nonstoichiometry of a deep mantle Mg-wüstite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusions of ferropericlase and Mg-wüstite frequently occur as inclusions in diamond from the lower mantle. Under mantle conditions, diamond plus inclusion are regarded as a closed system. Therefore, the original oxygen activity fo inside inclusions in diamond should have remained unchanged. Here, we report on TEM investigations on FIB-cut foils from Mg-wüstite inclusions in diamond enclosed in superdeep diamonds (

R. Wirth; L. Dobrzhinetskaya; B. Harte; H. W. Green

2010-01-01

26

UPb dating of two Precambrian metamorphic events divided of gabbros intrusive. (Kola structure of the Kola Peninsula)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kola basement complex of the non-stratified rocks in the region under the consideration is represent by the granite-gneisses with the relicts of the biotite, biotite-amphibole, garnet-biotite plagio-gneiss and amphibolites. The garnet-biotite gneisses have been crosscut by gabbros. In garnet-biotite gneiss zircons occur as prismatic crystals displaying a range in color from deep brown to very pale brown. The deep

E. Nitkina

2003-01-01

27

Babinski and Ekostrovski: Saami Pogosty on the Western Kola Peninsula, Russia from 1880 to 1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multidisciplinary project focused on the Western Kola Peninsula and examined how human activities during the pre-industrial and industrial periods influenced changes in the environment such as pollution in the Imandra Lake watershed. The study concentrated on two Saami reindeer herding pogosty [communities] on the Western Kola Peninsula during the period from the 1880s until 1940. English, Russian, and Scandinavian

Robert P. Wheelersburg; Natalia Gutsol

2008-01-01

28

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

29

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

30

Some Physical Properties of Kola Nuts - A Response Surface Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work studied the effect of drying temperature and duration on some physical and mechanical properties of two varieties of kola nuts using a response surface methodology approach. Physical properties determined were length, breadth, thickness, sphericity, aspect ratio, colour and moisture loss, while mechanical properties were force at break, yield, and peak, deformation at break and peak, energy to peak, energy to break, and yield, and Young modulus. At 5% level of significance, only mass, moisture loss, and sphericity were the physical properties affected. However, all measured mechanical properties were affected by drying temperature and duration (p<0.05).

Akinoso, Rahman; Aremu, Ademola K.; Balogun, Ismail S.

2014-04-01

31

Hydraulic borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is currently funding a program to develop a borehole mining system that accesses the mineral seam through a small hole drilled through the overburden, remotely crushes the material with a high pressure water jet, and then transports it in a slurry to the surface. The system has been tested in coal seams, uranium deposits, oil sand, and phosphate ore. This paper reviews the development of the borehole tool, the assessment of its present and projected production capability, and briefly describes related studies being supported by the Department of Energy to improve the efficiency of the borehole mining system.

Evers, J.L.; Knoke, G.S.

1981-01-01

32

PBO Borehole Strainmeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters\\/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific

M. David; M. Hasting; M. Jackson; S. T. Dittmann; W. Johnson; S. Venator; G. Andersen; K. Hodgkinson; B. Mueller; W. Prescott

2006-01-01

33

Interaction of alcohol and kola nut on brain sodium pump activity in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of interaction of alcohol and kola nut on sodium pump activity was studied in Wistar rats. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five rats per group. Control received a placebo (4 mL of distilled water). Groups 2–6 were treated for a period of 21 days with 10% (v\\/v) alcohol, 50 mg caffeine\\/kg, 50 mg kola

G. O. Obochi; A. E. Abara; S. P. Malu; M. U. Eteng; I. B. Umoh

2009-01-01

34

Borehole radar for geothermal applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An initial evaluation of a continuous wave borehole radar system with steerable antennas has been completed. Candidate antennas have been identified which meet the size requirements for borehole applications. The patterns of these antennas are not depende...

M. W. Scott T. W. H. Caffey

1991-01-01

35

Borehole strainmeters for seismology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The borehole strainmeters intended to provide seismologists with an improved instrument for measurement of both dynamic and quasi-static strain activity are discussed. The behavior of both ideal strainmeters and the approximate behavior of real strainmeters, is described. It is shown that the boundary is a dominant factor in the instrument response to compressional waves, shear waves, surface waves, atmospheric noise,

D. W. Evertson

1975-01-01

36

Directional borehole radar calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an innovative low-noise directional borehole radar system. Harsh and changing operating environments are a challenge to the low-noise sensitive electronic design. Additionally a system with such high sensitivity is susceptible to temperature changes and to component parameter variations. Therefore a calibration module was developed to calibrate the overall measurement system with a test signal generator. This calibration

O. Borchert; K. Behaimanot; A. Glasmachers

2009-01-01

37

Hydraulic borehole mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Energy is currently funding a program to develop a borehole mining system that accesses the mineral seam through a small hole drilled through the overburden, remotely crushes the material with a high pressure water jet, and then transports it in a slurry to the surface. The system has been tested in coal seams, uranium deposits, oil sand,

J. L. Evers; G. S. Knoke

1981-01-01

38

Hydraulic borehole mining system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic underground mining system is disclosed for operating through a small diameter borehole into a subterranean body. An elongated mining tool includes a liquid jet nozzle that is movable in vertical direction along the length of the mining tool for forming a directed jet stream to impact material in the ore body and convert the material into a slurry.

1983-01-01

39

Borehole seismic unit  

SciTech Connect

Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. Reported herein is a description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task.

Seavey, R.W.

1982-05-01

40

Effect of industrial emissions on membrane permeability of epiphytic lichens in Northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula industrial areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of air pollution on membrane permeability of the epiphytic lichens Hypogymnia physodes and Bryoria fuscescens was studied in northern Finland and the Kola Peninsula to assess the effects of the Kola industrial emissions. The conductivity and quantity of K+ in leachates of the lichens were determined both as absolute and relative leakage. The K+ leakage from the lichens

S. Tarhanen; T. Holopaineni; J. Poikolainen; J. Oksanen

1996-01-01

41

Cell-zonal textures of tinguaites from the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Textures of tinguaite dykes cutting the alkaline Khibiny massif in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, are described. They are characterized by a combination of a fractal microfracture network dividing rock into pencil-like cells and of a concentric rhythmical zonation in almost all of them. The latter is formed by interchange of volatile-enriched and volatile-depleted mineral zones. The location of the textures only where dykes contact host khibinites appears to point out the contraction nature of the microfracture network. The cooling time calculated agrees well with this hypothesis. The zonation appears to have arisen through autometamorphic processes with two main competing factors, namely (a) overall cooling of the system and (b) periodic depletion of it in some elements, mainly Na and K. Another mechanism which may be applied to explain the zonation is the known Marangoni Instability effect at the early stage of evolution of the volatile-saturated phonolite melt. Thus, tinguaite textures are caused by nonspecific influences external to the system and may be regarded as an example of self-organization in nature.

Voitsekhovsky, Y. L.; Shpachenko, A. K.; Skiba, V. I.

42

[Epidemiology of mycoses in submariners based on the Kola Peninsula].  

PubMed

Subject of the study was spreading of mycoses in the troops based on the Kola Peninsula. Examined were the military serving on atomic submarines, maintenance crews of deactivated atomic submarines awaiting disposal, and coastal units. Spreading of skin lesions among the submariners was not same as among the coastal military. Signs of clinical mycoses were observed in 41.2% of submariners of the active unit, in 66.9% of the maintenance crews, and in 38.1% of the coastal military. Infection agents were fungi g. Candida (albicans, guilliermondii, krusei, pseudotropicalis), Epidermophytia plicarum, Ptyriasis versicolor, Trichophyton interdigitale. Among the fighters on active submarines, 53.8% of the clinical observations were accounted for onychomycosis and foot skin lesions and 38.5%--for erythema, maceration and suppuration. Among the maintenance crews 51.8% of the observations were accounted for onychomycosis and foot skin lesions and maceration; hyperkeratosis and fissures prevailed in the coastal military (31.1%). For submariners most common were Candida albicans (80.7%) and guilliermondii (11.6%), and Trichophyton interdigitale (7.7%). In the maintenance crew those were Candida albicans (84.1%) and guilliermondii (11.6%) and in the coastal military, Candida albicans (70.6%), guilliermondii (11.8%) and krusei (14.7%). PMID:14503184

Vakulova, I N; Myznikov, I L; Kutelev, G M; Kopylova, N S

2003-01-01

43

Micro borehole drilling platform  

SciTech Connect

This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

NONE

1996-10-01

44

U-Pb dating of two Precambrian metamorphic events divided of gabbros intrusive. (Kola structure of the Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kola basement complex of the non-stratified rocks in the region under the consideration is represent by the granite-gneisses with the relicts of the biotite, biotite-amphibole, garnet-biotite plagio-gneiss and amphibolites. The garnet-biotite gneisses have been crosscut by gabbros. In garnet-biotite gneiss zircons occur as prismatic crystals displaying a range in color from deep brown to very pale brown. The deep brown zircon is zoned with dark cores, zoning part and pale rims. The pale brown zircon shows no zoning. The pale rims of the deep brown crystals and pale brown crystals are the same and indicate the gneiss metamorphism. The pale brown zircon populations yield an age about of 2806 Ma. The dark zircon has not been dating. In meta-gabbros zircons occur as prismatic crystals exhibiting a range in color from deep brown to very pale brown. The pale brown zircons having bad outlines suggested their primary magmatic origin in the mafic rock yield an age of 2584(+/-)5 Ma. The deep brown zircons with numerous faces on the crystal surfaces indicate their metamorphic origin yield an age of 2507(+/-)10 Ma. Thus, some U-Pb ages of the processes are obtained: 2806(+/-)101 Ma - for the metamorphism of garnet-biotite gneiss, 2584(+/-)5 Ma - an age corresponding to the time of the gabbro emplacement, and the age defined to be about 2507(+/-)10 Ma correspond to the time of the metamorphic events.

Nitkina, E.

2003-04-01

45

Ice-Borehole Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-data-transmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a potential of 170 VDC. A DC-to-DC converter steps the supply down to 12 VDC for the lights, cameras, and image-datatransmission circuitry. Heat generated by dissipation of electric power in the probe is removed simply by conduction through the probe housing to the visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At thime of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes

Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

2006-01-01

46

Borehole radar for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

An initial evaluation of a continuous wave borehole radar system with steerable antennas has been completed. Candidate antennas have been identified which meet the size requirements for borehole applications. The patterns of these antennas are not dependent on the properties of the surrounding media when the antenna dimensions are less than one-tenth wavelength. The beam patterns can be steered adequately to allow the volume of earth within several meters of a borehole to be investigated. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Scott, M.W.; Caffey, T.W.H.

1991-01-01

47

Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

Nikonov, V.V.

1981-01-01

48

Air Pollution Problems in the Northern Region of Fennoscandia included Kola.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference papers in this report deal with air pollution problems in the northern part of Scandinavia and the Kola peninsula in Russia. Subjects of papers are as follow: Environmental problems in the Murmansk region; air quality status in the border a...

B. Sivertsen

1994-01-01

49

Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes  

SciTech Connect

A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

Trowsdale, L.S.

1982-11-30

50

30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75...Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming...

2009-07-01

51

30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75...Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming...

2010-07-01

52

30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tamped to fill the entire cross sectional area of the borehole. (c) Stemming material shall contact the explosive cartridge nearest the collar of the borehole. (d) Each borehole 4 or more feet deep shall be stemmed for at...

2013-07-01

53

30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) The first cartridge in each borehole shall be the primer cartridge with the...the detonator facing the back of the borehole; and (2) The explosive cartridges...contact between each cartridge in the borehole. (d) When loading other...

2013-07-01

54

The PBO borehole seismometer network  

Microsoft Academic Search

During of the installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO installed 79 borehole seismometers from Vancouver Island to Southern California, including Yellowstone. 74 are co-located with borehole strainmeters and five are stand alone installations. The sensors installed are Sonde-2 seismometers. This sensor uses three 2 HZ geophones in a triaxial configuration. Eight sites in the Anza, CA region also have

W. Johnson; O. Fox; D. Mencin; W. Gallaher; M. H. Gottlieb; K. M. Hodgkinson; C. Pyatt; E. van Boskirk; M. E. Jackson

2010-01-01

55

Side hole drilling in boreholes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

56

Borehole Mining of Phosphate Ores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a technical, economic, and environmental feasibility study of phosphate ore recovery by the hydraulic borehole mining method. The experiments resulted in the recovery of 1,696 tons of ore from 3 boreholes during a 65-ho...

L. E. Scott

1981-01-01

57

Hydraulic borehole mining system  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulic underground mining system is disclosed for operating through a small diameter borehole into a subterranean body. An elongated mining tool includes a liquid jet nozzle that is movable in vertical direction along the length of the mining tool for forming a directed jet stream to impact material in the ore body and convert the material into a slurry. An orifice is positioned below the jet so that slurry flows into the orifice, the latter being connected to a jet pump which returns generated slurry to the surface. Suitable hydraulic power means are provided for operating the jet pump and for moving the jet stream in vertical and circular directions. Means for monitoring and controlling the progress of mining and the condition of components of the system are provided to monitor and control the system from a centralized location.

Archibald, W.R.

1983-08-30

58

Effects of alcohol–kola nut interactions on brain glucose oxidase, glutamine synthase, and adenylate deaminase activities in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of alcohol–kola nut interactions on activites of whole brain glucose oxidase, glutamine synthetase, and adenylate deaminase were examined in Wistar rats. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups. Control group (1) received a placebo (4 mL of distilled water). Groups 2–6 were treated for a 21-day period with either 10% (v\\/v) alcohol, kola nut, caffeine, alcohol

G. O. Obochi; S. P. Malu; A. E. Abara

2009-01-01

59

Polarimetric Borehole Radar System for Fracture Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radar polarimetry is a technology that overcomes the limitation between the radar resolution and the penetration depth of borehole radar. We have developed a stepped-frequency polarimetric borehole radar system. This is a polarimetric borehole radar system which measures the full-radar polarimetry in a borehole by changing the antenna arrangements. By using a network analyzer and an optical analog signal link,

Motoyuki Sato; Takashi Miwa

2000-01-01

60

Seismites in Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits of the northwestern Kola region ( northern Baltic Shield)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on soft-sediment deformation in Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits of the northwestern Kola Peninsula (Pechenga River valley) are reported and analyzed in terms of paleoseismicity implications. Soft-sediment deformation is assigned to paleoseismic triggers on the basis of special criteria. One sedimentary section in the Pechenga valley bears signature of several seismic events at the Late Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, constrained

S. B. Nikolaeva

2009-01-01

61

Wet-process phosphoric acid obtained from Kola apatite. Purification from sulphates, fluorine, and metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification of pre-concentrated up to 80 wt.% H3PO4 phosphoric acid (PA) obtained from Kola apatite in one of the Polish plants by the wet processing route was carried out by sulphate precipitation, desorption of volatile components (SiF4, HF) and liquid–liquid extraction method using 4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK). The experiment was carried out on a laboratory scale. The effects of the reagent

R Kijkowska; D Pawlowska-Kozinska; Z Kowalski; M Jodko; Z Wzorek

2002-01-01

62

THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTIVE AND NONPRODUCTIVE KOLA, COLA NITIDA VENT. (SCHOTT AND ENDLICHER), ON THE STATUS OF MAJOR SOIL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN S.W. NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain soil physical and chemical properties under productive and non-productive kola in Southwestern Nigeria were compared. Results show that while the fertility status of most soil properties appears to be better under non-productive than the productive kola, not many of the differences noted were significantly different between these two treatments. However, it was observed that bulk density, topsoil total porosity

OLUSEGUN EKANADE

1989-01-01

63

China's component borehole strainmeter network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004, China’s digital seismic observation network project began to deploy 40 sets YRY-4 four-component borehole strainmeters in order to monitor earthquake preparation process. The paper describes observed solid tidal strain discreteness and tidal factor anisotropy, analyzes the reliability of observational data and discusses the cause for this phenomenon. After getting rid of interferences, the network, in two years practice, has observed several pre-seismic strain anomalies at stations close to epicenters especially in the Wenchuan M S8.0 megaquake. It shows that this borehole strainmeter network is capable of monitoring seismogenic process.

Chi, Shunliang

2009-12-01

64

The effect of conductive borehole water on borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole containing conductive water produced an anomalous radar response in otherwise highly resistive host rocks, dominated by a first arrival with a fast rise and long slow tail. The fast rise may be followed by one or two high amplitude, relatively slow oscillations, before the slow tail. The expected reflectors were superimposed on the slow tail, except where the

Declan Vogt

2004-01-01

65

Crosshole Investigations - Results from Borehole Radar Investigations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new borehole radar system has been designed, built and tested. The system consists of borehole transmitter and receiver probes, a signal control unit for communication with the borehole probes, and a computer unit for storage and display of data. The sy...

O. Olsson L. Falk E. Sandberg O. Forslund L. Lundmark

1987-01-01

66

Using slimline borehole radars from cover holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cover boreholes are drilled prior to mining in order to give fair warning of water-bearing fissures and potentially hazardous structures. Hitherto, cover boreholes have had to hit these structures to detect them. Many South African Bushveld platinum ore bodies are hosted by VHF radar-translucent hard rocks. The rock volumes, which are investigated by pilot and cover boreholes, can be expanded

Andrew Bray; Tim Sindle; Iain Mason; Keith Palmer; Johannes Cloete; Jan Steenkamp; Kazek Trofimczyk

67

A Directional Borehole Radar System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the simulation and design of a directional borehole radar. In addition we discuss an imaging method for the radar system. The antenna system contains an electric dipole which is in one direction shielded by a cylindrical perfectly conducting reflector. The radiation pattern of the reflected wavefield is computed by first solving the integral equation. This

Koen W. A. van Dongen; Ronald van Waard; Stefan van der Baan; Peter M. van den Berg; Jacob T. Fokkema

2002-01-01

68

Downhole Imaging With Borehole Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a directional borehole radar system. The antennas are positioned in a bi-static set-up. In order to obtain a focused radiation pattern, the transmitting and receiving dipoles are shielded with a curved reflector. The radiation pattern of this scattered wavefield is computed by solving the integral equation for the unknown elec- tric surface current at the conducting surface. Based on these numerical simulations, a prototype was built. The effective radiation pattern is in good agreement with the computed pattern. We also present a three-dimensional imaging method for this bore- hole radar. The computed radiation pattern is used in such a way that deconvolution for the angular radiation pattern can be applied. Data from preliminary laboratory and field tests under controlled conditions are promising. The applications of this method include the detection of unexploded ordinance from boreholes, the detection of objects and layers in tunnels, and the determination of the diameter of concrete columns in the Jetgrout Diameter System. With appropriate modifications, this system may be appli- cable in the oil- and gas industry for the detection of layers and fractures in borehole. It covers a gap between conventional logging measurements in boreholes, and seismic surface surveys.

Fokkema, J. T.; van den Berg, P. M.; van Dongen, K. W. A.; Luthi, S. M.

69

Sr Nd Pb isotopic compositions of the Kovdor phoscorite carbonatite complex, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions for the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite complex (PCC), Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, have been determined to characterize the mantle sources involved and to evaluate the relative contributions of a plume and subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the formation of the complex. The Kovdor PCC is a part of the Kovdor ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite massif, and consists of six intrusions. The initial isotopic ratios of the analyzed samples, calculated at 380 Ma, display limited variations: ?Nd, + 2.0 to + 4.7; 87Sr/ 86Sr, 0.70319 to 0.70361 ( ?Sr, - 12.2 to - 6.2); 206Pb/ 204Pb, 18.38 to 18.74; 207Pb/ 204Pb, 15.45 to 15.50; 208Pb/ 204Pb, 37.98 to 39.28. The Nd and Sr isotope data of the Kovdor PCC generally fit the patterns of the other phoscorites and carbonatites from the Kola Alkaline Province (KAP), but some data are slightly shifted from the mixing line defined as the Kola Carbonatite Line, having more radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. However, the less radiogenic Nd isotopic compositions and negative ?7/4 values of Pb isotopes of the analyzed samples exclude crustal contamination, but imply the involvement of a metasomatized lithospheric mantle source. Isotopic variations indicate mixing of at least three distinct mantle components: FOZO-like primitive plume component, EMI-like enriched component and DMM-like depleted component. The isotopic nature of the EMI- and DMM-like mantle component observed in the Kovdor samples is considered to be inherited from metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle. This supports the previous models invoking plume-lithosphere interaction to explain the origin of the Devonian alkaline carbonatite magmatism in the KAP.

Lee, Mi Jung; Lee, Jong Ik; Hur, Soon Do; Kim, Yeadong; Moutte, Jacques; Balaganskaya, Elena

2006-10-01

70

A Pb isotope investigation of the Lovozero Agpaitic Nepheline Syenite, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time Pb isotope composition was established in Lovozero rocks and raremetal ores, which is important for identifying their sources. The world's largest layered intrusion of agpaitic nepheline syenite-the Lovozero alkaline massif—is located near the center of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. This superlarge complex plutonic body hosts the economically important loparite and eudiallyte deposits [1]. These deposits contain immense resources of REE, Nb, Ta, Zr, and constitute a world class mineral district. The Lovozero massif belongs to the Kola ultramafic alkaline and carbonatitic province (KACP) of Devonian age. Previous bulk rock studies have shown that the initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios of Lovozero rocks plot in the depleted mantle quadrant of Sr-Nd diagrams [2]. More recently, Hf isotope data obtained by Kogarko et al. (3) confirm that the Lovozero and Khibina massifs with ?Hf between 6 and 8 are derived predominantly from a depleted mantle source. It was shown that Sr, Nd, and Hf abundances are significantly elevated in the Kola alkaline rocks, and thus their isotopic compositions are relatively insensitive to minor contamination by the overlying crustal rocks. By contrast, Pb in the KACP rocks is a much more sensitive indicator of a crustal component. In this paper we investigate the lead isotopic signature of all resentative types of Lovozero rocks (Table 1) in order to further characterize their mantle sources. The Lovozero massif consists of four intrusive phases. Rocks of phase I (mostly nepheline syenites) comprise about 5% of the total volume, phase II (urtites, foyaite, lujavrites) forms the main portion of the massif comprising 77% in volume, and phase III (eudialyte lujavrites) contributes about 18%. Country rocks are represented by Devonian effusive rocks and Archean gneisses.

Zartman, R. E.; Kogarko, L. N.

2014-01-01

71

Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging  

SciTech Connect

Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

2000-09-15

72

Tubular Mg-ferrite in Mg-wustite inclusions in diamond of superdeep origin: control of Fe-valence by crystallographic structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusions of ferropericlase and Mg-wustite are frequently observed in diamond from the lower mantle. Diamond and inclusion are considered to form a closed system under mantle conditions. Therefore, the original oxygen activity fo inside inclusions in diamond remains constant. Here, we report on TEM investigations on FIB-cut foils of Mg-wustite inclusions in diamond from superdeep diamonds ( Sao Luiz, Brazil)1. Along the inhomogeneously distributed dislocation lines in Mg-wustite tubular structures of Mg-ferrite are observed. The tube-like structures are always approximately 150 nm in diameter and associated with “negative crystals” (50 nm in size) that are arranged along the original dislocation lines. HREM imaging of the tube-like Mg-ferrite also reveals some nanometer-sized magnetite crystals (20 - 50 nm). The different phases have been identified by their chemical composition and their crystal structure (electron diffraction or fast Fourier transforms from HREM images). Mg-wustite, Mg-ferrite and magnetite have identical crystallographic orientation. It is suggested that Mg-ferrite has formed under constant fo conditions by a Fe-disproportionation reaction2,3: (Mg, Fe)O ? MgFe2O4 + Mgvacancy + Fe3O4 3Mg2+ ? 2Fe3+ + 1Mgvacancy Excess Mg diffuses along the dislocation cores to the inclusion surface because dislocation lines always end at the surface of a crystal. The Mg-vacancies condensate along the dislocation cores thus forming the observed “negative crystals in the Mg-ferrite tubes. The observed regular diameter of the tubes (150 nm) might be associated with the strain field around the dislocation cores. That strain field might have influenced or even initiated the disproportionation reaction, thus limiting the width of the tubular structures of Mg-ferrite. It might also explain why the observed Mg-ferrite tubes are inhomogeneously distributed in the original Mg-wustite crystal. The Mg-ferrite tubes are decorating the original dislocation cores in Mg-wustite. 1 Harte, et al.,1999, Lower mantle mineral associations in diamonds from Sao Luiz, Brazil. In book: Mantle petrology: Field observation and high pressure experimentation: A Tribute to Francis R. (Joe) Boyd. The Chemical Society, Special Publication, no 6, 1999. Editors: Y. Fei, C. M. Bertka and B. Mysen; pp. 125-153. 2 Frost et al., 2004, Nature, 428, 409-412. 3 McCammon, 2005, Science, 308, 807-808.

Wirth, R.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Harte, B.; Green, H. W.

2009-12-01

73

In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

2012-01-01

74

Widespread tannin intake via stimulants and masticatories, especially guarana, kola nut, betel vine, and accessories.  

PubMed

Tannins are increasingly recognized as dietary carcinogens and as antinutrients interfering with the system's full use of protein. Nevertheless, certain tannin-rich beverages, masticatories, and folk remedies, long utilized in African, Asiatic, Pacific, and Latin American countries, are now appearing in North American sundry shops and grocery stores. These include guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK.) from Brazil, kola nut (Cola nitida Schott & Endl. and C. acuminata Schott & Endl.) from West Africa, and betel nut (Areca catechu L.) from Malaya. The betel nut, or arecanut, has long been associated with oral and esophageal cancer because of its tannin content and the tannin contributed by the highly astringent cutch from Acacia catechu L. and Uncaria gambir Roxb. and the aromatic, astringent 'pan' (leaves of Piper betel L.) chewed with it. In addition to the constant recreational/social ingestion of these plant materials, they are much consumed as aphrodisiacs and medications. Guarana and kola nut enjoy great popularity in their native lands because they are also rich in caffeine, which serves as a stimulant. Research and popular education on the deleterious effects of excessive tannin intake could do much to reduce the heavy burden of early mortality and health care, especially in developing countries. PMID:1417698

Morton, J F

1992-01-01

75

Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

GARDNER, M.G.

2000-07-19

76

The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

2000-01-01

77

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

78

Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole  

SciTech Connect

Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

2001-07-20

79

Trends in new particle formation in eastern Lapland, Finland: effect of decreasing sulfur emissions from Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is the largest source of anthropogenic SO2 in the Arctic part of Europe and one of the largest within the Arctic domain. Due to socio-economic changes in Russia, the emissions have been decreasing especially since the late 1990s resulting in decreased SO2 concentrations close to Kola in eastern Lapland, Finland. At the same time, the frequency of new particle formation days has been decreasing distinctively at SMEAR I station in eastern Lapland, especially during spring and autumn. We show that sulfur species, namely sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid, have an important role in both new particle formation and subsequent growth and that the decrease in new particle formation days is a result of the reduction of sulfur emissions originating from Kola Peninsula. In addition to sulfur species, there are many other quantities, such as formation rate of aerosol particles, condensation sink and nucleation mode particle number concentration, which are related to the number of observed new particle formation (NPF) days and need to be addressed when linking sulfur emissions and NPF. We show that while most of these quantities exhibit statistically significant trends, the reduction in Kola sulfur emissions is the most obvious reason for the rapid decline in NPF days. Sulfuric acid explains approximately 20-50% of the aerosol condensational growth observed at SMEAR I, and there is a large seasonal variation with highest values obtained during spring and autumn. We found that (i) particles form earlier after sunrise during late winter and early spring due to high concentrations of SO2 and H2SO4; (ii) several events occurred during the absence of light, and they were connected to higher than average concentrations of SO2; and (iii) high SO2 concentrations could advance the onset of nucleation by several hours. Moreover, air masses coming over Kola Peninsula seemed to favour new particle formation.

Kyrö, E.-M.; Väänänen, R.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Virkkula, A.; Petäjä, T.; Asmi, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Nieminen, T.; Juhola, S.; Shcherbinin, A.; Riipinen, I.; Lehtipalo, K.; Keronen, P.; Aalto, P. P.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.

2014-05-01

80

Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes.  

PubMed

Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method. PMID:24107011

Harte, Philip T

2013-01-01

81

Cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic induction for reservoir characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Audio-frequency cross-borehole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetics (EM) are interesting alternatives to existing techniques for petroleum reservoir characterization and monitoring. With these methods signals may be propagated several hundreds of mete...

M. J. Wilt H. F. Morrison A. Becker K. H. Lee

1991-01-01

82

Backfilling of cavities resulting from borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

Backfilling techniques are described which reduce possible damage to the environment caused by either the cavities or the piles of sand tailings that result from in-borehole hydraulic mining. Water filled cavities at the bottom of boreholes are rapidly and economically backfilled by jetting a sand-tailings slurry underwater. The backfilling technique was first field tested and found to be successful following borehole mining of uranium ore at Rocky Mountain Energy Company's Nine Mile Lake site in Natrona County, Wyoming.

Not Available

1981-03-01

83

Analysis of Eccentered Dipole Antenna for Borehole Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dipole antenna in a borehole may be placed away from the center of the borehole, and this eccentricity produces additional complicated electromagnetic fields, which may influence borehole radar signals. In this paper, we analyze an eccentric dipole antenna in a borehole for borehole radars. Our approach is an extended version of the pseudoanalytical formulation that was previously applied for

Satoshi Ebihara; Yoshihiro Inoue

2009-01-01

84

A vertical borehole methane drainage system for mining operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical borehole methane drainage system was developed for application at Sohio's Kitt No. 1 mine, Barbour Co., WV. The boreholes have been located ahead of a developing longwall section at the mine. The two-borehole system uses hydraulic stimulation techniques for pre-mining drainage; when underground operations have progressed past the borehole area, the boreholes will be converted to function as

M. A. Trevits; R. L. King

1983-01-01

85

Borehole directional radar detection of subsurface cavities  

SciTech Connect

Borehole electromagnetic techniques have emerged as a means for detecting and delineating rock structure details in the vicinity of the drill hole under test. A particular application for such techniques has been the detection of subsurface cavities, either natural or man-made. To date, borehole EM probing systems have only provided omnidirectional response around the drill hole, precluding the interpretation of azimuthal target direction. A new borehole radar probe developed for the US Bureau of Mines having a rotary azimuthal scan antenna with undirectional radiation pattern is capable of providing useful target direction information as well as directionally comparative discrimination of weaker EM contrasts surrounding the borehole.

Owen, T.E.; Suhler, S.A.

1982-04-01

86

ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological demonstration sites with uniform signposts and educational data packages on geological heritage. The main target groups are pupils and teachers at schools, especially on elementary stage. Tourists and locals visiting protected and recreational areas and other heritage sites will also benefit from the results. Personnel working in education and tourism will get new targets and background data for their clients. Final beneficiaries are local inhabitants, entrepreneurs and companies through positive impact to local economy and communities.

Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

2014-05-01

87

Efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works in the Kola Subarctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remediation of the technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works on the Kola Peninsula resulted in the improvement of the soil properties, namely, in a decrease in acidity and enrichment with nutrients, which continued for several years. However, the reaction of most of the treated soils remained strongly acid, and the concentrations of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were much lower than their background levels and the demands of the plants for nutrients (especially, for magnesium and potassium). The soils were depleted in available manganese and zinc. Most of the treated soils contained the same (or higher) amounts of available nickel and copper compounds in comparison with their untreated analogues. The willow plantations on the remediated plots were in a satisfactory state, but they experienced a deficit of magnesium, manganese, and zinc; they consumed elevated amounts of nickel and copper. Recommendations on the nutrient regime of the soils aimed at decreasing the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals were made.

Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

2014-05-01

88

[Parasite fauna of the perch fishes Percidae in waterbodies of the Kola Region].  

PubMed

Results of the parasitological investigation of two species of perch fisches (perch Perca fluviatilis and ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus) from Kola Region are given. 63 species of parasites were found on perch in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Myxosporea--3, Pleurostomata--1, Suctoria--2, Peritricha--21, Protozoa incertae sedis--1, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--10, Nemadota--8, Acanthocephala--4, Hirudinea--1, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--3). 33 species of parasites were found on ruff in 5 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea basin (Cyrtostomata--1, Hymenostomata--1, Peritricha--8, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--9, Nematoda--2, Acanthospehala--2, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--1). Data on the infestation of perch and ruff by different parasite species are obtained, occurrence of the parasites in the examined waterbodies is shown. PMID:16755725

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

2006-01-01

89

30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...not to exceed 8 feet. (d) When a borehole penetrates an area that cannot be examined...1) The direction of airflow in the borehole; (2) The pressure differential between...district manager. (g) Alternative borehole patterns that provide the same...

2013-07-01

90

Cross-Borehole Geophysical Probing for Site Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ground structure is commonly estimated from core samples taken from boreholes. However, knowledge of the structure exterior to the borehole can only be extrapolated from core data. By using seismic and electromagnetic cross-borehole geophysical probing, r...

R. J. Lytle

1979-01-01

91

Climatic variations on longest tree-ring chronologies for Kola Peninsula and Finnish Lapland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the external factor (solar activity, volcanic eruptions) influence on tree growth at high latitudes. We analysed a 561-year tree-ring record of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a 676-year juniper (Juniperus Sibirica Burgst.) tree-ring chronology collected nearby the northern timberline (67.77-68.63N; 33.25-36.52 E) at the Kola Peninsula, northwestern Russia. As well known the climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity vary regionally, and major volcanic eruptions do not always result in regional cooling. A response of tree growth at the Kola Peninsula to climatic changes due to solar variability and volcanic eruptions was revealed. For example, Dalton minimum of solar activity (1801-1816 AD) and Laki (1783 AD) and Tambora (1815 AD) volcanic eruptions appeared to cause the greatest ring-width reduction and cooling. The minima of solar activity Sporer (1416-1534 AD) and Maunder (1645-1715 AD) were as well accompanied by temperature decreases. Intervals with an absence of significant volcanic eruptions correspond to intervals of increased ring-width values. A superposed epoch analysis of 19 large (Volcanic Explosivity Index, VEI>5) volcanic events revealed a significant suppression of tree growth for up to 8 years following volcanic eruptions. The similar effect (supression of tree growth after powerful volcanic eruptions) was obtained under analysis of the 7641-year supra-long pine tree-ring chronology for Finnish Lapland. Our results documenting the regional climatic impacts of solar and volcanic activity permit us to understand the dynamics of the climate system and its response to external forcing. This work is financially supported by grant from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 09-04-98801), by the Program of the Russian Academy and by the Regional Scientific Program of Murmansk region.

Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Timonen, M.; Mielikainen, K.; Helama, S.; Kanatjev, A. G.; Kirtsideli, I. Yu.

2010-05-01

92

Ten year trend analysis of malaria prevalence in Kola Diba, North Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. It is one of the leading causes of illness and death in the world. It is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Methods A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examinations from the Kola Diba Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases reported between 2002–2011 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Additionally, any malaria intervention activities that had been taken to control malaria were collected using a well-prepared checklist from the study area. Results Within the last decade (2002–2011) a total of 59, 208 blood films were requested for malaria diagnosis in Kola Diba health center and 23,473 (39.6%) microscopically confirmed malaria cases were reported in the town with a fluctuating trend. Regarding the identified plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax accounted for 75% and 25% of malaria morbidity, respectively. Malaria was reported in all age groups and both sexes, but the 15–44?year age group and males were more affected. Despite the apparent fluctuation of malaria trends in the area, the highest peak of malaria cases was reported during spring seasons. Conclusion Comparatively, after the introduction of the current malaria control strategies, the morbidity and mortality by malaria is decreasing but malaria is still a major health problem and the deadly species P. falciparium is predominant. Therefore, control activities should be continued in a strengthened manner in the study area considering both P. falciparium and P. vivax.

2012-01-01

93

Multifold borehole radar acquisition and processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multifold acquisition principle was applied to a borehole radar survey, performed in a granitic site (Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland). Two multifold coverage acquisitions (40-fold and 20-fold) were carried out in a subhorizontal borehole. Instrumental drifts (transmission time and sampling frequency fluctuations) were corrected in order to remove shifts observed on CMP gathers and to optimize velocity analysis and trace

Fabrice Hollender; Sylvie Tillard; Laurent Corin

1999-01-01

94

Borehole Tilt Measurements from Charlevoix, Quebec.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An array of three borehole tiltmeters near Quebec City in Eastern Canada is designed to study the tidal and secular response of the crust in the Charlevoix seismic zone. The objectives of this first study of data from two boreholes of the array are to inv...

J. A. Peters C. Beaumont

1984-01-01

95

Natural gamma radiation borehole logging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole logging system employs a gamma-ray detector for measuring the natural gamma radiation of the earth formations surrounding a borehole. Three energy band selectors, each employing a discriminator and count rate meter, separate the output of the gamma-ray detector into potassium, uranium, and thorium energy band signals. A first operational amplifier determines the difference between the potassium energy band

C. L. Dennis; W. S. Givens; J. B. Hickman

1976-01-01

96

Borehole Logging from Sample Collection to Borehole Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In January of 2003, CSUF drilled and completed a deep multiport-monitoring well on the north side of campus. This was done in order to gain a better understanding of the local subsurface geology and groundwater conditions in and around CSUF. Samples were collected from the drill hole (boring) every 5-feet. The total depth of the well is 870 feet below ground surface (grade). Borehole geophysical data (E-log) information was collected from the boring prior to the installation of the well pipe. As you describe the soil samples, compare and contrast your findings to those of the geophysical signature (gamma-ray log) found in the accompanying "E-log" for the boring.

Laton, Richard

97

[Functional status and seasonal changes in white blood cells in submarine personnel in the Kola Polar region].  

PubMed

Evaluated was potentiality of the blood leukocyte count analysis proposed by L.H. Garkavi et al. (1985-1990) within the program of submariners health monitoring. Leukograms of 573 sailors on active service in a large nuclear submarines unit and 455 divers of a formation of ships removed from an active unit of nuclear submarines for utilization. Seasonal variations in the functional state of submariners were revealed. The most noticeable differences in these two large groups of sailors were associated with particular months. Results suggest, first of all, serious adaptive loads on the physiology of submariners on military service in the Kola polar. Burden of these loads varies with seasons and has some peculiar features which means that health-improving programs should be developed for each season and each specific group of submariners, and Garkavi's method should be standardized to be applicable to the Kola polar population. PMID:12696504

Myznikov, I L; Marchenko, V V; Mik, B A

2003-01-01

98

Fennoscandia in the Phanerozoic: Paleogeodynamic Reconstructions Based on the New Paleomagnetic and Geochronological Data from the Kola Magmatic Province (kola Peninsula, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During last four years we studied more than 100 dolerite and alkaline dykes, which are widely spread on the Kola Peninsula and belong to the Devonian magmatic province. Within the scope of our researches some of these dykes have been dated and their precise isotopic ages (Ar/Ar, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr) lie in the range of 390-360 Ma (Veselovskiy et al., 2013). The age of other sampled dykes can be considered as Devonian due to similarity of their paleomagnetic, geochemical and petrological characteristics to the dated ones. Paleomagnetic directions have been obtained from more than 80 dykes. Almost all dykes yielded (a) a low-temperature component that is aligned along the present-day field and is likely of viscous origin; (b) a well defined dual-polarity intermediate-temperature component with steep eastward directions that accounts for a main part of the NRM and often decays to the origin on orthogonal plots; and (c) a dual-polarity high-temperature component with shallow inclinations and ENE declinations of presumed primary origin. The presence of the primary high-temperature component makes us possible to calculate preliminary Baltica's paleomagnetic pole for the Middle-Late Devonian. In view of the obtained microprobe data we believe that intermediate component is a result of unknown hydrothermal process, which age can be estimated from the comparison of corresponding paleomagnetic pole with the Baltica's APWP as Jurassic. We believe that both mentioned episodes of endogenous activity within the large stable craton were connected with plume-lithospheric interaction in the Devonian and Jurassic. In this presentation we use the obtained paleomagnetic, petrological and geochronological data to determine the paleogeography of Baltica in the Devonian and Jurassic times and to find its position within the global paleotectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 12-05-00216, 13-05-12021, 13-05-12030 and grant MK-3383.2012.5.

Veselovskiy, R. V.; Arzamastsev, A. A.

2013-12-01

99

Mineralogical fingerprints of industrial emissions — an example from Ni mining and smelting on the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen large (>20 kg) snowpack samples, representing the atmospheric deposition of one winter (1995\\/1996), were collected in the vicinity (1.5–8 km) of the copper–nickel processing plants on the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. Microscopical (reflected light) and electron microprobe investigations were carried out on polished sections of filter residues (>0.45 ?m) of these samples to identify the mineralogical composition of the

Dean Gregurek; Clemens Reimann; Eugen F Stumpfl

1998-01-01

100

Acidity of podzolic soils subjected to sulphur pollution near a Cu-Ni smelter at the Kola Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidity of the podzolic soils in coniferous forests on the northern tree line (Kola Peninsula) subjected to severe sulphur pollution is considered. The pH values of precipitation were positively correlated with the distance from the pollution point source. There was also a correlation between base saturation of the organic horizon and distance. The long-term SO2-emissions have resulted in the

Natalia Lukina; Vyacheslav Nikonov

1995-01-01

101

Paleoclimate and Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions on the North Kola Peninsula during the Past 2000 Years According Pollen Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen data and radiocarbon data have enabled to reconstruct the periods of vegetation that depended on the climate changes. Records from different types of deposits allow to receive more information and to make paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake and bog sediments are the best sources for palaeoreconstruction. Palaeoclimatic changes, tectonic and coastline movement during Late Holocene caused vegetation changes on the North Kola Peninsula. Our data from pollen records from different sites on the north coast of the Kola Peninsula covers the Late Holocene about last 2000 years. We studied different types of sediment cores in the area between 69° N and 70° N, 31°12' E and 35° E. We have studied peat deposits, small lake sediments and archaeological site on the Bolshoy Oleniy Island in Kola fjord, Barents Sea, and peat bog deposits in the Teriberka area. All the cores are studied by different methods where the core was pollen analysis. It has allowed tracking the periods of vegetation history in the tundra zone. Pollen reconstructions are confirmed by radiocarbon data. Our data was compared with other researches and we made correlations between pollen records from different lake deposits. Modern vegetation presents south tundra type of associations. Teriberka area is unique: almost existing types of tundra landscapes are presented here in small territory, including "typical tundra" with subshrubs formations. For paleoclimate reconstructions we have studied surface samples by pollen analysis. Samples were collected in 3 regions of Kola Peninsula. Samples have been taken on the Sredniy and Rybachiy Peninsulas (Murman region) in the south tundra with rich associations and boreal species of herbs. In the Olenegorsk region we selected vegetation associations not damaged by human and we collected surface samples on the border of forest tundra and northern taiga. In Apatity region we studied pollen records in North taiga landscapes. This data characterize regional and local conditions of vegetation development, which are very important to take into account in paleoenvironmental reconstruction and regional correlation.

Nosevich, Ekaterina; Sapelko, Tatjana; Anisimov, Mikhail

2014-05-01

102

Prototype Borehole Directional Radar System  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Borehole Directional Radar (BDR) System, which is a high-power, high-resolution tool that is being developed to locate lithologic layers or fractures away from a wellbore. The key to the tool's potential is its ability to accurately measure distance and direction of a lithologic discontinuity underground. The results of two field tests in 1988 are presented. The report also discusses the deficiencies of the current system, and a proposed upgrade. Finally, possible other applications of the BDR System are outlined, including (1) locating gas and oil reservoirs below a salt dome, (2) determining the integrity of underground structures (e.g., Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Nuclear Waste Repository Site), and (3) verifying underground nuclear tests. 25 refs., 14 figs.

Chang, Hsi-Tien

1989-09-01

103

Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver  

DOEpatents

A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

1993-02-23

104

Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver  

DOEpatents

A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

Engler, Bruce P. (Sandoval County, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Bernalillo County, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Bernalillo County, NM)

1993-01-01

105

Isotope U-Pb dating of the Ingozero TTG complexes (Kola Peninsula).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [Mitrofanov, 2001]. The processes of applying ultrametamorphism and melting in the basement complexes led to a change in the composition of rocks and minerals [Mitrofanov, 2001], including changes in isotopic zircon systems, that is the "rejuvenation" of age-dating. Different sizes of rocks and minerals, including zircon, which has the most stable structure, can be those relicts in the complexes. More than 3.0 billion years dating of detrital zircons on the Kola Peninsula are widely known [Kozhevnikov et al, 2010; Vrevsky et al, 2010], which, according to Acad. F.P.Mitrofanov, shows a small transfer of material, i.e. massifs, of which this is brought zircon, are probably not far from the places of the zircons findings. In addition Archaean rocks are metamorphosed in the granulite facies metamorphism and there are small amounts of the terranes where the basement complex was metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies, including Ingozersky massiv. Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [Batieva and Belkov 1968, Kozlov et al, 2006; Kharitonov, 1966]. In the previous studies [Batieva and Belkov 1968, Precambrian tectonics ..., 1992, Zagorodny and Radchenko, 1978; Kozlov et al, 2006; Explanatory Note…, 1994] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [Belkov et al, 1971]. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of samples held for biotite gneisses (H-10-01), amphibole-biotite gneisses (H-10-07) and biotite-amphibole gneisses (H-10-08). Thus, some U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. Author are grateful to Akad. Mitrofanov F.P. and Bayanova T.B. for the consultations. The work is supported by RFBR 11-05-00817.

Nitkina, E.

2012-04-01

106

Anomalous alkaline rocks of Soustov, Kola: evidence of mantle-derived metasomatic fluids affecting crustal materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrusive complexes of Gremiakha-Vyrmes and Soustov represent the two extremes of the Early Proterozoic alkaline plutons of Kola, predominantly composed of feldespathoidal syenites. Gremiakha-Vyrmes rocks (zircon age: 1,884+/-6 Ma) have trace-element and isotope signatures (87Sr/86Srt 0.704, ?Ndt -3-1.3) compatible with an ultimate mantle origin. Soustov syenites (zircon age: 1,872+/-8 Ma) are totally different and show an acute crustal imprint. They have sodaline and analcite instead of nepheline, contain a plethora of REE-HFSE-rich accessories, and are characterised by elevated contents of F, Cl, REE, Y, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sn, Be, Li, Rb, Tl, Pb and Cs, negative Eu anomalies, K/Rb 190-160, Nd/Th 3, and Nb/Ta 12, with extremely high 87Sr/86Srt (>0.720) and, at the same time, relatively high ?Ndt ( -1.6-1.7). In this paper, we explore the idea that the anomalous features of Soustov syenites can be explained if we assume they are derived from a metasomatic agent, initially an H2O-CO2 supercritical fluid released by alkaline mafic magmas, that was profoundly contaminated during percolation through crustal materials. As percolation advanced, the bulk composition of the fluid solute changed from alkali halides and carbonates to a silica-undersaturated alkaline melt. When the fluid cooled to a temperature of 550-600 °C, it reached the point at which vapor and melt were no longer miscible and split into two components, a vapour phase and a Cl- and F-rich silica-undersaturated silicate melt that crystallised to produce Soustov syenites. To study this process, we have developed a numerical method for modelling the solute composition of the fluid during the infiltration metasomatism. Our results, using the LREE abundances and the Sr and Nd isotope composition of a Gremiakha-Vyrmes pegmatite as the starting solute composition of the fluid, and the mode and mineral trace-element and isotope composition of a common Kola gneiss as representative of percolated materials, indicate that the fluid would have acquired a signature closely matching Soustov's, even in the case of Nd isotopes, if the gneiss age is 2.9 Ga, near its real age. This model is still a mere working hypothesis that needs further refinements, but may represent a reasonable explanation of the genesis of anomalous alkaline rocks with high 87Sr/86Srt and ?Ndt>=0, either saturated or undersaturated, which are difficult to understand in terms of magmatic fractionation/contamination.

Bea, F.; Arzamastsev, A.; Montero, P.; Arzamastseva, L.

2001-02-01

107

Anomalous alkaline rocks of Soustov, Kola: evidence of mantle-derived metasomatic fluids affecting crustal materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intrusive complexes of Gremiakha-Vyrmes and Soustov represent the two extremes of the Early Proterozoic alkaline plutons of Kola, predominantly composed of feldespathoidal syenites. Gremiakha-Vyrmes rocks (zircon age: 1,884+/-6 Ma) have trace-element and isotope signatures (87Sr/86Srt 0.704, ?Ndt -3-1.3) compatible with an ultimate mantle origin. Soustov syenites (zircon age: 1,872+/-8 Ma) are totally different and show an acute crustal imprint. They have sodaline and analcite instead of nepheline, contain a plethora of REE-HFSE-rich accessories, and are characterised by elevated contents of F, Cl, REE, Y, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sn, Be, Li, Rb, Tl, Pb and Cs, negative Eu anomalies, K/Rb 190-160, Nd/Th 3, and Nb/Ta 12, with extremely high 87Sr/86Srt (>0.720) and, at the same time, relatively high ?Ndt ( -1.6-1.7). In this paper, we explore the idea that the anomalous features of Soustov syenites can be explained if we assume they are derived from a metasomatic agent, initially an H2O-CO2 supercritical fluid released by alkaline mafic magmas, that was profoundly contaminated during percolation through crustal materials. As percolation advanced, the bulk composition of the fluid solute changed from alkali halides and carbonates to a silica-undersaturated alkaline melt. When the fluid cooled to a temperature of 550-600 °C, it reached the point at which vapor and melt were no longer miscible and split into two components, a vapour phase and a Cl- and F-rich silica-undersaturated silicate melt that crystallised to produce Soustov syenites. To study this process, we have developed a numerical method for modelling the solute composition of the fluid during the infiltration metasomatism. Our results, using the LREE abundances and the Sr and Nd isotope composition of a Gremiakha-Vyrmes pegmatite as the starting solute composition of the fluid, and the mode and mineral trace-element and isotope composition of a common Kola gneiss as representative of percolated materials, indicate that the fluid would have acquired a signature closely matching Soustov's, even in the case of Nd isotopes, if the gneiss age is 2.9 Ga, near its real age. This model is still a mere working hypothesis that needs further refinements, but may represent a reasonable explanation of the genesis of anomalous alkaline rocks with high 87Sr/86Srt and ?Ndt>=0, either saturated or undersaturated, which are difficult to understand in terms of magmatic fractionation/contamination.

Bea, F.; Arzamastsev, A.; Montero, P.; Arzamastseva, L.

2000-12-01

108

Distribution and pathways of heavy metals and sulphur in the vicinity of the copper-nickel smelters in Nikel and Zapoljarnij, Kola Peninsula, Russia, as revealed by different sample media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot project for a regional environmental geochemical mapping project covering 188,000 km2 of an area exposed to severe airborne deposition of heavy metals and sulphur originating from the Nismelters of the Kola Peninsula, Russia, was initiated by the Central Kola Expedition and the Geological Surveys of Finland and Norway in 1992. To select the best suited sample media as

Viktor Chekushin; C REIMANN

1996-01-01

109

Borehole Mining of Deep Phosphate Ore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The feasibility was tested of hydraulic borehole mining for the recovery of phosphate ore from the deep, water-saturated deposits of northeastern Florida. Hydraulic ...

1983-01-01

110

PBO Borehole Strain and Siesmic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNAVCO is a non-profit, community-based organization funded by the National Science Foundation to install and operate the geodetic component of EarthScope called the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). UNAVCO will install 103 borehole tensor strainmeters\\/seismometers and 28 borehole tiltmeters These instruments will be used to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific

D. Mencin; M. Jackson; G. Anderson; K. Hodgkinson; M. Hasting; T. Dittman; W. Johnson; C. Meertens

2007-01-01

111

Developments of borehole strain observation outside China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It has been used\\u000a by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate\\u000a tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse and so on. Borehole strainmeter\\u000a has been improved rapidly

Ze-Hua Qiu; Yao-Lin Shi

2004-01-01

112

Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.  

PubMed

Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3) at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

Sorensen, James P R; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K; Lapworth, Daniel J; Read, Daniel S; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Townsend, Barry R; Williams, Peter J

2013-01-01

113

Broadband synthetic aperture borehole radar interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trials in mines have established that wideband VHF borehole radars (BHR), working in the 10–100-MHz band, can be used to probe the rockmass between boreholes over ranges from <5 m to as much as 150 m with submeter resolution. There is evidence that ore bodies reflect these radar signals both specularly and diffusely, much as the ground\\/air interface does when

I. Mason; N. Osman; Q. Liu; C. Simmat; M. Li

2001-01-01

114

Using Boreholes as Windows into Groundwater Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m3 at 0.4–1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

Sorensen, James P. R.; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, Francois K.; Lapworth, Daniel J.; Read, Daniel S.; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S.; Newbold, Lindsay K.; Townsend, Barry R.; Williams, Peter J.

2013-01-01

115

Compaction bands induced by borehole drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilling experiments in rock blocks subjected to pre-existing true triaxial far-field stresses simulating real in situ conditions\\u000a often result in localized failure around the created borehole, which brings about the formation of borehole breakouts. In\\u000a weakly bonded quartz-rich porous sandstones breakouts take the form of narrow tabular (slot-like) openings extending along\\u000a a plane perpendicular to the maximum applied-stress direction. Scanning

R. Katsman; E. Aharonov; B. C. Haimson

2009-01-01

116

Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs  

SciTech Connect

The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs.

Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

1992-07-01

117

Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and magnetic mineralogy of Devonian dikes from the Kola alkaline province (NE Fennoscandian Shield)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new paleomagnetic data on forty dikes and two intrusive plutons of Devonian age located in different parts of the Kola Peninsula, which have not been previously covered by systematic paleomagnetic studies, are reported. We describe the results of the rock magnetic, petrographic, and microprobe investigations of the Devonian dikes and present their isotopic ages (40Ar/39Ar, stepwise heating). Within the studied area, almost all the Devonian dikes, metamorphic Archaean-Proterozoic complexes of the Fennoscandian Shield, and Proterozoic dikes have undergone low-temperature hydrothermal-metasomatic alteration, which resulted in the formation of new magnetic minerals with a secondary (chemical) component of magnetization. The comparison of the paleomagnetic poles indicates the Early Jurassic age of the secondary component. We suggest that regional remagnetization event was caused by endogenic activity genetically related to the formation of the Barents Sea trap province 200-170 Ma ago. On the basis of the obtained data, the preliminary Devonian paleomagnetic pole of the East European Platform is determined.

Veselovskiy, R. V.; Arzamastsev, A. A.; Demina, L. I.; Travin, A. V.; Botsyun, S. B.

2013-07-01

118

Analysis of Dipole Antenna Eccentered in a Borehole for Borehole Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze response of borehole radar that use an electrically small dipole antenna in an eccentric borehole. Our approach is an extended version of the pseudoanalytic formulation, which was previously applied for analysis of an induction logging tool. In order to verify the calculation method, we did two experiments. The first one is measurement of monopole antenna

S. Ebihara; Y. Inoue

2007-01-01

119

Optimal experimental design for placement of boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling for deep resources is an expensive endeavor. Among the many problems finding the optimal drilling location for boreholes is one of the challenging questions. We contribute to this discussion by using a simulation based assessment of possible future borehole locations. We study the problem of finding a new borehole location in a given geothermal reservoir in terms of a numerical optimization problem. In a geothermal reservoir the temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and hydraulic pressure may be simulated using the coupled differential equations for heat transport and mass and momentum conservation for Darcy flow. Within this model the permeability and thermal conductivity are dependent on the geological layers present in the subsurface model of the reservoir. In general, those values involve some uncertainty making it difficult to predict actual heat source in the ground. Within optimal experimental the question is which location and to which depth to drill the borehole in order to estimate conductivity and permeability with minimal uncertainty. We introduce a measure for computing the uncertainty based on simulations of the coupled differential equations. The measure is based on the Fisher information matrix of temperature data obtained through the simulations. We assume that the temperature data is available within the full borehole. A minimization of the measure representing the uncertainty in the unknown permeability and conductivity parameters is performed to determine the optimal borehole location. We present the theoretical framework as well as numerical results for several 2d subsurface models including up to six geological layers. Also, the effect of unknown layers on the introduced measure is studied. Finally, to obtain a more realistic estimate of optimal borehole locations, we couple the optimization to a cost model for deep drilling problems.

Padalkina, Kateryna; Bücker, H. Martin; Seidler, Ralf; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele; Niederau, Jan; Herty, Michael

2014-05-01

120

[An information model of the adaptation process in sailors under the conditions of the polar regions on the Kola Peninsula].  

PubMed

On the basis of information concept an attempt to create a model of adaptation process was made with the purpose of revealing the general features of man's adaptation for the conditions of the Kola [correction of Kolsk] Peninsula polar region. In the authors' opinion it is necessary to study this problem from the point of view of thermodynamic approaches. The model obtained in the result of studies reflects the process of adaptation and gives the possibility to prognosticate the health status of sailors depending on their "polar continuous service". PMID:7856144

Shatalov, A I; Myznikov, I L; Peretechikov, V V

1994-11-01

121

Borehole survey system utilizing strapdown inertial navigation  

SciTech Connect

A signal processing method is described for use in borehole surveys, consisting of: (a) transforming the acceleration signals in the first coordinate system to obtain inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in a second coordinate system that is fixed relative to the earth, the inertial signals in the second coordinate system including probe velocity signals; (b) generating a signal representative of the amount of cable being fed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (c) processing the signal representative of the amount of cable being feed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (d) transforming the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system into inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system; (e) combining the signal representative of the progress of the probe along the borehole with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system to obtain error signals; (f) transforming the error signals into the second coordinate system to obtain error correction signals; (g) combining the error correction signals with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system to obtain corrected probe velocity signals; and (h) integrating the corrected probe velocity signals to obtain signals representative of the course of the borehole relative to the second coordinate system.

Hulsing, R.H.

1989-03-14

122

Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass surrounding the borehole array. ?? 1993.

Paillet, F. L.

1993-01-01

123

Rb-Sr dating of the pegmatites from the Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt (kola peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt is situated in the north-eastern part of the Kola Peninsula. The aim of investigation was to establish an age of the REE pegmatite with spodumene, which occurs in the greenstone belt. Four samples of whole rock, spodumene, apatite, and muscovite were taken for Rb-Sr dating of the REE pegmatite. The age obtained on these samples is about 1,9 Ga. The rocks have undergone an alteration due to thermal and hydrothermal processes, and a pressure change during the crystallization, and their Rb-Sr system was disturbed. U-Pb zircon age determined for the same rock ranges within 1,8-2,0 Ga (Kudryashov N.M., in press). Available isotope data allow concluding the following: - REE pegmatites of one of the largest lithium and cesium deposits in Russia have been first dated, and their Rb-Sr age is estimated to be approximately 1,9 Ga; - The formation of the pegmatite is presumably associated with the emplacement of muskovite-tourmaline granites into sedimentary-volcanic rocks at a final stage of the belt evolution; - Obtained results indicate apparently the Proterozoic time of formation of the pegmatites in the Kolmozero-Voronya greenstone belt. The pegmatite with an age of 1,8-1,9 Ga known in a large Sweden -Finnish belt, which are confined to the Svecofennian mobile belt and associated with post-orogenic microcline granite, and also the pegmatite field of the Varutresk-Kluntarna area (Sweden), which age is determined to vary within the interval of 1,775-1,900 Ga can be considered as possible analogues of the pegmatites under the study.

Serov, Pavel

2003-04-01

124

Developments of borehole strain observation outside China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It has been used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse and so on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included in one probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake, earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years, borehole strain observation is going to become one major goedetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

Qiu, Ze-Hua; Shi, Yao-Lin

2004-11-01

125

Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer  

SciTech Connect

Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

1983-08-01

126

VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurement devices. The report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consist of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogeneous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment.

Okko, Olli; Hassinen, Pertti; Front, Kai

1994-02-01

127

Fracture Characterization Using Borehole Radar: Numerical Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forward modeling of borehole radar data for a series of synthetic discrete-fracture network (DFN) models provides a conceptual\\u000a framework for interpreting experimental field data at fractured rock sites. A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) radar wave\\u000a propagation model was developed for this purpose. Synthetic examples demonstrate the utility of single-hole reflection-mode\\u000a and cross-hole transmission-mode borehole radar for (1) identification of fracture location

Lanbo Liu

2006-01-01

128

Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

Ellefsen, K. J.; Wright, D. L.

2002-01-01

129

Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole  

DOEpatents

A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

Burklund, P.W.

1984-01-20

130

Borehole Sealing. Final Report, March 1, 1973--October 31, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to evaluate existing materials and techniques to permanently plug boreholes penetrating salt strata near prospective radioactive waste depository sites is described. A new subcontract No. 78X-33542C has been issued to seal a borehole near Lyons,...

L. H. Eilers

1977-01-01

131

Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole  

DOEpatents

A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

Burklund, Patrick W. (Livermore, CA)

1985-10-22

132

Method for Isolating Two Aquifers in a Single Borehole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and l...

P. W. Burklund

1984-01-01

133

Borehole Mining: An Environmentally Compatible Method for Mining Oil Sands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a demonstration of the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of shallow oil sands. Borehole mining offers a method for extracting the oil sands with minimal disturbance to envir...

G. S. Knoke W. R. Archibald

1980-01-01

134

Preliminary Results of Marine Electromagnetic Sounding with a Powerful, Remote Source in Kola Bay off the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The talk is devoted to a natural experiment conducted in Kola Bay off the Barents Sea in which new, six- component electromagnetic seafloor receivers were tested. Signals from a powerful, remote SLW transmitter at several frequencies on the order of tens Hz were recorded at the six sites along a profile across Kola Bay. In spite of the fact that, for technical reasons, not all the components were successfully recorded at every site, the quality of the experimental data was quite satisfactory. The experiment resulted in the successful simulation of an electromagnetic field by the integral equation method. An initial geoelectric model reflecting the main features of the regional geology produced field values that differed greatly from the experimental ones. However, step-by-step modification of the original model considerably improved the fit of the fields. This allowed to correct some features of the regional geology, the fault tectonics in particular. These preliminary results open the possibility of inverse problem solving with more reliable geological conclusions.

Kruglyakov, M.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Grigor'ev, V.; Korotaev, S.; Orekhova, D.; Scshors, Y.; Tereshchenko, E.; Tereshchenko, P.; Trofimov, I.

2012-12-01

135

Status of Zoobenthos and Fish Populations in Subarctic Rivers of the Northernmost Finland: Possible Effects of Acid Emissions from Russian Kola Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, a monitoring programme was initiated to survey the status of benthic invertebrate communities and fish populations over a wide range of subarctic rivers in northernmost Finnish Lapland (68°15'–70°N). A special emphasis was placed on detecting possible effects of acidification through sulfur emissions from Russian Kola Peninsula. Sampling in 13 rivers within four major river systems covered watercourses from

Heikki Erkinaro; Jaakko Erkinaro; Martti Rask; Eero Niemelä

2001-01-01

136

30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for firing outside the confines of a borehole; and (2) Shots fired in anthracite...the flow of material. (b) Each borehole in coal for explosives shall be at least 24 inches from any other borehole and from any free face, unless...

2013-07-01

137

Iterative Ray Tracing between Boreholes for Underground Image Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized method is described for calculating an image of the refractive index distribution in a plane bounded by two underground boreholes. The scanning geometry is assumed to be limited to probing from borehole to borehole, with rays at numerous depths and angles to effectively cover the cross section between holes. A geometrical optics model is assumed for the transmission

R. Jeffrey Lytle; Kris A. Dines

1980-01-01

138

Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal

Bairu XIA; Xiping ZENG; Zhixin MAO

2008-01-01

139

Real-time prediction method of borehole stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the close relationship between seismic and logging information, a real-time prediction model of borehole stability is established using seismic, logging, and geological data to control borehole wall sloughing instability. First, seismic attributes are extracted from borehole-side seismic traces of target wells and drilled offset wells. The mapping models of relationships between seismic attributes and logging data of various

Chao WU; Mian CHEN; Yan JIN

2008-01-01

140

Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

Horner, Jake A.

2007-02-28

141

Deep Borehole Strainmeter to Measure Earth Strain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A highly sensitive multicomponent strainmeter was designed for use in deep boreholes. A shallow-hole version of the deep-hole strainmeter was constructed and tested by operating it in a mine tunnel near the seismically active area around Mina, Nevada. The...

T. C. Moore L. H. Rorden R. L. Kovach S. W. Smith

1974-01-01

142

A Borehole Fiber-Optic Strainmeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SAFOD project provides an opportunity to study the basic mechanics of a fault that undergoes relatively frequent events. Magnitude 2 earthquakes within a few km of the borehole occur several times per year and produce strain signals on the order of a nanostrain. We installed a vertical fiber-optic strainmeter in the annulus of cement between the inner and outer

M. A. Zumberge

2005-01-01

143

Subsurface fracture measurement with polarimetric borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A full-polarimetric borehole radar system is presented with combinations of dipole antennas and axial slot antennas and is applied to subsurface fracture measurement. First, to determine a scattering matrix from measurements with antennas having different antenna transfer functions between orthogonal polarizations, the authors present an antenna compensation algorithm that is achieved by an inverse filtering method with the antenna transfer

Takashi Miwa; Motoyuki Sato; Hiroaki Niitsuma

1999-01-01

144

Electromagnetic logging technique based on borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electromagnetic logging technique based on borehole radar is introduced in this paper. The tool consists of one transmitter and two receivers, which can be used to cancel the effect of the antenna characteristics by taking the ratio of two receiver signals. Since receiver signals measured in the time domain can be converted into the frequency domain by Fourier transformation,

Sixin Liu; Motoyuki Sato

2002-01-01

145

California Fault Zone Orphan Borehole Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

California is tectonically active and has many abandoned boreholes across the state. With information on these boreholes provided by the Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), we have been able to create several interactive maps on Google Earth for a public website and database accessible at: http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/ . These maps locate abandoned and adoptable wells near active quaternary fault traces and are linked to relevant subsurface information. The links on the website include complete histories, logs, lithologies, stratigraphic columns, and casing information (when available). Earthquake scientists may utilize these wells for monitoring subsurface changes prior, during, and after an earthquake in California. The boreholes could be used for the measurements of several subsurface observables, including: repeat temperature logs, stress measurements, geophysical logging, repeat active-source seismic experiments, sampling of mud/ gas/ fluids, long-term monitoring of temperature and pore fluid pressure, passive seismicity, etc. The “Adopt a Well Program” with DOGGR allows the orphaned well to be tested for 90 days without liability then purchased upon approval. With the science of seismology expanding its limits, these boreholes offer the depth necessary to have accurate subsurface data in order to make informed implications about what occurs deep beneath the surface.

Avila, J.; Brodsky, E. E.

2009-12-01

146

Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

Ellefsen, K. J.; Wright, D. L.

2005-01-01

147

Borehole Tilt Results from Charlevoix, Quebec.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from the analysis of recordings from the Charlevoix borehole tilt experiment are presented and discussed. Time variations in the tilt tidal admittance are shown to be related to the time variations in the marine loading from the nearby St. Lawrenc...

C. Beaumont J. Kumpel J. Peters

1987-01-01

148

Borehole flexural modes in anisotropic formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perturbation method of solution is an efficient way of analyzing elastic wave propagation along a borehole in anisotropic formations. The perturbation model allows one to calculate changes in the modal dispersion curves caused by the differences in elastic constants between the anisotropic formation of interest and a reference, or unperturbed, isotropic formation. The equivalent isotropic constants in the reference

Bikash K. Sinha; S. K. Chang; A. N. Norris

1994-01-01

149

Multiple position borehole extensometer baseline algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides the baseline algorithm for the Multiple Position Borehole Extensometers (MPBX's) used at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) as a part of the Rock Instrumentation System (RIS) for Full Scale Heater Tests (FS) {number sign}1 and {number sign}2. It represents the baseline information available at the time of publication. The purpose of this document is to state the

W. F. White; Kunsoo. Kim

1980-01-01

150

BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

151

BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. asic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. hese basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. he paper describes the app...

152

Borehole tilt measurements from Charlevoix, Québec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of three borehole tiltmeters near Québec City in eastern Canada is designed to study the tidal and secular response of the crust in the Charlevoix seismic zone. The objectives of this study of the first year of data from two boreholes of the array are to investigate the spatial coherency of the tidal observations and determine whether there are time variations in the tidal amplitudes and phases and to describe the main features of the secular tilt signal. The tidal analysis was done using a modified version of the HYCON harmonic analysis program with which the time-varying tidal amplitudes and phases were determined by the sequential analysis of overlapping 2-monthly subsets of the data. The admittance observed for the major semidiurnal (M2) and diurnal (O1) constituents varies by up to 10 and 30%, respectively, and is strongly correlated between boreholes. Comparison with admittance variations determined from two nearby tide gauges indicates a strong correlation in the amplitude fluctuations, pointing to a predominantly marine loading source for the time-varying tilt admittance. Differences of up to 20% in amplitude and 5° in phase were found between the mean M2 results determined from boreholes 1 and 2, located only 80 m apart, indicating small-scale distortion of the local tilt field by lateral inhomogeneities. The secular tilt from both boreholes correlates strongly with transient and seasonal water table fluctuations, suggesting the dominant influence of pore pressure effects on the nontidal tilt. A preliminary estimate of the detectability of long-term regional trends in tilt is 0.4 ?rad/yr.

Peters, John; Beaumont, Christopher

1985-12-01

153

Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole  

DOEpatents

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Schenkel, Clifford (Walnut Creek, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

2000-01-01

154

Disposition of plutonium in deep boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Substantial inventories of excess plutonium are expected to result from dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons. Disposition of this material should be a high priority in both countries. A variety of disposition options are under consideration. One option is to place the plutonium either directly or in an immobilized form at the bottom of a deep borehole that is then sealed. Deep-borehole disposition involves placing plutonium several kilometers deep into old, stable, rock formations that have negligible free water present. Containment assurance is based on the presence of ancient groundwater indicating lack of migration and communication with the biosphere. Recovery would be extremely difficult (costly) and impossible to accomplish clandestinely.

Halsey, W.G.; Jardine, L.J.; Walter, C.E.

1995-05-01

155

BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

Mikesell, J. L.; Senftle, F. E.

1987-01-01

156

Backfilling of cavities resulting from borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines borehole mining system creates a cavity having a horizontal diameter of more than 50 feet. This cavity can be backfilled with much of the sand previously mined. The sand tailings or similar backfill material is dumped by a front end loader into a slurry mixing tank at the rate of about one ton every three minutes. Enough water is added to give a thick, but pumpable slurry. The slurry is pumped down the borehole through a string of 4-inch pipe to the cavity. After passing through a right elbow at the end of the pipe, the slurry is ejected through a nozzle. The resulting slurry jet emplaces the backfill at the outer wall of the cavity. To obtain an even distribution of fill in the cavity, the nozzle is slowly rotated. The nozzle and pipe assembly is supported from a turntable on the surface. The backfilling technique has been field tested.

Not Available

1981-03-01

157

Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology  

SciTech Connect

Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

Nelson, P.H.

1982-01-01

158

Deep borehole strainmeter to measure earth strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive multicomponent strainmeter was designed for use in deep boreholes. A shallow-hole version of the deep-hole strainmeter was constructed and tested by operating it in a mine tunnel near the seismically active area around Mina, Nevada. The ability of the strainmeter to record tidal strains of approximately 1 x 10 to the minus 8th power in the horizontal

T. C. Moore; L. H. Rorden; R. L. Kovach; S. W. Smith

1974-01-01

159

China’s component borehole strainmeter network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, China’s digital seismic observation network project began to deploy 40 sets YRY-4 four-component borehole strainmeters\\u000a in order to monitor earthquake preparation process. The paper describes observed solid tidal strain discreteness and tidal\\u000a factor anisotropy, analyzes the reliability of observational data and discusses the cause for this phenomenon. After getting\\u000a rid of interferences, the network, in two years practice,

Shunliang Chi

2009-01-01

160

Continuous borehole strain observations at italian volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since spring 2004 a research project has been developed in Italy to install borehole Sacks-Evertson strainmeters (dilatometers) aimed to improve monitoring systems of the Italian volcanoes. 6 borehole dilatometers have been installed around Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius during 2004-2005 (Scarpa et al., 2007) and two dilatometers have been installed on Stromboli volcano during 2006. Relevant strainmeter data have been collected and analyzed at the three instruments installed at Campi Flegrei. During the 2004-2006 miniuplift episode, which was characterized by 4 cm of maximum vertical displacement, an anomalous strain was released during summer 2006, in correspondence of anomalous CO2 release and increase of displacements measured by tiltmeters and GPS transducers. The strain episodes preceded the seismic activity by few month as also observed during the 1982 last large uplift episode. On Stromboli volcano, an extensive phase of activity occurred in February-April 2007 and significant data have been recorded at the two borehole dilatometers during the initial phase of activity and a larger explosion occurred on March 15. Data processed on Mt.Vesuvius show no relevant trend of strain due to its quiescent state. Modeling of the recorded activity has been performed in order to understand the mechanism of the processes occurring on these three active volcanic areas.

Scarpa, R.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Romano, P.

2009-04-01

161

Multifold borehole radar acquisition and processing  

SciTech Connect

The multifold acquisition principle was applied to a borehole radar survey, performed in a granitic site (Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland). Two multifold coverage acquisitions (40-fold and 20-fold) were carried out in a subhorizontal borehole. Instrumental drifts (transmission time and sampling frequency fluctuations) were corrected in order to remove shifts observed on CMP gathers and to optimize velocity analysis and trace stacking. Computation of velocity spectra was adapted in order to take into account the features of the medium investigated (homogeneous velocity, various reflector orientations). The NMO velocities were then interpreted as angles between reflectors and the survey line. The processing, based on the computation of several constant velocity stacked sections performed with different NMO velocities, leads to better results than the standard DMO + NMO processing. The signal-to-noise ratio of the stacked profile is improved in comparison with the single-fold section, which results from a standard acquisition. From a practical pint of view, the implementation of a multifold radar survey within a borehole is difficult but a greater investigation range is obtained, more reflectors are detected and the mapping of geological discontinuities is improved.

Hollender, F.; Tillard, S.; Corin, L.

1999-11-01

162

Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging  

SciTech Connect

The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations.

Christensen, C. L.; Statler, R. D.; Peterson, E. W.

1980-05-01

163

New Aspects of Structure of Earth Crust (Based on Data of Super Deep Wells Kola and Saatly)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure the sustainability of Planet Earth the latest information regarding the structure of the Earth is necessary. It common accepted that Earth Crust consists of 2 layers: granite and basalt. Unique depth 12 600 meter have been reached by unique drills Kola located on the Arhenian Baltic plate. But haven't passed/reached border of Conrad that expected to be on the 4 000 meters. In additions corroborate this fact Saatly super deep well haven't come out from basalt in spite of unique depth 8 600 meter in Kura rift Alpine geosynclinals belts. These facts from conversely different tectonic regions let to build new model structure of Earth Crust. Based on the seismic interpretations and the geological data analysis obtained from super deep drills Kola (12 600meters) and Saatly (8 280 meters), the comprehensive 1 layer geologic -geotectonic-geochemical model interruption-blocks structure of the Earth Crust has been created. Such model is leading to following reasoning. Geologic aspect: 1) Earth Crust on lateral. consists of separated blocks/domain of Granite and separated blocks/domain Basalt, lies directly on mantle.Tectonical aspects: 2) There is no subduction, 3) There is thrust 4) Earth Crust has separated into granite and basalts domains/blocks. Geochemical aspect: 5) Distribution of acid components in Earth Crust n prevailing on base components. 6) Power intensity degassation the depth increasing on old structure. Paleo- aspect: 7) Forming Earth crust began from forming the granites. Societal aspect: 8) Let us to build a new model of forming and development of atmosphere, hydrosphere and mineral fields.

Galant, Yuri

2013-04-01

164

In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds  

PubMed Central

We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy.

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

2011-01-01

165

In vitro anti-listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) seeds.  

PubMed

We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8-11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079-0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log(10) decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. PMID:22072929

Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

2011-01-01

166

Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

Glowka, D.A.

1990-09-01

167

Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver operated at 30 to 300 MHz was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole VHF radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole.

Chang, H.T.

1984-01-01

168

Cross-polarization borehole radar measurements with a slot antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss co-polarization and cross-polarization reflection measurements in borehole radar. Most conventional borehole radars use axially-oriented electric dipole antennas for transmission and reception, resulting in a response only to the co-polarized signal component of the reflected wave. However, more information can be obtained if the cross-polarized component of the reflected wave is also measured. Cross-polarization borehole radar

Motoyuki Sato; Takeshi Ohkubo; Hiroaki Niitsuma

1995-01-01

169

Analysis of a borehole radar in cross-hole mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical approach to cross-hole radar measurements is presented. An approximate analytical form for the current distribution on an antenna in a borehole is derived, and the theoretical receiving signal of the borehole radar in the cross-hole measurement is calculated. Theory is compared in the time-domain with the measured borehole radar signal obtained in a salt deposit. The radiation pattern

Motoyuki Sato; Rudolf Thierbach

1991-01-01

170

Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole  

DOEpatents

Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

2005-06-28

171

Mineralogy and mineral chemistry of snow filter residues in the vicinity of the nickel-copper processing industry, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fifteen snow samples were collected at the end of the 1995\\/96 winter in the vicinity (1.5–8 km) of the copper-nickel processing plants at Zapoljarnij, Nikel and Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. Polished sections were made from the snow filter residues for microscopic and qualitative and quantitative electron microprobe investigations. Particles in snow are derived from either geogenic1,

D. Gregurek; F. Melcher; V. A. Pavlov; C. Reimann; E. F. Stumpfl

1999-01-01

172

An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia.  

PubMed

64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft. PMID:24194655

Disney, R H L

2013-01-01

173

The numerical analysis of borehole blasting and application in coal mine roof-weaken  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematically analyzed the rock breakage process in borehole blasting, put forward the “dynamic and static press” breakage principle of rock borehole blasting. Use AUTODYN software to make borehole blasting numerical simulation, educed the single and double borehole blasting of rock breakage process and analyzed the borehole non-coupling charge blasting effect. At last, comparing theoretical analysis with numerical simulation methods in

Li Chun-rui; Kang Li-jun; Qi Qing-xing; Mao De-bing; Liu Quan-ming; Xu Gang

2009-01-01

174

The results of marine electromagnetic sounding with a high-power remote source in the Kola Bay in the Barents Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Russian six-component seafloor electromagnetic (EM) receivers were tested in an experiment carried out in Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. The signals transmitted by a remote high-power ELF source at several frequencies in the decahertz range were recorded by six receivers deployed on the seafloor along the profile crossing the Kola Bay. Although not all the stations successfully recorded all the six components due to technical failures, the quality of the data overall is quite suitable for interpretation. The interpretation was carried out by the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of an electromagnetic field with neural network inversion. The a priori geoelectrical model of Kola Bay, which was reconstructed by generalizing the previous geological and geophysical data, including the data of the ground magnetotelluric sounding and magnetovariational profiling, provided the EM fields that are far from those measured in the experiment. However, by a step-by-step modification of the initial model, we achieved quite a satisfactory fit. The resulting model provides the basis for introducing the corrections into the previous notions concerning the regional geological and geophysical structure of the region and particularly the features associated with fault tectonics.

Grigoriev, V. F.; Korotaev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Schors, Yu. G.

2013-05-01

175

Analysis and interpretation of borehole hydraulic tests in deep boreholes: principles, model development, and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature on hydraulic testing and interpretive methods, particularly in low-permeability media, indicates a need for a comprehensive hydraulic testing interpretive capability. Physical limitations on boreholes, such as caving and erosion during continued drilling, as well as the high costs associated with deep-hole rigs and testing equipment, often necessitate testing under nonideal conditions with respect to antecedent

J. F. Pickens; G. E. Grisak; J. D. Avis; D. W. Belanger; M. Thury

1987-01-01

176

Borehole survey instrumentation development for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

The creation and subsequent study of hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs requires sophisticated tools and instruments that can function for relatively long periods of time in the hostile downhole environment. Detection of fracture dimensions and orientation of the geothermal reservoir is critical for the successful completion of the hot dry rock energy extraction system. The development of downhole instrumentation capable of characterizing the hydraulic-fracture systems must emphasize reliability of measuring devices and electro-mechanical components to function properly at borehole temperature exceeding 275/sup 0/C and pressures of 69 MPa (10,000 psi).

Dennis, B.R.

1980-01-01

177

A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the polyvinyl chloride-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it.

Tseng, H. -W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M. J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

1998-01-01

178

Fiber optic communication in borehole applications  

SciTech Connect

The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

1997-04-01

179

Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

2006-11-01

180

Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The comparative wave planetology [1, 5] successfully overcomes the most principal martian test having now analyses of alkaline rocks from Columbia Hills [2, 3, 4]. This kind of rocks was predicted earlier on basis of the wave paradigm having stated that "the higher planetary relief range - the higher density difference between lithologies composing hypsometrically (tectonically) contrasting blocks [5]. This paradigm declares that "celestial bodies are dichotomic"(Theorem 1), "celestial bodies are sectoral" (Theorem 2), "celestial bodies are granular"(Theorem 3), "angular momenta of different level blocks tend to be equal" (Theorem 4)[1, 5]. Mars is a typical terrestrial planet but the farthest from Sun and thus with the smallest tide effects. Nevertheless it has the highest relief range and seems to be most distorted (ellipsoid in shape) and broken by deep fissures. The wave approach explains this by a warping action of standing waves of 4 ortho- and diagonal directions - they are the longest and highest in the martian case. These interfering warping waves caused by the elliptic keplerian orbits implying periodically changing accelerations and inertia-gravity forces produce inevitable tectonic dichotomy (the fundamental wave 1 long 2?R), sectoring (wave 2, ?R, and other overtones), granulation. A granule size depends on an orbital frequency: the higher frequency the smaller granule. The Earth's granule, as a scale, is ?R/4 (see it in NASA's PIA04159), Venus ` ?R/6, Mercury's ?R/16, Mars' ?R/2 (the sizes are strictly tied to orb. fr.). Along with the granule sizes increase relief ranges ( Mercury ˜5 km, Venus 14, Earth 20, Mars ˜30) and compositional (density) difference between lowland and highland lithologies [5]. The lowland compositions become Fericher and denser: enstatite (Mercury), Mg-basalt (Venus), tholeiite (Earth), Fe-basalt (Mars). The highland compositions get less dense, lighter: anorthosite, alkaline basalt, andesite and conditional "albitite" (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6] Mittlefehldt D.W.

Kochemasov, G.

181

High Temperature Borehole Televiewer software user manual  

SciTech Connect

The High Temperature Borehole Televiewer is a downhole instrument which provides acoustic pictures of the borehole walls that are suitable for casing inspection and fracture detection in geothermal wells. The Geothermal Drilling Organization has funded the development of a commercial tool survivable to temperatures of 275{degree}C and pressures of 5000 psi. A real-time display on an IBM-compatible PC was included as part of the development effort. This report contains a User Manual which describes the operation of this software. The software is designed in a menu format allowing the user to change many of the parameters which control both the acquisition and the display of the Televiewer data. An internal data acquisition card digitizes the waveform from the tool at a rate of 100,000 samples per second. The data from the tool, both the range or arrival time and the amplitude of the return signal, are displayed in color on the CRT screen of the computer during the logging operation. This data may be stored on the hard disk for later display and analysis. The software incorporates many features which aid in the setup of the tool for proper operation. These features include displaying and storing the captured waveform data to check the voltage and time windows selected by the user. 17 refs., 28 figs., 15 tabs.

Duda, L.E.

1989-11-01

182

Optical Seismometers: Borehole and Vault Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an interferometric seismometer which uses optics instead of electronics to infer ground motion. The sensor, assembled exclusively from glass and metal materials, could be deployed into deep boreholes where temperatures often exceed 150 °C. Our first prototype consists of a leaf-spring suspension and an optical-fiber-linked interferometer, which monitors vertical displacement of the seismic mass. Several years of testing and improvements have increased its performance at both low (e.g., tidal) and high (tens of Hz) frequencies. The prototype sensor performs as well as or better than most observatory grade seismometers and has an overall observed dynamic range of 109 or 30 bits of resolution (based on its observed noise floor and its maximum mass velocity). We have also built a simple horizontal component prototype which consists of a mass suspended from a vertical pendulum whose flexure is fabricated from a single block of material. Just as our vertical seismometer can serve as a gravity meter, the horizontal prototype can serve as a tiltmeter (both of their responses are flat to DC). Tests are currently being conducted with the new sensor in our Piñon Flat Seismic Test Facility (California). One advantage of our optical displacement transducer is its dynamic range, which relaxes the requirement that the horizontal component sensor be level, simplifying borehole installations. We have already achieved a dynamic range of ±5° and we expect that a range of ±10° is possible with some effort.

Otero, J. D.; Berger, J.; Wyatt, F. K.; Zumberge, M. A.

2009-12-01

183

Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the decrease is a result of socio-economic changes in the area. It is very likely that in areas with low background aerosol concentrations but close to large sources of anthropogenic sulphur emissions the trends in NPF depend on the overall human activity, general cleaning of the emissions and changes in natural biogenic emissions. This should be taken into account when estimating e.g. the effect of Arctic shipping routes to the future climate. Paatero, J., et al. (2008). Effects of Kola air pollution on the environment in the Western part of the Kola peninsula and Finnish Lapland - Final report. Finnish Meteorological Institute Reports, 6, 1-26. Prank, M., M. et al. (2010). A refinement of the emission data for Kola Peninsula based on inverse dispersion modelling. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10849-10865. Sipilä, M., et al. (2010). The role of sulfuric acid in atmospheric nucleation. Science, 327, 1243-1246.

Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

2014-05-01

184

PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Data Products And Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The borehole strainmeter network within the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 74 tensor strainmeters installed in arrays distributed between southern California and Vancouver Island, Canada. Borehole strainmeters, with nanostrain sensitivity, were included in the Observatory because of their ability to detect short-lived strain transients. In the first year of the operations and maintenance phase of the Observatory, the strainmeter network

D. B. Henderson; A. A. Borsa; W. Gallaher; M. H. Gottlieb; K. M. Hodgkinson; M. E. Jackson; W. Johnson; D. Mencin; E. J. Vanboskirk

2009-01-01

185

PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Bridging the Gap Between Seismology and GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key objective of the Plate Boundary Observatory, the geodetic component of Earthscope, is to capture the spatial and temporal deformation field across the western-US plate boundary. The observatory, being installed by UNAVCO, will consist of 103 borehole strainmeter\\/seismic sites, 880 GPS stations, 28 tiltmeters, and 5 laser strainmeters. Borehole strainmeters are designed to record deformation that lies between the

K. Hodgkinson; G. Anderson; T. Dittmann; B. Henderson; M. Jackson; W. Johnson; J. Matykiewicz; D. Mencin; J. Wright

2007-01-01

186

The PBO Borehole Strainmeter Program: Assessing Strainmeter Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between June 2005 and September 2008 UNAVCO installed 74 borehole strainmeters as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory, the geodetic component of the Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters, with sub- nanostrain sensitivity, were included in the observatory with the purpose of detecting short-lived strain transients along the Western US plate boundary. Less than a year after completion the strainmeter network has

K. Hodgkinson; A. Borsa; W. Gallaher; M. Gottlieb; B. Henderson; M. Jackson; W. Johnson; D. Mencin; L. van Boskirk

2009-01-01

187

The resolving power of cross-borehole tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data collected in a cross-borehole tomography problem is inherently incomplete, since the boreholes do not completely surround the media under study. The ability of the experiment to resolve structure is therefore limited by poor experimental geometry. We use the method of Backus an Gilbert to investigate the ability of this technique to resolve variations in acoustic velocity and attenuation

William Menke

1984-01-01

188

Borehole climate reconstructions: Spatial structure and hemispheric averages  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Ground surface temperature (GST) reconstructions determined from temperature profiles measured in terrestrial boreholes, when averaged over the Northern Hemisphere, estimate a surface warming of ? 1 K during the interval AD 1500- 2000. Other traditional proxy-based estimates suggest less warming during the same interval. Mann et al. (2003a) have raised two issues with regard to borehole-based reconstructions. The first

Henry N. Pollack; Jason E. Smerdon

2004-01-01

189

Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole vhf radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole. Similar experiments were also conducted using seismic waves at 4.5 to 6 KHz. The transmitter and the receiver in this case were located in separate boreholes. During this experiment, reflections from the slot were obtained only with the transducers oriented for shear wave illumination and detection. These results suggest that a high-frequency shear wave can also be used to detect fractures away from a borehole.

Chang, H.T.; Suhler, S.A.; Owen, T.E.

1984-02-01

190

Borehole-radar exploration in a coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation of VHF video radar pulses over a 60 ft distance through coal between boreholes has been demonstrated, and a possible radar reflection from a coal-air interface has been recorded from a pair of boreholes at an average distance of 90 ft. Further work of this type will be necessary to develop a practical capability to explore the volume

John C. Cook

1977-01-01

191

Application of borehole radar for subsurface physical measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole radar is a subsurface detection tool originally designed for imaging geological targets in resistive formations. As the formation becomes conductive, radar becomes ineffective for subsurface imaging because of the high attenuation of electromagnetic waves. In this paper, borehole radar is proven to be capable of measuring the surrounding conductivity and dielectric constant at 60-90 MHz, even in a conductive

Sixin Liu; Motoyuki Sato; Kazunori Takahashi

2004-01-01

192

Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

1985-01-01

193

Suction of gases from boreholes in coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas, particularly methane, is sucked from a borehole extending from a coal mine working by the following methods: by means of a casing consisting of tubular plastics sections by means of a vacuum pump connected to the lower end of the casing. The casing is sealed to the borehole by a sliding seal which allows the casing to be moved

U. Koppe; W. Stegmanns; H. Weisner

1982-01-01

194

Ground temperature history in Romania inferred from borehole temperature data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal observations (temperature-depth data and thermal property measurements) from a suite of boreholes in the Romanian Carpathians area are used to infer ground surface temperature (GST) history. Temperature observations in boreholes are combined with meteorological data at nearby weather stations to test that temperature in the earth's subsurface contains a record of recent climate change. The subsurface temperature profiles are

Serban Veliciu; Jan Šafanda

1998-01-01

195

Preliminary Results from a Shallow Borehole Tilt Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A shallow borehole tilt array has been installed within the boundaries of a deep borehole tilt array. Preliminary conclusions are: (1) Rainfall has obvious transient influences on the tilt signal, and may also be causing long term changes in drift rate an...

J. Lewkowicz R. K. McConnell

1977-01-01

196

Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality

Reidel; Steve P

2006-01-01

197

Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be

Brouns; Thomas M

2007-01-01

198

Natural gamma ray spectroscopy applied to borehole measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes current techniques for performing natural gamma ray spectroscopy measurements in borehole environments. The data were obtained using the system known as the Compensated Spectral Natural Gamma tool which uses the complete energy spectrum to provide information on the borehole environment in addition to concentrations of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in the formation. Elemental concentrations

L. L. Gadeken; H. D. Jr. Smith; D. M. Arnold; C. A. Robbins

1988-01-01

199

THE INFLUENCE OF THE BOREHOLE ENVIRONMENT UPON COMPRESSIONAL SONIC LOGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed compressional sonic recorded with conventional sonic devices is affected by formation and\\/or filtrate water salinity, dissolved gas. borehole and formation temperature, pore pressure, low saturation biogenic free gas, and the presence of hydrocarbons. The magnitude of this effect is not well appreciated by users of borehole sonic logs. These factors can have a significant effect upon measured interval

Mark Alberty

1994-01-01

200

Application of borehole acoustic logging techniques in engineering geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most site investigations for civil engineering developments use a large number of boreholes to obtain geological information and to collect samples for geotechnical measurements in the laboratory. However, samples taken from boreholes are often highly disturbed and even the most carefully taken sample is subjected to a relief in the overburden pressure as it is removed from the ground. There

D. M. McCann; C. McCann

1977-01-01

201

Analysis of a borehole radar in cross-hole mode  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors present a theoretical approach to the cross-hole radar measurements. An approximate analytical form for the current distribution on an antenna in a borehole is derived and the theoretical receiving signal of borehole radar in the crosshole measurement is calculated. Theory is compared in the time-domain with the measured borehole radar signal obtained in a salt deposit. The radiation pattern of a borehole radar excited by the pulse is discussed. The accuracy of tomographic analysis, which is often applied to the cross-hole radar measurements, is strongly governed by this radiation pattern. The authors found that in practice, most borehole radars have a pattern of a {lambda}/2 dipole antenna. However, the authors pointed out that the radiation pattern can be deformed by short pulse excitation, loading by the surrounding media, and coupling to the logging cable.

Sato, M. (Dept. of Resources Engineering, Tohoku Univ., Sendai 980 (JP)); Thierbach, R. (Geological Survey of Lower Saxony, Hannover (DE))

1991-11-01

202

Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using...

J. W. Lane P. K. Joesten G. Pohll T. Mihevic

2001-01-01

203

Emission of CO2 by soils in the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter in the Kola subarctic region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of the in situ soil respiration in the background northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola subarctic region reaches 120-290 mg C-CO2/m2 per h. In the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter, it decreases to 90-140, 30, and 15-30 mg C-CO2/m2 per h at the stages of spruce defoliation, spruce-birch woodland, and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. For the first time, the impact of the industrial pollution on root respiration has been assessed, and the dependences of the CO2 emission, the contribution of mineral soil horizons to this process, the microbial biomass, and root respiration on the concentrations of available nickel and copper compounds have been determined. The efficiency of two remediation technologies applied to technogenic barrens near the smelter has been evaluated on the basis of four parameters of the soil biological activity. The results indicate that remediation with the creation of a new filled soil layer is more efficient than chemical and phytoremediation methods.

Kadulin, M. S.; Koptsik, G. N.

2013-11-01

204

Comparison of the Schumann resonance parameters in horizontal magnetic and electric fields according to observations on the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of horizontal electric components at extremely low frequencies (0.1-20 Hz) have been started in the high-latitude observatory of Lovozero in the Kola Peninsula. It is found that the electric components are not less informative than the horizontal magnetic ones for Schumann resonance study. The diurnal variations in amplitude, frequency, and bandwidth of the first Schumann resonance mode in the electric W-E and N-S components are similar to the variations in the magnetic H and D components, respectively. The same correspondence of the components keeps for Q bursts. The frequencies in electric and magnetic components are not always equal: In summer, the frequency of the electric N-S component in the diurnal variation exceeds the frequency of the magnetic D component by 0.1 Hz. The parameters of both magnetic and electric components have seasonal variations. Three maxima of thunderstorm activity are observed in daily variations of the amplitudes of electric components: the Asian and American ones in the W-S component and the African one in the N-S component. The width of resonance bands in the electric components is somewhat larger than in the magnetic ones. The calculations of ELF wave components near poorly conducting surface are made, the results being in accordance with the observations.

Roldugin, V. C.; Vasiljev, A. N.; Ostapenko, A. A.

2006-04-01

205

Holocene climate variability on the Kola Peninsula, Russian Subarctic, based on aquatic invertebrate records from lake sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary records of invertebrate assemblages were obtained from a small lake in the Khibiny Mountains, Kola Peninsula. Together with a quantitative chironomid-based reconstruction of mean July air temperature, these data provide evidence of Holocene climate variability in the western sector of the Russian Subarctic. The results suggest that the amplitude of climate change was more pronounced in the interior mountain area than near the White Sea coast. A chironomid-based temperature reconstruction reflects a warming trend in the early Holocene, interrupted by a transient cooling at ca. 8500-8000 cal yr BP with a maximum drop in temperature (ca. 1°C) around 8200 cal yr BP. The regional Holocene Thermal Maximum, characterized by maximum warmth and dryness occurred at ca. 7900-5400 cal yr BP. During this period, July temperatures were at least 1°C higher than at present. The relatively warm and dry climate persisted until ca. 4000 cal yr BP, when a pronounced neoglacial cooling was initiated. Minimum temperatures, ca. 1-2°C lower than at present, were inferred at ca. 3200-3000 cal yr BP. Faunal shifts in the stratigraphic profile imply also that the late-Holocene cooling was followed by a general increase in effective moisture.

Ilyashuk, Elena A.; Ilyashuk, Boris P.; Kolka, Vasily V.; Hammarlund, Dan

2013-05-01

206

Benz(a)pyrene in soils and berries in an area affected by jets over the Kola Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal-combustion engines especially jets are known to be important industrial sources of benz(a)pyrene (BaP) to the environment. Over 30 years, jet aircraft have been operating in the vicinity of the town Monchegorsk, situated far north of Russia (Kola peninsula, 68°N and 33°E). The jet aircrafts take off from the military aerodrome located 4 km from the town. The takeoff path is over the inhabited territory of the town. It has been determined that the content of BaP in the upper organic soil layer varied from 200 to 30 ppb along the main path of the takeoff. These concentrations of BaP are 40-6 times larger than background levels and are 10-1.5 times larger than the accepted threshold concentration. The polluted zone correlates with the trajectory of the plane takeoff. The concentration of BaP in the berries of Vaccinium Vitis-idaea and Empetrum Hermaphroditum seems to be independent of B(a)P concentration in soil.

Barcan, Valery; Kovnatsky, Eugene; Shylina, Augusta

207

Corrosion tests in the Marchwood geothermal borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion tests in the high salinity brine produced during a production test at the Marchwood borehole. These tests were intended to obtain preliminary information on the corrosion of a range of metals and alloys most likely to be used for downhole service, heat exchangers and associated equipment, if hot water from this aquifer is used to provide a long-term energy source. Specimens of appropriate candidate materials were exposed to flowing brine in the surface pipework and also downhole at a depth of 663 m. The brine was pumped to the surface by a multi-stage electric submersible pump. The downhole specimens, which were installed with the pump, were exposed for a period of 83 days. The surface specimens were exposed during the well production test for 33.3 days. The product brine was around three times sea water concentration, at a temperature of 72 C and pH 6.2.

Lawrence, P. F.

1982-03-01

208

Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

Floyd, E. L.

1977-01-01

209

Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer  

DOEpatents

A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

Frank, Donald N. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

210

Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer  

SciTech Connect

A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

Frank, D.N.

1983-05-10

211

Multiple position borehole extensometer baseline algorithm  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the baseline algorithm for the Multiple Position Borehole Extensometers (MPBX's) used at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) as a part of the Rock Instrumentation System (RIS) for Full Scale Heater Tests (FS) {number sign}1 and {number sign}2. It represents the baseline information available at the time of publication. The purpose of this document is to state the algorithm to be used for the MPBX's at the NSTF, the basis for the equations, the method used to arrive at the constants in the equations, and to identify further instrument testing necessary to improve the understanding of the instrument's purpose in this high temperature, hard rock environment. 5 refs., 5 figs.

White, W.F.; Kim, Kunsoo.

1980-09-01

212

Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source  

SciTech Connect

A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

1997-04-01

213

Borehole mining oil sands is compatible with environment  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines borehole mining system for oil sands is discussed. The object of the program was to develop an environmentally feasible method of mining shallow oil sands without removing the overburden. The method entails extracting oil sands through a single borehole by cutting into the sands around the borehole with a high pressure water jet, and pumping the resulting slurry to the surface. The system was successfully field tested at a site in the Midway-Sunset Oil Field near Taft, in Kern County, California. During the two-month period during and following mining operations, no significant ground surface subsidence of ground water pollution was detected. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-05-01

214

A borehole radar system for South African gold and platinum mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole radar is an electromagnetic tool that can be applied to assist in the delineation of orebody geometry, ideally using routinely drilled cover and exploration boreholes. Successful trials of borehole radar for delineating reef horizons on South African gold and platinum mines have led to the development of a borehole radar system specifically designed for routine application in those enyironments.

Declan Vogt

2006-01-01

215

A prediction method of borehole stability based on seismic attribute technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole instability in drilling engineering can bring about serious problems of drilling quality and safety. Based on the close relationships between seismic and well log information, the prediction method of borehole stability is presented to effectively control borehole instability. Conventional and nonlinear seismic attributes are extracted from borehole-side seismic traces of impending drilling well and drilled offset well respectively. Then

Wu Chao; Chen Mian; Jin Yan

2009-01-01

216

Calibrated Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), funded by NSF as part of the Earthscope program and installed and maintained by UNAVCO, includes 75 borehole strainmeters (BSMs), which makes it one of the largest strainmeter arrays in the world. Co-located with seismometers, and embedded within the PBO continuous GPS network, the strainmeters expand the bandwidth of the Observatory enabling the capture of signals with periods of days to minutes. Six years after installation of the first strainmeter, over 70% of the network is in compression and over 85% of the instruments have a strong signal to noise ratio in the M2 tidal band. UNAVCO's BSM engineers ensure the network usually collects over 95% percent of possible data. UNAVCO makes the BSM Level 0 (raw) and Level 2 (processed) data products available to the community via the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), the IRIS DMC and UNAVCO's own web site. Processed BSM data includes gauge, areal, differential and tensor shear strains plus data edits and time series corrections for barometric pressure, earth tides, ocean load and borehole trends. Before strain data can be incorporated into a geophysical model with confidence, however, an instrument response must be found that relates the gauge measurements to the regional strains (i.e., an in-situ calibration is needed). In this presentation we describe the method UNAVCO will use to calibrate PBO strainmeters using earth tides as a reference signal and assuming an anisotropic instrument setting. The calibrated data will be released in a simple delimited ASCII format and will be included with the processed data set that is currently updated every 24 hours. In addition to the 5-minute Level 2 data set, UNAVCO will include the calibrated areal and shear strains at 1-sps for significant events anywhere in the world as part of its Special Event series. In order to meet Earthscope goals of data transparency and processing repeatability, the expanded processed data sets will include a summary of the calibration method, tidal observations, predictions upon which the calibrations are based and the strain matrix used to generate the areal and shear data. This presentation will also describe the new file naming convention that will allow the user to 1.) select a preferred calibration method for their data and 2.) allow UNAVCO the flexibility of including new methods of calibration in the future.

Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A. A.; Fox, O.; Gallaher, W. W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, L.

2011-12-01

217

Borehole Dilatometer Installation, Operation, and Maintenance at Sites in Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other inst...

G. D. Myren M. J. S. Johnston R. J. Mueller

2006-01-01

218

Borehole-Inclusion Stressmeter Measurements in Bedded Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia purchased borehole-inclusion stressmeters from a commercial supplier to measure in situ stress changes in bedded salt. However, the supplied stressmeters were difficult to set in place and gave erratic results in bedded salt. These problems were ov...

C. W. Cook E. S. Ames

1980-01-01

219

Gamma-Ray Spectral Calculations for Uranium Borehole Logging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium we...

D. A. Close M. L. Evans M. Jain

1980-01-01

220

Experimental Assessment of Borehole Wall Drilling Damage in Basaltic Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with thr...

K. Fuenkajorn J. J. K. Daemen

1986-01-01

221

Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole  

DOEpatents

Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

2003-05-13

222

oBackfilling of Cavities Resulting from Borehole Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. An objective part of the overall development of a borehole mining system was to develop backfilling techniques to reduce possible damage to the environment caused by...

1981-01-01

223

Televiewer Logging of Exploration Boreholes for Mine Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic televiewer surveys were run in sulphide exploration boreholes at three INCO properties in Canada. The televiewer logs provide valuable structural and geotechnical information for mine design purposes. Examples illustrating the analysis and interpretation of Acoustic televiewer logs are given.

G. M. McDowell

224

Backfilling of Cavities Produced in Borehole Mining Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a program to develop backfilling techniques to mitigate undesirable effects of hydraulic borehole uranium mining. To prevent ground subsidence and to allow mining of adjacent uraniferous sandstone, large underground cav...

G. S. Knoke M. H. Marvin W. R. Archibald

1979-01-01

225

Beneficiation of a Phosphate Ore Produced by Borehole Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of its program to increase the domestic availability of critical minerals, the Bureau of Mines conducted characterization and beneficiation studies on a St. Johns County, Fla., phosphate ore that was mined by borehole mining. Results revealed that...

B. E. Davis T. O. Llewellyn G. V. Sullivan

1982-01-01

226

Borehole Flowmeter. Final Technical Report February 1984-October 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Prototype Borehole Flowmeter has been developed for the purpose of characterizing gas flow distributions within Devonian Shale gas wells. Current technology for locating and measuring the gas producing zones in the Devonian Shale well environment is ind...

E. G. DiBello K. R. Haack J. L. McWilliams G. E. Pax S. S. Waterbury

1987-01-01

227

Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive interference the signals of each vibrator must be independently controlled in amplitude and phase. This allows a systematic exploration of areas around the borehole and also in direction ahead of the borehole. Measurements of the developed borehole devices with this seismic method show that structures like nearby galleries of the mine or zones of cracks can be explored depending on the issued direction. Imaging with a three-component Fresnel-Volume-Migration shows clearly the effect of the radiation pattern to the distribution of the seismic wave energy. The migration of the reflected wave field reveals an amplification of the reflected amplitudes at the galleries corresponding to the radiation pattern of the seismic borehole sources. A second borehole device was developed for usage in boreholes up to 2 km depth. After completion first measurements are planned to verify the exploration method for a directional investigation in boreholes. The measurements will take place in different geologies of hard and soft rocks and also depths. This project is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry.

Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

2013-04-01

228

SURFACE AND BOREHOLE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING OF CONDUCTING CONTAMINANT PLUMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Electromagnetic induction tomography is a promising new tool for imaging electrical conductivity variations in the earth. The EM source field is produced by induction coil (magnetic dipole) transmitters deployed at the surface or in boreholes. Vertical and horizontal component ma...

229

Consequence Assessment of Hydrological Communications Through Borehole Plugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the effect of borehole plug integrity on consequence assessments performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The study is based on scenarios described in the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix K, for the WIPP, US Depar...

1981-01-01

230

Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

1996-01-01

231

Borehole versus isotope temperatures on Greenland: Seasonality does matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

New simulation results obtained with the Hamburg Atmosphere General Circulation Model ECHAM-4 under maximum glacial boundary (LGM) conditions confirm the paleotemperatures on Greenland determined by borehole thermometry. The disagreement between delta18O isotope based temperatures and the borehole temperatures of the LGM is not only reproduced by the model, but the simulation results provide a plausible explanation: Paleotemperatures inferred from delta18O

Martin Werner; Uwe Mikolajewicz; Martin Heimann; Georg Hoffmann

2000-01-01

232

Frequency spectrum change of borehole radar signals and blind separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—We model borehole radar signal including a direct wave from a transmitter and a wave reflected from a target by MoM, and we propose a blind separation method to separate the two signals. We modeled the borehole radar signals with MoM, and we will show that power spectrums of a direct wave and reflected waves are different from each other.

Satoshi Ebihara; Masahiro Kiso

2004-01-01

233

A Novel Direction-Finding Algorithm for Directional Borehole Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A directional borehole radar system has been developed for the purpose of 3-D imaging of subsurface targets in a single-hole measurement. The radar system is equipped with a uniform circular array consisting of four dipole antennas as a receiver in order to realize azimuth bearing sensitivity. We propose a new direction-finding (DF) algorithm that is suitable for directional borehole radar

Takuya Takayama; Motoyuki Sato

2007-01-01

234

Thermobaric calculation of a steam-thermal borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure is proposed for carrying out an approximate analytical calculation of pressure and temperature along a vertical borehole for thermal water with a temperature of 150-320°C taking into account its phase transition into steam. It is shown that both a single-phase flow mode for water and a two-phase flow mode for a mixture of water and steam can appear in the borehole under certain conditions.

Alishaev, M. G.; Azizov, G. A.

2011-07-01

235

Thallium-rich murunskite from the Lovozero pluton, Kola Peninsula, and partitioning of alkali metals and thallium between sulfide minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new thallium-rich variety of murunskite has been found in the Palitra peralkaline pegmatite at Mount Kedykverpakhk, the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. This mineral occurs as a flattened dark bronze segregation (0.3 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm) overgrowing ussingite in a cavity. The chemical composition is as follows, wt %: 8.35 K, 24.31 Tl, 29.01 Cu, 14.58 Fe, 23.26 S, total is 99.51. The empirical formula is (K1.18Tl0.66)1.84(Cu2.53Fe1.45)3.98S4.02. According to X-ray powder diffraction data, the dimensions of the tetragonal unit cell are: a = 3.869 (1), c = 13.206 (6) Å, V = 197.7 (2) Å3. This variety is the closest to the intermediate member of the murunskite-thalcusite series. The youngest mineral complex of the Palitra Pegmatite includes four sulfides belonging to three different structure types. These sulfides also may be regarded as three topological types distinguished by the arrangement of alkali metal atoms in their structures: (1) bartonite and chlorbartonite belonging to the zero-dimensional topological type with K atoms in isolated cells, (2) pautovite pertaining to the one-dimensional type with Cs (+Rb, K, Tl) atoms making up chains in ample tunnels, and (3) murunskite belonging to the two-dimensional type with K (+Tl) atoms forming sheets. There is pronounced partitioning of K (Cs + Rb) and Tl between these sulfides: bartonite and chlorbartonite contain 9.5-9.7 wt % K and 0.2 wt % Tl; pautovite, 36.1 wt % Cs, 1.3 wt % Rb, 0.5 wt % Tl, and 0.2 wt % K; and murunskite, 8.35 wt % K and 24.31 wt % Tl.

Pekov, I. V.; Agakhanov, A. A.

2008-12-01

236

Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

Henny, C. J.; Ganusevich, S. A.; Ward, F. P.; Schwartz, T. R.

1994-01-01

237

Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts  

SciTech Connect

The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

2000-04-18

238

The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

2012-04-01

239

Predicting Stress-induced Anisotropy around a Borehole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of the in situ stress state around a borehole is of primary importance for investigating the stability of the borehole, when estimating the likely orientations of open fractures, and for designing hydraulic fracture operations. Two major steps may be used to estimate the in situ stress: first, we measure the near-wellbore anisotropy from acoustic logs, which can be done using a relatively well-developed technique; second, we use some inversion scheme to estimate the in situ stress state by assuming that all near-wellbore anisotropy is caused by the anisotropic near-wellbore stress field that has been altered by the presence of the borehole. In order to develop an accurate and efficient inversion scheme, the relation between the stress and formation anisotropy needs to be quantitatively determined. Because the stress field near the wellbore is strongly influenced by the presence of the borehole, in this paper, we propose an iterative numerical approach to estimate the stress-induced anisotropy around a borehole for any given stress state by applying Mavko’s model (1995) and a finite-element method. The accuracy of our approach is validated through laboratory measurements of the stress-strain relation of Berea sandstone under uniaxial loading. Our numerical studies show that this approach can be applied to calculate the formation anisotropy around a borehole for a wide stress range. This approach could potentially provide a good forward model for the in situ stress inversion.

Fang, X.; Fehler, M.; Zhu, Z.; Toksoz, M. N.; Earth Resources Laboratory

2010-12-01

240

Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

McDonald, G. D.; Paillet, F. L.; Barton, C. C.; Johnson, C. D.

1997-01-01

241

The paleoproterozoic vurechuaivench layered Pt-bearing pluton, Kola Peninsula: New results of the U-Pb (ID-TIMS, SHRIMP) dating of baddeleytte and zircon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Vurechuaivench layered PGE-bearing pluton (VP) is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula, at the southeastern contact of the Monchegorsk layered complex with the Paleoproterozoic Imandra-Varzuga rift structure. The VP is composed of gabbronorites with a layered horizon of intercalated gabbronorites and anorthosites, containing sulfide and PGE-bearing mineralization. The U-Pb (ID-TIMS) age of baddeleytte from gabbronorite of the ore zone (sample M-42) was determined on a Finningan MAT-262 (RPQ) seven-channel mass-spectrometer in the Laboratory of Geochronology at the Geological Institute, Kola Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences. Zircons from anorthosites and gabbronorites of the ore zone (samples B-1 and B-2, respectively) were studied on a SHRIMP-II secondary-ionic microprobe in the Center of Isotopic Studies of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise VSEGEI (St. Petersburg). The reliable age of formation of various VP rocks was determined by single grains of accessory baddeleytte and zircon based on additional studies of sample M-42 (2498.2 ± 6.7 Ma) and new studies of samples B-1 and B-2 (2507.9 ± 6.6 and 2504.8.4 Ma). The identical U-Pb ages of anorthosites and gabbronorites from the ore reef indicate that anorthosites are a dependent phase and were formed along with gabbronorites during the intrachamber melt differentiation and crystallization.

Rundkvist, T. V.; Bayanova, T. B.; Sergeev, S. A.; Pripachkin, P. V.; Grebnev, R. A.

2014-01-01

242

Formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout within weakly cementedsandstones  

SciTech Connect

Breakout (wall failure) of boreholes within the earth can take several forms depending upon physical properties of the surrounding rock and the stress and flow conditions. Three distinctive modes of breakout are (I) extensile breakout observed in brittle rocks (e.g., Haimson and Herrick, 1986), (II) shear breakout in soft and clastic rocks (Zoback et al., 1985), and (III) fracture-like, slot-shaped breakout within highly porous granular rocks (Bessinger et al., 1997; Haimson and Song, 1998). During fluid production and injection within weakly cemented high-porosity rocks, the third type of failure could result in sustained and excessive sand production (disintegration of the rock's granular matrix and debris production). An objective of this research is to investigate the physical conditions that result in the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout, via laboratory experiments. Our laboratory borehole breakout experiment was conducted using synthetic high-porosity sandstone with controlled porosity and strength. Block samples containing a single through-goring borehole were subjected to anisotropic stresses within a specially designed tri-axial loading cell. A series of studies was conducted to examine the impact of (1) stress anisotropy around the borehole, (2) rock strength, and (3) fluid flow rate within the borehole on the formation of slot-shaped borehole breakout. The geometry of the breakout was determined after the experiment using X-ray CT. As observed in other studies (Hamison and Song, 1998; Nakagawa and Myer, 2001), flow within a borehole plays a critical role in extending the slot-shaped breakout. The results of our experiments indicated that the width of the breakout was narrower for stronger rock, possibly due to higher resistance to erosion, and the orientation of the breakout plane was better defined for a borehole subjected to stronger stress anisotropy. In most cases, the breakout grew rapidly once the borehole wall started to fail. This 'run-away' failure growth is induced by monotonically increasing stress concentration at the breakout tips, although this effect may be augmented by the finite size of the sample.

Nakagawa, Seiji; Tomutsa, Liviu; Myer, Larry R.

2005-06-10

243

The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes  

SciTech Connect

The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

Schenkel, C.J.

1991-05-01

244

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5 million year old Elephant Mountain Member was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-02-28

245

Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector  

DOEpatents

A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX) [Helotes, TX

1994-01-01

246

Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna. Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m. Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures. Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground water; and (3) an increase in primary or secondary porosity and an associated change in mineral assemblage, or decrease in ground water specific conductance, was characterized in two of the boreholes below 300 m. The results of the radar reflection logging indicate that even where data quality is marginal, borehole-radar reflection logging can provide useful information for ground-water characterization studies in fractured rock and insights into the nature and extent of fractures and fracture zones in and near boreholes.

Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, Greg; Mihevic, Todd

2001-05-11

247

Ground temperature history in Romania inferred from borehole temperature data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal observations (temperature-depth data and thermal property measurements) from a suite of boreholes in the Romanian Carpathians area are used to infer ground surface temperature (GST) history. Temperature observations in boreholes are combined with meteorological data at nearby weather stations to test that temperature in the earth's subsurface contains a record of recent climate change. The subsurface temperature profiles are consistent with the air temperature records. The GST histories that can be extracted by inversion of perturbed temperature data from boreholes ranging in depth between 190 and 520 m cover the past 200-400 years. Results of inversion indicate for the last 150 years a cooler episode for the inner region of the Carpathian Mts. and a warmer time in the Carpathian foreland. The GST histories for this southeastern part of Europe are slightly different from those obtained in western and central Europe. These differences are consistent with the spatial variability of climatic trends.

Veliciu, Serban; Šafanda, Jan

1998-06-01

248

A regularity-based modeling of oil borehole logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifractional Brownian motions (mBms) are successfully used to describe borehole logs behavior. These local fractal models allow to investigate the depth-evolution of regularity of the logs, quantified by the Hölder exponent (H). In this study, a regularity analysis is carried out on datasets recorded in Algerian oil boreholes located in different geological settings. The obtained regularity profiles show a clear correlation with lithology. Each lithological discontinuity corresponds to a jump in H value. Moreover, for a given borehole, all the regularity logs are significantly correlated and lead to similar lithological segmentations. Therefore, the Hölderian regularity is a robust property which can be used to characterize lithological heterogeneities. However, this study does not draw any relation between the recorded physical property and its estimated regularity degree for all the analyzed logs. Keywords: well logs, regularity, Hölder exponent, multifractional Brownian motion

Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima

2013-04-01

249

Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

Dennis, B.R.

1984-05-01

250

Thermal/mechanical properties of umtanum basalt: Borehole DC-2  

SciTech Connect

The thermal/mechanical behavior of basalt cores from the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Gable Mountain and from Borehole DC-2 on the Hanford Site is being studied to help understand the results of the in situ testing at the NSTF, and to provide information relating NSTF conditions within Pomona basalt to projected repository conditions within Umtanum basalt. This report describes the thermal/mechanical properties of Umtanum basalt from Borehole DC-2. Reported are: thermal expansion, static and dynamic elastic properties, compressive strength, Brazilian tensile strength, modulus of rupture, density, apparent porosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. (DLC)

Feves, M.L.; Cooper, J.D.

1981-01-01

251

Apparatus for generating seismic vibration energy in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

A signal generating apparatus is described for use in fluid-filled boreholes, comprising: a frame for suspension in the borehole; a tube having first and second ends and disposed in the frame a first acoustic energy source mounted in the first end to direct energy to a central point; a second acoustic energy source mounted in the second end to direct energy to the central point; an energy deflector plate disposed at 45 degrees to and along the axis of the tube central point at an equal angle to each means for energizing the first and second acoustic energy sources.

Benzing, W.M.

1986-12-30

252

Comparison between radar data and geophysical, geological and hydrological borehole paramenters by multivariate analysis of data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the present work is to study the correlation between radar reflectors and geophysical, geological and hydraulical parameters from the boreholes. An additional objective is to show what information can be gained by the borehole radar with res...

S. Carlsten L. Lindqvist O. Olsson

1989-01-01

253

A new matlab® library to interactively analyze logging data and borehole wall images and to recenter borehole acoustic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations acquired downhole are basically of two types : standard logs and borehole wall images, i.e. scalars versus depth and images versus depth. While many freeware programs can deal with standard logs, very few are able to treat simultaneously and interactively both scalars and images, including standard treatments commonly applied to such data. The developed matlab library offers such a possibility, in the form of a set of matlab routines based on command line operations that can be injected in matlab scripts for automatic data treatments and plotting procedures. An integrated analysis of downhole observations at first requires to correct the depths coming from various tools so that they all are the same. The provided library enables such corrections, and it in particular can interactively display the tendency defined by the plotted links, so as to detect and possibly remove the links that appear not to be coherent with the others. It also includes standard pre-treatments like interactive removal of absurd or wrong points, dephasing and non dephasing filters, derivations, integrations, decimations, resampling, amplitude calibrations, cross plots, etc. It besides enables to derive and display in 3D the borehole geometry from continuous monitorings of the magnetic field and the borehole tilt. Finally it includes more specific routines dedicated to the analysis of acoustic images. Among them are included the standard 3D, spiral and cross section plots, plus a new routine that enables to recenter the tool axis at the borehole axis before the images are generated. This very last routines appears to drastically improve the information delivered by the acoustic images where the tool is badly centered. The impact of all provided routines is illustrated with a data set coming from the Lavalette Experimental Center in France, an experimental site near the Montpellier university with two 100 m deep boreholes that is devoted to borehole geophysics research and teaching.

Pinettes, P.

2003-04-01

254

Late pleistocene and holocene history of the lakes in the Kola Peninsula, Karelia and the North-Western part of the East European plain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reviews the work on paleolimnology in parts of the FSU over the last 40 years. It presents a short review of The History of the Lakes of the East European Plain, one of the books of the series The History of Lakes published by the Institute of Lake Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It describes the Late Pleistocene and Holocene history of these lakes based mainly on the study of lacustrine sediments. Amongst the samples Lake Nero near Moscow which is located near the marginal zone of the last glaciation, and includes records that go back as early as 190,000 BP. The main elements of lake evolution are shown in different territories: Byelorussia; Baltic countries; Karelia; and the Kola Peninsula. Special attention is given to palaeolimnological data because its use for Holocene and Late Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstructions.

Davydova, N.; Servant-Vildary, S.

255

Geochronology of the Archaean Kolmozero-Voron'ya Greenstone Belt: U-Pb dating of zircon, titanite, tourmaline and tantalite (Kola Region, North-Eastern BAltic Shield)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Archaean Kolmozero-Voron’ya greenstone belt is one of the most ancient geological structures of the Kola Peninsula. It is located between Upper Archaean terrains: Murmansk, Central Kola and Keivy. Within the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt there are rare metal (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be), Cu, Mo, and Au deposits. All rocks were metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions and intruded by granodiorites, plagiomicrocline and tourmaline granites and pegmatite veins. Four suites are distinguished within the belt: lower terrigenous formation, komatiite-tholeite, basalt-andesite-dacite and upper terrigenous formation. The U-Pb age of 2925±6 Ma on magmatic zircon was obtained for leucogabbro of differentiated gabbro-anorthosite massif Patchemvarak, situated at the boundary between volcanic-sedimentary units and granitoids of the Murmansk block. This age is the oldest for gabbro-anorthosites of the Kola Peninsula. Sm-Nd age of komatiites is ca. 2.87 Ga (Vrevsky, 1996). U-Pb age of zircon from biotite schist, which belongs to acid volcanites is 2865+/-5 Ma. Quartz porphyries, which are considered to be an intrusive vein analogous of acid volcanites has an age of 2828+/-8 Ma, that marks the final stage of the belt development. Dating of titanite from ovoid plagioamphibolites yielded an U-Pb age of 2595+/-20 Ma that probably is connected with the closure of the U-Pb isotopic titanite system during the regional metamorphism. The Porosozero granodioritic complex with an age of 2733+/-6 Ma is located between granites of the Murmansk domain, migmatites and gneisses of the Central Kola terrain and the Keivy alkaline granites. Tourmaline granites are found all over the Kolmozero-Voron’ya belt occurring among volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of the belt. Their Pb-Pb age of 2520+/-70 Ma appears to denote the tourmaline crystallization at a post-magmatic stage of the complex formation. U-Pb zircon age from rare metal pegmatites is 1.9-1.8 Ga. Zircons from pegmatites are represented mostly by crystals with disturbed structure as a result of fluid influence that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of crystallization process [Alviola, et al. 2001]. By this reason we measured U-Pb age of tantalite. U-Pb age of tantalite from rare-metal pegmatites is ca 2.5 Ga, coeval with the age of tourmaline granites, which could be a source for pegmatites. This age determines the time of rare metal pegmatite crystallization, while zircon age of 1.9-1.8 Ga reflects the time of U-Pb zircon system disturbance under the influence of hydrothermal and metasomatic processes. Thus, several stages can be distinguished in the evolution of the Archaean Kolmozero-Voron’ya greenstone belt: protoocean with komatiite-toleite magmatism (3.0-2.9 Ga); volcanic arc with andesite-rhyolite magmatism (2.9-2.8 Ga); regional metamorphism and granitization with melting of granodiorite-granite magmas (2.7-2.6 Ga); regressive metamorphism and potassium metasomatism with the formation of tourmaline and microcline granites and rare-metal pegmatites within and outside the belt 2.5 Ga. The work is supported by RFBR grants 01-05-65451 and 00-05-72032

Kudryashov, N.; Gavrilenko, B.; Apanasevich, E.

2003-04-01

256

Transformation of the chemical composition of the waters of small lakes on Kola Peninsula owing to a decrease in technogenic air pollution and to climate warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of sulfur dioxide and metals from copper-nickel melting plants on Kola Peninsula (Russia) decreased pronouncedly over the last two decades. The decrease in the sulfate content and increase in the acid-neutralizing capability of waters were proven on the basis of the data of surveys on 75 small lakes repeated once every five years from 1990 to 2010. The variations of other parameters of the chemical composition of the waters of small lakes depend on the geological and landscape conditions of the formation of waters. The alkalinity and pH values increased in 46% of the lakes; 24% of them showed a further decrease of these parameters; and no reliable changes were traced in 31% of the lakes. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in the lacustrine water decreased 5-to 10-fold over the last two decades.

Moiseenko, T. I.; Bazova, M. M.; Efimova, L. E.

2014-05-01

257

Comparison of the thermal performance of double U-pipe borehole heat exchangers measured in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole heat exchanger is a ground heat exchanger devised for the extraction or injection of thermal energy from\\/into the ground. The thermal performance of a borehole heat exchanger can be assessed with a response test. The response test method allows the in situ determination of the thermal conductivity of the ground in the vicinity of a borehole heat exchanger,

D. Pahud; B. Matthey

2001-01-01

258

Integrated Application of Borehole Radar Reflection and Resistivity Tomography to Delineate Fractures at a Granite Quarry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To delineate the inhomogeneities including fractures and to estimate the freshness of rock, borehole radar and resistivity tomography surveys were conducted at a granite quarry mine in Korea. Borehole radar reflection images were obtained at five boreholes and we could get high resolution image of fractures. Spatial orientations of fractures, however, could not be attained because of omni-directional characteristic of

Myeong-Jong Yi; Jung-Ho Kim; Seong-Jun Cho; Motoyuki Sato

2005-01-01

259

The far field of a borehole radar and its reflection at a planar interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The far held of an electric Hertzian dipole located in a borehole is expressed as the product of a transmission coefficient and the far field of a dipole in a homogeneous region. The derivation uses the method of steepest descent, and gives physical insight into the wave phenomena that are important for borehole radar. The received field inside the borehole

Thorkild B. Hansen

1999-01-01

260

The dipole flow test: A new single-borehole test for aquifer characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new single-borehole measurement technique for confined aquifers, the dipole flow test, yields the vertical distributions of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity, the vertical hydraulic conductivity, and the specific storativity when applied to different borehole intervals. The test utilizes straddle packers to isolate two chambers in the borehole, pressure transducers to monitor drawdown in them, and a small pump to create

Z. J. Kabala

1993-01-01

261

30 CFR 75.1319 - Weight of explosives permitted in boreholes in bituminous and lignite mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...total weight of explosives loaded in any borehole in bituminous and lignite mines shall...total weight of explosives loaded in a borehole less than 6 feet deep in bituminous and...reduced by 1/2 pound for each foot of borehole less than 6...

2013-07-01

262

Case Study: Louvered Screen Produces High Efficiency Boreholes for Mine Dewatering - Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each dewatering borehole within a dewatering system is designed to accommodate a dedicated pump whose capacity may be several thousand cubic meters of water per day. A typical network of dewatering boreholes (i.e. wellfield) is designed to operate continuously 24 hours-per day without interruption. Its demands for power or fuel are often high, particularly when the efficiencies of the boreholes

263

Diurnal fluctuations in borehole water levels: configuration of the drainage system beneath Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water levels were measured in boreholes spaced along the entire length of Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA, for a period in excess of 2 years. Instrumented boreholes were arranged as nine pairs along the center line of the glacier and an orthogonal grid of 16 boreholes in a 3600 m2 region at the center of the ablation area. Diurnal fluctuations of the water levels were found to be restricted to the late melt season. Pairs of boreholes spaced along the length of the ablation area often exhibited similar fluctuations and diurnal changes in water levels. Three distinct and independent types of diurnal fluctuations in water level were observed in clusters of boreholes within the grid of boreholes. Head gradients suggest water did not flow between clusters, and a single tunnel connecting the boreholes could not explain the observed pattern of diurnal water-level fluctuations. Inter-borehole and borehole-cluster connectivity suggests the cross-glacier width of influence of a segment of the drainage system connected to a borehole was limited to tens of meters. A drainage configuration whereby boreholes are connected to a somewhat distant tunnel by drainage pipes of differing lengths, often hundreds of meters, is shown with a numerical test to be a plausible explanation for the observed borehole behavior.

Fudge, T. J.; Humphrey, Neil F.; Harper, Joel T.; Pfeffer, W. Tad

264

The Concentration of Cadmium in Borehole and Well Waters in Zaria, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the level of inorganic chemical cadmium (Cd) in wells and boreholes water in Zaria is sufficient to affect the health of the inhabitants of the area under study. Sixty open wells and 5 boreholes were randomly selected from Zaria and environs. Water samples were collected from the open wells and boreholes

H. Musa; I. A. Yakasai; K. Y. Musa; M. S. Gwarzo

2007-01-01

265

Seismic Borehole Tomography. Annual Report June 1984-May 1985,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes work during the period June 1984 to May 1985 in the development of Seismic Borehole Tomography (SBT). The work is being performed by Tomex Corporation for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) with the objective of developing a new seismic...

B. Widrow B. P. Marion C. L. Davidson J. W. Rector

1985-01-01

266

Cutting Experiments Using a Rotating Water Jet in a Borehole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental hydraulic jetting device intended to operate in a 16-inch-diameter borehole was designed, fabricated, and used to cut coal and simulated coal samples. This device contained two 0.1007-inch-diameter nozzles that rotate in a plane perpendicu...

G. A. Savanick T. E. Ricketts P. D. Lohn J. N. Frank

1976-01-01

267

Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur

R. Engelke; R. O. Hedges

1996-01-01

268

Coseismic Offsets on PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Real, or Spurious?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed coseismic strain offsets during many significant earthquakes, at all locations in the 74-instrument PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network. The M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 induced the largest offsets thus far, on BSMs located within the San Jacinto fault zone - the \\

A. J. Barbour; D. C. Agnew

2010-01-01

269

Characterizing Noise Levels on the PBO Borehole Seismometers and Strainmeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help search for signals from episodic tremor, we are analyzing the spectral and temporal characteristics of data in the seismic band (0.001 to 10 Hz) from the borehole strainmeters and seismometers installed by the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). This characterization will show what can be detected by these sensors, and also help to develop guidelines which can be used

A. Barbour; D. C. Agnew

2008-01-01

270

Resolution of ground temperature histories inverted from borehole temperature data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inversion methods have been used to determine ground temperature history from borehole temperature data. This paper examines the resolution of an inversion method based on singular value decomposition. The method includes in the constraints the rate of change of subsurface if available. The response of the Earth to a unit pulselike change in surface temperature and the model resolution were

Hugo Beltrami; Jean-Claude Mareschal

1995-01-01

271

Directional borehole radar with dipole antenna array using optical modulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a directional borehole radar comprising a dipole antenna array with an optical modulator capable of determining the position of targets in three dimensions (3-D). Optical modulators using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer are used to transform electrical signals into optical signals at the feeding points of the dipole antennas. The advantages of using these modulators are that

Satoshi Ebihara

2004-01-01

272

Field test results of a borehole directional radar  

SciTech Connect

The Borehole Directional Radar System is a high-power, high- resolution tool that is being developed to locate lithologic layers of fractures away from a wellbore. The prototype is a 50-kW peak- power pulsed directional radar system that determines fracture location by transmitting powerful radar pulses, 8 nanoseconds in length, in a known direction from a borehole. The frequency spectrum of the pulses ranges up to the VHF band, which is between 30 and 300 MHz. The transmitter and receiver rotate in place, permitting the tool to scan for fractures in all directions from the borehole. Because discontinuities in the rock interrupt and reflect radar signals, signals that return to the tool's receiving antenna indicate fractures. The distance of the fracture from the borehole is determined by the time delay of the return signal. The radio frequency signal is sampled and transmitted to the surface by wireline at audio frequencies, and then reconstructed at the surface using a personal computer. The key to the tool's potential is its ability to accurately measure distance and direction of a lithologic discontinuity underground. This paper presents field test results that show the capabilities of the tool for locating lithological discontinuities up to 10.5 m (34.5 ft) away from a wellbore. Unique features of the system are discussed. Potential applications of the system are described, such as locating gas and oil reservoirs below a salt dome and possibly detecting a blow-out well with or without casing. 10 refs., 8 figs.

Chang, Hsi-Tien (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1989-01-01

273

A directional borehole radar: numerical and experimental verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the simulation and design of an antenna system for a borehole radar. To obtain a directional radiation pattern the transmitting dipole is shielded with a reflector. The generated transient wavefield, with a centre frequency of 100 MHz, is reflected in the desired direction by a perfectly conducting cylindrically curved plate. The radiation pattern of this scattered wavefield is

K. W. A. van Dongen; P. M. van den Berg; J. T. Fokkema

2001-01-01

274

Resistively loaded insulated antennas for narrow borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission-line model for an insulated symmetric dipole in a lossy medium has been extended for the case of an insulated asymmetric dipole with a conductive arm and a uniformly resistive arm. The model is used to improve the understanding of the characteristics of a narrow borehole impulse radar recently developed. It predicts that sufficient loading of the resistive arm

Daniel M Claassen; Rajeev Bansal; Iain M Mason; Jonathan E Hargreaves

1995-01-01

275

Investigations of fracture zones in crystalline rock by borehole radar  

SciTech Connect

A borehole pulse radar system has been developed as part of the International Stripa Project with the objective to identify and characterize fracture zones at a considerable distance from boreholes. The radar uses very short pulses, which are transmitted and received by dipole antennas inserted into the boreholes. The pulses are extremely broadband with center frequencies of 25-60 MHz corresponding to wavelengths of a few meters in the rock. At 25 MHz the attenuation in the Stripa granite is 28 dB/100 m and the pulse velocity is approximately 128,000 km/s. Reflection measurements have been used to identify fracture zones and determine their position and orientation. The zones often cause strong and well-defined reflections. Improvements in the pulse form and numerical filtering of the data have consequently made the radar a very efficient instrument for locating fracture zones. During measurements in Stripa reflections from fracture zones have been observed more than 100 m from the borehole.

Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.; Sandberg, E.

1986-01-01

276

Estimation of a buried pipe location by borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new parametric inversion technique to estimate a buried pipe location was developed for borehole radar cross-hole measurements. This technique evaluates the shapes of the approximated and measured arrival time curves instead of the first arrival time itself or wavefield in conventional inversion or tomographic techniques. In this study, we propose an algorithm of the technique and demonstrate its performance

Kazunori Takahashi; Motoyuki Sato

2005-01-01

277

Stress field determinations in France by hydraulic tests in boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determines the stress field at eight different sites in France (four in crystalline or metamorphic rocks and four in sedimentary formations) by hydraulic tests in boreholes. It is shown that in homogeneous rock masses the hydraulic tests on preexisting fractures the stress determination method yields satisfactory values. The two methods yield comparable results for the orientation of the

F. H. Cornet; D. Burlet

1992-01-01

278

Estimation of ground surface temperatures from borehole temperature data  

Microsoft Academic Search

To infer past climatic changes from temperatures measured in boreholes, one must obtain reliable estimates of ground surface temperature (GST) histories from these data. This paper presents a method that uses a Bayesian inverse technique to estimate the GST in the Fourier frequency domain. By assuming the a priori GST to be stationary, with a prescribed standard deviation and a

Kelin Wang

1992-01-01

279

Borehole Stability Analysis of Horizontal Drilling in Shale Gas Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serious wellbore instability occurs frequently during horizontal drilling in shale gas reservoirs. The conventional forecast model of in situ stresses is not suitable for wellbore stability analysis in laminated shale gas formations because of the inhomogeneous mechanical properties of shale. In this study, a new prediction method is developed to calculate the in situ stresses in shale formations. The pore pressure near the borehole is heterogeneous along both the radial and tangential directions due to the inhomogeneity in the mechanical properties and permeability. Therefore, the stress state around the wellbore will vary with time after the formation is drained. Besides, based on the experimental results, a failure criterion is verified and applied to determine the strength of Silurian shale in the Sichuan Basin, including the long-term strength of gas shale. Based on this work, horizontal well borehole stability is analyzed by the new in situ stress prediction model. Finally, the results show that the collapse pressure will be underestimated if the conventional model is used in shale gas reservoirs improperly. The collapse pressure of a horizontal well is maximum at dip angle of 45°. The critical mud weight should be increased constantly to prevent borehole collapse if the borehole is exposed for some time.

Yuan, Jun-Liang; Deng, Jin-Gen; Tan, Qiang; Yu, Bao-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Chun

2013-09-01

280

Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance

Thomas E. Owen; Jorge O. Parra

1992-01-01

281

Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a seismic detector for high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile measurements when placed in a shallow borehole in a geological formation of interest that contains a seismic source and connected to a seismograph. It comprises a framework; accelerometer sensors for X, Y, and Z axis, means for electrically connecting the accelerometers to the seismograph to record seismic

T. E. Owen; J. O. Parra

1992-01-01

282

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

DOEpatents

An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1999-01-01

283

Borehole Tilt Measurements at the Charlevoix Observatory, Quebec.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An array of three Bodenseewerk Gbp10 borehole tiltmeters was established to measure tidal, transient and secular tilting of the Earth's surface in the Charlevoix region of Quebec. Two of the tiltmeters operate at a depth of 47m and the third at 110m. They...

J. Peters C. Beaumont R. Boutilier

1983-01-01

284

Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data  

SciTech Connect

Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

Burkhard, N.R.

1991-09-01

285

Burden, spacing and borehole diameter at rock blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most text books on rock blasting claim that the relationship between burden and borehole diameter is linear. The statistical calculation presented here with real values from one hundred open pit and underground mines indicates that the relationship follows a power function. For undergrovind mines the burdens are consistently lower than those for open pit mines because of higher ore densities,

R. Agne Rustan

1992-01-01

286

Estimating the total effect on a formation during borehole drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stationary mathematical model describing the time-integrated effect on an oil-saturated reservoir during drilling is considered. Calculated results are compared with the solution of the problem in an exact nonstationary formulation. The formation of an invaded zone in straight borehole drilling in water-and oil-saturated reservoirs is studied by numerical modeling.

Kashevarov, A. A.

2008-03-01

287

Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal  

SciTech Connect

Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

1987-01-01

288

DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

289

Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

Senftle, F. E.; Moxham, R. M.; Tanner, A. B.; Boynton, G. R.; Philbin, P. W.; Baicker, J. A.

1976-01-01

290

Thermal/Mechanical Properties of Umtanum Basalt: Borehole DC-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal/mechanical behavior of basalt cores from the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Gable Mountain and from Borehole DC-2 on the Hanford Site is being studied to help understand the results of the in situ testing at the NSTF, and to provide info...

M. L. Feves J. D. Cooper

1981-01-01

291

US Bureau of Mines borehole deformation gage baseline algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides the baseline algorithm for the US Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gages (USBM Gages) used at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) as a part of the Rock Instrumentation System (RIS) for Full Scale Heater Tests (FS) {number sign}1 and {number sign}2. It represents the baseline information available at the time of publication. The purpose of this document

W. F. White; Kunsoo. Kim

1980-01-01

292

Isotope-geochemical Sm-Nd, ENd and TDM data of the layered paleoproterozoic PGE massif Monchetundra (Kola peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monchetundra massif is located in the central part of the Kola Peninsula and it is the south-eastern part of the Main Ridge Intrusion. The massif is subdivided into two up to five syngenetic zones by different researchers (Nazimova, Rayan, 2008, Nerovich et. al. 2009, Layered intrusions…p.1, 2004). According the isotope-geochronological and isotope-geochemical data it can identify at least four groups of rocks distinguishing by ages. The aim of this study is to identify the isotope-geochemical Sm-Nd (ENd and TDM) data of the mafic rocks of the massif Monchetundra. For the interpretation of these data it was selected 40 analyzes of rocks sampled during field works within Monchetundra massif in 2011-2012 and from the published data (Nerovich et. al., 2009, Bayanova et. al., 2010, Layered intrusions…p.2, 2004). The earliest group of rocks is dated by U-Pb zircon in 2521 ± 8 Ma (Bayanova et. al., 2010). It consist of metagabbroids of wide composition range from anorthosite up to gabbro, which also called «amphibole-plagioclase rocks» (Nerovich et. al., 2009) due to their strong metamorphic changes. These rocks are characterized by ENd values from -0.02 up to -2.23 (at the time of rocks formation) as well as mesoarchean and paleoarchean values of model ages. The second group of rocks is composed of medium- grained and coarse-grained mesocratic gabbronorites of trachytoid texture and their amphibolized varieties. The rocks of this group were dated in 2505 ± 6 Ma and 2501 ± 8 Ma (Layered intrusions…p.1., 2004). Values of ENd for these rocks vary from -1.70 up to +1.42, model ages correspond to the range from 2.7 up to 3.5 Ga. Leucocratic gabbronorites, gabbronorite-anorthosites of massive texture and their metamorphosed varieties with garnet and amphibole constitute the third group of Monchetundra massife rocks. The formation age of these rocks has been determined on zircon and baddeleyite by U-Pb method and it is 2471 ± 9 Ma, 2476 ± 17 Ma, 2456 ± 5 Ma and 2453 ± 4 Ma (Bayanova et. al., 2010, Mitrofanov et. al., 1993). Value of ENd for this group rocks vary from -3.38 to +2.08, and the values of the model ages range between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. Dyke-shaped bodies of melanocratic troctolites are found within the southeastern slope of Monchetundra massif. These rocks are characterized by positive values of ENd varying from +2.01 to +3.28, and the values of model ages are close to 2.7 Ga. Gabbro-pegmatites occur at the upper part of the Monchtundra massif and are characterized by negative ENd values from -1.26 up to -0.63, and model ages of protolith range from 3.0 to 3.2 Ga. Isotope-geochemical Sm-Nd (ENd and TDM) data indicate the origining of gabbro massif from EM-1 mantle plume reservoir and this fact is confirmed by the ENd-ISr diagrams in accordance with published data (Bayanova et. al., 2009). The research is conducted with the financial support of RFBR 13-05-00493, OFI-M 13-05-12055, 14-05-93965 and 14-05-00484.

Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Borisenko, Elena; Serov, Pavel

2014-05-01

293

Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 ft of repeated section. Most of the movement on the fault appears to have occurred before the youngest lava flow, the 10.5-million-year-old Elephant Mountain Member, was emplaced above the Pomona Member.

Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

2007-05-11

294

The PBO Borehole Strainmeter Program: Assessing Strainmeter Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between June 2005 and September 2008 UNAVCO installed 74 borehole strainmeters as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory, the geodetic component of the Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters, with sub- nanostrain sensitivity, were included in the observatory with the purpose of detecting short-lived strain transients along the Western US plate boundary. Less than a year after completion the strainmeter network has already provided a catalogue of plate boundary strain signals such as the recording of three Cascasdia episodic tremor and slip events, several aseismic creep events in Parkfield, California, and strain transients captured during the December 2008 Yellowstone earthquake swarm. PBO borehole sites are multi-instrumented stations, all collect strain, seismic and environmental data while volcanic sites include borehole tiltmeters. Combining the strain, seismic and tilt data with the measurements from over 800 PBO GPS sites provides an unprecedented continuous 3-dimensional record of plate boundary deformation processes. Knowledge of each strainmeter's performance is important, however, in deciding which strainmeters should be included when analyzing strain signals. We assess how well each PBO strainmeter, with at least 1 year of data, performs in three different frequency bands: the seismic, tidal and the long-term band of months to years. The metrics used are: the ability to record seismic shear signals and microseisms, instrument self consistency in measuring areal and shear tidal signals, the difference between observed areal and shear tides and those predicted by earth tide and ocean load models, the magnitude and variation in barometric response with time, the absence of steps in the data, the impact of cultural noise and state of borehole compression. Knowing how each strainmeter performs in these bands will allow a data user to select the best set of strain measurements to work with given the signal frequency they are interested in.

Hodgkinson, K.; Borsa, A.; Gallaher, W.; Gottlieb, M.; Henderson, B.; Jackson, M.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; van Boskirk, L.

2009-05-01

295

Stress-induced borehole elongation: A comparison between the four-arm dipmeter and the borehole televiewer in the Auburn geothermal well  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature and origin of borehole elongation recorded by the four-arm dipmeter calipers is studied utilizing information obtained from hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and borehole televiewer data taken in a well located in Auburn, New York. A preferred orientation N10°W-S10°E, +- 10° and a less prominant E-W orientation of borehole elongation, was observed on two runs of the dipmeter. Comparisons

Richard A. Plumb; Stephen H. Hickman

1985-01-01

296

Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits,\\u000a the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ\\u000a the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma\\u000a mass

L. N. Kogarko; Y. Lahaye; G. P. Brey

2010-01-01

297

Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the pressure-tightness and the functionality of the hydraulic system components of the borehole device. To monitor the prototype four cameras and several moisture sensors were installed along the source and receiver units close to the extendable coupling stamps where an infiltration of fluid is most probably. The tests lasted about 48 hours each. It was possible to extend and to retract the coupling stamps of the prototype up to a depth of 2100 m. No infiltration of borehole fluids in the SPWD-tool was observed. In preparation of the acoustic calibration measurements in the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg seismic sources and receivers as well as the recording electronic devices were installed in the SPWD-wireline prototype at the GFZ. Afterwards, the SPWD-borehole device was transported to the GFZ-Underground-Lab and preliminary test measurements to characterize the radiation pattern characteristics have been carried out in the newly drilled vertical borehole in December 2013. Previous measurements with a laboratory borehole prototype have demonstrated a dependency of the radiated seismic energy from the predefined amplification direction, the wave type and the signal frequencies. SPWD is funded by the German Federal Environment Ministry

Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

2014-05-01

298

PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

Lee, M. W.

1987-01-01

299

Measuring and interpretation of three-component borehole magnetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of the magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using three fluxgate magnetometers and fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008 and in the Louisville Seamount Trail (IODP Expedition 330) from December 2010 until February 2011, and in several shallower boreholes. With the declination of the magnetic field, the GBM provides additional information compared to conventional tools, which reduces the ambiguity for structural interpretation. The position of ferromagnetic objects in the vicinity of the borehole can be computed with higher accuracy. In the case of drilled-through structures, three-component borehole magnetics allow the computation of the vector of magnetization. Using supplementary susceptibility data, the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vector can be derived, which yields information about the apparent polar wander curve and/or about the structural evolution of the rock units. The NRM vector can further be used to reorient core samples in regions of strong magnetization. The most important aspect in three-component borehole magnetics is the knowledge of the orientation of the probe along the drillhole. With the GBM we use three fibre-optic gyros (FOG), which are aligned orthogonal to each other. These instruments record the turning rate about the three main axes of the probe. The FOGs benefit from a high resolution (< 9 · 10-4 °) and a low drift (< 2 °/h). However, to reach optimal results, extensive data processing and calibration measurements are necessary. Properties to be taken into account are the misalignment, scaling factors and offsets of the fluxgate and FOG triplet, temperature dependent drift of the FOGs, misalignment of the fluxgate and FOG triplet in respect with each other, as well as start and end position of the probe with respect to Earth's reference frame. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth's reference frame North, East and Downwards. Based on the comparison of several logs, the estimated precision is 0.8 ° in azimuthal direction and 0.1 ° in inclination. Additionally, the orientation information provided by the GBM is used to compute the borehole path with a relative accuracy better than 0.35 %.

Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

2012-04-01

300

Coseismic Offsets on PBO Borehole Strainmeters: Real, or Spurious?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed coseismic strain offsets during many significant earthquakes, at all locations in the 74-instrument PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network. The M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010 induced the largest offsets thus far, on BSMs located within the San Jacinto fault zone - the "Anza cluster". Here we present analyses of trends in the observed offsets for the Anza cluster, as well as inspection of their inferred borehole lithology. We find that offsets rarely agree with elastic dislocation theory in magnitude and sign, and speculate that they are controlled more by localized geologic constraints than by triggered fault slip, as has been suggested in previous studies (e.g. Linde and Johnson, 1989).

Barbour, A. J.; Agnew, D. C.

2010-12-01

301

Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

2007-01-01

302

Borehole flowmeter. Final technical report, February 1984-October 1987  

SciTech Connect

A Prototype Borehole Flowmeter has been developed for the purpose of characterizing gas-flow distributions within Devonian Shale gas wells. Current technology for locating and measuring the gas-producing zones in the Devonian Shale well environment is indirect and inadequate due to the low flow rates involved. The ultrasonic flowmeter uses the time-of-flight approach to measure gas flow. Features incorporated in the borehole system include: (1) ultrasonic flowmeter, (2) temperature and pressure sensors, (3) gamma-ray counter, and (4) X-Y volumetric caliper. Bench testing of sonic transmitter/receiver components has verified the feasibility of the design approach. A prototype system was fabricated for use in the .1 to 10 foot per second range of gas flow. The prototype was tested in five wells.

DiBello, E.G.; Haack, K.R.; McWilliams, J.L.; Pax, G.E.; Waterbury, S.S.

1987-10-01

303

Borehole versus isotope temperatures on Greenland: Seasonality does matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New simulation results obtained with the Hamburg Atmosphere General Circulation Model ECHAM-4 under maximum glacial boundary (LGM) conditions confirm the paleotemperatures on Greenland determined by borehole thermometry. The disagreement between ?18O isotope based temperatures and the borehole temperatures of the LGM is not only reproduced by the model, but the simulation results provide a plausible explanation: Paleotemperatures inferred from ?18O measurements in ice cores are biased by a substantially increased seasonality of precipitation over Greenland during the LGM. During the glacial winter a much more zonal circulation prevents the effective transport of moisture to the Greenland ice sheet, and therefore reduces the contribution of isotopically strongly depleted winter snow to the annual mean isotope signal.

Werner, Martin; Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Heimann, Martin; Hoffmann, Georg

304

Moisture content and recharge estimates at the Yakima Barricade borehole  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Deep Microbiology Program recently drilled a borehole near the Yakima Barricade, west of the 200 Areas. The area is vegetated by mature sagebrush. The borehole was drilled by cable tool and approximately every 1.5 m, sediment samples were collected in a bucket by the drill site geologist. Sediment samples for moisture content were sealed quickly ``Samples of opportunity`` were collected for the HSPA program (Hanford Site Performance Assessment), Isotope Recharge task. It should be noted that, although many QA Level II procedures were incorporated into the dulling and sampling, the Deep Microbiology Program is officially designated QA Level III, and therefore, the recharge values that we report here should only be usedfor planning purposes. A series of graphs illustrate the moisture content and chloride profiles in the Hanford Forrmtion at the Yakima Barricade Borehole. The gravimetric moisture content generally ranges between 0.01 and 0.08 in the first 70 m of sediment (only the first 30 m are shown in the figure), values that are typically found at the Hanford Site. The stratigraphy of this borehole is also attached. The first 1.5 m of the soil profile is Warden silt loam (designated eolian), followed by over 50 m of Hanford Formation. The Hanford Formation is composed of unconsolidated sands, silts, and gravels that were carried into the area by glacial flood waters during the close of the last Ice Age. Below the Hanford Formation is the Ringold Formation composed of semiconsolidated sediments. The water table is located at a depth of approximately 100 m.

Murphy, E.M.; Szescody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

1991-12-01

305

Moisture content and recharge estimates at the Yakima Barricade borehole  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Deep Microbiology Program recently drilled a borehole near the Yakima Barricade, west of the 200 Areas. The area is vegetated by mature sagebrush. The borehole was drilled by cable tool and approximately every 1.5 m, sediment samples were collected in a bucket by the drill site geologist. Sediment samples for moisture content were sealed quickly Samples of opportunity'' were collected for the HSPA program (Hanford Site Performance Assessment), Isotope Recharge task. It should be noted that, although many QA Level II procedures were incorporated into the dulling and sampling, the Deep Microbiology Program is officially designated QA Level III, and therefore, the recharge values that we report here should only be usedfor planning purposes. A series of graphs illustrate the moisture content and chloride profiles in the Hanford Forrmtion at the Yakima Barricade Borehole. The gravimetric moisture content generally ranges between 0.01 and 0.08 in the first 70 m of sediment (only the first 30 m are shown in the figure), values that are typically found at the Hanford Site. The stratigraphy of this borehole is also attached. The first 1.5 m of the soil profile is Warden silt loam (designated eolian), followed by over 50 m of Hanford Formation. The Hanford Formation is composed of unconsolidated sands, silts, and gravels that were carried into the area by glacial flood waters during the close of the last Ice Age. Below the Hanford Formation is the Ringold Formation composed of semiconsolidated sediments. The water table is located at a depth of approximately 100 m.

Murphy, E.M.; Szescody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

1991-12-01

306

PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Data Products And Metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The borehole strainmeter network within the Plate Boundary Observatory consists of 74 tensor strainmeters installed in arrays distributed between southern California and Vancouver Island, Canada. Borehole strainmeters, with nanostrain sensitivity, were included in the Observatory because of their ability to detect short-lived strain transients. In the first year of the operations and maintenance phase of the Observatory, the strainmeter network has recorded aseismic creep events in Parkfield, strain transients associated with ETS events in the Pacific Northwest, earthquake swarm related events in Yellowstone and deformation following the M6.9 August 3rd, 2009 Gulf of California earthquake. PBO has designed a set of metrics that can be used to both assess the overall network performance and assist researchers in deciding which strainmeters to include in the analysis of strain signals. The metrics include; state of borehole compression, number of unexplained data steps, the signal to noise ratio in tidal bands, and ability to record seismic shear. Combined, these metrics can provide an overview as to how well a strainmeter performs across the broad bandwith over which it operates. PBO strain data, plus the seismic and environmental data collected at all strainmeters sites, are archived at the NCEDC and the IRIS DMC and available from the Earthscope Portal. In addition, a processed data set consisting of tide, trend and barometric corrections is generated every ten to fourteen days by the UNAVCO Borehole Strainmeter Analysis Center, New Mexico Tech, Socorro. Information about PBO strainmeters and all other PBO instruments can be found at the UNAVCO PBO web site (http://pboweb.unavco.org).

Henderson, D. B.; Borsa, A. A.; Gallaher, W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Jackson, M. E.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Vanboskirk, E. J.

2009-12-01

307

Finite-difference modeling of borehole ground penetrating radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1996, borehole ground penetrating radar (BGPR) data were acquired as part of a comprehensive characterization of a clastic reservoir analog in the Ferron Sandstone in east central Utah. BGPR data were collected in and between three 15-m-deep holes as well as surface profiles that connect each pair of holes. Two-dimensional finite-difference modeling of the data provides

Deming Wang; George A. McMechan

2002-01-01

308

Wave Interferometry Applied to Borehole Radar: Virtual Multioffset Reflection Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on wave-interferometry principles, we describe a procedure to synthesize monostatic and multioffset borehole radar reflection data from cross-hole radar tomography data. The procedure is equivalent to placing multiple transmitting sources in the receiving hole and conducting wide-angle reflection and refraction surveys. The procedure is illustrated using transmission and reflection data generated by numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves for a

Lanbo Liu; Kuang He

2007-01-01

309

Hydrogeological analysis of slug tests in glacier boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slug testing allows estimation of subglacial hydraulic properties by evaluating the response of a coupled borehole subglacial flow system to an artificial displacement of its steady-state hydraulic head. However, existing models developed specifically for application to slug-test data collected in glacier boreholes are challenging to apply in practice. Here, we demonstrate that conventional linear methods, which are relatively readily applicable and widely used in groundwater studies, can also be used to estimate subglacial hydraulic properties. Overdamped, underdamped and critically damped slug-test data were recorded in fluctuating boreholes drilled to the bed of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. We find that non-linear effects in the data are negligible, supporting the application of conventional hydrogeological methods. Results suggest that the hydraulic conductivity of the unconsolidated sediments within the area influenced by a major subglacial drainage channel is enhanced (several 10-2 ms-1; typical of gravelly sand) compared to areas outside the zone of influence (˜0.1 × 10-2 ms-1; typical of silty sand). A distance to a flow boundary within the subglacial aquifer, inferred on the basis of slug-test analysis, was found to coincide with the actual location of the subglacial channel. Sensitivity analyses reveal that uncertainties in borehole and filter radii, as well as the storage coefficient of the subglacial aquifer, are more likely to affect the accuracy of the hydraulic and distance estimates than uncertainties regarding the repeatability of the slug-test responses and curve-fitting procedures involved in the conventional hydrogeological methods.

Kulessa, Bernd; Hubbard, Bryn; Williamson, Mike; Brown, Giles H.

310

Use of foam as a borehole ground support system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for providing support to an overburden area penetrated by at least one drilled hole from which minerals are hydraulically mined from an underground cavity or reservoir containing a liquid comprising: (a) introducing foam within the cavity which foam floats on the liquid causing pressure to be exerted against the interior of the cavity sufficient to support the overburden area; and (b) removing the minerals from within the cavity with a hydraulic borehole mining tool while the foam is introduced.

Uhri, D.C.

1986-04-22

311

Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes  

DOEpatents

A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

Mao, Nai-Hsien (Castro Valley, CA) [Castro Valley, CA

1987-01-01

312

Enhancement of Network Performance through Integration of Borehole Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the detection and characterisation of weak seismic events across northern Switzerland/southern Germany, the Swiss Digital Seismic Network has installed 10 new seismic stations during 2012 and 2013. The newly densified network was funded within a 10-year project by NAGRA and is expected to monitor seismicity with a magnitude of completeness Mc (ML) below 1.3 and provide high quality locations for all these events. The goal of this project is the monitoring of areas surrounding potential nuclear waste repositories, in order to gain a thorough understanding of the seismotectonic processes and consequent evaluation of the seimsic hazard in the region. Northern Switzerland lies in a molasse basin and is densely populated. Therefore it is a major challenge in this region to find stations with noise characteristics low enough to meet the monitoring requirements. The new stations include three borehole sites equipped with 1 Hz Lennartz LE3D-BH velocity sensors (depths between 120 and 160 m), which are at critical locations for the new network but at areas where the ambient noise at the surface is too high for convential surface stations. At each borehole, a strong motion seismometer is also installed at the surface. Through placing the seismometers at depth, the ambient noise level is significantly lowered - which means detection of smaller local and larger regional events is enhanced. We present here a comparison of the performance of each of the three borehole stations, reflecting on the improvement in noise compared to surface installations at these sites, as well as with other conventional surface stations within the network. We also demonstrate the benefits in the operation network performance, in terms of earthquakes detected and located, which arise from installing borehole stations with lower background noise.

Korger, Edith; Plenkers, Katrin; Clinton, John; Kraft, Toni; Diehl, Tobias; Husen, Stephan; Schnellmann, Michael

2014-05-01

313

Thermal\\/mechanical properties of umtanum basalt: Borehole DC2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal\\/mechanical behavior of basalt cores from the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Gable Mountain and from Borehole DC-2 on the Hanford Site is being studied to help understand the results of the in situ testing at the NSTF, and to provide information relating NSTF conditions within Pomona basalt to projected repository conditions within Umtanum basalt. This report describes the

M. L. Feves; J. D. Cooper

1981-01-01

314

Seismic borehole tomography - Measurement system and field studies  

SciTech Connect

A system for seismic tomographic measurements is presented, and both hardware and software are described. The system is intended to operate in the distance range 100-1000 m. An explosive source is used to generate signals which are picked up by receivers at the surface and in boreholes. Tomographic results from two field experiments are presented. The first experiment concerns mapping of an ore body in a mine, whereas the second concerns rock quality determination.

Gustavsson, M.; Ivansson, S.; Moren, P.; Pihl, J.

1986-02-01

315

Comparison of climate model simulated and observed borehole temperature profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in understanding climate variability through the last millennium lean on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Progress in the integration of both approaches can potentially provide new means of assessing confidence on model projections of future climate change, of constraining the range of climate sensitivity and/or attributing past changes found in proxy evidence to external forcing. This work addresses specifically possible strategies for comparison of paleoclimate model simulations and the information recorded in borehole temperature profiles (BTPs). First efforts have allowed to design means of comparison of model simulated and observed BTPs in the context of the climate of the last millennium. This can be done by diffusing the simulated temperatures into the ground in order to produce synthetic BTPs that can be in turn assigned to collocated, real BTPs. Results suggest that there is sensitivity of borehole temperatures at large and regional scales to changes in external forcing over the last centuries. The comparison between borehole climate reconstructions and model simulations may also be subjected to non negligible uncertainties produced by the influence of past glacial and Holocene changes. While the thermal climate influence of the last deglaciation can be found well below 1000 m depth, such type of changes can potentially exert an influence on our understanding of subsurface climate in the top ca. 500 m. This issue is illustrated in control and externally forced climate simulations of the last millennium with the ECHO-G and LOVECLIM models, respectively.

Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.; Stevens, M. B.; Beltrami, H.; Goosse, H.; Rath, V.; Zorita, E.; Smerdon, J.

2009-04-01

316

Analytical formulae for borehole scintillation detectors efficiency calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The borehole scintillation detectors (with central borehole) are useful for the identification and quantification of unknown gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in geological and environmental samples due to the near 4 ? solid angle that can be obtained with them. In addition, the 4 ? gamma-ray-counting is a well-established method for direct activity measurements, and is especially suited for radionuclides with complex gamma-ray spectra. A straightforward theoretical approach was carried out to calculate the efficiencies (total, ?T and geometrical, ?g) of borehole scintillation detectors. The approach depends on the accurate calculation of two important factors: the path length, d, the photon traverses within the active volume of a gamma detector, and the geometrical solid angle, ?, subtended by the source to the detector at the point of entrance. These two factors are theoretically derived through straightforward analytical formulae. Furthermore, the attenuation of photons by the source container and the detector housing materials is also treated by calculating the photon path length through these materials. The comparisons with the experimental and Monte Carlo method works reported in the literature indicate that the present approach is useful in the efficiency calibration of such complicated gamma-ray spectrometer.

Abbas, Mahmoud I.

2010-10-01

317

Seasonal thermoelastic strain and postseismic effects in Parkfield borehole dilatometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strainmeter records in three 176-323 m deep boreholes near Parkfield, CA, are dominated by seasonal fluctuations. We show that a significant part of the seasonal data may result from thermoelastic strain induced by atmospheric temperature variations. We test this hypothesis by computing thermoelastic strain in an elastic half-space covered by a thin unconsolidated layer from atmospheric temperature and comparing the results to the borehole strain records. The strain at depth is produced by the temperature field at the bottom of the unconsolidated layer. The model provides reasonable fits to the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal borehole signals. The two key model parameters, thickness of the unconsolidated layer (˜0.3-1.2 m at the used sites) and wavelength of the temperature field (3 km), are sufficiently plausible to support the physical validity of the model. Two instances with persistent deviations between the trends of the predicted thermoelastic strain and observed records may reflect shallow postseismic effects of M?4 nearby earthquakes.

Ben-Zion, Y.; Allam, A. A.

2013-10-01

318

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

1999-07-20

319

Tsunami Signals Recorded By Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the US National Science Foundation funded Earthscope program, is designed to capture the continuous three-dimensional deformation field across the western United States plate boundary. Installed and maintained by UNAVCO, the observatory currently consists of over 1100 continuous GPS sites, 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters and 75 borehole strainmeters. PBO borehole strainmeters have recorded the arrival of tsunamis generated by the 2009 M8.0 Samoa, 2010 M8.8 Chile and 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquakes on the Pacific coast of North America. In our analysis of the strain data we find the following: the tsunami arrival times recorded by the strainmeters are consistent with those recorded by nearby tide-gauges, the data are of sufficient quality to compare the frequency content of the tidal signal in the days before and after the tsunami and, the strain measurements are comparable with those predicted by theory. In each case the strain measurements can be translated to water height estimates which are within centimeters of those recorded by tide gauges. It is possible that borehole strainmeters could play a role in providing a land-based, continuous, high-rate tsunami measurement system.

Hodgkinson, K.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A.; Henderson, B.; Johnson, W.

2012-04-01

320

Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report  

SciTech Connect

We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

1996-03-01

321

Sr and Nd isotope data of apatite, calcite and dolomite as indicators of source, and the relationships of phoscorites and carbonatites from the Kovdor massif, Kola peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed Sr-Nd isotopic study of primary apatite, calcite and dolomite from phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kovdor massif (380 Ma), Kola peninsula, Russia, reveals a complicated evolutionary history. At least six types of phoscorites and five types of carbonatite have been identified from Kovdor by previous investigators based on relative ages and their major and accessory minerals. Isotopic data from apatite define at least two distinct groups of phoscorite and carbonatite. Apatite from the earlier phoscorites and carbonatites (group 1) are characterized by relatively low87Sr/86Sr (0.70330-0.70349) and143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.51230-0.51240) with F=2.01-2.23 wt%, Sr=2185-2975 ppm, Nd=275-660 ppm and Sm=31.7-96.2 ppm. Apatite from the second group has higher87Sr/86Sr (0.70350-0.70363) and143Nd/144Nd initial ratios (0.51240-0.51247) and higher F (2.63-3.16 wt%), Sr (4790-7500 ppm), Nd (457-1074 ppm) and Sm (68.7-147.6 ppm) contents. This group corresponds to the later phoscorites and carbonatites. One apatite sample from a carbonatite from the earlier group fits into neither of the two groups and is characterized by the highest initial87Sr/86Sr (0.70385) and lowest143Nd/144Nd (0.51229) of any of the apatites. Within both groups initial87Sr/86Sr and143Nd/144Nd ratios show negative correlations. Strontium isotope data from coexisting calcite and dolomite support the findings from the apatite study. The Sr and Nd isotopic similarities between carbonatites and phoscorites indicate a genetic relationship between the two rock types. Wide variations in Sr and Nd isotopic composition within some of the earlier carbonatites indicate several distinct intrusive phases. Oxygen isotopic data from calcite and dolomite (?18O=+7.2 to +7.7‰ SMOW) indicate the absence of any low-temerature secondary processes in phoscorites and carbonatites, and are consistent with a mantle origin for their parental melts. Apatite data from both groups of phoscorite plot in the depleted quadrant of an ?Nd versus ?Sr diagram. Data for the earlier group lie along the Kola Carbonatite Line (KCL) as defined by Kramm (1993) and data from the later group plot above the KCL. The evolution of the phoscorites and carbonatites cannot be explained by simple magmatic differentiation assuming closed system conditions. The Sr-Nd data can best be explained by the mixing of three components. Two of these are similar to the end-members that define the Kola Carbonatite Line and these were involved in the genesis of the early phoscorites and carbonatites. An additional component is needed to explain the isotopic characteristics of the later group. Our study shows that apatite from rocks of different mineralogy and age is ideal for placing constraints on mantle sources and for monitoring the Sr-Nd evolution of carbonatites.

Zaitsev, Anatoly; Bell, Keith

1995-09-01

322

Sampling technology for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploiting gas hydrate is based on sample drilling, the most direct method to evaluate gas hydrates. At present, the pressure-tight core barrel is a main truth-preserving core sampling tool. This paper puts forward a new gas hydrate-borehole bottom freezing sampling technique. The new sampling technique includes three key components: sampler by borehole bottom freezing, mud cooling system and low temperature mud system. The sampler for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing presents a novel approach to the in-situ sampling of gas hydrate. This technique can significantly reduce the sampling pressure and prevent decomposition of the hydrate samples due to the external cold source which may freeze the hydrate cores on the bottom of borehole. The freezing sampler was designed and built based on its thermal-mechanical properties and structure, which has a single action mechanism, control mechanism and freezing mechanism. The technique was tested with a trial of core drilling. Results demonstrate that the new technique can be applied to obtain freezing samples from the borehole bottom. In the sampling process of gas hydrate, mud needs to be kept at a low temperature state to prevent the in-situ decomposition of the hydrate if the temperature of mud is too high. Mud cooling system is an independent system for lowing the temperature of mud that returns to the surface. It can cool mud rapidly, maintain its low temperature steadily, and ensure the temperature of the inlet well mud to meet the gas hydrate drilling operation requirement. The mud cooling system has been applied to the drilling engineering project in the Qilian mountain permafrost in northwest China, and achieved the gas hydrates in permafrost. The ordinary mud could not meet the requirements of good performance at low temperature. Low temperature mud system for NaCl and KCl is developed, whose resistance to the temperature is as low as 20 below zero.In-situ sampling of gas hydrates can be achieved through combination of these three key components.

Guo, Wei; Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

2014-05-01

323

Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other as a receiver (Rx) and they were lowered into the holes opposite each other. The Tx was operated in single shot mode, where an electromagnetic pulse was propagated and the time it took to penetrate the soil matrix and be detected by the Rx was measured. To allow for tomographic reconstruction of the vertical roots, a series of vectors were created by raising and lowering the antennas at intervals of 5 cm. Then the antennas were moved to opposite holes and the process was repeated creating 3200 unique travel-paths per tree. Borehole to surface measures were collected in a similar fashion, though the Rx was moved across the soil surface (10 cm interval) and the Tx was manipulated below ground (5 cm interval), generating 2400 unique travel-paths per tree. This is the first report of using borehole radar to study vertical tree roots. Cross-hole tomography provided excellent information on the depth of tree roots, but was less useful for imaging near surface features. Borehole to surface measures provided the best information on the near surface, where the bulk of roots are found (0-0.3 m). Cross-hole and borehole to surface data may be combined to further define vertical roots systems. Analysis of root mass and projected root mass is ongoing.

Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikström, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

2004-12-01

324

Borehole mining: an environmentally compatible method for mining oil sands. Contract research, June-September 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a demonstration of the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of shallow oil sands. Borehole mining offers a method for extracting the oil sands with minimal disturbance to environmental quality. This project consisted of two concurrent tasks: mining operations and environmental monitoring. To generate the environmental impact, nearly 1000 tons of oil sands were mined from two boreholes. Water quality and ground subsidence were monitored. No significant changes occurred in the chemical composition of the process water, indicating that the borehole mining process does not dissolve the mined material. The average subsidence in the immediate vicinity of the boreholes was about 1/2 inch, although some points were slightly elevated. In general, the amount of subsidence increased with time and decreased with distance from the borehole. A mining cost analysis was used to project an estimated cost for production mining of about $38 per barrel of oil.

Knoke, G.S.; Archibald, W.R.

1980-02-01

325

Integrated Borehole Geodetic and Seismic Networks: A Developing Tool for Earth Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the continuous three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. A component of this observatory is a network of 78 borehole observatories consisting of some combination of borehole strainmeters, borehole

David Mencin; Mike Jackson; Kathleen Hodgkinson; Adrian Borsa

2010-01-01

326

MoM Analysis of Dipole Antennas in Crosshole Borehole Radar and Field Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method-of-moments (MoM) analysis that includes the borehole effects on crosshole borehole radar, and we verify that the MoM represents the crosshole borehole radar data correctly. We derive the far-field approximation of an electric field radiated by an electric point source. In this derivation, we assume that the point source is in a cylindrically layered

Satoshi Ebihara; Yuuki Hashimoto

2007-01-01

327

Subsurface Water-filled Fracture Detection by Borehole Radar: A Case History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operating radar equipment in boreholes offers the possibility of greater depth penetration and higher resolution than is achievable with surface-based ground-penetrating radar systems. We have acquired single-hole radar reflection data in a series of vertical boreholes situated within a granite body west of Beijing, China. Geological logs demonstrate that numerous fractures intersect the boreholes. After processing the single-hole reflection data,

Sixin Liu; Motoyuki Sato

2006-01-01

328

Borehole time domain reflectometry in layered sandstone: Impact of measurement technique on vadose zone process identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydraulic behaviour of the vadose zone of a layered sandstone aquifer has been investigated using borehole-based Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). Both a commercially available portable packer TDR system (TRIME-B3L Borehole Packer Probe) and specially designed borehole-emplaced TDR probes were used to monitor seasonal fluctuations in water content in the vadose zone of a layered sandstone over 1 year under

L. Jared West; Steven W. Truss

2006-01-01

329

In-situ borehole seismic monitoring of injected CO2 at the FrioSite  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Dept. of Energy funded Frio Brine Pilot provided an opportunity to test borehole seismic monitoring techniques in a saline formation in southeast Texas. A relatively small amount of CO{sub 2} was injected (about 1600 tons) into a thin injection interval (about 6 m thick at 1500 m depth). Designed tests included time-lapse vertical seismic profile (VSP) and crosswell surveys which investigated the detectability of CO{sub 2} with surface-to-borehole and borehole-to-borehole measurement.

Daley, Thomas M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

2006-06-01

330

The Use of Borehole Video in Investigating the Hydrology of a Temperate Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GeoVision MicroTM colour video camera was used to investigate the internal structure of 11 boreholes at Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. The boreholes were distributed across a half-section of the glacier, with closest spacing towards the glacier margin. The boreholes were used to investigate the hydrology of the glacier through automatic monitoring of borehole water level and electrical conductivity (EC) at the glacier bed. EC profiling was undertaken in several boreholes to determine the existence of water quality stratification. Temporal variations in EC stratification were used to infer borehole water sources and patterns of water circulation. Borehole video was used to confirm the conclusions made from these indirect sources of evidence, and to provide an independent source of information on the structure and hydrology of this temperate valley glacier. The video showed variations in water turbidity, englacial channels and voids, conditions at the glacier bed and down-borehole changes in ice structure. Based on the video observations, englacial channels accounted for approximately 0·1% of the vertical ice thickness, and englacial voids for approximately 0·4%. Overall, the video images provided useful qualitative and semi-quantitative data that reinforce interpretations of a range of physical and chemical parameters measured in boreholes.

Copland, Luke; Harbor, Jon; Gordon, Shulamit; Sharp, Martin

1997-02-01

331

Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newman, G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

332

CORK-Lite: Bringing Legacy Boreholes Back to Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal for Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Exp 336 to North Pond, on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 22°N, is to elucidate the microbial community structure, origin, and activity within a defined geochemical, hydrological, and geological setting (Expedition 336 Scientists, 2012). The goals are to be met by conducting downhole and well-head microbiological experiments utilizing borehole observatories. The plan to achieve this goal included the modernization of an existing borehole observatory (CORK; Davis et al., 1992) at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Hole 395A, the deployment of two new CORKs (one shallow and one deep), and the recovery and analysis of sediment and basalt. After the deployment of two CORKs, one in DSDP Hole 395A and the other in a shallow crustal hole tens of meters away (Hole U1382A), the next operation was to drill, case, and instrument a deep borehole at Site U1383, about 5 km to the north-northeast. The planned deep hole at U1383B began as designed (Expedition 336 Scientists, 2012). The 20-inch casing and re-entry cone were deployed and an 18.5-inch hole was drilled through 52.8 m of sediment and into basement (67.8 meters below seafloor (mbsf)). The 16-inch casing was deployed and the borehole deepened with a 14.75-inch tri-cone bit. Unfortunately, the tri-cone bit failed at 89.9 mbsf. Given the uncertainty of successfully recovering the bit and continuing drilling of this hole, a new hole (U1383C), about 25 m away, was started and later instrumented. With the successful deployment of the CORK at Hole U1383C, it was critical to seal Hole U1383B so that the open borehole would not "short circuit" the natural regional hydrologic flow. While on IODP Exp. 336 the plan quickly evolved from a simple seal for Hole U1383B to a newly designed CORK that could be deployed by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The design and operations for this new "CORK-lite" were conceived at sea. The first step was to modify an ROV platform with strength members below the platform to guide it in place when deployed from the ship in a "free-fall" mode. The second step was to design a CORK system that could seal the borehole and in consultation with ROV pilots, make sure the design was compatible with ROV operations. Operations were successful and a new instrumented "legacy hole" are now in place in the seafloor at North Pond. The platform was built and deployed during Expedition 336; the seal and instrumentation for long-term pressure monitoring and possible fluid sampling were built later and deployed successfully with the ROV Jason four months after the expedition. The success of this program has implication for instrumentation of numerous other "legacy" holes drilled as part of DSDP/ODP/IODP for combined hydrogeological, microbiological, and geochemical experimentation.

Edwards, K. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Pettigrew, T.; Jannasch, H. W.; Becker, K.; Davis, E. E.; Villinger, H. W.; Bach, W.

2012-12-01

333

Quantifying The Quality Of PBO Borehole Strainmeter Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeter as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the Earthscope program. The quality of the borehole strainmeter data is monitored both to inform UNAVCO's field engineers of possible instrument problems and to convey to the community the level of confidence they can have in recorded signals when they incorporate the data into geophysical models. In this presentation we describe the metrics developed to track data quality and show how the results have varied since completion of the network in October 2008. The metrics are designed to assess performance across the broad range of frequencies over which a strainmeter operates: the ability to record teleseisms, the signal to noise ratio in the tidal bands, the state of compression of the borehole and the presence of offsets in the time series. Strainmeters are designed to have optimal performance at periods of minutes to days, their purpose in PBO is to provide a temporal and spatial resolution of strain transients that cannot be obtained with GPS or seismology. Embedded within a network of over 1100 continuously operating GPS sites and collocated with seismometers, the strainmeter network completes the spectrum of plate boundary deformation signals that PBO can detect. We will explore the application of techniques now standard for seismic data, power spectral density analysis, to the strain data set. Creating a spectral fingerprint for each instrument could allow identification of changes in site characteristics and enable researchers to select strainmeters that are good candidates for detecting particular strain events such as aseismic creep or Episodic Tremor and Slip strain pulses.

Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Mencin, D.; Phillips, D. A.; Gallaher, W. W.; Johnson, W.; Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Mattioli, G. S.

2012-12-01

334

Magnitude Estimation for Large Earthquakes from Borehole Recordings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple and fast method for magnitude determination technique for earthquake and tsunami early warning systems based on strong ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in Japan. This method incorporates borehole strong motion records provided by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net) stations. We analyzed strong ground motion data from large magnitude earthquakes (5.0 ? M ? 8.1) with focal depths < 50 km and epicentral distances of up to 400 km from 1996 to 2010. Using both peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) we derived GMPEs in Japan. These GMPEs are used as the basis for regional magnitude determination. Predicted magnitudes from PGA values (Mpga) and predicted magnitudes from PGV values (Mpgv) were defined. Mpga and Mpgv strongly correlate with the moment magnitude of the event, provided sufficient records for each event are available. The results show that Mpgv has a smaller standard deviation in comparison to Mpga when compared with the estimated magnitudes and provides a more accurate early assessment of earthquake magnitude. We test this new method to estimate the magnitude of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and we present the results of this estimation. PGA and PGV from borehole recordings allow us to estimate the magnitude of this event 156 s and 105 s after the earthquake onset, respectively. We demonstrate that the incorporation of borehole strong ground-motion records immediately available after the occurrence of large earthquakes significantly increases the accuracy of earthquake magnitude estimation and the associated improvement in earthquake and tsunami early warning systems performance. Moment magnitude versus predicted magnitude (Mpga and Mpgv).

Eshaghi, A.; Tiampo, K. F.; Ghofrani, H.; Atkinson, G.

2012-12-01

335

Stochastic Bayesian inversion of borehole self-potential measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a mechanistic model to compute and to invert self-potential log data in sedimentary basins and for near-surface geophysical applications. The framework of our analysis is founded in a unified electrical conductivity and self-potential petrophysical model. This model is based on an explicit dependence of these properties on porosity, water saturation, temperature, brine salinity, cementation and saturation (Archie) exponents and the volumetric charge density per unit pore volume associated with the clay fraction. This model is consistent with empirical laws widely used to interpret self-potential logs according to the two limiting cases corresponding to a clean sand and a pure shale. We present a finite element calculation of the self-potential signal produced by sand reservoirs interstratified with shale layers. For layered strata normal to the well, we demonstrate that the 3-D Poisson equation governing the occurrence of self-potentials in a borehole can be simplified to a 2-D axisymmetric partial differential equation solved at each depth providing a common self-potential reference can be defined between these different depths. This simplification is very accurate as long as the vertical salinity gradients are not too strong over distances corresponding to the borehole diameter. The inversion of borehole data (self-potential, resistivity and density well logs, incorporating information derived from neutron porosity and gamma-ray log data) is performed with the Adaptive Metropolis Algorithm (AMA). We start by formulating an approximate analytical solution for the six model parameters (water saturation, porosity, the two Archie's exponents, the pore water conductivity and the volumetric charge density of the diffuse layer). This solution is used for the AMA algorithm to converge in less than 60 iterations at each depth for the real case study. The posterior probability distributions are computed using 50-60 additional realizations. Our approach is applied to a case study concerning a small sedimentary sequence in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, in a series of tight gas reservoirs.

Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Jardani, A.; Nummedal, D.; Cumella, S.

2010-11-01

336

An overview of CORK borehole observatory microbiology experimentation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As CORK borehole observatories evolve in sophistication for measuring subseafloor hydrogeological conditions, they have also been co-opted and redesigned for investigating the microbiology of the subsurface. These observatories are critical for accessing the crustal subsurface, one of the largest habitats for life on Earth. We will provide an overview of the development of novel colonization devices and experimental techniques designed to study the form and function of the crustal deep biosphere, focusing on work conducted on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (warm and anoxic) and at the mid-Atlantic ridge system (cool and oxic).

Orcutt, B. N.; Edwards, K. J.; Haddad, A.; Wheat, C. G.

2011-12-01

337

Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a seismic detector for high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile measurements when placed in a shallow borehole in a geological formation of interest that contains a seismic source and connected to a seismograph. It comprises a framework; accelerometer sensors for X, Y, and Z axis, means for electrically connecting the accelerometers to the seismograph to record seismic waves received by the accelerometer sensors form the seismic source; heating elements secured to, but electrically insulated from, the framework; power means for supplying power to the heating elements; and meltable substance encapsulating the seismic detector.

Owen, T.E.; Parra, J.O.

1992-01-14

338

New casing and backfill design for neutron logging access boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to enhance the usefulness of neutron logging for environmental applications, a new combination of backfill and casing materials for access boreholes has been developed. The combination of acrylic casing and polyurethane foam backfill has been tested under laboratory and field conditions. Acrylic casing does not significantly attenuate fluxes of either high energy or thermal neutrons, in contrast with polyvinyl chloride casing which reduces the thermal neutron flux by more than 40% due to neutron absorption by chlorine. Polyurethane foam, which is inert, hydrophobic, and insoluble in water, adheres well to both dry and wetted soils, sediments, and rocks. It can be formed in situ at a low, but controllable, bulk density. At a bulk density of 0.08 g cm{sup {minus}3}, and in combination with acrylic casing, polyurethane foam increases the thermal neutron count by less than 5% in a saturated sand, relative to background. In addition to its small effect on the neutron flux, polyurethane foam, unlike bentonite or cement, does not affect the moisture content of the surrounding formation during installation. Furthermore, because it is a closed-cell foam, its moisture content does not change under varying formation moisture conditions. As was shown in related field tests, polyurethane foam is especially well suited for backfilling boreholes in fractured rocks because of its fast set time which minimizes penetration into fractures. The design proved to be convenient and durable under rugged field conditions.

Zawislanski, P.T.; Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1999-01-01

339

New casing and backfill design for neutron logging access boreholes  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to enhance the usefulness of neutron logging for environmental applications, a new combination of backfill and casing materials for access boreholes has been developed. The combination of acrylic casing and polyurethane foam backfill has been tested under laboratory and field conditions. Acrylic casing does not significantly attenuate fluxes of either high energy or thermal neutrons, in contrast with polyvinyl chloride casing which reduces the thermal neutron flux by more than 40 percent due to neutron absorption by chlorine, Polyurethane foam, which is inert, hydrophobic, and insoluble in water, adheres well to both dry and wetted soils, sediments, and rocks. It can be formed in situ at a low but controllable, bulk density. At a bulk density of 0.08 g cm(-3), and in combination with acrylic casing, polyurethane foam increases the thermal neutron count by less than 5 percent in a saturated sand, relative to background. In addition to its small effect on the neutron flux, polyurethane foam, unlike bentonite or cement, does not affect the moisture content of the surrounding formation during installation. Furthermore, because it is a closed-cell foam, its moisture content does not change under varying formation moisture conditions. As was shown in related field tests, polyurethane foam is especially well suited for backfilling boreholes in fractured rocks because of its fast set time which minimizes penetration into fractures. The design proved to be convenient and durable under rugged field conditions.

Zawislanski, Peter T.; Faybishenko, Boris

1998-12-01

340

Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Parra, Jorge O. (Helotes, TX)

1992-01-01

341

Determining impedance of material behind a casing in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of calculating an impedance signal related to an acoustic impedance of material behind a section of casing in a borehole, the borehole traversing subsurface earth formations, the method analyzing a return waveform obtained from an acoustic investigation of the section of casing with an acoustic excitation pulse directed thereto, the bandwidth of the pulse selected to stimulate a thickness resonance of the casing, the return waveform including a reverberation segment and an initial reflection segment. It comprises: determining the frequency of the thickness resonance from the return waveform, determining a time reference indicative of the time of arrival of the return waveform, and filtering the reverberation segment in a predetermined band about the determined thickness resonance frequency, the bandwidth of the predetermined band based on the determined frequency and substantially excluding other thickness resonances; time windowing a portion of the filtered reverberation segment based on the time reference and the determined frequency; and calculating an integrated, amplitude-related measure of the window reverberation segment to produce an impedance signal.

Kimball, C.V.; Stanke, F.E.; Randall, C.J.; Hayman, A.J.

1990-05-22

342

Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989  

SciTech Connect

In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

1990-03-01

343

Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

1999-03-22

344

Multi-barrier borehole canister designs for a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

Initial dimensions are presented for proposed multi-barrier spent fuel borehole canisters using coated shells combined with sacrificial anodes and alkaline, oxide barriers to adjust potential and pH of the exterior shell into thermodynamically passive or immune regions of the Pourbaix diagram. Configuration of the 3 PWR canister is similar to the 1983 Site Characterization Project (SCP) borehole design. Canister dimensions were determined by using material performance data to calculate wall thickness, criticality, and sacrificial anode life. For the 3-PWR canister. Incoloy 825 is the preferred exterior canister shell material; copper-nickel alloy CDA 715 is the preferred interior canister shell material. High-lime concrete or alumina is preferred for the alkaline filler. Magnesium alloy is the preferred sacrificial anode material. Coating the canister exterior would be necessary to reduce corrosion current density to the point where a 10,000 year design life is possible. A 1 PWR canister has lower mass, thinner walls and lower criticality than the 3 PWR design. Equilibrium calculations for the historical average composition of J-13 water using the aquatic chemical speciation program WQ4F show positive saturation indices for several minerals, indicating potential for deposition on the canister exterior over long time periods. Uniform deposition could reduce corrosion rate by hindering transport of corrosion products from the canister surface. If deposition is non-uniform, local corrosion could increase through development of differential oxygen concentration cells.

James, D.E.; Skaggs, R.L.; Mohansingh, S.

1994-05-01

345

Derivative analysis for layer selection of geophysical borehole logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of geophysical borehole data can often be hampered by too much information and noise in the trace leading to subjective interpretation of layer boundaries. Wavelet analysis of borehole data has provided an effective way of mitigating noise and delineating relevant boundaries. We extend wavelet analysis by providing a complete set of code and functions that will objectively block a geophysical trace based on a derivative operator algorithm that searches for inflection points in the bore log. Layer boundaries detected from the operator output are traced back to a zero-width operator so that boundaries are consistently and objectively detected. Layers are then classified based on importance and analysis is completed by selecting either total number of layers, a portion of the total number of layers, selection of minimum layer thickness, or layers detected by a specified minimum operator width. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the layer blocking technique by applying it to a case study for alluvial aquifer detection in the Gascoyne River area of Western Australia.

Davis, Aaron C.; Christensen, Niels B.

2013-10-01

346

Resolving the Younger Dryas Event Through Borehole Thermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most striking features of the ice core records from Greenland is a sudden drop in oxygen isotope values (delta O-18) between approximately 11,500 and 10,700 years ago. This Younger Dryas event was an intense return to ice age conditions during a time of general de-glaciation. As recorded in the ice cores, temperatures in Greenland cooled by roughly seven degrees Kelvin. W. Broecker and R. Fairbanks have proposed competing explanations for the cooling and cause of this "aborted ice age." One supposes that the seven degree cooling is real and results from a shutdown in the North Atlantic ocean circulation; the other, that it is largely fictitious and records an intrusion of isotopically light glacial meltwater into the ice core records. Using optimal control methods and heat flow modelling, the author makes a valiant but ultimately futile attempt to distinguish the Younger Dryas event in the ice sheet temperatures measured at Dye 3, South Greenland. The author discusses the prospects for attempting the same in the new Summit boreholes in Central Greenland: how that will require more accurate temperature measurements, a coupled thermo-mechanical model, and a refined uncertainty analysis. He concludes by discussing how borehole temperature analysis may improve the climate histories determined from ice cores.

Firestone, John Francis

347

Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary prism during IODP Exp. 319 and successfully recovered during IODP Exp. 332, both cruises being part of NanTroSEIZE (Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment). The 15-months long data showed transients related to the arrival of seismic waves, storms and can further be used for detection of seismogenic strain events. Moreover, based on tidal signals in the pressure data, it was possible to make assumptions regarding the elastic properties of the surrounding formation. The SmartPlug was exchanged by an enhanced version, the GeniusPlug, which provides additional fluid sampling devices and microbiological experiments during the monitoring period. Its recovery is planned for 2013. Going one step further in simplicity, a Mini-CORK has recently developed especially designed for the portable seafloor drill rig MeBo (MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany), which can be installed without a drillship and which, due to its telemetric unit, makes costly recovery operations obsolete. The MeBo can be operated from any re-search vessel and allows coring to a depth of 70 m, which may be followed by instrumentation of the borehole with the MeBo-CORK. Two designs are available: the first design allows in situ measurement of pressure and temperature solely, whereas the second design consists of a seafloor unit including additional mission specific sensors (osmo-samlers for geochemistry and microbiology, etc.). A first field test for the MeBo-CORKs into mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin is envisaged for summer 2012 to complement IODP project NanTroSEIZE.

Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

2012-04-01

348

Intercomparison of PBO Borehole-Strainmeters and -Seismometers in Anza, California with Nearby Surficial Broadband Seismometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the PBO installations of borehole strainmeters and seismometers in the Anza region were made at, or near sites of the Anza Seismic Network, which is instrumented with broadband seismometers in surface vaults. We compare the noise levels of these sensors from 10-3 to 10 Hz. The borehole strainmeters are 4-component Gladwin Tensor Strainmeters which should measure the horizontal

A. J. Barbour; D. C. Agnew

2009-01-01

349

Completion of the PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Network Results and Review of Processing Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

By October 2008 the NSF funded geodetic component of Earthscope, the Plate Boundary Observatory will be complete. As of September 2008 the strainmeter network within PBO consists of 70 co-located borehole strainmeters and seismometers, with borehole tiltmeters included at volcanic sites. The instruments are installed in arrays from Vancouver Island, Canada, to Anza in southern California. The network provides an

K. Hodgkinson; A. Borsa; T. Dittmann; W. Gallaher; M. Gottlieb; B. Henderson; M. Jackson; W. Johnson; D. Mencin; J. Smith

2008-01-01

350

Detection of Slow Slip Events Along the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the spring of 2005, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) began installing borehole strainmeters in the Pacific Northwest. Currently there are 18 borehole strainmeters operating from Vancouver Island, Canada to Southern Oregon that are favorably located to detect slow slip along the Cascadia subduction zone. While the longest (> two weeks) subduction tremor episodes are accompanied by slow slip events,

W. McCausland; E. Roeloffs

2007-01-01

351

Influence of leaky boreholes on cross-formational groundwater flow and contaminant transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abandoned and improperly sealed boreholes, monitoring wells, and water supply wells are common features at many contaminated sites. These features can act as conduits that transmit contaminants between aquifers separated by otherwise continuous aquitards. In this work the leaky boreholes are represented as highly conductive one-dimensional line elements superimposed onto a mesh of three-dimensional finite elements representing the porous medium.

S. Lacombe; E. A. Sudicky; S. K. Frape; A. J. A. Unger

1995-01-01

352

Cross-borehole electromagnetic probing to locate high-constrast anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic (EM) probing between boreholes is useful for locating high-contrast geophysical anomalies such as a tunnel. Theoretical and experimental studies of EM field interaction with a tunnel show that minima in the received signal can be used for locating the tunnel. The theoretical studies show that, as a transimitter and receiver are lowered in separate boreholes, the minima can be

R. J. Lytle; E. F. Laine; D. L. Lager; D. T. Davis

1979-01-01

353

Climate change on the Colorado Plateau of eastern Utah inferred from borehole temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature profiles from boreholes on the Colorado Plateau of southeastern Utah have been examined for evidence of climate change. Because these boreholes penetrate layered sedimentary rocks with different thermal conductivities, Bullard plots (temperature versus integrated thermal resistance) are used to estimate background heat flow and surface temperature intercepts. Reduced temperatures, which represent departures from a constant heat flow condition, are

Robert N. Harris; David S. Chapman

1995-01-01

354

Remotely sensing the thickness of the Bushveld Complex UG2 platinum reef using borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planar, 80 cm thick, lossy dielectric reefs of the Bushveld are embedded in rocks that are almost transparent at ground penetrating radar frequencies of 10–125 MHz. Pothole sensing practices are based largely on using borehole radars to observe departures of the reefs from planarity. Surveys are run in ?200 m near-horizontal boreholes that are drilled into the footwalls of

C M Simmat; P Le R Herselman; M Rütschlin; I M Mason; J H Cloete

2006-01-01

355

Borehole Radar Directionality in the Time Domain in Small Aperture Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to achieve significant directivi ty in the radial direction of a borehole radar antenna, b ecause the spacing of antenna elements is typically constraine d by the borehole diameter to be considerably less than a wavelength. In this paper, a time-domain technique is used to d emonstrate that the direction of incoming radiation can be det ermined

Declan Vogt; Teboho Nyareli

356

Borehole radar delineation of the VCR: an economically important sedimentary deposit  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown previously that borehole radar is a suitable tool for mapping the Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR) and other thin tabular orebodies in South African gold and platinum mines. However, the economic basis for using the tool has not yet been justified. Radairgrams were acquired in three boreholes above a VCR mining block. The three radargrams have been

Declan Vogt; P. du Pisani

2004-01-01

357

Temperature logging as an aid to understanding groundwater flow in boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Borehole temperatures are affected by a range of physical phenomena, including drilling and engineering procedures, thermal resistivity of the rock, surface climatic changes, local heat sources and sinks, free convection of the borehole fluid, and water flows inside the borehole. As a result, temperature logs provide unique information not available from other logs. On the other hand, because the temperature log is sensitive to a variety of phenomena, one or more of these may obscure the effect being studied. In the case where groundwater is entering the borehole at one depth and exiting at another depth (or at the surface) the temperature disturbance resulting from this flow is likely to be a prominent feature of the temperature profile of the borehole. Because of this, water flows in boreholes are often a source of noise in temperature logs, obscuring the features of interest. Recently, however, unusual groundwater behavior was noted in several boreholes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and temperature logs were run as part of a program to study this phenomenon. In this case the groundwater flow has been the feature of interest in the logs, and the logs have been useful as an aid in understanding the water flow in those boreholes.

Conaway, J.G.

1987-01-01

358

Influence of feed line on DOA estimation with dipole array antenna for directional borehole radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the influence of the feed lines on the radar signals in the dipole array antenna fed by coaxial cables for directional borehole radar. In this investigation, we utilize a model of dipole antenna elements in circle near a conducting cylinder in a borehole. The criterion proposed in this paper is calculated, and quantifies the influence

Satoshi Ebihara; Hideharu Hanaoka; Takashi Okumura

2010-01-01

359

Backfilling of cavities produced in borehole mining operations. Open file report (final) July 1978June 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a program to develop backfilling techniques to mitigate undesirable effects of hydraulic borehole uranium mining. To prevent ground subsidence and to allow mining of adjacent uraniferous sandstone, large underground cavities, formed during the borehole mining process can be backfilled. Three techniques that were tested in the laboratory and the field with sand, and with

M. H. Marvin; G. S. Knoke; W. R. Archibald

1979-01-01

360

Borehole (Slurry) Mining of Coal, Uraniferous Sandstone, Oil Sands, and Phosphate Ore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining and the design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines are presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uran...

G. A. Savanick

1987-01-01

361

Hydraulic borehole mining for pitching coal seams. Final report. [Double drill method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was undertaken to extend the vertical borehole mining concept to the new tool configurations needed to economically mine pitching coal seams. The objective was to determine the optimum borehole mining plan and system for mining coal seams less than 10 feet thick that pitch more than 25 degrees. Of the methods considered, the double-drill method was selected for

G. S. Knoke; L. E. Scott; W. R. Archibald

1982-01-01

362

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. Report of Investigations\\/1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining and the design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines are presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore. The BMT was first used near Wilkeson, WA, where steeply pitching

Savanick

1987-01-01

363

Use of synthetic fracture logs derived from borehole geophysics to assess mine roof and floor quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geotechnical and lithology data can be reliably derived from borehole geophysical logs. The advantages of deriving geotechnical and lithology data directly from geophysical logs rather than from core examination is that the produced data is continuous, readily interpretable and consistent. In addition the technique is labour saving and cost cutting, especially since data may be extracted from cheaper rock-bitted boreholes.

N. J. Kusznir; K. R. Whitworth

1983-01-01

364

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining made by the Bureau of Mines from 1974 to 1980. The design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines is presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate

Savanick

1987-01-01

365

Applying Data Mining and Mathematical Morphology to Borehole Data Coming from Exploration and Mining Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining companies investigate very carefully the area of proposed mine sites. This is done by first looking at the geology of the area and then drilling the boreholes to predict the quantity and if possible approximate the structure of the mine and distribution of the metal grades. The data obtained from boreholes is analysed using point interpolation techniques such as

Artak Amirbekyan

2010-01-01

366

Borehole mining: an environmentally compatible method for mining oil sands. Contract research, June-September 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a demonstration of the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of hydraulic borehole mining of shallow oil sands. Borehole mining offers a method for extracting the oil sands with minimal disturbance to environmental quality. This project consisted of two concurrent tasks: mining operations and environmental monitoring. To generate the environmental impact, nearly 1000 tons of

G. S. Knoke; W. R. Archibald

1980-01-01

367

Borehole (slurry) mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews advances in the art of borehole (slurry) mining made by the Bureau of Mines from 1974 to 1980. The design of a prototype borehole-mining tool (BMT) developed by the Bureau of Mines is presented along with production data, reclamation data, and an application of the BMT to the mining of coal, uraniferous sandstone, oil sands, and phosphate ore.

Savanick, G.A.

1987-01-01

368

Method of enhancing the removal of methane gas and associated fluids from mine boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method disclosed herein relates to the removal of unwanted gases and associated fluids in underground mining operations by utilizing mine boreholes. After the mine borehole has been drilled its desired distance from the mine face, an inflatable packer assembly is inserted therein and placed to the end remote from the mine face. This assembly is made up of at

M. A. Trevits; G. L. Finfinger; R. L. King

1984-01-01

369

a New Application of a Fiber Optic Gyro in Magnetic Borehole Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A borehole magnetometer from the Institute of Geophysics, University of Goettingen, Germany, was employed in Hole 1203A on Detroit Seamount. The tool consists of three fluxgate sensors which log the two horizontal (X, Y) and the vertical (Z) component of the magnetic induction with depth. For the first time, a fiber optic angular rate sensor was employed in a borehole

J. B. Stoll; M. Leven; E. Steveling

2002-01-01

370

Review of the borehole hydraulic coal mining system. Final report on task oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a coal mining R and D review task being undertaken by the Engineering Societies Commission on Energy, Inc., for the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Program, the borehole hydraulic mining system was selected for review. The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered

Boyce

1978-01-01

371

30 CFR 250.907 - Where must I locate foundation boreholes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Where must I locate foundation boreholes? 250.907 Section 250... § 250.907 Where must I locate foundation boreholes? (a) For fixed or bottom-founded...platforms, your maximum distance from any foundation pile to a soil boring must not...

2013-07-01

372

Method of Measuring Material Properties of Rock in the Wall of a Borehole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the t...

D. K. Overmier

1983-01-01

373

Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

1998-09-25

374

Method and apparatus for measuring the depth of a tool in a borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution method and apparatus for measuring the depth of a tool suspended from a cable inside a borehole are described. The tool includes accelerometers for measuring its acceleration and this measurement is combined with a cable depth measurement with which the amount of cable in the borehole is determined. A Kalman filter is employed to continually provide estimates

Chan

1985-01-01

375

Stochastic estimation of aquifer geometry using seismic refraction data with borehole depth constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a Bayesian model to invert surface seismic refraction data with depth constraints from boreholes for characterization of aquifer geometry and apply it to seismic and borehole data sets collected at the contaminated Oak Ridge National Laboratory site in Tennessee. Rather than the traditional approach of first inverting the seismic arrival times for seismic velocity and then using that

Jinsong Chen; Susan S. Hubbard; David Gaines; Valeri Korneev; Gregory S. Baker; David Watson

2010-01-01

376

Method and device for determining the transmissibility of a fluid-conducting borehole layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for determining the transmissibility of a fluid-conducting layer (Stratum), such as an aquifer that is accessible through a borehole. The fluid-level in the borehole is stimulated to a periodic or an aperiodic damped oscillation. By measuring and reading the motion of the fluid-level and evaluating the motion, the transmissibility can be calculated.

Krauss-kalweit

1982-01-01

377

Uppermost Mantle and Crustal Structure Beneath the WP2 Borehole Seismic Observatory, the Northwestern Pacific Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 2000, the seafloor borehole seismological observatory WP-2 in the northwestern Pacific Basin was installed successfully during the ODP leg191. The magnetic lineations in this area show the lithosphere was formed in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. In July 2002, we visited the WP-2 site to recover the data from the borehole seismometer. During this visit, we conducted a

K. Nakahigashi; M. Shinohara; T. Yamada; M. Arisaka; T. Kanazawa; K. Suyehiro; T. Sato

2002-01-01

378

Inversion of drilling-induced tensile fracture data obtained from a single inclined borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the feasibility of estimating an in situ three-dimensional stress field by using data of drilling-induced tensile fractures (DTFs) observed in a single inclined borehole. The principal assumptions in this investigation are that the rock is isotropic, homogeneous and elastic. A DTF is a longitudinal crack consisting of many small parallel cracks which are oblique to the borehole axis.

T. Okabe; K. Hayashi; N. Shinohara; S. Takasugi

1998-01-01

379

Methane Control on Longwalls with Cross-Measure Boreholes (Lower Kittanning Coalbed).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cross-measure borehole technique has been shown by the Bureau of Mines to be an effective method of controlling methane liberated by fracturing the roof strata in longwall gobs where overburden is less than 750 ft (229 m). Boreholes are drilled into r...

F. Garcia J. Cervik

1985-01-01

380

Effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the installation of borehole strainmeters into the ground locally distorts the strain in the rock, these strainmeters require calibration from a known source which typically is the Earth tide. Consequently, the accuracy of the observed strain changes from borehole strainmeters depends upon the calibration derived from modeling the Earth tide. Previous work from the mid-1970s, which is replicated here,

John Langbein

2010-01-01

381

Transient radiation from an unloaded, finite dipole antenna in a borehole: Experimental and numerical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipole antennas in boreholes are used for tomo- graphic imaging or electromagnetic well logging. A cylindrically layered structure within the borehole will change the radiation characteristics of a dipole antenna. Our objective is to understand the effects of the bore- hole structure upon the impedance, waveform distor- tion, and directivity patterns of a dipole antenna. We use a finite-difference, time-domain

Sixin Liu; Motoyuki Sato

2005-01-01

382

Means for improving pneumatic punches and increasing the efficiency of driving boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumatic punches were developed originally for driving boreholes in the ground in order to lay underground communications without trenching [i]. After equipping these punches with tension reverse, they began to be used in driving vertical boreholes [2] for various purposes (sealing pockets in backfilling, forming molded-in-place piles, preparation of suspended floors, and so on). Technology has been developed recently for

Kh. B. Tkach

1995-01-01

383

Use of GSO for inelastic gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements in the borehole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO) with its high density, high effective Z, fast decay time and good performance at high temperature, is the scintillation detector of choice for a new generation of neutron-induced, inelastic gamma-ray spectroscopy tools for borehole measurements, specifically aimed at measuring the carbon and oxygen content from the region surrounding the borehole. The ratio of the carbon and oxygen

B. A. Roscoe; J. A. Grau; R. A. Manente; C. L. Melcher; C. A. Peterson; J. S. Schweitzer; C. Stoller

1992-01-01

384

Application of Proving-Ring Technology to Measure Thermally Induced Displacements in Large Boreholes in Rock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strain-gauged proving-ring transducer was designed and deployed to measure small diametral displacements in 0.61-m diameter boreholes in rock. The rock surrounding the boreholes was previously heated by storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and measu...

W. C. Patrick N. L. Reactor T. R. Butkovich

1984-01-01

385

Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole  

SciTech Connect

In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

2013-10-08

386

Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

2011-01-01

387

Borehole Geologic Data for the 216-Z Crib Facilities, A Status of Data Assembled through the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS)  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assembling existing borehole geologic information to aid in determining the distribution and potential movement of contaminants released to the environment and to aid selection of remedial alternatives. This information is being assembled via the Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS), which is being developed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, managed by PNNL, and the Remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this particular study was to assemble the existing borehole geologic data pertaining to sediments underlying the 216-Z Crib Facilities and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Closure Zone. The primary objective for Fiscal Year 2006 was to assemble the data, complete log plots, and interpret the location of major geologic contacts for each major borehole in and around the primary disposal facilities that received carbon tetrachloride. To date, 154 boreholes located within or immediately adjacent to 19 of the 216-Z crib facilities have been incorporated into HBGIS. Borehole geologic information for the remaining three Z-crib facilities is either lacking (e.g. 216-Z-13, -14, and -15), or has been identified as a lesser priority to be incorporated at a later date.

Last, George V.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.

2006-09-25

388

Low-frequency radiation from point sources in a fluid-filled borehole.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Far-field displacement fields have been derived for an impulsive point force acting on a fluid-filled borehole wall under the assumption that the borehole diameter is small compared to the wavelength involved. The displacements due to an arbitrary source can be computed easily by combining the solutions for the impulsive sources. In general, the borehole source generates not only longitudinal and vertically polarized shear waves, but also horizontally polarized shear waves. This study also indicates that only the axisymmetric motion around the borehole due to normal stress is affected by the fluid in the borehole. In the long-wavelength limit, the presence of the fluid does not affect the radiation from tangential sources into the surrounding medium. -Author

Lee, M. W.

1986-01-01

389

Corrections and Design Studies of Borehole Logging Tools with the help of Monte Carlo Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole logging tools are used for measuring a detailed record of a geological formation that is penetrated by a borehole. Values of interest of a geological formation are for example its density, chemical composition and porosity. Density of a formation can be measured using tools based on a chemical CS-137 gamma ray source. Porosity can be measured using a chemical AmBe neutron source. The resulting measurement of the tool, for example the density of a formation, has to be corrected for borehole influences such as borehole fluid or borehole size. These corrections depend on the individual tool design. The best way to calculate this vast number of corrections is using Monte-Carlo simulations. The software of choice is the MCNP5 package(1) . At Antares Datensysteme simulations are further used in pre design studies, to get the best physical layout of a tool.

Reinhardt, Heiko

2014-06-01

390

Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

1995-02-01

391

Determination of magnitude and orientation of the in-situ stress from borehole breakout and effect of pore pressure on borehole stability — Case study in Cheshmeh Khush oil field of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detailed profile of the orientations of borehole breakouts as a function of depth were investigated in wells CK-8 and CK-9 in the Cheshmeh Khush oilfield in south-west of Iran. Borehole breakouts without tensile induced fractures were detected from UBI logs. By analyzing statistically of borehole breakout orientation in two wells, it was found that while a mean azimuth of

Ali A. Yaghoubi; M. Zeinali

2009-01-01

392

Borehole GPR data inversion for hydro-geophysical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Borehole GPR has been frequently used as a technique to investigate the structure of the shallow subsurface and monitor therein the evolution of moisture content in time and space. However, the apparent simplicity with which borehole GPR data can be inverted and interpreted does not guarantee that the results are meaningful and correct for hydrological uses. In this contribution we analyze in particular Zero Offset Profiles (ZOP) and Vertical Radar Profiles (VRP). The reconstruction of the GPR velocity vertical profile from VRP travel-time data is a ill-posed problem with a finite number of measurements and imprecise data. In the framework of Tikhonov regularization theory, ill-posedness can be tackled by introducing a regularizing functional (stabilizer). The role of this functional is to incorporate a-priori assumptions about the geometrical and/or physical properties of the solution. One of these assumptions could be the existence of sharp boundaries separating rocks with different physical properties. In order to overcome the smooth moisture content profiles often obtained from VRP data, we apply a method based on the minimum support stabilizer to the VRP travel-time inverse problem. We compare traditional smooth inversion results with our proposed sharp reconstructions. Using synthetic examples, we demonstrate that in case of profiles containing sharp discontinuities, the minimum support stabilizer allows for a correct recovery of the profile shape and velocity value of the target. We also applied the proposed approach to real-life cases where VPRs have been used to derive a moisture content profile as a function of depth. In these real cases, the derived sharp profiles are consistent with other evidence, such as GPR reflections and known locations of the water table. In the case of ZOPs, we also propose a method that overcomes the smoothing effect inherent in the simplest data inversion approaches. ZOP borehole measurements are very useful to detect subsoil dielectric properties, due to their simplicity in data collection, treatment and analysis. The easiest inversion of ZOP data is the direct-wave approach, where point ZOP travel times are converted into velocity and subsequently into dielectric constant and then moisture content estimates. This approach can be misleading as it does not take into account two essential factors: volume averaging (Fresnel zone) and critical wave refractions, that can occur in presence of sharp vertical boundaries. We apply an approach based on an electromagnetic (EM) wave simulator and a stochastic Monte Carlo framework. In this manner both averaging and critically refracted wave effects are taken into account. Results from synthetic and real ZOP datasets are statistically analysed to deduce what kind of moisture content distributions are resolvable what is the associated degree of uncertainty.

Deiana, R.; Cassiani, G.; Rossi, M.; Vignoli, G.; Binley, A.

2011-12-01

393

Imaging an Orebody Ahead of Mining Using Borehole Radar at the Snap Lake Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borehole radar is a proven geophysical technology that can be used to map an orebody ahead of mining. This paper will present a case study, where borehole radar is being used within the mining cycle to map out orebody blocks, both as a strategic and tactical tool. Refined equipment and procedures now enables a slimline borehole radar tool to be

C Kemp; K Smith; A Bray; I Mason; T Sindle

2009-01-01

394

IN SITU STRESS, NATURAL FRACTURE DISTRIBUTION, AND BOREHOLE ELONGATION IN THE AUBURN GEOTHERMAL WELL, AUBURN, NEW YORK.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and a borehole televiewer survey were conducted in a 1. 6-km-deep well at Auburn, New York. Following a brief site description, the results of the hydraulic fracturing stress measurements and borehole televiewer survey in the Auburn Geothermal Well are presented in three sections namely; in situ stress; natural fracture population; and borehole elongation. Refs.

Hickman, Stephen, H.; Healy, John, H.; Zoback, Mark, D.

1985-01-01

395

First in situ determination of the thermal performance of a U-pipe borehole heat exchanger, in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ground heat exchanger can be used for the injection or extraction of thermal energy into\\/from the ground. The line source model is an easy method of evaluating the characteristics of the borehole and does not need expensive equipment. This method is presented and a test is performed in order to determine a borehole’s characteristics in layers consisting of clay,

Georgios Florides; Soteris Kalogirou

2008-01-01

396

Analysis of Borehole-Radar Reflection Data from Machiasport, Maine, December 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In December 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole-radar reflection logs in two boreholes in Machiasport, Maine. These bedrock boreholes were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation of the area surrounding the former Air Force Radar Tracking Station site on Howard Mountain near Bucks Harbor. The boreholes, MW09 and MW10, are located approximately 50 meters (m) from, and at the site of, respectively, the locations of former buildings where trichloroethylene was used as part of defense-site operations. These areas are thought to be potential source areas for contamination that has been detected in downgradient bedrock wells. This investigation focused on testing borehole-radar methods at this site. Single-hole radar-reflection surveys were used to identify the depth, orientation, and spatial continuity of reflectors that intersect and surround the boreholes. In addition, the methods were used to (1) identify the radial depth of penetration of the radar waves in the electrically resistive bimodal volcanic formation at the site, (2) provide information for locating additional boreholes at the site, and (3) test the potential applications of borehole-radar methods for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of source-area remediation efforts. Borehole-radar reflection logging uses a pair of downhole transmitting and receiving antennas to record the reflected wave amplitude and transit time of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. For this investigation, 60- and 100-megahertz antennas were used. The electromagnetic waves emitted by the transmitter penetrate into the formation surrounding the borehole and are reflected off of a material with different electromagnetic properties, such as a fracture or change in rock type. Single-hole directional radar surveys indicate the bedrock surrounding these boreholes is highly fractured, because several reflectors were identified in the radar-reflection data. There are several steeply dipping reflectors with orientations similar to the fracture patterns observed with borehole imaging techniques and in outcrops. The radar-reflection data showed that the vitrophyre in borehole MW09 was more highly fractured than the underlying gabbroic unit. The velocities of radar waves in the bedrock surrounding the boreholes were determined using single-hole vertical radar profiling. Velocities of 114 and 125 meters per microsecond were used to determine the distance to reflectors, the radial depth of penetration, and the dip of reflectors. The bimodal volcanic units appear to be ideal for radar-wave propagation. For the radar surveys collected at this site, radar reflections were detected up to 40 m into the rock from the borehole. These results indicate that boreholes could conservatively be spaced about 15-20 m apart for hole-to-hole radar methods to be effective for imaging between the boreholes and monitoring remediation. Integrated analysis of drilling and borehole-geophysical logs indicates the vitrophyric formation is more fractured than the more mafic gabbroic units in these boreholes. There does not, however, appear to be a quantifiable difference in the radar-wave penetration in these two rock units.

Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.

2005-01-01

397

Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples from borehole USGS 136 indicated that concentrations of tritium, sulfate, and chromium were affected by wastewater disposal practices at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex. Depth-discrete groundwater samples were collected in the open borehole USGS 136 near 965, 710, and 573 ft BLS using a thief sampler; on the basis of selected constituents, deeper groundwater samples showed no influence from wastewater disposal at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex.

Twining. Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

2012-01-01

398

Probe for temperature logging of deep cold boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new probe has been developed for measuring some physical parameters in deep cold boreholes such as those of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), which is targeted to drill two holes through the ice sheet down to the bedrock at DOME C and at Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The probe is operative in the temperature range 0 to -60^oC and for pressures up to 35 MPa, down to 3500 m depth and in the presence of aggressive fluid filling. The probe is equipped with : 1) a set of four thermometers. Three are fitted in the expandable arms of the probe, to log the temperature of the ice-wall. The fourth thermometer is fitted into a static arm in a central position, between the previous three, and logs the temperature of the borehole fluid, for comparison. Thermistor-type sensors have been selected, with a resolution of 2 mK in the interval near 0^oC. During laboratory tests a time constant of 2.7 s was obtained for the thermal sensors fitted in their protective case. After final assemblage of the probe the sensors were calibrated in the laboratory against a standard precision thermometer, over the range 0 to -60^oC; 2) a sensor for differential measurement of the pressure of the liquid column of the drill fluid, with a resolution of a few 10-6 MPa, sufficient to detect any convective cells, induced by the dishomogeneous composition of the mixing fluids; 3) a manometer (strain gauge) for measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the full range 0 to 35 MPa, from the surface to bottom hole, with a resolution better than 0.001 of the full range; 4) a vertical depth meter for direct measurement of depth on the wall of the borehole, to eliminate any uncertainties caused by variations in the length of the electro-mechanical drilling wire due to the fatigue and strain of drilling operations. The progressive depths are measured by a wheel counter and encoder on the upper arms of the probe, with an expected resolution better than 10-3; 5) a caliper device, fitted into the upper arms of the probe, to measure the diameter of the bore-hole, with a resolution of 0.1 mm. The signals from these sensors are processed by a microprocessor-based electronic device set up into the probe. In order to improve the measurement accuracy, the electronics package is enclosed into a thermostatic case. The signals are amplified and A/D converted. The data are transmitted by modem through the drilling wire to the computer at wellhead. The system is fitted with an external software to communicate with the probe, on a PC platform.

Zangirolami, M.; Cavagnero, G.; Rossi, A.

2003-04-01

399

Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.  

PubMed

The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow. PMID:24790811

Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

2014-01-01

400

Commercialization of atom interferometers for borehole gravity gradiometry  

SciTech Connect

Perform a mathematical analysis of the tomography inversion problem for various configurations of a borehole gravity gradiometer. Our simulations typically call for logging a hole for about 4km of depth. Within the limits imposed by our presumed detector sensitivity, the device appears to be capable of measuring the 0.1 g/cm[sup 3] density in all rings to about 10% accuracy, with the rings extending out to about 500 meters from the hole. At this range, the vertical resolution has dropped to about 50m. Closer to the hole, the resolution improves so that we can determine the density in each of about 400 rings. We anticipate that this most important task (No. l) will be complete within the next quarter.

Clauser, J.F.

1993-01-30

401

US Bureau of Mines borehole deformation gage baseline algorithm  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the baseline algorithm for the US Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gages (USBM Gages) used at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) as a part of the Rock Instrumentation System (RIS) for Full Scale Heater Tests (FS) {number sign}1 and {number sign}2. It represents the baseline information available at the time of publication. The purpose of this document is to state the algorithm to be used for the USBM gage at the NSTF, the basis for the equation, the method used to arrive at the constants in the equation, and to identify further instrument testing necessary to improve the understanding of the instrument's response in this high temperature, hard rock environment. 4 refs.

White, W.F.; Kim, Kunsoo.

1980-09-01

402

Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole.

Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

2010-12-01

403

Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient isotropic stress of 100 MPa) at the borehole wall for the disposal of fuel assemblies and by about 90 MPa for vitrified waste. Simulated peak volumetric strain at the borehole wall is about 420 and 2600 microstrain for the disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Stress and volumetric strain decline rapidly with distance from the borehole and with time. Simulated peak stress at and parallel to the borehole wall for the disposal of vitrified waste with anisotropic ambient horizontal stress is about 440 MPa, which likely exceeds the compressive strength of granite if unconfined by fluid pressure within the borehole. The relatively small simulated displacements and volumetric strain near the borehole suggest that software codes using a nondeforming grid provide an adequate approximation of mechanical deformation in the coupled thermal-mechanical model. Additional modeling is planned to incorporate the effects of hydrologic processes coupled to thermal transport and mechanical deformation in the host rock near the heated borehole. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

2010-12-01

404

Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

Paillet, F. L.

2002-01-01

405

Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991  

SciTech Connect

Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations.

Jensen, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howard, C.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Peterson, T.P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-03-01

406

Crustal heat flow analysis in Central Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995-1999, borehole static temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data were collected in Turkey to quantify the crustal heat flow distribution. The dataset has never been evaluated before in detail using conventional heat flow processing and determination techniques. In this study, data from one hundred borehole sites were evaluated in Central Anatolia. First, the data were separated into different quality classes, and sites under the convective (hydrologic) thermal regime were eliminated. For data showing conductive hat transfer, geothermal gradients and thermal conductivities were determined for heat flow determinations. If necessary, geothermal gradients were corrected for effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid activity. Many of the boreholes were observed to show intra-borehole fluid flow as a result of the borehole physical conditions. Interval rock thermal conductivities were determined by measurements on surface outcrops or estimated from borehole lithologic records. The region covered in this study includes a segment of North Anatolian fault, and a number of Holocene volcanoes. Previous heat flow assessment in the region is only based on a sparse dataset of bottom-hole-temperatures. This study reveals the first time the thermal regime of the crust in this region, and its connections to the active tectonic features.

Erkan, Kamil

2014-05-01

407

Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.  

SciTech Connect

During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

2007-02-01

408

A model for classifying and interpreting logs of boreholes that intersect faults in stratified rocks  

SciTech Connect

A model reveals eleven fundamental relationships between the character of well logs and the geometry of borehole-strata-fault (BSF) intersections. Within limits, the model has two important practical applications. First, it provides a convenient way to classify logs of boreholes that intersect faults in stratified rocks. The different kinds of logs are given names, which can be used in informal and formal discourse to succinctly describe faulted logs. Second, the model can be used to interpret the geometry of BSF intersections directly from well logs. Knowledge of BSF geometry can be useful in interpreting faults in structure. Persons involved in highly deviated and horizontal boreholes should find the model particularly helpful.

Mulvany, P.S. (Ladd Petroleum Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States))

1992-06-01

409

Borehole Geophysical Data From Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund Site, Corinna, Maine, March 1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borehole-geophysical data were collected in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in seven bedrock wells at the Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund site, Penobscot County, Corinna, Maine, in March, 1999. The data were collected as part of a reconnaissance investigation to provide information needed to address concerns about the distribution and fate of contaminants in ground-water at the site. The borehole geophysical data were also needed to guide subsequent data collection associated with the development of a remediation workplan. The borehole geophysical logs collected included: natural gamma, caliper, fluid temperature, fluid conductivity, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic resistivity, spontaneous potential, and single-point resistivity.

Hansen, Bruce P.; Nichols, William J.; Dudley, Robert W.

2001-01-01

410

Drilling, logging, and testing information from borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 is the first of two boreholes that may be used to determine the subsurface structure at Yucca Mountain by using vertical seismic profiling. This report contains information collected while this borehole was being drilled, logged, and tested from May 27, 1992, to April 22, 1994. It does not contain the vertical seismic profiling data. This report is intended to be used as: (1) a reference for drilling similar boreholes in the same area, (2) a data source on this borehole, and (3) a reference for other information that is available from this borehole. The reference information includes drilling chronology, equipment, parameters, coring methods, penetration rates, completion information, drilling problems, and corrective actions. The data sources include lithology, fracture logs, a list of available borehole logs, and depths at which water was recorded. Other information is listed in an appendix that includes studies done after April 22, 1994.

Thamir, F.; Thordarson, W.; Kume, J.; Rousseau, J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Yucca Mountain Project Branch; Long, R. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Cunningham, D.M. Jr. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1998-09-01

411

Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the boreholes, the foliation strikes predominantly to the northwest and dips to the northeast. Although small-scale faults and lithologic discontinuities were observed in the OTV data, no large-scale faults were observed that appear on regional geologic maps. Fractures were located and characterized through the use of conventional geophysical, OTV, acoustic-televiewer (ATV), and borehole-radar logs. The orientation of fractures varies considerably across the site; some fractures are parallel to the foliation, whereas others cross-cut the foliation. Many of the transmissive fractures in the bedrock boreholes strike about N170?E and N320?E with dips of less than 45?. Other transmissive fractures strike about N60?E with dips of more than 60?. Most of the transmissive fractures in the domestic wells strike about N60?E and N22?E with dips of more than 45?. The strike of N60?E is parallel to the trend of a thrust fault that appears on regional geologic maps. Vertical flow in the boreholes was measured with the heat-pulse flowmeter under ambient and (or) pumping conditions. Results of ATV, OTV, and conventional logs were used to locate specific zones for flowmeter testing. Ambient downflow was measured in three boreholes, ambient upflow was measured in two other boreholes, and both ambient downflow and upflow were measured in a sixth borehole. The other five bedrock boreholes and domestic wells did not have measurable vertical flow. The highest rate of ambient flow was measured in the background borehole in which upflow and downflow converged and exited the borehole at a fracture zone near a depth of 62 feet. Ambient flow of about 340 gallons per day was measured. In the other five wells, ambient flow of about 20 to 35 gallons per day was measured. Under low-rate pumping (0.25 to 1 gallon per minute), one to six inflow zones were identified in each well. Usually the fractures that are active under ambient conditions contribute to the well under pumping conditions. To prevent

Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F. P.; Lane, John W., Jr.; White, Eric A.

2002-01-01

412

Breakthroughs in Seismic and Borehole Characterization of Basalt Sequestration Targets  

SciTech Connect

Mafic continental flood basalts form a globally important, but under-characterized CO2 sequestration target. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the northwestern U.S. is up to 5 km thick and covers over 168,000 km2. In India, flood basalts are 3 km thick and cover greater than 500,000 km2. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the CRBG and other basalts react with formation water and super critical (sc) CO2 to precipitate carbonates, thus adding a potential mineral trapping mechanism to the standard trapping mechanisms of most other types of CO2 sequestration reservoirs. Brecciated tops of individual basalt flows in the CRBG form regional aquifers that locally have greater than 30% porosity and three Darcies of permeability. Porous flow tops are potential sites for sequestration of gigatons of scCO2 in areas where the basalts contain unpotable water and are at depths greater than 800 m. In this paper we report on the U.S. DOE Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership surface seismic and borehole geophysical characterization that supports a field test of capacity, integrity, and geochemical reactivity of CRBG reservoirs in eastern Washington, U.S.A. Traditional surface seismic methods have had little success in imaging basalt features in on-shore areas where the basalt is thinly covered by sediment. Processing of the experimental 6.5 km, 5 line 3C seismic swath included constructing an elastic wavefield model, identifying and separating seismic wave modes, and processing the swath as a single 2D line. Important findings include: (1) a wide variety of shear wave energy modes swamp the P-wave seismic records; (2) except at very short geophone offsets, ground roll overprints P-wave signal; and (3) because of extreme velocity contrasts, P-wave events are refracted at incidence angles greater than 7-15 degrees. Subsequent removal of S-wave and other noise during processing resulted in tremendous improvement in image quality. The application of wireline logging to onshore basalts is underexploited. Full waveform sonic logs and resistivity-based image logs acquired in the 1250 m basalt pilot borehole provide powerful tools for evaluating geomechanics and lithofacies. The azimuth of the fast shear wave is parallel to SH and records the changes through time in basalt flow and tectonic stress tensors. Combined with image log data, azimuthal S-wave data provide a borehole technique for assessing basalt emplacement and cooling history that is related to the development of reservoirs and seals, as well as the orientation of tectonic stresses and fracture systems that could affect CO2 transport or containment. Reservoir and seal properties are controlled by basalt lithofacies, and rescaled P- and S- wave slowness curves, integrated with image logs, provide a tool for improved recognition of subsurface lithofacies.

Sullivan, E. C.; Hardage, Bob A.; McGrail, B. Peter; Davis, Klarissa N.

2011-04-01

413

Observation and Scaling of Microearthquakes from TCDP Borehole Seismometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microearthquakes with magnitude down to 0.5 were detected by the Taiwan Chelungpu-ault Drilling Project Borehole Seismometers (TCDPBHS). A location software (MIMO) was used to determine P- and S-wave onset times, incidence and azimuth angles for the locations of the microevents. Regardless of the large co-seismic slip of 12 m at the drill site during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, our studies show very less seismicity near the drill site from the TCDPBHS recording. The microevents clustered at a depth of 8-10 km, where the 30 degree dipping of the Chelungpu thrust fault becomes flat to a decollement of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust tectonic structure. As a continuous GPS survey did not observe post-slip at the large slip region, and as no seismicity was observed near the drill site, we suggest that the thrust belt above the decollement during the interseismic period is locked. A Fluid Injection Test (FIT) pumping high pressure fluid into hole C with hole A as observation well was carried out at the TCDP boreholes in November 2006, and January, March and April 2007. Compared with background seismicity in November 2007, the observation did not show significant correlation of the FIT related seismicity, despite the distinct observations on the arrival of gas and chemical monitoring through FIT. It is possible that the injected fluid rate of FIT experiments is too deficient to trigger microevents. The low fluid rate indicated the low permeability of the fault zone. We also examined the scaling of the source parameters of the small earthquakes in stress drops and seismic moments. The source parameters of 150 microevents were examined from the source spectra using Brune ?-2 model for a constant Q model. The scaling of the magnitude to the Brune stress drop is a significant positive correlation. However, there has been a debate that this positive relationship might be biased for without Q correction. Fortunately, we had observed 65 clusters showing similar waveforms. The path effect can be removed by Projected Landweber Deconvolution (PLD) method from the events in clusters. The PLD method analyzed source time function from larger event and smaller event by iteration technique, and the source dimension and stress drop of larger event with Q correction could be estimated.

Lin, Y.; Ma, K.; Oye, V.; Tanaka, H.

2009-12-01

414

Eastgate Geothermal Borehole Project: Predicting Fracture Geometry at Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2004 an exploratory borehole at the Eastgate Geothermal Project encountered part of a vein system within the Weardale granite. At 995m depth brine was at a temperature of around 46°C. The geothermal source is likely related to the Slitt vein system that cuts through c.270m of carboniferous sedimentary strata overlying the Weardale granite pluton. The economic success of the Eastgate geothermal project is dependent on exploiting this vein system in an otherwise low permeability and low geothermal gradient setting. The Slitt vein system has been extensively mined. Mining records show the attitude of the vein through the sedimentary strata, however, the trajectory and magnitude of the vein within the pluton itself is unknown. Using mine records, geological maps and published literature, models of the vein system up to the depth of the pluton were created. To extend this model into the pluton itself requires some knowledge regarding the geometry and evolution of the pluton and subsequently properties of vein systems and other fracture populations at depth. The properties of fracture and vein populations within the granite will depend on forming processes including; cooling and contraction of the pluton, deformation of host rocks during pluton emplacement, and post emplacement deformation. Using published literature and gravity data a 3D model of the geometry of the pluton was constructed. Shape analysis of the pluton allows an estimation of the orientation of fractures within the pluton. Further modelling of the structural evolution of the pluton will enable kinematic or geomechanical strain associated with the structural evolution to be captured and subsequently used as a proxy for modelling both intensity and orientation of fracturing within the pluton. The successful prediction of areas of high fracture intensity and thus increased permeability is critical to the development of potential geothermal resources in low geothermal gradient and low permeability settings. This is also important in EGS settings where stimulation will often re-activate existing fracture networks. The development at the Eastgate Geothermal Borehole project provides an opportunity to model fracture and vein populations within an intrusive body and validate those model predictions with production data from the site.

Beattie, Stewart; Shipton, Zoe K.; Johnson, Gareth; Younger, Paul L.

2013-04-01

415

Pressure drop in a borehole intersecting an active fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corinth Rift, in western Greece, is one of the most active continental Rift in the world, with an opening rate of 1.5cm/yr. Its deformation process is being monitored with a broad range of sensors dispatched across the rift, near the city of Aigio, some 40km east of Patras. In particular, a set of pressure transducers has been set in a 1000m-deep borehole that intersects the active 10km long Aigio fault at a depth of 760m. Below its upper 700m deep cased section, the well has been left open and intersects two artesian aquifers. The upper aquifer is fully hydraulically decoupled from surface aquifers and is developed in tectonized platy limestone, with a 0.5MPa original pressure. Below the fault, the limestone is heavily karstified and the artesian overpressure reaches about 0.85MPa. Hence the fault supports a 0.35MPa differential pressure through the 5m thick radiolarite clay layer that has been smeared along the 150m fault offset. In September 2003, the borehole was let produce water and then was plugged with a packer set at the top of the casing resulting in a direct connection between both aquifers. The pressure is monitored by sensors set just below the packer. Tidal waves are recorded with a resolution better than 1/100. In addition a variety of pressure anomalies have been observed. A 60Pa drop in pore pressure has been recorded at the onset of the S waves generated by the Mw=7.8 Rat Island Earthquake of November, 17th 2003. It is followed by a slow recovery which lasted about 30 minutes. This anomaly, compatible with a minor movement along the fault with a seismic moment of 109Nm, is one of the farthest local effects induced by teleseismic waves ever recorded. A 80Pa pressure drop has been detected 15 minutes before a ML=4.2 earthquake that occured about 15km west of the well. It is much sharper than the coseismic drop. This precursory event exhibits a 2-step recovery that lasted 10 minutes. As seismic sensors located near the well detected no major vibration, we assume the pressure anomaly is transmitted through the karstic conduits and give insight to events close to the hypocenter.

Doan, M.; Cornet, F. H.

2004-12-01

416

The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ability of borehole temperature data to resolve past climatic events is investigated using Backus-Gilbert inversion methods. Two experimental approaches are considered: (1) the data consist of a single borehole temperature profile, and (2) the data consist of climatically-induced temperature transients measured within a borehole during a monitoring experiment. The sensitivity of the data's resolving power to the vertical distribution of the measurements, temperature measurement errors, the inclusion of a local meteorological record, and the duration of a monitoring experiment, are investigated. The results can be used to help interpret existing surface temperature histories derived from borehole temperature data and to optimize future experiments for the detection of climatic signals. ?? 1992.

Clow, G. D.

1992-01-01

417

Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994  

SciTech Connect

Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins.

Williams, B.A.

1994-12-27

418

Results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program at Avery Island: Topical report RSI-0211  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program conducted in the ONWI test facility in the Avery Island salt mine. The accelerated borehole closure tests were a part of a field testing program at Avery Island to provide data on the thermomechanical response of domal salt when subjected to conditions similar to those expected in a high-level nuclear waste repository. The primary objective of the accelerated borehole closure test is to provide data that can be used for validation of the numerical methods used to predict the creep behavior of salt. Two series of accelerated borehole closure tests were performed. The first of these (Phase I) was conducted during 1980, and the second (Phase II) was conducted during 1981 and 1982. 5 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

Stickney, R.G.

1985-04-01

419

30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241 Section 57.22241 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

420

The effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the installation of borehole strainmeters into the ground locally distorts the strain in the rock, these strainmeters require calibration from a known source which typically is the Earth tide. Consequently, the accuracy of the observed strain changes from borehole strainmeters depends upon the calibration derived from modeling the Earth tide. Previous work from the mid-1970s, which is replicated here, demonstrate that the theoretical tide can differ by 30% from the tide observed at surface-mounted, long-baseline strainmeters. In spite of possible inaccurate tidal models, many of the 74 borehole strainmeters installed since 2005 can be “calibrated”. However, inaccurate tidal models affect the amplitude and phase of observed transient strain changes which needs to be considered along with the precision of the data from the inherent drift of these borehole instruments. In particular, the error from inaccurate tidal model dominates the error budget in the observation of impulsive, sub-daily, strain-transients.

Langbein, John

2010-01-01

421

Borehole Gravity Measurements in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity above ground were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. Uncorrected borehole gravimetric densities match values from gamma-gamma logs, indicating that the high densities seen in State 2-14 in the depth range 0.5 to 3 km extend for a few kilometers from the well. The above-ground gradient was found to be 4.1 {micro}gal/m higher than expected; correcting for this value increases the gravimetric density in the borehole. Combining the borehole gravity and estimated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, they find that this densified zone coincides with much of a broad thermal anomaly that has been found to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

1988-01-01

422

Borehole Gravity Measurements In The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14  

SciTech Connect

Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. The borehole gravimetric densities matched the well logs, but the surface gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected. When the borehole observations are corrected for the observed free air gradient above ground, they produce densities which are nearly uniformly higher than log densities by about 0.07 gm/cm{sup 3}. These measurements require densities in the depth range .5 to 3 km, for a radius of a few kilometers around State 2-14 to be as dense as those found in State 2-14. Combining the borehole gravity and calculated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone covers much of a broad thermal anomaly to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

1987-01-01

423

Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Williams, J. H.; Johnson, C. D.

2004-01-01

424

Importance of neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis in relatively dry, low-porosity rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate the importance of variations in the neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis, capture gamma-ray measurements were made in relatively dry, low-porosity gabbro of the Duluth Complex. Although sections of over a meter of solid rock were encountered in the borehole, there was significant fracturing with interstitial water leading to a substantial variation of water with depth in the borehole. The linear-correlation coefficients calculated for the peak intensities of several elements compared to the chemical core analyses were generally poor throughout the depth investigated. The data suggest and arguments are given which indicate that the variation of the thermal-to-intermediate-to-fast neutron flux density as a function of borehole depth is a serious source of error and is a major cause of the changes observed in the capture gamma-ray peak intensities. These variations in neutron energy may also cause a shift in the observed capture gamma-ray energy.

Senftle, F. E.; Moxham, R. M.; Tanner, A. B.; Philbin, P. W.; Boynton, G. R.; Wager, R. E.

1977-01-01

425

Thermal Hydrology Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations. Coupled thermal-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact fluid flow and the associated migration of radionuclides. Numerical simulations of thermal hydrology in the deep borehole disposal system were carried out with waste emplaced between depths of 3 km and 5 km. The geometry of the system consisted of a disturbed zone of higher permeability within a radius of 1m from the borehole, and low permeability rock beyond the 1m radius. The simulations considered borehole spacing of 100m and 200m, and number of boreholes of 1, 9 and 25. The base case was taken to be 9 boreholes with 200m borehole spacing. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Physical, thermal, and hydrologic properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the boreholes. The results show that for all runs single phase liquid conditions persist throughout the model area due to the large hydrostatic pressures present at the specified depths. Simulated base case temperatures for fuel assemblies and vitrified waste showed peak temperature increases of about 30 °C and 180 °C, respectively. Temperatures near the boreholes peak within about 10 years of waste emplacement. Results show minimal thermal perturbations at depths above the top of the waste, for both types of radioactive waste. Axial temperature profiles are dominated by conduction, as convection is constrained by the low permeability and porosity of the host rock. Simulations with borehole spacing of 100m, and number of boreholes of 1 and 25 gave similar temperature results as the base case. For the base case, vertical flux profiles showed similar trends as the temperature profiles, peaking within about 10 years of waste emplacement due to the thermal expansion of water, followed by much lower flow rates at later times. The magnitude of peak vertical specific discharge varies along the length of the emplaced waste. Simulated peak upward vertical specific discharge values at 4000m depth (center of waste) were 3.6 mm/year and 57.0 mm/year for fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively, with fluxes of less than 1 mm/year beyond 100 years. Just as with temperature profiles, vertical upwards fluxes diminish above the depth of the top of the waste. Axial migration of fluid is constrained by the low permeability of the host rock. Simulations with borehole spacing of 100m, and number of boreholes of 1 and 25 gave similar flux results as the base case. Future simulations will model the effect of salinity on thermal hydrology of the deep borehole disposal system, as well as sensitivity studies on model geometry and rock properties.

Hadgu, T.; Arnold, B. W.

2010-12-01

426

Phosphate Resource Potential for Borehole Mining in the Southeastern Coastal Plain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has evaluated the extent of phosphate resources available for recovery by the experimental borehole mining method in the Southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States. Phosphate resources at overburden depths greater than 30 m are, a...

D. J. Godesky G. H. Popper J. J. Giambra

1985-01-01

427

Deep well process for slurry pick-up in hydraulic borehole mining devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydraulic borehole mining method and device used to recover subterranean coal, oil shale and other minerals from depths exceeding 1500 ft. where a gas lift is utilized to lift the mined slurry to the surface.

Uhri

1985-01-01

428

Deep well process for slurry pick-up in hydraulic borehole mining devices  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulic borehole mining method and device used to recover subterranean coal, oil shale and other minerals from depths exceeding 1500 ft. where a gas lift is utilized to lift the mined slurry to the surface.

Uhri, D.C.

1985-07-09

429

Priori Numerical Predictions of Various in-Situ Accelerated Borehole-Closure Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A priori numerical simulations of in-situ experiments ongoing at Avery Island, LA have been performed. The specific experiments analyzed involved the accelerated borehole closure in a salt core subjected to both circumferential pressure and heating. The i...

M. C. Loken

1983-01-01

430

Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data  

DOEpatents

Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth.

Ward, Stanley H. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1989-01-01

431

Effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the installation of borehole strainmeters into the ground locally distorts the strain in the rock, these strainmeters require calibration from a known source which typically is the Earth tide. Consequently, the accuracy of the observed strain changes from borehole strainmeters depends upon the calibration derived from modeling the Earth tide. Previous work from the mid-1970s, which is replicated here, demonstrate that the theoretical tide can differ by 30% from the tide observed at surface-mounted, long-baseline strainmeters. In spite of possible inaccurate tidal models, many of the 74 borehole strainmeters installed since 2005 can be “calibrated”. However, inaccurate tidal models affect the amplitude and phase of observed transient strain changes which needs to be considered along with the precision of the data from the inherent drift of these borehole instruments. In particular, the error from inaccurate tidal model dominates the error budget in the observation of impulsive, sub-daily, strain-transients.

Langbein, John

2010-11-01

432

30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

2013-07-01

433

Reducing the Size of the Borehole X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) Probe: Preliminary Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the preliminary design effort for a borehole X- ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRFS) instrument for the NASA Mars Subsurface Access Program. The original proposed design was 30 mm in diameter and was based on an existing terrestrial ...

I. A. Carlberg W. C. Kelliher W. T. Elam

2007-01-01

434

Multi-scale groundwater modelling for the assessment of sustainable borehole yields under drought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multi-scale groundwater modelling methodology is presented for simulating abstraction boreholes in regional groundwater models. This provides a robust tool for assessing the sustainable yield of supply boreholes, thus improving our understanding of groundwater availability during droughts. The yield of an abstraction well is dependent on a number of factors. These include antecedent recharge and groundwater conditions; the properties of a regional aquifer system; requirements on a groundwater system to maintain river flows or sites of ecological significance; the properties of an individual abstraction borehole; small-scale aquifer heterogeneity around a borehole; the rate of abstraction; and the way in which neighboring abstraction boreholes interact. These factors can all be represented in the multi-scale model, which couples a small-scale radial flow model of an abstraction borehole with a regional-scale groundwater model. The regional groundwater model, ZOOMQ3D, represents the large-scale groundwater system, including lateral and vertical aquifer heterogeneity, rivers, and spatially varying recharge. The 3D radial flow model, SPIDERR, represents linear and non-linear flow to a borehole, local vertical heterogeneity, well storage and pump location. The multi-scale model is applied to a supply borehole (operated by Thames Water) located in the Chalk aquifer within the catchment of the River Thames in southern England. Groundwater abstraction from the Chalk aquifer accounts for 40-70% of the total public water supply in this region. Drought is a recurring feature of the UK climate, and in particular the south and east of England. Since 1850, nine major groundwater droughts have occurred, all of which lasted longer than one year. The most recent occurred in 2010-2012, during which seven water supply companies introduced water usage restrictions, affecting over 20 million people. The radial flow model is initially calibrated against pumping test data from the supply borehole. It is then coupled with an existing regional groundwater model, which covers a significant part of the unconfined Chalk aquifer within the Thames Basin. The fully coupled model is run over the historic simulation period, 1971-2012, using operational abstraction rates at the supply borehole. Simulated heads at the borehole are compared with observed data over the period 2003-2012 allowing further calibration of the small-scale model. Several abstraction scenarios are then applied over the historic simulation period. Analysis of the pumped water levels allows us to develop an improved understanding of the sustainable yield of the source under drought conditions. The multi-scale model also provides a tool for assessing future changes to groundwater availability due to potential changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of droughts under climate change, and under scenarios of increasing demand.

Upton, Kirsty; Butler, Adrian; Jackson, Chris; Jones, Mike

2014-05-01

435

Towards improved 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity imaging of discrete fracture networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to better characterize discrete fractures in contaminated bedrock aquifers to determine the migration of injected remediation amendments away from boreholes. A synthetic cross-borehole electrical resistivity study was conducted assuming a discrete fracture model of an existing contaminated site with known fracture locations. Four boreholes and two discrete fracture zones, assumed to be the dominant electrical and hydraulically conductive pathways, were explicitly modeled within an unstructured tetrahedral finite-element mesh. To simulate field conditions, 5% random Gaussian noise was added to all synthetic datasets. We first evaluated different regularization constraints starting with an uninformed smoothness-constrained inversion, to which a priori information was incrementally added. We found major improvements when (1) smoothness regularization constraints were relaxed (or disconnected) along boreholes and fractures, (2) a homogeneous conductivity was assumed along boreholes, and (3) borehole conductivity constraints, which could be determined from a fluid specific-conductance log, were applied. We also evaluated the effect of including borehole packers on the fracture-zone model recovery. We found the estimated fracture-zone conductivities with the inclusion of packers were comparable to similar trials excluding the use of packers regardless of electrical potential changes. The misplacement of fracture regularization disconnects easily can be misinterpreted as actual fracture locations. Conductivities within misplaced disconnects were near the starting model value and removing smoothing between boreholes and assumed fracture locations helped in identifying incorrectly located fracture regularization disconnects. Model sensitivity structure improved when regularization disconnects were (1) applied along the boreholes and fracture zones, and (2) fracture-zone regularization disconnects were placed where actual fractures existed. A field study being conducted at a contaminated fractured rock site, the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in West Trenton, New Jersey, is being used to validate our approach. Electrical resistance measurements, borehole geophysical logs and hydraulic tests are being acquired from seven, 10 cm (4 in.) boreholes to characterize fractures in the contaminated fractured rock and monitor time-lapse amendment injections to determine the amendment transport path at the field scale. Our findings, to be validated in a field study, demonstrate that structural constraints used after careful evaluation of a priori information are critical to improving imaging of fracture electrical conductivities, locations and orientations.

Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Johnson, T. J.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Lacombe, P.; Johnson, C. D.; Tiedeman, C. R.; Goode, D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Shapiro, A. M.; Lane, J. W.

2012-12-01

436

Results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program at Avery Island, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an accelerated borehole closure testing program conducted in the test facility in the Avery Island salt mine. The accelerated borehole closure tests provided data on the thermomechanical response of domal salt when subjected to conditions similar to those expected in a high-level nuclear waste repository. The objective is to aid numerical methods used to predict the creep behavior of salt. 5 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

Stickney, R.G.

1987-09-01

437

Parameter identification in fresh-saltwater flow based on borehole resistivities and freshwater head data  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of a series of borehole resistivity measurements and a resistivity–salinity relation, a particular salt-freshwater inversion was found under the shore with semi-diurnal tides at the French–Belgian border. These resistivity data provide valuable information about the vertical variation of the saltwater percentage in different boreholes. At different places and depths fluctuations of freshwater heads are observed. A regression modelling

Luc Lebbe

1999-01-01

438

Local fluid flow and borehole strain in the South Iceland Seismic Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Installation of 175 borehole strainmeters is planned for PBO. It is therefore vital to understand the behavior of existing strainmeter installations. We investigate signals recorded by three borehole dilatometers in the south Iceland seismic zone following two Mw6.5 earthquakes in June 2000. Poroelastic relaxation has been documented following these events based on InSAR and water level data [Jónsson et al.,

S. Jónsson; P. Segall; K. Ágústsson; D. Agnew

2003-01-01

439

Borehole Strainmeters on Montserrat: the CALIPSO Project and the July 2003 Eruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

During November 2002 to February 2003, 4 borehole sites were established on Montserrat in order to provide data to investigate the on-going eruption of Soufriere Hills as part of the multi-institutional CALIPSO project that also included participation by the Monserrat Volcano Observatory. In the boreholes we installed a Sacks-Evertson strainmeter, a short period 3 component seismometer and a tiltmeter. Each

A. Linde; S. I. Sacks; B. Voight; P. Malin; E. Shalev; G. S. Mattioli; S. R. Young

2003-01-01

440

The borehole temperature record of climate warming in the mid-continent of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-surface temperature (GST) histories, determined from a carefully selected set of tw