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Sample records for koon bunri gijutsu

  1. Willem de Kooning: "Marilyn Monroe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karen G.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which introduces students in grades 7-9 to Willem de Kooning and the qualities that make his oil painting "Marilyn Monroe," an example of abstract expressionist style. Includes background information on the artist and the painting as well as instructional strategies, studio activities, and evaluation procedures. (GEA)

  2. 76 FR 44977 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “De Kooning: A Retrospective”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``De Kooning: A Retrospective... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``De Kooning: A Retrospective,'' imported...

  3. 76 FR 66995 - David T. Koon, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... practitioner whose state license has been suspended or revoked. David W. Wang, 72 FR 54297, 54298 (2007); Sheran Arden Yeates, 71 FR 39130, 39131 (2006); Dominick A. Ricci, 58 FR 51104, 51105 (1993); Bobby Watts, 53 FR 11919, 11920 (1988). See also 21 U.S.C. 824(a)(3) (authorizing the revocation of a...

  4. Rules of Engagement: Incomplete and Complete Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In…

  5. Parameter Variability and Distributional Assumptions in the Diffusion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-01-01

    If the diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) is to account for the relative speeds of correct responses and errors, it is necessary that the components of processing identified by the model vary across the trials of a task. In standard applications, the rate at which information is accumulated by the diffusion process is assumed to be normally…

  6. Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

  7. Flood of September 7-9, 1987, in Lexington and Richland counties in the vicinity of Saint Andrews Road and Irmo, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guimaraes, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Localized heavy rainfall on September 7, 1987, in Lexington and Richland Counties, South Carolina, caused severe flooding in the basins of Kinley Creek, Rawls Creek, and Stoop Creek, in the vicinity of Saint Andrews Road and the town of Irmo, South Carolina. The flooding damaged homes, furnishings, and landscaping. Rainfall, peak discharges, high-water elevations, and frequency relations of rainfall and discharge are tabulated and plotted for selected streams. The rain was most intense in the area along Rawls Creek, R-2 (tributary to Rawls Creek), Koon Branch (tributary to Rawls Creek), and the upper part of Kinley Creek. A rainfall of about 5.5 inches in 3 hours, which has a recurrence interval in excess of 100 years, was reported by local residents along these streams. High-water marks are presented in this report for Stoop Creek, Kinley Creek, K-1 (tributary to Kinley Creek), K-2 (tributary to Kinley Creek), unnamed tributary to Kinley Creek, Lowery Creek (tributary to Kinley Creek), Rawls Creek, R-2 (tributary to Rawls Creek), and Koon Branch (tributary to Rawls Creek). Peak discharges at the most downstream sites on Rawls Creek and Koon Branch had recurrence intervals of 75 years and 60 years, respectively. Peak discharges on Kinley Creek varied from 20 to 25 years north of K-1 basin to less than 10 years at K-1. The Stoop Creek basin had a recurrence interval of 10 years. (USGS)

  8. Understanding and producing the reduced relative construction: Evidence from ratings, editing and corpora

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; McRae, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Tworating studies demonstrate that English speakers willingly produce reduced relatives with internal cause verbs (e.g., Whisky fermented in oak barrels can have a woody taste), and judge their acceptability based on factors known to influence ambiguity resolution, rather than on the internal/external cause distinction. Regression analyses demonstrate that frequency of passive usage predicts reduced relative frequency in corpora, but internal/external cause status does not. The authors conclude that reduced relatives with internal cause verbs are rare because few of these verbs occur in the passive. This contrasts with the claim in McKoon and Ratcliff (McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490–525) that reduced relatives like The horse raced past the barn fell are rare and, when they occur, incomprehensible, because the meaning of the reduced relative construction prohibits the use of a verb with an internal cause event template. PMID:22162904

  9. Understanding and producing the reduced relative construction: Evidence from ratings, editing and corpora.

    PubMed

    Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K; McRae, Ken

    2007-04-01

    Tworating studies demonstrate that English speakers willingly produce reduced relatives with internal cause verbs (e.g., Whisky fermented in oak barrels can have a woody taste), and judge their acceptability based on factors known to influence ambiguity resolution, rather than on the internal/external cause distinction. Regression analyses demonstrate that frequency of passive usage predicts reduced relative frequency in corpora, but internal/external cause status does not. The authors conclude that reduced relatives with internal cause verbs are rare because few of these verbs occur in the passive. This contrasts with the claim in McKoon and Ratcliff (McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490-525) that reduced relatives like The horse raced past the barn fell are rare and, when they occur, incomprehensible, because the meaning of the reduced relative construction prohibits the use of a verb with an internal cause event template. PMID:22162904

  10. Unexpected development of artistic talents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, N

    2005-01-01

    The development of exceptional and unexpected artistic skills at any age must be a matter of curiosity. This can occur among young children with severe learning difficulties, especially if they are autistic. Some examples of these so called idiot-savants are given, and the way in which their brains may function. It is also true that elderly people who suffer from frontotemporal dementia can find that they are able to express themselves in remarkable art forms. This can occur in other types of dementia, but then more often it is the changes that result in the paintings of established artists, for example in the paintings of de Kooning. Possible links between these two phenomenon are discussed, and it is suggested that in both instances it may be that if the brain is relieved of a number of functions it can concentrate on the remaining ones. Ways in which this may operate in both groups are reviewed. PMID:16344297

  11. Unexpected development of artistic talents.

    PubMed

    Gordon, N

    2005-12-01

    The development of exceptional and unexpected artistic skills at any age must be a matter of curiosity. This can occur among young children with severe learning difficulties, especially if they are autistic. Some examples of these so called idiot-savants are given, and the way in which their brains may function. It is also true that elderly people who suffer from frontotemporal dementia can find that they are able to express themselves in remarkable art forms. This can occur in other types of dementia, but then more often it is the changes that result in the paintings of established artists, for example in the paintings of de Kooning. Possible links between these two phenomenon are discussed, and it is suggested that in both instances it may be that if the brain is relieved of a number of functions it can concentrate on the remaining ones. Ways in which this may operate in both groups are reviewed. PMID:16344297

  12. Item recognition memory and the receiver operating characteristic.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of study time, study repetition, semantic and orthographic similarity, and category length on item recognition memory receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Analyses of ROC shape rejected A. P. Yonelinas's (1994) dual-process model. The normal unequal variance signal-detection model provided a better account of the data, except for a small but consistent excess of high-confidence errors. It was found that z-transformed ROC slope was increased by similarity, category length, and study item repetition, rejecting R. Ratcliff, G. McKoon, and M. Tindall's (1994) "constancy-of-slopes" generalization for these variables, but slope was relatively unaffected by massed study time. PMID:14622056

  13. Poisson reduction for nonholonomic mechanical systems with symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang Sang Koon; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper continues the work of Koon and Marsden [10] that began the comparison of the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulations of nonholonomic systems. Because of the necessary replacement of conservation laws with the momentum equation, it is natural to let the value of momentum be a variable and for this reason it is natural to take a Poisson viewpoint. Some of this theory has been started in van der Schaft and Maschke [24]. We build on their work, further develop the theory of nonholonomic Poisson reduction, and tie this theory to other work in the area. We use this reduction procedure to organize nonholonomic dynamics into a reconstruction equation, a nonholonomic momentum equation and the reduced Lagrange-d'Alembert equations in Hamiltonian form. We also show that these equations are equivalent to those given by the Lagrangian reduction methods of Bloch, Krishnaprasad, Marsden and Murray [4]. Because of the results of Koon and Marsden [10], this is also equivalent to the results of Bates and Śniatycki [2], obtained by nonholonomic symplectic reduction. Two interesting complications make this effort especially interesting. First of all, as we have mentioned, symmetry need not lead to conservation laws but rather to a momentum equation. Second, the natural Poisson bracket fails to satisfy the Jacobi identity. In fact, the so-called Jacobiizer (the cyclic sum that vanishes when the Jacobi identity holds), or equivalently, the Schouten bracket, is an interesting expression involving the curvature of the underlying distribution describing the nonholonomic constraints. The Poisson reduction results in this paper are important for the future development of the stability theory for nonholonomic mechanical systems with symmetry, as begun by Zenkov, Bloch and Marsden [25]. In particular, they should be useful for the development of the powerful block diagonalization properties of the energy-momentum method developed by Simo, Lewis and Marsden [23].

  14. Theory and computation of non-RRKM lifetime distributions and rates in chemical systems with three or more degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabern, Frederic; Koon, Wang S.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Ross, Shane D.

    2005-11-01

    The computation, starting from basic principles, of chemical reaction rates in realistic systems (with three or more degrees of freedom) has been a longstanding goal of the chemistry community. Our current work, which merges tube dynamics with Monte Carlo methods provides some key theoretical and computational tools for achieving this goal. We use basic tools of dynamical systems theory, merging the ideas of Koon et al. [W.S. Koon, M.W. Lo, J.E. Marsden, S.D. Ross, Heteroclinic connections between periodic orbits and resonance transitions in celestial mechanics, Chaos 10 (2000) 427-469.] and De Leon et al. [N. De Leon, M.A. Mehta, R.Q. Topper, Cylindrical manifolds in phase space as mediators of chemical reaction dynamics and kinetics. I. Theory, J. Chem. Phys. 94 (1991) 8310-8328.], particularly the use of invariant manifold tubes that mediate the reaction, into a tool for the computation of lifetime distributions and rates of chemical reactions and scattering phenomena, even in systems that exhibit non-statistical behavior. Previously, the main problem with the application of tube dynamics has been with the computation of volumes in phase spaces of high dimension. The present work provides a starting point for overcoming this hurdle with some new ideas and implements them numerically. Specifically, an algorithm that uses tube dynamics to provide the initial bounding box for a Monte Carlo volume determination is used. The combination of a fine scale method for determining the phase space structure (invariant manifold theory) with statistical methods for volume computations (Monte Carlo) is the main contribution of this paper. The methodology is applied here to a three degree of freedom model problem and may be useful for higher degree of freedom systems as well.

  15. DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992; Anderson and Koons, 1996; Anderson, 2012). These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka (1992). These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.

  16. Survey of DMSP Charging Events During the Period Preceding Cycle 23 Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that POLAR orbiting satellites can see mild to severe charging levels during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992, Anderson and Koons, 1996, Anderson, 2012). However, spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging. Recently, we have seen examples of high level charging during the recent approach to solar maximum. We present here a survey of charging events seen by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites (F16, F17) during the solstices of 2011 and 2012. In this survey, we summarize the condition necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal maximum conditions are conducive to the environment conditions necessary for charging in the POLAR orbit, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period. We also show examples of other interesting phenomenological events seen in the DMSP data, but which are not considered surface charging events, and discuss the differences.

  17. Survey of DMSP Charging During the Period Preceding Cycle 24 Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NeergaardParker, L.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can see mild to severe charging levels during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992, Anderson and Koons, 1996, Anderson, 2012). However, spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging. Recently, we have seen examples of high level charging during the recent approach to solar maximum. We present here a survey of charging events seen by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites (F16, F17) during the solstices of 2011 and 2012. In this survey, we summarize the condition necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal maximum conditions are conducive to the environment conditions necessary for charging in the polar orbit, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period. We also show examples of other interesting phenomenological events seen in the DMSP data, but which are not considered surface charging events, and discuss the differences.

  18. Analysis of group differences in processing speed: Brinley plots, Q-Q plots, and other conspiracies.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Adams, David R; Hale, Sandra; Jenkins, Lisa

    2003-03-01

    Researchers in a growing number of areas (including cognitive development, aging, and neuropsychology) use Brinley plots to compare the processing speed of different groups. Ratcliff, Spieler, and McKoon (2000) argued that a Brinley plot is a quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and that therefore Brinley plot regression slopes measure standard deviation ratios rather than relative speed of processing. We show that this argument is incorrect. Brinley plots, by definition, are not Q-Q plots; the former are based on unranked data and the latter are based on ranked data. Furthermore, the relationship between standard deviation ratios and slopes is a general property of regression lines and has no implications for the use of Brinley plot regression slopes as processing speed measures. We also show that the relative speed interpretation of Brinley plot slopes is strongly supported by converging evidence from a metaanalysis of visual search, mental rotation, and memory scanning in young and older adults. As to Ratcliff et al.'s hypothesis that age differences in response time are attributable to greater cautiousness on the part of the elderly, rather than true processing speed differences, this hypothesis has been extensively tested in previous studies and found wanting. PMID:12747512

  19. Long-term transit timing monitoring and homogenous study of WASP-32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei-Lei; Gu, Sheng-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cao, Dong-Tao; Wang, Yi-Bo; Xiang, Yue; Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai; Yeung, Bill; Leung, Kam-Cheung

    2015-01-01

    We report new photometric observations of the transiting exoplanetary system WASP-32 made by using CCD cameras at Yunnan Observatories and Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, China from 2010 to 2012. Following our usual procedure, the observed data are corrected for systematic errors according to the coarse decorrelation and SYSREM algorithms so as to enhance the signal of the transit events. Combined with radial velocity data presented in the literature, our newly observed data and earlier photometric data in the literature are simultaneously analyzed to derive the physical parameters describing the system by employing the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The derived parameters are consistent with the result published in the original paper about WASP-32b, but the uncertainties of the new parameters are smaller than those in the original paper. Moreover, our modeling result supports a circular orbit for WASP-32b. Through the analysis of all available mid-transit times, we have refined the orbital period of WASP-32b; no evident transit timing variation is found in these transit events.

  20. Off-easy-plane antiferromagnetic spin canting in coupled FePt/NiO bilayer structure with perpendicular exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tenghua; Itokawa, Nobuhide; Wang, Jian; Yu, Youxing; Harumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji

    2016-08-01

    We report on the investigation of perpendicular exchange bias in FePt (001 ) /NiO (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) orthogonal exchange couple with FePt partially L 10 ordered. From initial magnetization curve measurement and magnetic domain imaging, we find that, for the as-grown bilayer structure, the FePt layer experiences a small-angle magnetization rotation when it is magnetized near to saturation in film normal direction. After field cooling, the bilayer structure shows a significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, indicating the field mediated coupling between the spins across the FePt/NiO interface. According to Koon's theoretical calculation on the basis of lowest energy ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling configuration for compensated spins at antiferromagnetic side, we consider slightly slanted Ni spins at the interface off the (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) easy plane can stabilize the spin coupling between FePt and NiO and result in the observed exchange bias in this paper. This consideration was further confirmed by stripe domain width calculation.

  1. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences between individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly four million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off in their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

  2. Evidence accumulation in a complex task: Making choices about concurrent multiattribute stimuli under time pressure.

    PubMed

    Palada, Hector; Neal, Andrew; Vuckovic, Anita; Martin, Russell; Samuels, Kate; Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Evidence accumulation models transform observed choices and associated response times into psychologically meaningful constructs such as the strength of evidence and the degree of caution. Standard versions of these models were developed for rapid (∼1 s) choices about simple stimuli, and have recently been elaborated to some degree to address more complex stimuli and response methods. However, these elaborations can be difficult to use with designs and measurements typically encountered in complex applied settings. We test the applicability of 2 standard accumulation models-the diffusion (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) and the linear ballistic accumulation (LBA) (Brown & Heathcote, 2008)-to data from a task representative of many applied situations: the detection of heterogeneous multiattribute targets in a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator task. Despite responses taking more than 2 s and complications added by realistic features, such as a complex target classification rule, interruptions from a simultaneous UAV navigation task, and time pressured choices about several concurrently present potential targets, these models performed well descriptively. They also provided a coherent psychological explanation of the effects of decision uncertainty and workload manipulations. Our results support the wider application of standard evidence accumulation models to applied decision-making settings. PMID:26844369

  3. Resistive sensitivity functions for van der Pauw astroid and rounded crosses and cloverleafs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel; Hansen, Ole

    2014-03-01

    We have calculated the sensitivity of van der Pauw resistances to local resistive variations for circular, square and astroid discs of infinitesimal thickness, as well as for the families of rounded crosses and cloverleafs, as a function of specimen parameters, using the direct formulas of our recent paper (Koon et al. 2013 J. Appl. Phys.114 163710) applied to ``reciprocally dual geometries'' (swapped Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions) described by Mareš et al.(2012 Meas. Sci. Technol. 23 045004). These results show that (a) the product of any such sensitivity function times differential area, and thus (b) the ratio of any two sensitivities, is invariant under conformal mapping, allowing for the pointwise determination of the conformal mapping function. The family of rounded crosses, which is bounded in parameter space by the square, the astroid and an ``infinitesimally thin'' cross, seems to represent the best geometry for focusing transport measurements on the center of the specimen while minimizing errors due to edge- or contact-effects. Made possible by an SLU Faculty research grant.

  4. Analysis of radiation exposure for Naval personnel at Operation Castle. Technical report, 1 January 1983-31 January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Weitz, R.

    1984-02-28

    Film-badge doses are reconstructed for sixteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls resulting from the six nuclear detonations comprising Operation CASTLE (March-May 1954). Fallout from Shots BRAVO and ROMEO was the major source of contamination on most of the ships and islands. Varying amounts of fallout from Shots UNION, YANKEE, and NECTAR contributed somewhat to the total doses of the shipboard and island-based personnel; no fallout was experienced as a result of Shot KOON. Shipboard personnel received additional exposure from hulls and salt water piping systems that had become contaminated from operating in the radioactive waters of Bikini Lagoon. From the reconstructed radiation environments, both topside and below, an equivalent film badge dose is calculated and compared to actual dosimetry data. Agreement is very good during badged periods when the ships received significant fallout. When topside intensities were not documented, generally late in the operation when intensity levels were low, agreement is not as good. Calculated ship contamination doses of significance are in excellent agreement with limited available dosimetry data. Calculated average doses for shipboard personnel range from a low of 0.19 rem for the crew of the USS LST-825 to a high of 3.56 rem for the crew of the USS PHILIP. Average doses on the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls are 1.09 rem and 0.32 rem, respectively.

  5. Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  6. Searching for Judy: how small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J

    2010-05-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery-a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story-affects readers' moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., "Judy") or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., "our principal Judy"). In an online recognition probe task, responses to the character's name 3 lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the 4 experiments in this article, we extend our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., "daredevil Judy") is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we found evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers' memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch's (1988) construction-integration model of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  7. Deep subduction of hot young oceanic slab required by the Syros eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemetakis, Stamatis; Moulas, Evangelos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias

    2014-05-01

    The Cycladic islands of Syros and Siphnos, Aegean Sea, Greece, represent subducted IAT and BABB remnants of the Neotethyan Pindos Ocean. Garnet porphyroblasts (Ø=1mm) in a glaucophane-zoisite eclogite from Kini locality on Syros are compositionally zoned and display a unique prograde heating path from a high-pressure greenschist-facies core with high XSps and low Mg# via a blueschist-facies mantle with moderate XSps and Mg# to an eclogite-facies rim with low XSps and high Mg#. The outermost 35 μm of the garnet rims show flat XSps with rapidly increasing outwards Mg#. Na-Act-Chl-Ph rimmed by Gln mark the greenschist-blueschist facies transition, whereas Pg rimmed by Omp and the incoming of Rt at the expense of Ttn signify the blueschist-eclogite facies transition. Raman barometry of quartz inclusions in the eclogitic garnet rims coupled with elastic modelling of the garnet host [1], and Zr-in-Rt and Grt-Cpx-Ph thermobarometry revealed near-UHP P-T conditions of the order of 2.6 GPa/660°C (maximum residual pressure was 0.8-0.9GPa). By contrast, the greenschist-blueschist transition lies at ~0.75 GPa/355°C. This pressure is in excellent agreement with the position of the albite = jadeite + quartz boundary calculated at 350°C using the observed omphacite composition corrected for jadeite activity (Koons & Thompson, 1985) [2]. As a result, Cpx inclusions in garnet core signify the early entrance of garnet in the subduction zone history of the slab. Furthermore, the early growth of garnet (in lower pressures) observed in eclogites from Syros lies in great agreement with published slab-geotherms that indicate hot subduction and show a precocious garnet growth (Baxter and Caddick, 2013) [3]. The complete absence of lawsonite and the great abundance of zoisite crystals, based on the stability fields of both minerals (Poli et al., 2009) [4], further constrain the P-T trajectory of the slab. Our new P-T estimates match published T distributions on the slab surface

  8. Late-Quaternary exhumation of Namche Barwa constrained using low-temperature multi-OSL-thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Georgina; Herman, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The influence of climate on tectonic processes remains a controversial concept. Exhumation rates of >5 mm/yr make Namche Barwa, Tibet, one of the most rapidly exhuming places on earth, and two main hypotheses have developed to explain the very high rates of exhumation there. The tectonic aneurysm model (Zeitler et al., 2001) proposes that crustal weakening coupled with extremely active surface processes causes a spatial stationarity of exhumation. Alternatively, a northward plunging antiform that is progressively migrating north-eastward (Seward and Burg, 2008) may explain the concentration of extremely low cooling ages and rapid exhumation that characterise the Namche Barwa massif. Here we use multi-OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar, which comprises a series of different systems with closure temperatures ranging from 30 to 70 C, to quantify spatial and temporal changes in exhumation rates. We have applied this new technique to a suite of samples from the Namche Barwa massif and inverting our data enables us to precisely resolve cooling histories over 0.1 Ma timescales. Our data indicate propagation of a knick-point along the Parlung river, which can be explained by progressive north-eastward migration of a northward plunging antiform. We suggest that river incision does not therefore feedback onto tectonics, as proposed by the aneurysm model. Zeitler, P.K., Meltzer, A.S., Koons, P.O., et al., 2001. Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism. GSA Today 11, 4-9 Seward, D., Burg, J-P., 2008. Growth of the Namche Barwa Syntaxis and associated evolution of the Tsangpo Gorge: Constraints from structural and thermochronological data. Tectonophysics 451, 282-289.

  9. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  10. Along-Strike Variation in Dip-Slip Rate on the Alpine Fault is a Consequence of Lithologic Variation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, V. G.; Reid Lindroos, Z.; Norris, R. J.; Cooper, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    microstructural and textural variations. These variations are broadly a function of the volumetric proportion of amphibolite in the mylonite zone on the map scale. We propose that most of the difference in measured dip-slip rates and differential rock uplift along strike of the fault can be attributed to basic along-strike variation in shear strength resulting from variation in lithology. Other theories, such as that the Alpine Fault contains a lateral ramp near the Karangarua River (Little et al. 2005), or that a weaker crust beneath Otago allows the convergent component of plate boundary deformation to be distributed over a broader orogen (Upton et al. 2009) are not required, although they may operate in concert. Little, T.A, Cox, S., Vry, J.K., Batt, G.E., 2005. Variations in exhumation level and uplift rate along the oblique-slip Alpine fault, central Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117 (5), 707 Upton, P., Koons, P.O., Craw D., Henderson, C.M., Enlow, R. 2009. Along-strike differences in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Consequences of inherited variation in rheology. Tectonics 28. 10.1029/2008TC002353

  11. Obituary: Kevin H. Prendergast, 1929-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Edward A.

    2005-12-01

    shown quite widely in colloquia and symposia. The films revealed phenomena of qualitative interest such as mergers, bridges, and tails, and the formation of bars. Similar results were also being obtained by Hohl around that time and both pieces of work were no doubt influential in shaping the thinking of people working in this field. One striking feature of the calculations was that spiral arms formed initially but were transient. To keep the spiral patterns from collapsing it seemed necessary to artificially heat the disks. Only later, when the existence of massive halos was recognized (by Ostriker and Peebles), could the true cause of stability be surmised. From the mid-seventies on, Kevin worked on topics in astrophysical fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, largely with students. Some of this work was published, but it has to be said that much of his best work was not. A good example of the latter is his three-part handwritten manuscript on the dynamics of barred spirals that he distributed to several people over thirty years ago. Many of his other unpublished calculations have been deposited in the Columbia Library, and there are no doubt several things of interest to be found among his papers. While one can only speculate on why so much of his work went unpublished, I find a remark by de Kooning quite helpful in thinking about it. In a review of book about the painter, Peter Schjeldahl reported that "He [de Kooning] made ...paintings...and destroyed nearly all of them, to his subsequent regret....He explained `I was so modest then that I was vain.'" When I accused Kevin of a similar mindset, he chuckled and said "You are right, but don't tell anyone." Kevin was widely read and he had a remarkable awareness ofliterature. He was especially devoted to the work of P.G. Wodehouse. He also loved the Marx Brothers and late in life discovered Zero Mostel of whom he became an instant fan. He was a sailor and a snorkler, and enjoyed trading quips with anyone who was

  12. Intermediate-depth earthquake generation: what hydrous minerals can tell us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L.; Andersen, T. B.

    2012-04-01

    .8 to 14 wt %) but the gabbro is not (H2O content from 0 to 2.6 wt%). The hydrous nature of the PST is due to the preferential melting of hydrous minerals (chlorite and serpentine - peridotite, glaucophane, epidote, Mg-hornblende - gabbro) in the host rock, rather than later hydration associated with exhumation (greenschist facies metamorphism and later alteration). However, in the case of the gabbro, the melt can be hydrous, but is not always. Anhydrous, glassy PST is formed in association with hydrous PST in the gabbro host rock. The gabbroic PST nucleate at the boundary between a coarse-grained pegmatoidal gabbro and a fine-grained gabbro, whereas the exclusively hydrous peridotite-hosted PST only nucleate along pre-existing hydrated fractures. These facts are significant when considering the mechanism of formation of the pseudotachylyte; which is commonly thought to be associated with the preferential melting of hydrous minerals. An anhydrous melt in proximity to other hydrous melts formed contemporaneously must have formed by the same mechanism; one which can exploit more than just one rheological characteristic in the rock vis. hydrous mineralogy AND grain size changes. Furthermore the presence of anhydrous PST suggests that little or no fluid ingress occurred prior to or during PST generation. Hydrous crystallisation products in the gabbro such as glaucophane and edenite indicate that whole-sale melting of the wallrock amphiboles (glaucophane, edenite, actinolite) took place to produce a melt with dissolved H2O, out of which such blue amphiboles were able to crystallise. It is important to note that in order for amphiboles to crystallise out of a melt, H2O is required but necessarily to an under-saturated degree. i.e. it cannot be 'free' water occurring as a separate phase in the melt (Carmen and Gilbert, 1983 and Koons, 1982). It is unlikely therefore that the water in the gabbro-derived fusion melt was the result of solid-state dehydration of the wallrock

  13. Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) Cost-Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) are designed to prevent space launch vehicles from flight through environments conducive to natural or triggered lightning and are used for all U.S. government and commercial launches at government and civilian ranges. They are maintained by a committee known as the NASA/USAF Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP). The previous LLCC for anvil cloud, meant to avoid triggered lightning, have been shown to be overly restrictive. Some of these rules have had such high safety margins that they prohibited flight under conditions that are now thought to be safe 90% of the time, leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. The LLCC for anvil clouds was upgraded in the summer of 2005 to incorporate results from the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) experiment at the Eastern Range (ER). Numerous combinations of parameters were considered to develop the best correlation of operational weather observations to in-cloud electric fields capable of rocket triggered lightning in anvil clouds. The Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) was the best metric found. Dr. Harry Koons of Aerospace Corporation conducted a risk analysis of the VAHIRR product. The results indicated that the LLCC based on the VAHIRR product would pose a negligible risk of flying through hazardous electric fields. Based on these findings, the Kennedy Space Center Weather Office is considering seeking funding for development of an automated VAHIRR algorithm for the new ER 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) RadTec 431250 weather radar and Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars. Before developing an automated algorithm, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to determine the frequency with which VAHIRR would have allowed a launch to safely proceed during weather conditions otherwise deemed "red" by the Launch Weather Officer. To do this, the AMU manually calculated VAHIRR values based on candidate cases from past launches with known anvil cloud