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Sample records for korea epidemiological genomic

  1. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. PMID:25441425

  2. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  3. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  4. Epidemiological characteristics of ovarian cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Park, Sohee; Kim, Tae-Joong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Tae Jin; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to examine recent trends in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality and secular trends in demographic factors in Korea. Methods With the data from Korea Central Cancer Registry, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Korean Death Registry, and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System, we calculated age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for ovarian cancer. Also we estimated future incidence of ovarian and cervical cancer using linear regression model. To assess the demographic trend, data from national surveys in Korea or results from published papers were searched. Results Ovarian cancer incidence rate was similar to that in women worldwide but lower than those in Western countries, and the trend has been increased steadily. Ovarian cancer-related mortality rates have been increasing in Korea, even though those in western and some Asian countries, such as China, have been decreasing. Age-specific incidence rate and mortality rate showed steep increases with advancing age. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer was estimated to surpass that of uterine cervix cancer in 2015. Korea showed rapid changes in nutritional, reproductive, and anthropometric factors. Conclusion These recent trends in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality may be partly attributed to gradual westernizing of life styles and to changes in socio-demographic behavior factors. In particular, the increasing trend in ovarian cancer mortality in Korea may be attributed to a real rise in mortality as well as, in part, a decline in misclassification bias related to an increase in the proportion of deaths confirmed by physician diagnosis. PMID:21278886

  5. Development and evaluation of a food frequency questionnaire for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hye; Choi, Ha Ney; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Wha Young; Chung, Hye Won

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea and to evaluate the validity of the FFQ. A total of 80 food items were selected in developing the FFQ according to consumption frequency, the contribution of energy and other nutrients, and the cooking methods based on one-day 24 hour recall (24HR) from 918 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2006 and November 2007. The FFQ was validated by comparison with 24HR of 425 Vietnamese female immigrants between November 2008 and August 2009. The absolute nutrient intake calculated from the FFQ was higher than that estimated by 24HR for most nutrients. The correlation coefficients between 24HR and FFQ ranged from 0.10 (vitamin C) - 0.36 (energy) for crude intake, 0.05 (vitamin E) - 0.32 (calcium) for per 1000 kcal, and 0.08 (zinc) - 0.34 (calcium) for energy-adjusted, respectively. More than 70% of subjects were classified into the same or adjacent agreement groups for nutrients other than fiber, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E, while less than 10% of subjects were classified into complete disagreement groups. We conclude that the FFQ appears to be an acceptable tool for estimating nutrient intake and dietary patterns of Vietnamese female immigrants in Korea. Future studies to validate the FFQ using various biomarkers or other dietary assessment methods are needed. PMID:21779531

  6. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery. PMID:25469070

  7. Spatial epidemiology of dry eye disease: findings from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DED rate maps from diverse regions may allow us to understand world-wide spreading pattern of the disease. Only few studies compared the prevalence of DED between geographical regions in non-spatial context. Therefore, we examined the spatial epidemiological pattern of DED prevalence in South Korea using a nationally representative sample. Methods We analyzed 16,431 Korean adults aged 30 years or older of the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. DED was defined as previously diagnosed by an ophthalmologist as well as symptoms experienced. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the spatial pattern in the prevalence of DED, and effects of environmental factors. Results Among seven metropolitan cities and nine provinces, three metropolitan cities located in the southeast of Korea revealed the highest prevalence of DED. After adjusting for sex, age and survey year, people living in urban areas had higher risk of having DED. Adjusted odds ratio for having previously diagnosed DED was 1.677 (95% CI 1.299-2.166) for metropolitan cities and 1.580 (95% CI 1.215-2.055) for other cities compared to rural areas. Corresponding odds ratio for presenting DED symptoms was 1.388 (95% CI 1.090-1.766) for metropolitan cities and 1.271 (95% CI 0.999-1.617) for other cities. Lower humidity and longer sunshine duration were significantly associated with DED. Among air pollutants, SO2 was associated with DED, while NO2, O3, CO, and PM10 were not. Conclusion Our findings suggest that prevalence of DED can be affected by the degree of urbanization and environmental factors such as humidity and sunshine duration. PMID:25128034

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of imported shigellosis in Korea, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Youn, Seung-Ki; Lee, Sangwon; Choi, Yeon Hwa

    2013-06-01

    Shigellosis is a global disease as food poisoning by infection of Shigella spp (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei). In Korea, approximately 500 cases of shigellosis have reported every year since 2004, and imported shigellosis is increasing gradually from 2006 in particular. According to increase of numbers of overseas travelers, the numbers of patients diseased with imported shigellosis is also increasing. We need continuous surveillance studies network (SSN) for control of imported shigellosis. We studied epidemiological characteristic of imported shigellosis by using database of Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) from 2010 to 2011. The imported shigellosis is analyzed on correlation with variable factors such as sex, age, symptom, visited country as well as Shigella spp in the database. Total 399 patients diseased with shigellosis have been reported between 2010 and 2011, The 212 patients (53.1%) among them were disease with imported shigellosis and the 205 patients (96.7%) were diagnosed as definite shigellosis. Shigella sonnei (65.6%) and Shigella flexneri (20.3%) were isolated in order. Clinical symptoms of the shigellosis were diarrhea (96.5%), abdominal pain (54.7%), fever (52.8%), chill (31.6%), and weakness (21.7% etc) in order. Duration of diarrhea was 1 to 5 days, the number of diarrhea was mostly more than 10 times, and type of stool was almost yellow stool. Almost shigellosis was occurred in the travelers visited to Asia (98.1%). Particularly, the occurrence rate of shigellosis was highest in traveler visited to Southeast Asia which is India (21.7%), Cambodia (19.8%), Philippines (17.9%), and Vietnam (9.0%) in order. According to increase of traveler to Southeast Asia, imported Shigellosis also increased. We need to strengthen the public health and hygiene, which is infection prevention rules, eating properly-cook food, washing hands, drinking boiled water, for traveler to Asia. The quarantine and surveillance

  9. Epidemiologic survey of head and neck cancers in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Moon; Kim, Young Mo; Shim, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Hyuck Soon; Choi, Jong Ouck; Rho, Young Soo; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Geon; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Sang-Yun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Baek, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Im, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, Sang-Hak; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Head and neck cancers have never been systematically studied for clinical purposes yet in Korea. This epidemiological survey on head and neck cancer patients was undertaken from January to December 2001 in 79 otorhinolaryngology resident-training hospitals nationwide. The number of head and neck cancer patients was 1,063 cases in the year. The largest proportion of cases arose in the larynx, as many as 488 cases, which accounted for 45.9%. It was followed by, in order of frequency, oral cavity (16.5%), oropharynx (10.0%), and hypopharynx (9.5%). The male:female ratio was 5:1, and the mean age was 60.3 yr. Surgery was the predominant treatment modality in head and neck cancers: 204 (21.5%) cases were treated with only surgery, 198 (20.8%) cases were treated with surgery and radiotherapy, 207 cases (21.8%) were treated with combined therapy of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Larynx and hypopharynx cancers had a stronger relationship with smoking and alcohol drinking than other primary site cancers. Of them, 21 cases were found to be metastasized at the time of diagnosis into the lung, gastrointestinal tract, bone, or brain. Coexisting second primary malignancies were found in 23 cases. At the time of diagnosis, a total of 354 cases had cervical lymph node metastasis accounting for 42.0%. PMID:12589092

  10. Genetic Diversity and Reassortment of Hantaan Virus Tripartite RNA Genomes in Nature, the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Won-keun; No, Jin Sun; Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Kho, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Daesang; Song, Dong Hyun; Gu, Se Hun; Jeong, Seong Tae; Park, Man-Seong; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Song, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Hantaan virus (HTNV), a negative sense tripartite RNA virus of the Family Bunyaviridae, is the most prevalent hantavirus in the Republic of Korea (ROK). It is the causative agent of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in humans and maintained in the striped field mouse, Apodemus agrarius, the primary zoonotic host. Clinical HFRS cases have been reported commonly in HFRS-endemic areas of Gyeonggi province. Recently, the death of a member of the ROK military from Gangwon province due to HFRS prompted an investigation of the epidemiology and distribution of hantaviruses in Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces that border the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea. Methodology and Principal Findings To elucidate the geographic distribution and molecular diversity of HTNV, whole genome sequences of HTNV Large (L), Medium (M), and Small (S) segments were acquired from lung tissues of A. agrarius captured from 2003–2014. Consistent with the clinical incidence of HFRS established by the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC), the prevalence of HTNV in naturally infected mice in Gangwon province was lower than for Gyeonggi province. Whole genomic sequences of 34 HTNV strains were identified and a phylogenetic analysis showed geographic diversity of the virus in the limited areas. Reassortment analysis first suggested an occurrence of genetic exchange of HTNV genomes in nature, ROK. Conclusion/Significance This study is the first report to demonstrate the molecular prevalence of HTNV in Gangwon province. Whole genome sequencing of HTNV showed well-supported geographic lineages and the molecular diversity in the northern region of ROK due to a natural reassortment of HTNV genomes. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of hantaviruses. Also, the full-length of HTNV tripartite genomes will provide a database for phylogeographic analysis of spatial and temporal

  11. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%–56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%. PMID:27064578

  12. Overview of the Epidemiology of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This review assessed the epidemiology of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea. Comprehensive understanding of this epidemiology is crucial because the senior population and the social burden are increasing because of voiding dysfunctions is growing. We searched the medical records using several terms related to voiding dysfunction: benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, and nocturia. We then estimated the prevalence of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea; our data were comparable with those from other countries, with slight differences. The ranges of incidences varied widely between studies, mostly because investigators defined disorders differently. Voiding dysfunction greatly affects healthcare costs and individual quality of life; therefore, more proper and valuable epidemiologic data are needed. In addition, efforts to unify the definitions of various voiding dysfunctions and progress in investigational methodologies using multimedia are warranted. PMID:27377940

  13. Overview of the Epidemiology of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun

    2016-06-01

    This review assessed the epidemiology of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea. Comprehensive understanding of this epidemiology is crucial because the senior population and the social burden are increasing because of voiding dysfunctions is growing. We searched the medical records using several terms related to voiding dysfunction: benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder, and nocturia. We then estimated the prevalence of voiding dysfunctions in South Korea; our data were comparable with those from other countries, with slight differences. The ranges of incidences varied widely between studies, mostly because investigators defined disorders differently. Voiding dysfunction greatly affects healthcare costs and individual quality of life; therefore, more proper and valuable epidemiologic data are needed. In addition, efforts to unify the definitions of various voiding dysfunctions and progress in investigational methodologies using multimedia are warranted. PMID:27377940

  14. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhwan; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention. PMID:26493654

  15. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain FORC_008, a foodborne pathogen from a flounder fish in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suyeon; Chung, Han Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Jong Gyu; Kim, Se Keun; Ku, Hye-Jin; Kim, You-Tae; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Choi, Sang Ho

    2016-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative, motile, nonspore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne illness associated with the consumption of contaminated seafoods. Although many cases of foodborne outbreaks caused by V. parahaemolyticus have been reported, the genomes of only five strains have been completely sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics. In order to characterize overall virulence factors and pathogenesis of V. parahaemolyticus associated with foodborne outbreak in South Korea, a new strain FORC_008 was isolated from flounder fish and its genome was completely sequenced. The genomic analysis revealed that the genome of FORC_008 consists of two circular DNA chromosomes of 3266 132 bp (chromosome I) and 1772 036 bp (chromosome II) with a GC content of 45.36% and 45.53%, respectively. The entire genome contains 4494 predicted open reading frames, 129 tRNAs and 31 rRNA genes. While the strain FORC_008 does not have genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), its genome encodes many other virulence factors including hemolysins, pathogenesis-associated secretion systems and iron acquisition systems, suggesting that it may be a potential pathogen. This report provides an extended understanding on V. parahaemolyticus in genomic level and would be helpful for rapid detection, epidemiological investigation and prevention of foodborne outbreak in South Korea. PMID:27170457

  17. Genomic epidemiology of artemisinin resistant malaria.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The current epidemic of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia is the result of a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non-synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino-acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of variations that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions. PMID:26943619

  18. Genomic epidemiology of artemisinin resistant malaria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The current epidemic of artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia is the result of a soft selective sweep involving at least 20 independent kelch13 mutations. In a large global survey, we find that kelch13 mutations which cause resistance in Southeast Asia are present at low frequency in Africa. We show that African kelch13 mutations have originated locally, and that kelch13 shows a normal variation pattern relative to other genes in Africa, whereas in Southeast Asia there is a great excess of non-synonymous mutations, many of which cause radical amino-acid changes. Thus, kelch13 is not currently undergoing strong selection in Africa, despite a deep reservoir of variations that could potentially allow resistance to emerge rapidly. The practical implications are that public health surveillance for artemisinin resistance should not rely on kelch13 data alone, and interventions to prevent resistance must account for local evolutionary conditions, shown by genomic epidemiology to differ greatly between geographical regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08714.001 PMID:26943619

  19. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea: An Electronic Population Health Insurance System Based Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population.We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013.Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments.The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed. PMID:27057902

  20. Comparison of the Epidemiological Aspects of Imported Dengue Cases between Korea and Japan, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Young Eui; Lee, Won-Chang; Cho, Jung Eun; Han, Myung-Guk; Lee, Won-Ja

    2015-01-01

    To compare the epidemiological characteristics of dengue cases imported by travelers or immigration in both Korea and Japan, we determined dengue incidence and related risk factors. During 2006–2010, 367 and 589 imported dengue cases were reported in Korea and Japan, respectively. In Korea, the presumptive origins for the dengue infections were Southeast Asia (82.6%), Southern Asia (13.9%), Eastern Asia (1.1%), South America (0.3%), Central America (0.3%), Africa (0.3%), and other countries (1.6%). In Japan, the origins of the infections were Southeast Asia (69.8%), Southern Asia (20.0%), Eastern Asia (1.7%), South America (2.5%), Central America (1.2%), Africa (1.2%), Oceania (2.4%), and other countries (1.2%). In both countries, more dengue cases were reported for men than for women (p < 0.01), and those aged 20–30 years accounted for > 60% of the total cases. The frequency of imported cases in summer and autumn (∼70% of total cases) was similar in both countries. This study demonstrates that there is a similar pattern of imported dengue cases in Korea and Japan. Therefore, there is a risk of an autochthonous dengue outbreak in Korea, as indicated by the recent outbreak in Japan in 2014. PMID:26981346

  1. A global network for investigating the genomic epidemiology of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies of genomic variation could assist efforts to eliminate malaria. But there are scientific, ethical and practical challenges to carrying out such studies in developing countries, where the burden of disease is greatest. The Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network (MalariaGEN) is now working to overcome these obstacles, using a consortial approach that brings together researchers from 21 countries. PMID:19079050

  2. A ROAD MAP FOR EFFICIENT AND RELIABLE HUMAN GENOME EPIDEMIOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Network of investigators have begun sharing best practices, tools, and methods for analysis of associations between genetic variation and common diseases. A Network of Investigator Networks has been set up to drive the process, sponsored by the Human Genome Epidemiology Network. A workshop is planne...

  3. Comparative study on the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections between Korea and Japan, 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Chang; Kwon, Young Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: To compare the epidemiological aspects of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) between Korea and Japan by analyzing the current state of EHEC infection outbreaks and related risk factors. Methods: We investigated the epidemiological aspects of EHEC infection cases between Korea and Japan from 2006 to 2010. The following factors were analyzed: national prevalence rate (PR), regional prevalence rate, epidemic aspects (i.e., Cases related to gender), male to female morbidity ratio, age, and seasonal distribution. Results: In total, there were 254 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 0.11 per 100,000 populations in Korea from 2006 to 2010. During the same period in Japan, there were 20,883 cases of EHEC with an average PR of 3.26 per 100,000 populations. The PR in Japan was significantly higher than that in Korea (p < 0.01). In both countries, more females than males had EHEC infections, with the highest incidence of infections (> 50%) observed for individuals younger than 9 years. EHEC is an emerging zoonosis and may be caused by consumption of raw or undercooked meat products from ruminants. Conclusions: This study provides a quantitative analysis of the epidemiological aspects and risk factors of EHEC infections in Korea and Japan and will provide insight on effective future strategies to reduce these infections. PMID:26886212

  4. Epidemiologic Impact of Rapid Industrialization on Head Injury Based on Traffic Accident Statistics in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, You Nam; Park, Young Seok; Min, Kyung Soo; Lee, Mou Seop; Kim, Young Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence trend of head injury and the mortality based on traffic accident statistics and to investigate the impacts of rapid industrialization and economic growth on epidemiology of head injury in Korea over the period 1970–2012 including both pre-industrialized and post-industrialized stages. Methods We collected data of head injury estimated from traffic accident statistics and seven hospital based reports to see incidence trends between 1970 and 2012. We also investigated the population structure and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of Korea over the same period. The age specific data were investigated from 1992 to 2012. Results The incidence of head injury gradually rose in the 1970s and the 1980s but stabilized until the 1990s with transient rise and then started to decline slowly in the 2000s. The mortality grew until 1991 but gradually declined ever since. However, the old age groups showed rather slight increase in both rates. The degree of decrease in the mortality has been more rapid than the incidence on head injury. Conclusion In Korea during the low income stage, rapid industrialization cause considerable increase in the mortality and the incidence of head injury. During the high income stage, the incidence of head injury gradually declined and the mortality dropped more rapidly than the incidence due to preventive measures and satisfactory medical care. Nevertheless, the old age groups revealed rather slight increase in both rates owing to the large population structure and the declining birth rate. PMID:26962421

  5. Epidemiology and Regional Distribution of Pediatric Unintentional Emergency Injury in Korea from 2010 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Do Kyun; Jang, Hye Young; Kwak, Young Ho

    2015-11-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children and adolescents worldwide. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the epidemiologic characteristics of the pediatric unintentional injuries presenting to the Korean emergency department (ED). We included unintentional injuries in patients aged < 20 yr. Data collected from January 2010 to December 2011 was extracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) of Korea. The NEDIS data included information on patient's age and gender, geographic location of the ED visits, mechanism of injuries; and clinical outcomes. Most (94.1%) injuries were unintentional while 5.9% were intentional. The rate of ED visit for pediatric unintentional injury was 6,097 per 100,000 and critical injury was 59.8 per 100,000 (< 20 yr habitants). The mortality rate was 5.4 per 100,000. The mortality rate of pediatric unintentional injuries was 0.1% including the prehospital death and ED death. Unintentional pediatric injuries occurred most commonly in those age 0-4 boys and girls and were predominantly caused by collisions. Male motorcyclists aged 15-19 yr formed a critical injury high-risk group. The rates of critical injury and mortality were highest in Jeju, Gangwon, Gwangju, and Jeonbuk than those in other regions. High-risk groups by age, gender, mechanism and region should be targeted to prevent pediatric injuries in Korea. PMID:26539007

  6. The Epidemiology and National Trends of Bearing Surface Usage in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Kim, Yunjung; Yoo, Seungmi; Lee, Sahnghoon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background We analyzed the data for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the Korean nationwide database to assess (1) the epidemiology and national trends of bearing surface usage in THAs and (2) the prevalence of each type of bearing surface according to age, gender, hospital type, primary payer, and hospital procedure volume. Methods A total of 30,881 THAs were analyzed using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database for 2007 through 2011. Bearing surfaces were sub-grouped according to device code for national health insurance claims and consisted of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC), metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), and metal-on-metal (MoM). The prevalence of each type of bearing surface was calculated and stratified by age, gender, hospital type, primary payer, and procedure volume of each hospital. Results CoC was the most frequently used bearing surface (76.7%), followed by MoP (11.9%), CoP (7.3%), and MoM (4.1%). The proportion of THAs using a CoC bearing surface increased steadily from 71.6% in 2007 to 81.4% in 2011, whereas the proportions using CoP, MoP, and MoM bearing surfaces decreased. The order of prevalence was identical to that in the general population regardless of age, gender, hospital type, primary payer, and hospital procedure volume. Conclusions The trends and epidemiology of bearing surface usage in THAs in Korea are different from those in other countries, and the CoC bearing surface is the most prevalent articulation. In future, the results of a large-scale study using nationwide data of THAs involving a CoC bearing surface will be reported in Korea. PMID:26929796

  7. Epidemiologic Parameters of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak in Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jin-Hong; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic parameters are important in planning infection control policies during the outbreak of emerging infections. Korea experienced an outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in 2015, which was characterized by superspreading events in healthcare settings. We aimed to estimate the epidemiologic parameters over time during the outbreak to assess the effectiveness of countermeasures. Materials and Methods Publicly available data pertaining to the MERS outbreak in Korea were collected. We estimated the incubation periods of 162 cases whose sources of exposure were identified and the temporal trend was evaluated. Factors influencing incubation duration were analyzed. The generational reproduction number (Rg) and case reproduction number (Rc) were estimated over time. Results The estimated median incubation period was 7.4 days (95% CI, 6.9-8.0). Median incubation periods tended to be longer over time as the disease generation progressed: 6.16 days (95% CI, 5.38-6.97), 7.68 days (95% CI, 7.04-8.44), and 7.95 days (95% CI, 6.25-9.88) in the first, second, and third generations, respectively. The number of days of illness in the source cases at the time of exposure inversely correlated with the incubation periods in the receiving cases (HR 0.91 [95% CI, 0.84-0.99] per one illness day increase; P=0.026). This relationship was consistent (HR 0.83 [95% CI, 0.74-0.93] per one illness day increase) in the multivariable analysis incorporating clinical characteristics, the order of generation, and a link to superspreaders. Because the third generation cases were exposed to their source cases in the early stage (median one day) compared to the second generation cases (median 6 days), the temporal trend of incubation periods appears to be influenced by early isolation of symptomatic cases and reduction of potential exposure to source cases in the later stage. Rg declined rapidly from 28 to 0.23 in two generations. Rc dropped

  8. Epidemiology of brucellosis among cattle in Korea from 2001 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hachung; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Won-Chang; Her, Moon; Jeong, Wooseog; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Do-Soon

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the outbreak patterns of bovine brucellosis in Korea from 2000 to 2011 were analyzed to understand the epidemiological evolution of this disease in the country. A total of 85,521 brucella reactor animals were identified during 14,215 outbreaks over the 12-year study period. The number of bovine brucellosis cases increased after 2003 and peaked in 2006 before decreasing thereafter. The majority of the bovine brucellosis cases were Korean native cattle, Han Woo. The numbers of human brucellosis cases and cattle outbreaks increased and decreased in the same pattern. The correlation coefficient for human and bovine cases per year was 0.96 (95% confidence interval = 0.86 ˜ 0.99; p < 10⁻³). The epidemiological characteristics of bovine brucellosis appeared to be affected by the intensity of eradication programs that mainly involved a test- and-slaughter policy. Findings from the present study were based on freely available statistics from web pages maintained by government agencies. This unlimited access to information demonstrates the usefulness of government statistics for continually monitoring the health of animal populations. PMID:25234321

  9. A rapid whole genome sequencing and analysis system supporting genomic epidemiology (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    FitzGerald, Michael [Broad Institute

    2013-02-12

    Michael FitzGerald on "A rapid whole genome sequencing and analysis system supporting genomic epidemiology" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  10. A rapid whole genome sequencing and analysis system supporting genomic epidemiology (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    FitzGerald, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Michael FitzGerald on "A rapid whole genome sequencing and analysis system supporting genomic epidemiology" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Isolated from an Olive Flounder in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a seriously problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in South Korea. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of VHSV which was isolated from spleen and kidney tissues of dead fish at an aquaculture farm in 2005. This genome sequence will be useful for virus diagnostics and in comparative analyses with other virus genotypes. PMID:24009117

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Ornithogalum Mosaic Virus Infecting Gladiolus spp. in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Hongsup; Yi, Seung-In

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete genome sequence of Ornithogalum mosaic virus (OrMV) isolated from Taean, South Korea, in 2011, which was obtained by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. The sequence information provided here may serve as a potential reference for other OrMV isolates. PMID:27516509

  13. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Heum; Roh, Hanseong; Kim, Juhyeok; Cho, Sukhyeong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Jinwon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Chong, Hyonyong; Yang, Kap-Seok

    2015-03-20

    Here we report the full genome sequence of Klesiella oxytoca M1, isolated from Manripo area of South Korea. The strain K. oxytoca M1 is able to produce either 2,3-butanediol or acetoin selectively by controlling the pH and temperature. PMID:25660421

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Rehmannia Mosaic Virus Infecting Rehmannia glutinosa in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seungmo; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a South Korean isolate of Rehmannia mosaic virus (ReMV) infecting Rehmannia glutinosa was determined through next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a natural infection of R. glutinosa by ReMV in South Korea. PMID:26823577

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Ornithogalum Mosaic Virus Infecting Gladiolus spp. in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Yun; Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Hongsup; Yi, Seung-In; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete genome sequence of Ornithogalum mosaic virus (OrMV) isolated from Taean, South Korea, in 2011, which was obtained by next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. The sequence information provided here may serve as a potential reference for other OrMV isolates. PMID:27516509

  16. A Comparative Study of the Epidemiology of Human Leptospirosis in Korea and Japan between 2006 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong-Jin; Miki, Shinichiro; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Lee, Won-Chang

    2016-05-20

    We undertook a comparative analysis of the epidemiology of reported human leptospirosis (HL) cases in Korea and Japan. Between 2006 and 2012, the cumulative incidence of HL in Korea was higher than that in Japan (1.26 vs. 0.14 per 100,000 population, respectively), and the total reported cases were 632 and 196, respectively. Significantly more men were infected than women in both Korea (63.0% men, P < 0.01) and Japan (87.8% men, P < 0.01). In both countries, the incidence was highest among those aged 40 years and older (60%), and peaked in autumn (78.5% cases in Korea, and 46.9% cases in Japan). However, Japan exhibited a significantly higher proportion of male cases, a younger age distribution, and less prominent seasonality. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of HL between the capital city and rural areas in Korea, but not in Japan. The differences in agricultural and forestry practices, and the efficacy or wastewater treatment infrastructure might influence the incidence level in rural areas in both countries. The differences between the 2 countries might be because of their unique geographical characteristics and variations in their levels of industrialization. PMID:26255729

  17. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joon-Hee; Chon, Jae-Kyung; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000. PMID:27114908

  18. Whole genome sequence and genome annotation of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of anthracnose in pepper plants in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Joon-Hee; Chon, Jae-Kyung; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2016-06-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a destructive fungal pathogen which causes anthracnose in a wide range of crops. Here we report the whole genome sequence and annotation of C. acutatum strain KC05, isolated from an infected pepper in Kangwon, South Korea. Genomic DNA from the KC05 strain was used for the whole genome sequencing using a PacBio sequencer and the MiSeq system. The KC05 genome was determined to be 52,190,760 bp in size with a G + C content of 51.73% in 27 scaffolds and to contain 13,559 genes with an average length of 1516 bp. Gene prediction and annotation were performed by incorporating RNA-Seq data. The genome sequence of the KC05 was deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession number LUXP00000000. PMID:27114908

  19. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Sapovirus Detected in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Lim; Suh, Chang-Il; Park, Seung-Won; Jin, Ji-Young; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Sapovirus (SaV), a virus residing in the intestines, is one of the important causes of gastroenteritis in human beings. Human SaV genomes are classified into various genogroups and genotypes. Whole-genome analysis and phylogenetic analysis of ROK62, the SaV isolated in South Korea, were carried out. The ROK62 genome of 7429 nucleotides contains 3 open-reading frames (ORF). The genotype of ROK62 is SaV GI-1, and 94% of its nucleotide sequence is identical with other SaVs, namely Manchester and Mc114. Recently, SaV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighboring South Korea; however, very few academic studies have been done nationally. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of SaV in South Korea, this research will help provide reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemic spread, and development of diagnosis methods for SaV. PMID:26161646

  20. Incidence, epidemiology and evolution of reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop; Erdenechemeg, L.; Soon Song, Kyung; Hun Shin, Kwang

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify the decrease of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, determine the size of the recently reported new beta-lactamase plasmid and explain the high prevalence of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). METHODS: Gonococci were isolated from prostitutes in Korea. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by NCCLS disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Plasmid was isolated by an alkaline lysis method. Patterns of Nhel-digested genomic DNA were compared after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS: The minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin for 50% of the isolates rose from 0.015 mg/L in 1993 to 0.12 mg/L in 1996. The proportion of PPNG remained at 70% or over during the 5-year period. The size of a novel beta-lactamase plasmid, first reported in 1994, was determined to be approximately 3.2 MDa, and 48% of the PPNG isolates contained it. Twelve of 50 isolates had the same PFGE pattern and nine others another pattern. CONCLUSION: The rapid decrease of fluoroquinolone-susceptible gonococci suggests that in the near future the drug may become less useful for gonorrhea treatment. The new 3.2-MDa plasmid may have been introduced as a result of the recent increase in overseas travel. The PFGE pattern suggests that high prevalence of PPNG may be due to dissemination of a few resistant clones among the high-risk groups. PMID:11864261

  1. Epidemiologic Aspects of Medical Retirement from the Republic of Korea Army due to Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to report the epidemiologic characteristics of medical retirement from the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army due to visual impairment and to suggest a practical screening system for the draft. The medical records of 423 eyes of 301 patients who retired from the ROK Army due to visual impairment were reviewed retrospectively between January 2010 and December 2014. The patients were grouped by the presence of trauma, and each group was subdivided by military rank. We analyzed demographic and ophthalmic data, including the etiology of ophthalmologic disease. The etiology was classified into 5 anatomical categories (ocular surface, lens, retina, optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway, and extraocular muscle and orbit), which were then subdivided into the type of disease. The mean age was 24.5 years, and non-traumatic mechanisms accounted for 81.1% (343/423 eyes) of medical retirements. Visual acuity was better in patients without trauma. In enlisted soldiers, disease in the optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway was the most common anatomical category (40.5%), and primary open angle glaucoma (30.8%), retinal dystrophy (18.3%), congenital cataract (14.5%), and retinal detachment (9.7%) were the four most common diseases. Most medical retirements due to visual impairment resulted from non-traumatic mechanisms, even though patients were young. The fundus examination and visual field test would be more useful tools than a conventional vision test for large-scale draft screening for the most common two disease types: primary open angle glaucoma and retinal dystrophy. PMID:27051249

  2. Epidemiologic Aspects of Medical Retirement from the Republic of Korea Army due to Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-04-01

    This study was done to report the epidemiologic characteristics of medical retirement from the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army due to visual impairment and to suggest a practical screening system for the draft. The medical records of 423 eyes of 301 patients who retired from the ROK Army due to visual impairment were reviewed retrospectively between January 2010 and December 2014. The patients were grouped by the presence of trauma, and each group was subdivided by military rank. We analyzed demographic and ophthalmic data, including the etiology of ophthalmologic disease. The etiology was classified into 5 anatomical categories (ocular surface, lens, retina, optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway, and extraocular muscle and orbit), which were then subdivided into the type of disease. The mean age was 24.5 years, and non-traumatic mechanisms accounted for 81.1% (343/423 eyes) of medical retirements. Visual acuity was better in patients without trauma. In enlisted soldiers, disease in the optic nerve and extraocular visual pathway was the most common anatomical category (40.5%), and primary open angle glaucoma (30.8%), retinal dystrophy (18.3%), congenital cataract (14.5%), and retinal detachment (9.7%) were the four most common diseases. Most medical retirements due to visual impairment resulted from non-traumatic mechanisms, even though patients were young. The fundus examination and visual field test would be more useful tools than a conventional vision test for large-scale draft screening for the most common two disease types: primary open angle glaucoma and retinal dystrophy. PMID:27051249

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of a chipmunk species, Tamias sibiricus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (KF668525) of Tamias sibiricus in South Korea. The mitogenome of the Korean chipmunk T. sibiricus was 16,558 bp long with base composition of 33.8% A, 31.1% T, 22.9% C and 12.2% G. Total nucleotide similarity of T. sibiricus and Marmota himalayana (JX069958) genomes was 80.4% ranging from 66.9% (D-loop region) to 97.3% (tRNA(Leu)((CUN))). The present study will contribute to understanding taxonomic status and genetic divergence of Northeast Asian T. sibiricus populations. PMID:24228685

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Jiangella alkaliphila KCTC 19222T, Isolated from Cave Soil in Jeju, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-Yu; Liu, Lan; Park, Dong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Jin; Xiao, Min; Chen, Jing; Li, Li; Zhong, Jing-Mei; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Jiangella alkaliphila KCTC 19222(T), isolated from cave soil in Jeju, Republic of Korea. This genome sequence, together with the previously sequenced J. gansuensis strain DSM 44835(T), identified from a desert environmental source, will give us a better understanding of the school of "evolutionary taxonomy." PMID:26139721

  5. The Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Epidemiology and Genomics: Summary of the 2013 AJE-sponsored Society of Epidemiologic Research Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Bracken, Michael B.; Ogino, Shuji; Prentice, Ross L.; Tracy, Russell P.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2013, the American Journal of Epidemiology sponsored a symposium at the Society for Epidemiologic Research's 46th Annual Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, entitled, “What Is the Role of Epidemiology in the Era of Molecular Biology and Genomics?” The future of epidemiology depends on innovation in generating interesting and important testable hypotheses that are relevant to population health. These new strategies will depend on new technology, both in measurement of agents and environment and in the fields of pathophysiology and outcomes, such as cellular epidemiology and molecular pathology. The populations to be studied, sample sizes, and study designs should be selected based on the hypotheses to be tested and include case-control, cohort, and clinical trials. Developing large mega cohorts without attention to specific hypotheses is inefficient, will fail to address many associations with high-quality data, and may well produce spurious results. PMID:24105654

  6. Epidemiology of Trauma Patients and Analysis of 268 Mortality Cases: Trends of a Single Center in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Chun Sung; Oh, Joong Hwan; Bae, Keum Seok; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Eunbi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is an increasing incidence of mortality among trauma patients; therefore, it is important to analyze the trauma epidemiology in order to prevent trauma death. The authors reviewed the trauma epidemiology retrospectively at a regional emergency center of Korea and evaluated the main factors that led to trauma-related deaths. Materials and Methods A total of 17007 trauma patients were registered to the trauma registry of the regional emergency center at Wonju Severance Christian Hospital in Korea from January 2010 to December 2012. Results The mean age of patients was 35.2 years old. The most frequent trauma mechanism was blunt injury (90.8%), as well as slip-and-fall down injury, motor vehicle accidents, and others. Aside from 142 early trauma deaths, a total of 4673 patients were admitted for further treatment. The most common major trauma sites of admitted patients were on the extremities (38.4%), followed by craniocerebral, abdominopelvis, and thorax. With deaths of 126 patients during in-hospital treatment, the overall mortality (142 early and 126 late deaths) was 5.6% for admitted patients. Ages ≥55, injury severity score ≥16, major craniocerebral injury, cardiopulmonary resuscitation at arrival, probability of survival <25% calculated from the trauma and injury severity score were independent predictors of trauma mortality in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The epidemiology of the trauma patients studied was found to be mainly blunt trauma. This finding is similar to previous papers in terms of demographics and mechanism. Trauma patients who have risk factors of mortality require careful management in order to prevent trauma-related deaths. PMID:25510768

  7. Genomic Signatures of Emerging Viruses: A New Era of Systems Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Angela L; Katze, Michael G

    2016-05-11

    Compared to classical epidemiologic methods, genomics can be used to precisely monitor virus evolution and transmission in real time across large, diverse populations. Integration of pathogen genomics with data about host genetics and global transcriptional responses to infection allows for comprehensive studies of population-level responses to infection and provides novel methods for predicting clinical outcomes. As genomic technologies become more accessible, these methods will redefine how emerging viruses are studied and outbreaks are contained. Here we review the existing and emerging genomic technologies that are enabling systems epidemiology and systems virology and making it possible to respond rapidly to emerging viruses such as Zika. PMID:27173929

  8. MERS epidemiological investigation to detect potential mode of transmission in the 178th MERS confirmed case in Pyeongtaek, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyujin; Ki, Moran; Lee, Eun Gyu; Lee, Soon Young; Yoo, Byoungin; Choi, Jong Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) infection in Korea (outbreak: May 11-July 4, 2015) occurred in hospital settings, with uncertain transmission modes in some cases. We performed an in-depth investigation epidemiological survey on the 178th case to determine the precise mode of transmission. A 29- year-old man living in Pyeongtaek presented on June 16 with a febrile sensation, chills, and myalgia. Upon confirmatory diagnosis on June 23, he was treated in an isolation room and discharged on July 2 after cure. An epidemiological investigation of all possible infection routes indicated two likely modes of transmission: exposure to MERS in Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital during a visit to his hospitalized father (May 18-29), and infection through frequent contact with his father between the latter’s referral to Pyeongtaek Good Samaritan Bagae Hospital for treatment without confirmatory diagnosis until his death (May 29-June 6). Although lack of clear proof or evidence to the contrary does not allow a definitive conclusion, all other possibilities could be excluded by epidemiological inferences. While it is impossible to trace back the modes of transmission of all cases in a large-scale outbreak, case-by-case tracking and isolation of infected individuals and those in close contact with them is important in preventing the spread. Efforts should be made to establish a methodology for rapid tracking of all possible contacts and elimination-based identification of the precise modes of transmission. PMID:26493651

  9. The complete genomic sequence of a tentative new polerovirus identified in barley in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fumei; Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Kim, Sang-Min; Kwak, Do Yeon; Kim, Sun Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new barley polerovirus, tentatively named barley virus G (BVG), which was isolated in Gimje, South Korea, has been determined using an RNA sequencing technique combined with polymerase chain reaction methods. The viral genomic RNA of BVG is 5,620 nucleotides long and contains six typical open reading frames commonly observed in other poleroviruses. Sequence comparisons revealed that BVG is most closely related to maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV, with the highest amino acid identities being less than 90 % for all of the corresponding proteins. These results suggested that BVG is a member of a new species in the genus Polerovirus. PMID:27146139

  10. Genomic variation Salmonella enterica core genes for epidemiological typing

    SciTech Connect

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, Fancois-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium DT104. Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole genome sequence (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rate of mutation and divergence time of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial-susceptible strains in ~1946 (95% credible interval 1931 - 1959) and later became multidrug-resistant (MDR) DT104 in ~1974 (95% CI 1966 1981) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb SGI1 MDR region into already SGI1-containing susceptible strains. This was followed by multiple transmission events initially from Central Europe and later between European countries. An independent transmission occurred to the United States and another to Japan and from here to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1986 (95% CI 1975 1990). Locally in Denmark, WGS was capable of confirming local epidemiology for transmission between animal herds. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the accomplishment of an eradication program across pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refuse several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and would suggest WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and making strategies for prevention

  11. Genomic variation Salmonella enterica core genes for epidemiological typing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, Fancois-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; et al

    2012-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium DT104. Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole genome sequence (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rate of mutation and divergence time of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial-susceptible strains in ~1946 (95% credible interval 1931 - 1959) and later became multidrug-resistant (MDR)more » DT104 in ~1974 (95% CI 1966 1981) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb SGI1 MDR region into already SGI1-containing susceptible strains. This was followed by multiple transmission events initially from Central Europe and later between European countries. An independent transmission occurred to the United States and another to Japan and from here to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1986 (95% CI 1975 1990). Locally in Denmark, WGS was capable of confirming local epidemiology for transmission between animal herds. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the accomplishment of an eradication program across pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refuse several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and would suggest WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and making strategies for prevention« less

  12. Whole genome multilocus sequence typing as an epidemiologic tool for Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Kingry, Luke C; Rowe, Lori A; Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Beard, Charles B; Schriefer, Martin E; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-04-01

    Human plague is a severe and often fatal zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis. For public health investigations of human cases, nonintensive whole genome molecular typing tools, capable of defining epidemiologic relationships, are advantageous. Whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) is a recently developed methodology that simplifies genomic analyses by transforming millions of base pairs of sequence into character data for each gene. We sequenced 13 US Y. pestis isolates with known epidemiologic relationships. Sequences were assembled de novo, and multilocus sequence typing alleles were assigned by comparison against 3979 open reading frames from the reference strain CO92. Allele-based cluster analysis accurately grouped the 13 isolates, as well as 9 publicly available Y. pestis isolates, by their epidemiologic relationships. Our findings indicate wgMLST is a simplified, sensitive, and scalable tool for epidemiologic analysis of Y. pestis strains. PMID:26778487

  13. Protocol of a Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS): a prospective, clinical and epidemiological study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Belong; Hwang, Yunji; Choi, June Young; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoonsung; Choi, Ho-Chun; An, Ah Reum; Park, Do Joon; Park, Sue K; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid cancer incidence in Korea is the highest in the world and has recently increased steeply. However, factors contributing to this sudden increase have not been fully elucidated, and few studies have explored the postoperative prognosis. The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) was initiated with three aims: (1) to identify factors predicting quality of life, recurrence, and incidence of other diseases after thyroid cancer treatments; (2) to investigate environmental exposure to radiation, toxicants and molecular factors in relation to tumour aggressiveness; and (3) to evaluate gene–environment interactions that increase thyroid cancer in comparison with healthy participants from a pool of nationwide population-based healthy examinees. Methods and analysis T-CALOS enrols patients with incident thyroid cancer from three general hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and National Medical Center, Korea. The study is an ongoing project expecting to investigate 5000 patients with thyroid cancer up until 2017. Healthy examinees with a normal thyroid confirmed by sonography have been enrolled at the Healthy Examination Center at Seoul National University Hospital. We are also performing individual matching using two nationwide databases that are open to the public. Follow-up information is obtained at patients’ clinical visits and by linkage to the national database. For statistical analysis, we will use conditional logistic regression models and a Cox proportional hazard regression model. A number of stratifications and sensitivity analyses will be performed to confirm the results. Ethics and dissemination Based on a large sample size, a prospective study design, comprehensive data collection and biobank, T-CALOS has been independently peer-reviewed and approved by the three hospitals and two funding sources (National Research Foundation of Korea and Korean Foundation for Cancer Research

  14. Epidemiologic Study on Kawasaki Disease in Korea, 2007-2014: Based on Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service Claims.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sangmi; Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Kyu Yeun; Kim, Dong Soo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the actual epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease (KD) in Korea using the data from Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA) claims from 2007 to 2014. We investigated HIRA claims of patients who had KD (International Classification of Diseases-10, M30.3) as a major diagnosis and were given intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) from 2007 to 2014. A total of 39,082 patients were reported during the period. The male-to-female ratio was 1.42 and the median age was 28 months. The incidence rates were 168.3 per 100,000 population aged 0 to 4 years in 2007, 159.1 in 2008, 167.3 in 2009, 190.4 in 2010, 188.2 in 2011, 190.2 in 2012, 210.4 in 2013 and 217.2 in 2014. These rates were much higher than those in the previous studies in Korea. KD occurred more often in early summer (May, June and July) and winter (December and January). The annual incidence rate of KD had been increasing every year, reaching 217.2 per 100,000 population aged 0 to 4 years in 2014. It is the second highest incidence rate of KD in the world after Japan. PMID:27510389

  15. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, P<0.001; 2013, RR, 1.86, P<0.001). In summary, we report that hepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea. PMID:26770040

  16. Bacterial genomic epidemiology, from local outbreak characterization to species-history reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gaiarsa, Stefano; De Marco, Leone; Comandatore, Francesco; Marone, Piero; Bandi, Claudio; Sassera, Davide

    2015-10-01

    Bacteriology has embraced the next-generation sequencing revolution, swiftly moving from the time of single genome sequencing to the age of genomic epidemiology. Hundreds and now even thousands of genomes are being sequenced for single bacterial species, allowing unprecedented levels of resolution and insight in the evolution and epidemic diffusion of the main bacterial pathogens. Here, we present a review of some of the most recent and groundbreaking studies in this field. PMID:26878934

  17. Genomic fluidity and pathogenic bacteria: applications in diagnostics, epidemiology and intervention.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Niyaz; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hacker, Jörg; Hasnain, Seyed E

    2008-05-01

    The increasing availability of DNA-sequence information for multiple pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants of individual bacterial species has indicated that both DNA acquisition and genome reduction have important roles in genome evolution. Such genomic fluidity, which is found in human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has important consequences for the clinical management of the diseases that are caused by these pathogens and for the development of diagnostics and new molecular epidemiological methods. PMID:18392032

  18. A study testing the usefulness of a dish-based food-frequency questionnaire developed for epidemiological studies in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ok; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sang-Ah; Yoon, Young Mi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the usefulness of dish items selected in developing a dish-based FFQ (DFFQ) to be used for epidemiological studies in Korea. The dietary data of 6817 subjects from the 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for the analysis. The 24 h recall method was employed for the dietary survey. Initially, ninety-five dish items were selected in developing the DFFQ based on consumption frequency, contribution of selected nutrients and coverage of between-person variations. The usefulness of the selected ninety-five dish items was tested based on their degree of contribution in supplying nutrients in the cumulative percentage contribution (cPC), as well as on their degree of explanation for between-person variation in the cumulative regression coefficient (cMRC). According to the results, the ninety-five selected dish items accounted for an average of 92.3 % of seventeen nutrients consumed by the study subjects based on cPC estimation. The top twenty items among the ninety-five dish items covered 70 to 91 % of the between-person variation for the seventeen nutrients based on cMRC estimation. Thus, the results suggest that the ninety-five items would be useful in developing a FFQ for use in epidemiological studies of Koreans, within less than 10 % underestimation. PMID:18786277

  19. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  20. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Ju-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  1. Genome Sequence of Porphyrobacter dokdonensis DSW-74T, Isolated from Seawater off Dokdo in the East Sea (Sea of Korea)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Yeon; Hong, Juhye; Kwak, Min-Jung; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrobacter dokdonensis strain DSW-74, isolated from seawater off of Dokdo, Republic of Korea, is a member of the family Erythrobacteraceae. In this study, the genome sequence of DSW-74 was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled into 11 contigs. Its genome is approximately 3.0 Mb with a G+C content of 64.8%, in which 2,875 protein-coding sequences and 47 RNA genes were predicted. PMID:27587820

  2. Genome Sequence of Porphyrobacter dokdonensis DSW-74T, Isolated from Seawater off Dokdo in the East Sea (Sea of Korea).

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Yeon; Hong, Juhye; Kwak, Min-Jung; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Kim, Jihyun F

    2016-01-01

    Porphyrobacter dokdonensis strain DSW-74, isolated from seawater off of Dokdo, Republic of Korea, is a member of the family Erythrobacteraceae In this study, the genome sequence of DSW-74 was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled into 11 contigs. Its genome is approximately 3.0 Mb with a G+C content of 64.8%, in which 2,875 protein-coding sequences and 47 RNA genes were predicted. PMID:27587820

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Chinese Yam Necrotic Mosaic Virus from Dioscorea opposita in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joong-Hwan; Son, Chang-Gi; Kwon, Joong-Bae; Nam, Hyo-Hun; Kim, Yeongtae; Lee, Su-Heon; Zhao, Fumei; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (ChYNMV) consisting of 8,213 nucleotides containing one open reading frame was determined by the transcriptome data generated from Discorea opposita This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of ChYNMV from Dioscorea opposita in the Republic of Korea. PMID:27492000

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Chinese Yam Necrotic Mosaic Virus from Dioscorea opposita in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Chang-Gi; Kwon, Joong-Bae; Nam, Hyo-Hun; Kim, Yeongtae; Lee, Su-Heon; Zhao, Fumei; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (ChYNMV) consisting of 8,213 nucleotides containing one open reading frame was determined by the transcriptome data generated from Discorea opposita. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of ChYNMV from Dioscorea opposita in the Republic of Korea. PMID:27492000

  5. Preliminary epidemiologic assessment of MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea, May–June 2015

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Benjamin J; Park, Minah; Fang, Vicky J; Wu, Peng; Leung, Gabriel M; Wu, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    South Korea is experiencing the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections outside the Arabian Peninsula, with 166 laboratory-confirmed cases, including 24 deaths as of 19 June 2015. We estimated that the mean incubation period was 6.7 days and the mean serial interval 12.6 days. We found it unlikely that infectiousness precedes symptom onset. Based on currently available data, we predict an overall case fatality risk of 21.3% (95% credible interval: 14%–31%). PMID:26132767

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Taek Woo; Yoon, Kwang Bae; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2015-06-01

    Serotine bats of Eptesicus serotinus are uncommon species in South Korea due to habit loss and destruction. We describe the characteristics of complete mitochondrial genome and gene organization of E. serotinus in this article. The complete mitogenome of E. serotinus is 16,665 bp long with a total base composition of 32.8% A, 29.8% T, 23.5% C and 13.8% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,410 bp), 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes (2524 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1504 bp) and 1 control region (1225 bp). The results will contribute to understand the genetic structure of Korean E. serotinus. PMID:23901922

  7. Leveraging epidemiologic and clinical collections for genomic studies of complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Dana C.; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Bush, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Present day limited resources demand DNA and phenotyping alternatives to the traditional prospective population-based epidemiologic collections. Methods To accelerate genomic discovery with an emphasis on diverse populations, we as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed all non-European American samples (n=15,863) available in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records, for genomic studies as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I Study. Given previous studies have cautioned against the secondary use of clinically collected data compared with epidemiologically-collected data, we present here a characterization of EAGLE BioVU, including the billing and diagnostic (ICD-9) code distributions for adult and pediatric patients as well as comparisons made for select health metrics (body mass index, glucose, HbA1c, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides) with the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (NHANES III; n=7,159 and NHANES 1999–2002; n=7,839). Results Overall, the distributions of billing and diagnostic codes suggest this clinical sample is mixture of healthy and sick patients like that expected for a contemporary American population. Conclusion Little bias is observed among health metrics suggesting this clinical collection is suitable for genomic studies along with traditional epidemiologic cohorts. PMID:26201699

  8. Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni Outbreak in a Middle School in Incheon, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Gue; Kim, Jung-Hee; Kang, Young-Ah; Lee, Ha-Gyung

    2010-01-01

    On July 6, 2009, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among middle school students in Incheon. An investigation to identify the source and describe the extent of the outbreak was conducted. A retrospective cohort study among students, teachers, and food handlers exposed to canteen food in the middle school was performed. Using self-administered questionnaires, information was collected concerning on symptoms, days that canteen food was consumed, and food items consumed. Stool samples were collected from 66 patients and 11 food handlers. The catering kitchen was inspected and food samples were taken. Of the 791 people who ate canteen food, 92 cases became ill, representing an attack rate of 11.6%. Thirty-one (40.3%) of the 77 stool specimens were positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Interviews with kitchen staff indicated the likelihood that undercooked chicken was provided. This is the first recognized major C. jejuni outbreak associated with contaminated chicken documented in Korea. PMID:21060748

  9. Assessment of radiation exposure from cesium-137 contaminated roads for epidemiological studies in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun-Keun; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung Sik; Yim, Sang-Hyuk; Yoo, Sang-Chul; Lee, Jieon; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Burm, Eunae; Ha, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the radiation exposure for epidemiologic investigation in residents exposed to radiation from roads that were accidentally found to be contaminated with radioactive cesium-137 (137Cs) in Seoul. Methods Using information regarding the frequency and duration of passing via the 137Cs contaminated roads or residing/working near the roads from the questionnaires that were obtained from 8875 residents and the measured radiation doses reported by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission, we calculated the total cumulative dose of radiation exposure for each person. Results Sixty-three percent of the residents who responded to the questionnaire were considered as ever-exposed and 1% of them had a total cumulative dose of more than 10 mSv. The mean (minimum, maximum) duration of radiation exposure was 4.75 years (0.08, 11.98) and the geometric mean (minimum, maximum) of the total cumulative dose was 0.049 mSv (<0.001, 35.35) in the exposed. Conclusions An individual exposure assessment was performed for an epidemiological study to estimate the health risk among residents living in the vicinity of 137Cs contaminated roads. The average exposure dose in the exposed people was less than 5% of the current guideline. PMID:26184047

  10. Bacterial epidemiology and biology - lessons from genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has ushered in a new era of microbial genomics, enabling the detailed historical and geographical tracing of bacteria. This is helping to shape our understanding of bacterial evolution. PMID:22027015

  11. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult ADHD symptoms in Korea: results of the Korean epidemiologic catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Bae, Jae Nam; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Ahn, Joon Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-04-30

    We examined the prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Korean community using data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Psychiatric Disorders in Korea conducted in 2006. A total of 6081 subjects aged 18 to 59 years participated in this study. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener and Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. The frequencies of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders, sleep disturbances, and suicidal tendency were compared in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Odds ratios and significance levels were calculated. The 6 month prevalence of adult ADHD symptoms was 1.1%. Associations between ADHD symptoms and alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, somatoform disorder, sleep disturbances, and suicidality were overwhelmingly positive and significant (P<0.05), after controlling for gender and age. Adult ADHD symptoms are highly associated with substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, sleep disturbances and suicidality, suggesting that clinicians should carefully evaluate and treat such psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:20724004

  12. Whole-Genome Sequencing for High-Resolution Investigation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Epidemiology and Genome Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    SenGupta, Dhruba J.; Cummings, Lisa A.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Butler-Wu, Susan M.; Shendure, Jay; Cookson, Brad T.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections pose a major challenge in health care, yet the limited heterogeneity within this group hinders molecular investigations of related outbreaks. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has been the gold standard approach but is impractical for many clinical laboratories and is often replaced with PCR-based methods. Regardless, both approaches can prove problematic for identifying subclonal outbreaks. Here, we explore the use of whole-genome sequencing for clinical laboratory investigations of MRSA molecular epidemiology. We examine the relationships of 44 MRSA isolates collected over a period of 3 years by using whole-genome sequencing and two PCR-based methods, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and spa typing. We find that MLVA offers higher resolution than spa typing, as it resolved 17 versus 12 discrete isolate groups, respectively. In contrast, whole-genome sequencing reproducibly cataloged genomic variants (131,424 different single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels across the strain collection) that uniquely identified each MRSA clone, recapitulating those groups but enabling higher-resolution phylogenetic inferences of the epidemiological relationships. Importantly, whole-genome sequencing detected a significant number of variants, thereby distinguishing between groups that were considered identical by both spa typing (minimum, 1,124 polymorphisms) and MLVA (minimum, 193 polymorphisms); this suggests that these more conventional approaches can lead to false-positive identification of outbreaks due to inappropriate grouping of genetically distinct strains. An analysis of the distribution of variants across the MRSA genome reveals 47 mutational hot spots (comprising ∼2.5% of the genome) that account for 23.5% of the observed polymorphisms, and the use of this selected data set successfully recapitulates most epidemiological relationships in this pathogen group. PMID:24850346

  13. Epidemiologic characteristics of malaria in non-malarious area, Jeollabuk-do, Korea in 2000.

    PubMed

    Kim, M B

    2001-09-01

    In South Korea, the north border area has been under vivax malaria epidemic since 1993. However, Jeollabuk-do, which is about 300 kms from the border, has not experienced the same epidemic. I investigated a total of 58 notified cases of malaria in Jeollabuk-do in the year 2000. All of the cases had an exposure history in the epidemic area. Among them were 49 ex-soldiers, 3 soldiers who served near the border area and 6 civilians who traveled there. The causal agent of all cases was Plasmodium vivax. Except the civilians, the soldiers and ex-soldiers were aged in their twenties. In the present study, the incubation period was from 6 to 520 days with a median of 157 days, and the latent onset type (92%) was more prevalent than the early onset type. Illness onset of most cases (86%) peaked during the summer season (June to September) despite of variable incubation periods. The time lag for diagnosis ranged from 2 to 42 days with a median of 11 days. Jeollabuk-do has not been an area of epidemic until now, but incidences have been increasing annually since 1996. In Jeollabuk-do, early diagnosis and treatment can be a feasible disease control measure to prevent spreading from the epidemic area. PMID:11590911

  14. Epidemiologic characteristics of malaria in non-malarious area, Jeollabuk-do, Korea in 2000

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    In South Korea, the north border area has been under vivax malaria epidemic since 1993. However, Jeollabuk-do, which is about 300 kms from the border, has not experienced the same epidemic. I investigated a total of 58 notified cases of malaria in Jeollabuk-do in the year 2000. All of the cases had an exposure history in the epidemic area. Among them were 49 ex-soldiers, 3 soldiers who served near the border area and 6 civilians who traveled there. The causal agent of all cases was Plasmodium vivax. Except the civilians, the soldiers and ex-soldiers were aged in their twenty's. In the present study, the incubation period was from 6 to 520 days with a median of 157 days, and the latent onset type (92%) was more prevalent than the early onset type. Illness onset of most cases (86%) peaked during the summer season (June to September) despite of variable incubation periods. The time lag for diagnosis ranged from 2 to 42 days with a median of 11 days. Jeollabuk-do has not been an area of epidemic untill now, but incidences have been increasing annually since 1996. In Jeollabuk-do, early diagnosis and treatment can be a feasible disease control measure to prevent spreading from the epidemic area. PMID:11590911

  15. Whole genome sequencing: the future for molecular epidemiological studies on aquatic pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) has transformed our ability to analyze the genomic content of isolated strains and communities of microorganisms. An important application of the new technology is for molecular epidemiology, as single sequencing reactions can generate nearly complete ...

  16. Epidemiological and viral genomic sequence analysis of the 2014 ebola outbreak reveals clustered transmission.

    PubMed

    Scarpino, Samuel V; Iamarino, Atila; Wells, Chad; Yamin, Dan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Wenzel, Natasha S; Fox, Spencer J; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Altice, Frederick L; Galvani, Alison P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2015-04-01

    Using Ebolavirus genomic and epidemiological data, we conducted the first joint analysis in which both data types were used to fit dynamic transmission models for an ongoing outbreak. Our results indicate that transmission is clustered, highlighting a potential bias in medical demand forecasts, and provide the first empirical estimate of underreporting. PMID:25516185

  17. Whole-Genome Sequencing Elucidates Epidemiology of Nosocomial Clusters of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Willems, Stefanie; Kampmeier, Stefanie; Bletz, Stefan; Kossow, Annelene; Köck, Robin; Kipp, Frank; Mellmann, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    We characterized two epidemiologically similar Acinetobacter baumannii clusters from two separate intensive care units (ICU) using core genome multilocus sequence typing. Clonal spread was confirmed in ICU-1 (12 of 14 isolates shared genotypes); in ICU-2, all genotypes (13 isolates) were diverse, thus excluding transmissions and enabling adequate infection control measures. PMID:27358465

  18. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae. PMID:26329800

  19. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene. PMID:27023061

  20. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene. PMID:27023061

  1. Epidemiology of the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Serotype O Epidemic of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Republic Of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, H; Yoon, S-S; Kim, Y-J; Moon, O-K; Wee, S-H; Joo, Y-S; Kim, B

    2015-06-01

    The largest epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Korea since the first record in 1911 occurred between November 2010 and April 2011. The outbreak was confirmed in 153 farms, and more than three million animals were destroyed. This study presents the temporal and spatial distribution patterns, epidemiological investigation and the control measures for the 2010/2011 epidemic in Korea. The index case of this 2010/2011 FMD epidemic was reported in a pig-farming complex with five piggeries in Andong, GyeongBuk Province, on 28 November 2010, and the outbreak lasted 145 days. The largest number of new detection of the infected farms per day was recorded in mid-January. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the FMD virus had spread from farm to farm through routine movements associated with animal husbandry operations. In contrast to FMD epidemics in other countries in which movement of the infected animals largely contributed to the spread of the disease, human behaviours were major factors in the spread of the FMD virus in the Korean epidemic. The 2010/2011 epidemic was first confirmed in a local small and medium city where share of smallholder producers is higher than that of other provinces. Although Korea had a well-developed emergent response system with the experience of controlling infection and re-obtaining FMD-free status after the previous epidemics, Korea was prompted to revise their contingency plan by tailoring it to its unique livestock environment. Practical contingency plans tailored to Korea for control of FMD can be fully effective when farmers, livestock-related agencies, veterinary service providers and the general public work together. PMID:23731597

  2. Genomic epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis during transcontinental spread.

    PubMed

    Coscolla, Mireia; Barry, Pennan M; Oeltmann, John E; Koshinsky, Heather; Shaw, Tambi; Cilnis, Martin; Posey, Jamie; Rose, Jordan; Weber, Terry; Fofanov, Viacheslav Y; Gagneux, Sebastien; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Metcalfe, John Z

    2015-07-15

    The transcontinental spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is poorly characterized in molecular epidemiologic studies. We used genomic sequencing to understand the establishment and dispersion of MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis within a group of immigrants to the United States. We used a genomic epidemiology approach to study a genotypically matched (by spoligotype, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism, and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeat signature) lineage 2/Beijing MDR strain implicated in an outbreak of tuberculosis among refugees in Thailand and consecutive cases within California. All 46 MDR M. tuberculosis genomes from both Thailand and California were highly related, with a median difference of 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The Wat Tham Krabok (WTK) strain is a new sequence type distinguished from all known Beijing strains by 55 SNPs and a genomic deletion (Rv1267c) associated with increased fitness. Sequence data revealed a highly prevalent MDR strain that included several closely related but distinct allelic variants within Thailand, rather than the occurrence of a single outbreak. In California, sequencing data supported multiple independent introductions of WTK with subsequent transmission and reactivation within the state, as well as a potential super spreader with a prolonged infectious period. Twenty-seven drug resistance-conferring mutations and 4 putative compensatory mutations were found within WTK strains. Genomic sequencing has substantial epidemiologic value in both low- and high-burden settings in understanding transmission chains of highly prevalent MDR strains. PMID:25601940

  3. Epidemiological Characteristics of Imported Influenza A (H1N1) Cases during the 2009 Pandemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Kil; Lee, Sang Won

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Quarantine measure for prevention of epidemic disease and further evaluations of their efficiency are possible only by elaborating analyses of imported cases. The purpose of this study was to analyze descriptive epidemiological characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) cases imported to Korea. METHODS We collected two sets of data. The first set, comprised daily reported cases of H1N1 obtained from local cities in accordance with government policy about mandatory reporting of all H1N1 cases during May 1 to August 19, 2009. The second set, including 372 confirmed imported H1N1 cases, identified from 13 National Quarantine Stations in the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from May 24 to December 31, 2009. However, given the lack of information on the nature of the imported H1N1 cases from the two data sets during the over lapping period from May 24 to August 19, we express the number of imported cases as a range for this period. RESULTS We estimated that the number of imported H1N1 cases from May 1 to August 19, 2009, was between 1,098 and 1,291 and the total number of cases was 2,409 to 2,580. We found the number of imported cases was beginning to diminish as of August. A analysis of the second data set showed that the distribution of sex was similar (males 50.7%, females 49.3%) and the age distribution from 20 to 59 was 61.5% and that of 60 and over was 0.8% of the 372 cases. We identified 25 countries where people infected with H1N1 traveled and 67.5% were in Asia. But the proportion of cases (/1,000) by region shows Oceania (0.199), South America (0.118), Southeast Asia (0.071), North America (0.049), Europe (0.035), and Northeast Asia (0.016) in that order. The order of H1N1 peaking was the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics, and the Nothern Hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS This study provided information that could make possible the evaluation of the government quarantine measure for stopping imported disease from causing community

  4. Epidemiological and Survival Trends of Pediatric Cardiac Arrests in Emergency Departments in Korea: A Cross-sectional, Nationwide Report.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Yun; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Hyun; Yoon, Han Deok; Jang, Hye Young

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) in children is associated with high mortality rates. In Korea, cohort studies regarding the outcomes of pediatric CAs are lacking, especially in emergency departments (EDs) or in-hospital settings. This study was conducted to examine the trends in epidemiology and survival outcomes in children with resuscitation-attempted CAs using data from a cross-sectional, national, ED-based clinical registry. We extracted cases in which cardiopulmonary resuscitation and/or manual defibrillation were performed according to treatment codes using the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) from 2008 to 2012. The total number of ED visits registered in the NEDIS during the 5-yr evaluation period was 20,424,530; among these, there were 2,970 resuscitation-attempted CAs in children. The annual rates of pediatric CAs per 1,000 ED visits showed an upward trend from 2.81 in 2009 to 3.62 in 2012 (P for trend = 0.045). The median number of estimated pediatric CAs at each ED was 7.8 (25th to 75th percentile, 4 to 13) per year. The overall rates for admission survival and discharge survival were 35.2% and 12.8%, respectively. The survival outcome of adults increased substantially over the past 5 yr (11.8% in 2008, 11.7% in 2010, and 13.6% in 2012; P for trend = 0.001); however, the results for children did not improve (13.6% in 2008, 11.4% in 2010, and 13.7% in 2012; P for trend = 0.870). Conclusively, we found that the overall incidence of pediatric CAs in EDs increased substantially over the past 5 yr, but without significantly higher survival outcomes. PMID:26339179

  5. Chemoprophylaxis and the epidemiological characteristics of re-emergent P. vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun; Yong, Tai Soon; Oh, Dae Kyu; Kim, Rock Kwon; Park, Keeho; Suh, I. L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Republic of Korea (ROK), soldiers stationed where there is a risk of contracting malaria have received antimalarial chemoprophylaxis since 1997. However, chemoprophylaxis may facilitate the development of drug resistance, and late primary attacks in individuals who have received chemoprophylaxis are becoming more frequent. We investigated the association between chemoprophylaxis and the epidemiological characteristics and effectiveness of treatment for re-emergent Plasmodium vivax malaria, using a nationwide malaria database. METHODS: Among soldiers at risk of malaria between 1999 and 2001, we reviewed all P. vivax malaria cases (1158) that occurred before 31 December 2003. Early and late primary attacks were defined as cases occurring 2 months after the last day of exposure to risk of malaria, respectively. FINDINGS: Of these cases, 634 (72.0%) had received chemoprophylaxis, and 324 (28.0%) had not. Cases occurred mostly in summer, with a peak in July-August. Stratification by chemoprophylaxis history revealed different times to onset. Early primary attacks were more prevalent in the group not receiving chemoprophylaxis, while in the group receiving chemoprophylaxis most cases were late primary attacks. Of the latter, 312 out of 461 (67.7%) did not take primaquine regularly. After treatment of the first attack, 14 (1.2%) of 1158 were re-treated; all re-treated cases were cured using the same doses and regimen used for the first treatment. CONCLUSION: In ROK, the increase in late primary episodes of re-emergent P. vivax malaria is associated with the use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. PMID:17128363

  6. Genomic Epidemiology of Hypervirulent Serogroup W, ST-11 Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone). It is also unclear what proportion of more recent W ST-11 disease clusters are caused by direct descendants of the Hajj clone. Whole genome sequences of 270 meningococcal strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease globally from 1970 to 2013 were compared using whole genome phylogenetic and major antigen-encoding gene sequence analyses. We found that all W ST-11 strains were descendants of an ancestral strain that had undergone unique capsular switching events. The Hajj clone and its descendants were distinct from other W ST-11 strains in that they shared a common antigen gene profile and had undergone recombination involving virulence genes encoding factor H binding protein, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrite reductase. These data demonstrate that recent acquisition of a distinct antigen-encoding gene profile and variations in meningococcal virulence genes was associated with the emergence of the Hajj clone. Importantly, W ST-11 strains unrelated to the Hajj outbreak contribute a significant proportion of W ST-11 cases globally. This study helps illuminate genomic factors associated with meningococcal strain emergence and evolution. PMID:26629539

  7. Genomic Epidemiology of Hypervirulent Serogroup W, ST-11 Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Mustapha, Mustapha M.; Marsh, Jane W.; Krauland, Mary G.; Fernandez, Jorge O.; de Lemos, Ana Paula S.; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C.; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W.; Lawrence, Jeffrey G.; Hiller, N. Luisa; Harrison, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African ‘meningitis belt’ and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone). It is also unclear what proportion of more recent W ST-11 disease clusters are caused by direct descendants of the Hajj clone. Whole genome sequences of 270 meningococcal strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease globally from 1970 to 2013 were compared using whole genome phylogenetic and major antigen-encoding gene sequence analyses. We found that all W ST-11 strains were descendants of an ancestral strain that had undergone unique capsular switching events. The Hajj clone and its descendants were distinct from other W ST-11 strains in that they shared a common antigen gene profile and had undergone recombination involving virulence genes encoding factor H binding protein, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrite reductase. These data demonstrate that recent acquisition of a distinct antigen-encoding gene profile and variations in meningococcal virulence genes was associated with the emergence of the Hajj clone. Importantly, W ST-11 strains unrelated to the Hajj outbreak contribute a significant proportion of W ST-11 cases globally. This study helps illuminate genomic factors associated with meningococcal strain emergence and evolution. PMID:26629539

  8. Strain-level microbial epidemiology and population genomics from shotgun metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Matthias; Ward, Doyle V; Pasolli, Edoardo; Tolio, Thomas; Zolfo, Moreno; Asnicar, Francesco; Truong, Duy Tin; Tett, Adrian; Morrow, Ardythe L; Segata, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Identifying microbial strains and characterizing their functional potential is essential for pathogen discovery, epidemiology and population genomics. We present pangenome-based phylogenomic analysis (PanPhlAn; http://segatalab.cibio.unitn.it/tools/panphlan), a tool that uses metagenomic data to achieve strain-level microbial profiling resolution. PanPhlAn recognized outbreak strains, produced the largest strain-level population genomic study of human-associated bacteria and, in combination with metatranscriptomics, profiled the transcriptional activity of strains in complex communities. PMID:26999001

  9. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W.; Wilson, Daniel J.; et al

    2016-03-04

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. In this paper, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ~1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934more » to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ~1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. Finally, the results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections.« less

  10. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2016-04-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315S Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ∼1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ∼1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ∼1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonellafrom pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections. PMID:26944846

  11. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ∼1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ∼1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ∼1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections. PMID:26944846

  12. Population Stratification in the Context of Diverse Epidemiologic Surveys Sans Genome-Wide Data

    PubMed Central

    Oetjens, Matthew T.; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Goodloe, Robert; Dilks, Holli H.; Crawford, Dana C.

    2016-01-01

    Population stratification or confounding by genetic ancestry is a potential cause of false associations in genetic association studies. Estimation of and adjustment for genetic ancestry has become common practice thanks in part to the availability of ancestry informative markers on genome-wide association study (GWAS) arrays. While array data is now widespread, these data are not ubiquitous as several large epidemiologic and clinic-based studies lack genome-wide data. One such large epidemiologic-based study lacking genome-wide data accessible to investigators is the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), population-based cross-sectional surveys of Americans linked to demographic, health, and lifestyle data conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DNA samples (n = 14,998) were extracted from biospecimens from consented NHANES participants between 1991–1994 (NHANES III, phase 2) and 1999–2002 and represent three major self-identified racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic whites (n = 6,634), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 3,458), and Mexican Americans (n = 3,950). We as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment study genotyped candidate gene and GWAS-identified index variants in NHANES as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology I study for collaborative genetic association studies. To enable basic quality control such as estimation of genetic ancestry to control for population stratification in NHANES san genome-wide data, we outline here strategies that use limited genetic data to identify the markers optimal for characterizing genetic ancestry. From among 411 and 295 autosomal SNPs available in NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2002, we demonstrate that markers with ancestry information can be identified to estimate global ancestry. Despite limited resolution, global genetic ancestry is highly correlated with self-identified race for the majority of participants, although less so

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain FBL1, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Mukeunji, a Long-Fermented Kimchi, in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Eiseul; Kim, Chang-Gyeom; Choo, Dong-Won

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the 2,032,158-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei (L. sakei) strain FBL1, isolated from mukeunji purchased at the Gwangju World Kimchi Culture Festival in 2012, South Korea. The total draft genome size was 2,032,158 bp with a G+C content of 41.2%. PMID:27174278

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei Strain FBL1, a Probiotic Bacterium Isolated from Mukeunji, a Long-Fermented Kimchi, in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Eiseul; Kim, Chang-Gyeom; Choo, Dong-Won; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the 2,032,158-bp draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei (L. sakei) strain FBL1, isolated from mukeunji purchased at the Gwangju World Kimchi Culture Festival in 2012, South Korea. The total draft genome size was 2,032,158 bp with a G+C content of 41.2%. PMID:27174278

  15. Whole Genome Analysis of Epidemiologically Closely Related Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Schijffelen, Maarten; Konstantinov, Sergey R.; Lina, Gérard; Spiliopoulou, Iris; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Brouwer, Ellen C.; Fluit, Ad C.

    2013-01-01

    The change of the bacteria from colonizers to pathogens is accompanied by a drastic change in expression profiles. These changes may be due to environmental signals or to mutational changes. We therefore compared the whole genome sequences of four sets of S. aureus isolates. Three sets were from the same patients. The isolates of each pair (S1800/S1805, S2396/S2395, S2398/S2397, an isolate from colonization and an isolate from infection, respectively) were obtained within <30 days of each other and the isolate from infection caused skin infections. The isolates were then compared for differences in gene content and SNPs. In addition, a set of isolates from a colonized pig and a farmer from the same farm at the same time (S0462 and S0460) were analyzed. The isolates pair S1800/S1805 showed a difference in a prophage, but these are easily lost or acquired. However, S1805 contained an integrative conjugative element not present in S1800. In addition, 92 SNPs were present in a variety of genes and the isolates S1800 and S1805 were not considered a pair. Between S2395/S2396 two SNPs were present: one was in an intergenic region and one was a synonymous mutation in a putative membrane protein. Between S2397/S2398 only one synonymous mutation in a putative lipoprotein was found. The two farm isolates were very similar and showed 12 SNPs in genes that belong to a number of different functional categories. However, we cannot pinpoint any gene that explains the change from carrier status to infection. The data indicate that differences between the isolate from infection and the colonizing isolate for S2395/S2396 and S2397/S2398 exist as well as between isolates from different hosts, but S1800/S1805 are not clonal. PMID:24205205

  16. Isolation, propagation, genome analysis and epidemiology of HKU1 betacoronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Susmita; Berglund, Andrew; Qian, Zhaohui; Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Fedorova, Nadia; Ransier, Amy; Weston, Philip A.; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Jerez, José Antonio; Robinson, Christine C.; Town, Christopher D.; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2014-01-01

    From 1 January 2009 to 31 May 2013, 15 287 respiratory specimens submitted to the Clinical Virology Laboratory at the Children’s Hospital Colorado were tested for human coronavirus RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. Human coronaviruses HKU1, OC43, 229E and NL63 co-circulated during each of the respiratory seasons but with significant year-to-year variability, and cumulatively accounted for 7.4–15.6 % of all samples tested during the months of peak activity. A total of 79 (0.5 % prevalence) specimens were positive for human betacoronavirus HKU1 RNA. Genotypes HKU1 A and B were both isolated from clinical specimens and propagated on primary human tracheal–bronchial epithelial cells cultured at the air–liquid interface and were neutralized in vitro by human intravenous immunoglobulin and by polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the spike glycoprotein of HKU1. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of seven full-length genomes of Colorado HKU1 viruses and the spike glycoproteins from four additional HKU1 viruses from Colorado and three from Brazil demonstrated remarkable conservation of these sequences with genotypes circulating in Hong Kong and France. Within genotype A, all but one of the Colorado HKU1 sequences formed a unique subclade defined by three amino acid substitutions (W197F, F613Y and S752F) in the spike glycoprotein and exhibited a unique signature in the acidic tandem repeat in the N-terminal region of the nsp3 subdomain. Elucidating the function of and mechanisms responsible for the formation of these varying tandem repeats will increase our understanding of the replication process and pathogenicity of HKU1 and potentially of other coronaviruses. PMID:24394697

  17. Epidemiological investigation of the 119th confirmed Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus case with an indefinite mode of transmission during the Pyeongtaek outbreak in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since the first case was diagnosed on May 20, 2015, there were 186 confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) until the end of outbreak in South Korea. Although medical institutions were the most identifiable sources of MERS transmission in South Korea, similar to other countries, in-depth epidemiological investigation was required for some confirmed cases with indefinite contact history or hospital visit records. The subject of epidemiological investigation in the present study was a 35 year-old male patient diagnosed with MERS (#119) who lived in Asan-city and worked in Pyeongtaek-city. Various potential sources of transmission were carefully investigated. While he could have been exposed to MERS through a friend from Saudi Arabia or confirmed MERS cases in his workplace, neighboring areas, and medical institutions, as well as contacts in his home, the chances of transmission were low; however, the potential for transmission through his local community could not be excluded. Practically, it was difficult to determine the modes of transmission for all outbreak cases in communicable disease that occurred in this short period of time. The investigation to identify the mode of transmission in this case was ultimately unsuccessful. However, the various data collected and analyzed to reveal modes of transmission provided detailed information that could not be collected using only interview surveys. PMID:26971695

  18. Genomic epidemiology and global diversity of the emerging bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis.

    PubMed

    Breurec, Sebastien; Criscuolo, Alexis; Diancourt, Laure; Rendueles, Olaya; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Passet, Virginie; Caro, Valérie; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Touchon, Marie; Brisse, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging pathogen involved in human infections and outbreaks in distinct world regions. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and pathogenesis-associated genomic features of two neonatal meningitis isolates isolated 5 years apart from one hospital in Central African Republic and compared them with Elizabethkingia from other regions and sources. Average nucleotide identity firmly confirmed that E. anophelis, E. meningoseptica and E. miricola represent demarcated genomic species. A core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, broadly applicable to Elizabethkingia species, was developed and made publicly available (http://bigsdb.pasteur.fr/elizabethkingia). Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct E. anophelis sublineages and demonstrated high genetic relatedness between the African isolates, compatible with persistence of the strain in the hospital environment. CRISPR spacer variation between the African isolates was mirrored by the presence of a large mobile genetic element. The pan-genome of E. anophelis comprised 6,880 gene families, underlining genomic heterogeneity of this species. African isolates carried unique resistance genes acquired by horizontal transfer. We demonstrated the presence of extensive variation of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene cluster in E. anophelis. Our results demonstrate the dynamic evolution of this emerging pathogen and the power of genomic approaches for Elizabethkingia identification, population biology and epidemiology. PMID:27461509

  19. Genomic epidemiology and global diversity of the emerging bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sebastien; Criscuolo, Alexis; Diancourt, Laure; Rendueles, Olaya; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Passet, Virginie; Caro, Valérie; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Touchon, Marie; Brisse, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging pathogen involved in human infections and outbreaks in distinct world regions. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and pathogenesis-associated genomic features of two neonatal meningitis isolates isolated 5 years apart from one hospital in Central African Republic and compared them with Elizabethkingia from other regions and sources. Average nucleotide identity firmly confirmed that E. anophelis, E. meningoseptica and E. miricola represent demarcated genomic species. A core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, broadly applicable to Elizabethkingia species, was developed and made publicly available (http://bigsdb.pasteur.fr/elizabethkingia). Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct E. anophelis sublineages and demonstrated high genetic relatedness between the African isolates, compatible with persistence of the strain in the hospital environment. CRISPR spacer variation between the African isolates was mirrored by the presence of a large mobile genetic element. The pan-genome of E. anophelis comprised 6,880 gene families, underlining genomic heterogeneity of this species. African isolates carried unique resistance genes acquired by horizontal transfer. We demonstrated the presence of extensive variation of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene cluster in E. anophelis. Our results demonstrate the dynamic evolution of this emerging pathogen and the power of genomic approaches for Elizabethkingia identification, population biology and epidemiology. PMID:27461509

  20. Homology differences between complete Sacbrood virus genomes from infected Apis mellifera and Apis cerana honeybees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Yoo, Mi Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Ha-Na; Thao, Le Thi Bich; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kang, Seung-Won

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) represents a serious threat to the health of managed honeybees. We determined four complete SBV genomic sequences (AmSBV-Kor1, AmSBV-Kor2, AcSBV-Kor3, and AcSBV-Kor4) isolated from Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in various regions of South Korea. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the complete genomic sequences of these Korean SBVs (KSBVs) and 21 previously reported SBV sequences from other countries. Three KSBVs (not AmSBV-Kor1) clustered with previously reported Korean genomes, but separately from SBV genomes from other countries. The KSBVs shared 90-98 % identity, and 89-97 % identity with the genomes from other countries. AmSBV-Kor1 was least similar (~90 % identity) to the other KSBVs, and was most similar to previously reported strains AmSBV-Kor21 (97 %) and AmSBV-UK (93 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 region sequences indicated that SBVs clustered by host species and country of origin. The KSBVs were aligned with nine previously reported complete SBV genomes and compared. The KSBVs were most different from the other genomes at the end of the 5' untranslated region and in the entire open reading frame. A SimPlot graph of the VP1 region confirmed its high variability, especially between the SBVs infecting A. mellifera and A. cerana. In this genomic region, SBVs from A. mellifera species contain an extra continuous 51-nucleotide sequence relative to the SBVs from A. cerana. This genomic diversity may reflect the adaptation of SBV to specific hosts, viral cross-infections, and the spatial distances separating the KSBVs from other SBVs. PMID:26810400

  1. Wild waterfowl migration and domestic duck density shape the epidemiology of highly pathogenic H5N8 influenza in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Sarah C.; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Hanna, Amanda; Gilbert, Marius; Brown, Ian H.; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses threaten human and animal health yet their emergence is poorly understood, partly because sampling of the HPAI Asian-origin H5N1 lineage immediately after its identification in 1996 was comparatively sparse. The discovery of a novel H5N8 virus in 2013 provides a new opportunity to investigate HPAI emergence in greater detail. Here we investigate the origin and transmission of H5N8 in the Republic of Korea, the second country to report the new strain. We reconstruct viral spread using phylogeographic methods and interpret the results in the context of ecological data on poultry density, overwintering wild bird numbers, and bird migration patterns. Our results indicate that wild waterfowl migration and domestic duck density were important to H5N8 epidemiology. Specifically, we infer that H5N8 entered the Republic of Korea via Jeonbuk province, then spread rapidly among western provinces where densities of overwintering waterfowl and domestic ducks are higher, yet rarely persisted in eastern regions. The common ancestor of H5N8 in the Republic of Korea was estimated to have arrived during the peak of inward migration of overwintering birds. Recent virus isolations likely represent re-introductions via bird migration from an as-yet unsampled reservoir. Based on the limited data from outside the Republic of Korea, our data suggest that H5N8 may have entered Europe at least twice, and Asia at least three times from this reservoir, most likely carried by wild migrating birds. PMID:26079277

  2. Neanderthal genomics suggests a pleistocene time frame for the first epidemiologic transition.

    PubMed

    Houldcroft, Charlotte J; Underdown, Simon J

    2016-07-01

    High quality Altai Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes are revealing which regions of archaic hominin DNA have persisted in the modern human genome. A number of these regions are associated with response to infection and immunity, with a suggestion that derived Neanderthal alleles found in modern Europeans and East Asians may be associated with autoimmunity. As such Neanderthal genomes are an independent line of evidence of which infectious diseases Neanderthals were genetically adapted to. Sympathetically, human genome adaptive introgression is an independent line of evidence of which infectious diseases were important for AMH coming in to Eurasia and interacting with Neanderthals. The Neanderthals and Denisovans present interesting cases of hominin hunter-gatherers adapted to a Eurasian rather than African infectious disease package. Independent sources of DNA-based evidence allow a re-evaluation of the first epidemiologic transition and how infectious disease affected Pleistocene hominins. By combining skeletal, archaeological and genetic evidence from modern humans and extinct Eurasian hominins, we question whether the first epidemiologic transition in Eurasia featured a new package of infectious diseases or a change in the impact of existing pathogens. Coupled with pathogen genomics, this approach supports the view that many infectious diseases are pre-Neolithic, and the list continues to expand. The transfer of pathogens between hominin populations, including the expansion of pathogens from Africa, may also have played a role in the extinction of the Neanderthals and offers an important mechanism to understand hominin-hominin interactions well back beyond the current limits for aDNA extraction from fossils alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:379-388, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27063929

  3. Complete genome of the multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain KBN10P02143 isolated from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Woon; Choe, Hanna; Lee, Sang-Heon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kam, Sin; Kim, Byung Kwon; Lee, Won-Kil

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, a strictly aerobic, non-fermentative, Gram-negative coccobacillary rod-shaped bacterium, is an opportunistic pathogen in humans. We recently isolated a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain KBN10P02143 from the pus sample drawn from a surgical patient in South Korea. We report the complete genome of this strain, which consists of 4,139,396 bp (G + C content, 39.08%) with 3,868 protein-coding genes, 73 tRNAs and six rRNA operons. Identification of the genes related to multidrug resistance from this genome and the discovery of a novel conjugative plasmid will increase our understanding of the pathogenicity associated with this species. PMID:27143492

  4. Genomic epidemiology of age-associated meningococcal lineages in national surveillance: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dorothea M C; Lucidarme, Jay; Gray, Stephen J; Newbold, Lynne S; Ure, Roisin; Brehony, Carina; Harrison, Odile B; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; Bratcher, Holly B; Parkhill, Julian; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a worldwide health issue that is potentially preventable with vaccination. In view of its sporadic nature and the high diversity of Neisseria meningitidis, epidemiological surveillance incorporating detailed isolate characterisation is crucial for effective control and understanding the evolving epidemiology of IMD. The Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL) exploits whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for this purpose and presents data on a comprehensive and coherent IMD isolate collection from England and Wales via the internet. We assessed the contribution of these data to investigating IMD epidemiology. Methods WGS data were obtained for all 899 IMD isolates available for England and Wales in epidemiological years 2010–11 and 2011–12. The data had been annotated at 1720 loci, analysed, and disseminated online. Information was also available on meningococcal population structure and vaccine (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK) antigen variants, which enabled the investigation of IMD-associated genotypes over time and by patients' age groups. Population genomic analyses were done with a hierarchical gene-by-gene approach. Findings The methods used by MRF-MGL efficiently characterised IMD isolates and information was provided in plain language. At least 20 meningococcal lineages were identified, three of which (hyperinvasive clonal complexes 41/44 [lineage 3], 269 [lineage 2], and 23 [lineage 23]) were responsible for 528 (59%) of IMD isolates. Lineages were highly diverse and showed evidence of extensive recombination. Specific lineages were associated with IMD in particular age groups, with notable diversity in the youngest and oldest individuals. The increased incidence of IMD from 1984 to 2010 in England and Wales was due to successive and concurrent epidemics of different lineages. Genetically, 74% of isolates were characterised as encoding group B capsules

  5. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tolar, Beth; Trees, Eija; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Porwollik, Steffen; Weimer, Bart C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Weinstock, George M.; Fields, Patricia I.; McClelland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s. PMID:25147968

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis KT-0184, Isolated in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taesoo; Han, Seung Jung; Yoo, Won Gi; Yun, Mi-Ran; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis KT-0184, from the Beijing family. This genome will provide insight into the evolution and adaptation of M. tuberculosis KT-0184 in human hosts. PMID:26893431

  7. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing-Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that have made whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of foodborne bacterial pathogens a realistic and superior alternative to traditional subtyping methods. Routine, real-time, and widespread application of WGS in food safety and public health is on the horizon. Technological, operational, and policy challenges are still present and being addressed by an international and multidisciplinary community of researchers, public health practitioners, and other stakeholders. PMID:26772415

  8. Aspects of pathogen genomics, diversity, epidemiology, vector dynamics and disease management for a newly emerged disease of potato: Zebra Chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is provided for the aspects of history, biology, genomics, genetics and epidemiology of zebra chip (ZC), a destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that represents a major threat to potato industries in the US as well as other potato production regions in the world. The dise...

  9. The genomic Echinococcus microsatellite EmsB sequences: from a molecular marker to the epidemiological tool.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J; Bart, J M; Maillard, S; Gottstein, B; Piarroux, R

    2010-03-01

    In the field of molecular and epidemiological parasitology, characterization of fast evolving genetic markers appears as an important challenge to consider the diversity and genetic structure of parasites. The study of respective populations can help us to understand their adaptive strategies to survive and perpetuate the species within different host populations, all trying to resist infection. In the past, the relative monomorphic features of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis and a severe human parasitic disease, did not stimulate studies dealing with the genetic variability of Echinococcus species or respective populations. A recently developed, characterized and validated original multilocus microsatellite, named EmsB, tandemly repeated in the genome, offered an additional opportunity for this line of investigation. We have compiled in this review new insights brought by this molecular tracker on the transmission activity of Echinococcus among different hosts and at different geographical scales. PMID:20025824

  10. Molecular epidemiology and diagnosis of Leishmania: what have we learnt from genome structure, dynamics and function?

    PubMed

    Dujardin, J C; Victoir, K; De Doncker, S; Guerbouj, S; Arévalo, J; Le Ray, D

    2002-04-01

    This paper reviews our exploration of the dynamics of the Leishmania genome and its contribution to epidemiology and diagnosis. We used as a model Peruvian populations of L. (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) peruviana, 2 species very close phylogenetically, but phenotypically very different in biotope and pathology. We initially focused on karyotype analysis. Our data showed that chromosomes were subject to a fast rate of evolution, and were sensitive indicators of genetic drift. Therefore, molecular karyotyping appeared an adequate tool for monitoring (i) emergence of close species, (ii) ecogeographical differentiation at the intraspecific level, and (iii) strain 'fingerprinting'. Chromosome size variation was mostly due to the number of tandemly repeated genes (rDNA, mini-exon, gp63, and cysteine proteinase genes), and could involve the deletion of unique genes (L. (V.) braziliensis-specific gp63 families). Considering the importance of these genes in parasitism, their rearrangement might have functional implications: adaptation to different environments and pleomorphic pathogenicity. Our knowledge of genome structure and dynamics was used to develop new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Amplification of gp63 genes followed by cleavage with restriction enzymes and study of restriction fragment length polymorphism (gp63 PCR-RFLP) allowed the discrimination of all species tested, even directly in biopsies with 95% sensitivity (compared with PCR amplification of kinetoplast deoxyribonucleic acid). At the intra-specific level, RFLP was also observed and corresponded to mutations in major immunogen domains of gp63. These seem to be under strong selection pressure, and the technique should facilitate addressing how the host's immune pressure may modulate parasite population structure. Altogether, gp63 PCR-RFLP represents a significant operational improvement over the other techniques for molecular epidemiology and diagnosis: it combines sensitivity

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat Vespertilio sinensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. PMID:24660937

  12. Application of Whole-Genome Sequencing for Bacterial Strain Typing in Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    SenGupta, Dhruba J.; Cummings, Lisa A.; Land, Tyler A.; Hoogestraat, Daniel R.; Cookson, Brad T.

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections pose a significant threat to patient health; however, the gold standard laboratory method for determining bacterial relatedness (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]) remains essentially unchanged 20 years after its introduction. Here, we explored bacterial whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as an alternative approach for molecular strain typing. We compared WGS to PFGE for investigating presumptive outbreaks involving three important pathogens: vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (n = 19), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n = 17), and Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 15). WGS was highly reproducible (average ≤ 0.39 differences between technical replicates), which enabled a functional, quantitative definition for determining clonality. Strain relatedness data determined by PFGE and WGS roughly correlated, but the resolution of WGS was superior (P = 5.6 × 10−8 to 0.016). Several discordant results were noted between the methods. A total of 28.9% of isolates which were indistinguishable by PFGE were nonclonal by WGS. For A. baumannii, a species known to undergo rapid horizontal gene transfer, 16.2% of isolate pairs considered nonidentical by PFGE were clonal by WGS. Sequencing whole bacterial genomes with single-nucleotide resolution demonstrates that PFGE is prone to false-positive and false-negative results and suggests the need for a new gold standard approach for molecular epidemiological strain typing. PMID:25631811

  13. Application of whole-genome sequencing for bacterial strain typing in molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Salipante, Stephen J; SenGupta, Dhruba J; Cummings, Lisa A; Land, Tyler A; Hoogestraat, Daniel R; Cookson, Brad T

    2015-04-01

    Nosocomial infections pose a significant threat to patient health; however, the gold standard laboratory method for determining bacterial relatedness (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE]) remains essentially unchanged 20 years after its introduction. Here, we explored bacterial whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as an alternative approach for molecular strain typing. We compared WGS to PFGE for investigating presumptive outbreaks involving three important pathogens: vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (n=19), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=17), and Acinetobacter baumannii (n=15). WGS was highly reproducible (average≤0.39 differences between technical replicates), which enabled a functional, quantitative definition for determining clonality. Strain relatedness data determined by PFGE and WGS roughly correlated, but the resolution of WGS was superior (P=5.6×10(-8) to 0.016). Several discordant results were noted between the methods. A total of 28.9% of isolates which were indistinguishable by PFGE were nonclonal by WGS. For A. baumannii, a species known to undergo rapid horizontal gene transfer, 16.2% of isolate pairs considered nonidentical by PFGE were clonal by WGS. Sequencing whole bacterial genomes with single-nucleotide resolution demonstrates that PFGE is prone to false-positive and false-negative results and suggests the need for a new gold standard approach for molecular epidemiological strain typing. PMID:25631811

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis KT-0204, Isolated in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mi-Ran; Han, Seung Jung; Yoo, Won Gi; Kwon, Taesoo; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis KT-0204, non-Beijing family. This sequence will reveal genes related to the evolution and adaptation of M. tuberculosis KT-0204 in human hosts. PMID:26847902

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) from Jejudo, Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Chan; Lee, Jimin; An, Sung Min; Choi, Dong Han; Noh, Jae Hoon

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of an ecologically important crustacean mud shrimp, Upogebia yokoyai (Decapoda, Crustacea) was sequenced. We used next generation sequencing strategy for total genomic DNA and organelle genome pipeline for mitogenome assembly. A newly determined mitogenome was 16,063 bp in total length with 28% of GC content. Thirty-seven genes were identified including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. We found ten case of overlapping between neighboring genes. Based on genome comparison, the mitogenome of U. yokoyai shows general crustacean gene content and identical synteny to the sister species, such as U. major and U. pusilla. Our results will provide useful information for mitochondrial genome diversity and evolution of the Crustacea. PMID:25423527

  16. Identifying determinants of heterogeneous transmission dynamics of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in the Republic of Korea, 2015: a retrospective epidemiological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Endo, Akira; Saitoh, Masaya; Kinoshita, Ryo; Ueno, Ryo; Nakaoka, Shinji; Miyamatsu, Yuichiro; Dong, Yueping; Chowell, Gerardo; Mizumoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the heterogeneous transmission patterns of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in the Republic of Korea, with a particular focus on epidemiological characteristics of superspreaders. Design Retrospective epidemiological analysis. Setting Multiple healthcare facilities of secondary and tertiary care centres in an urban setting. Participants A total of 185 laboratory-confirmed cases with partially known dates of illness onset and most likely sources of infection. Primary and secondary outcome measures Superspreaders were identified using the transmission tree. The reproduction number, that is, the average number of secondary cases produced by a single primary case, was estimated as a function of time and according to different types of hosts. Results A total of five superspreaders were identified. The reproduction number throughout the course of the outbreak was estimated at 1.0 due to reconstruction of the transmission tree, while the variance of secondary cases generated by a primary case was 52.1. All of the superspreaders involved in this outbreak appeared to have generated a substantial number of contacts in multiple healthcare facilities (association: p<0.01), generating on average 4.0 (0.0–8.6) and 28.6 (0.0–63.9) secondary cases among patients who visited multiple healthcare facilities and others. The time-dependent reproduction numbers declined substantially below the value of 1 on and after 13 June 2015. Conclusions Superspreaders who visited multiple facilities drove the epidemic by generating a disproportionate number of secondary cases. Our findings underscore the need to limit the contacts in healthcare settings. Contact tracing efforts could assist early laboratory testing and diagnosis of suspected cases. PMID:26908522

  17. Genome-wide Mycobacterium tuberculosis variation (GMTV) database: a new tool for integrating sequence variations and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) poses a worldwide threat due to advancing multidrug-resistant strains and deadly co-infections with Human immunodeficiency virus. Today large amounts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole genome sequencing data are being assessed broadly and yet there exists no comprehensive online resource that connects M. tuberculosis genome variants with geographic origin, with drug resistance or with clinical outcome. Description Here we describe a broadly inclusive unifying Genome-wide Mycobacterium tuberculosis Variation (GMTV) database, (http://mtb.dobzhanskycenter.org) that catalogues genome variations of M. tuberculosis strains collected across Russia. GMTV contains a broad spectrum of data derived from different sources and related to M. tuberculosis molecular biology, epidemiology, TB clinical outcome, year and place of isolation, drug resistance profiles and displays the variants across the genome using a dedicated genome browser. GMTV database, which includes 1084 genomes and over 69,000 SNP or Indel variants, can be queried about M. tuberculosis genome variation and putative associations with drug resistance, geographical origin, and clinical stages and outcomes. Conclusions Implementation of GMTV tracks the pattern of changes of M. tuberculosis strains in different geographical areas, facilitates disease gene discoveries associated with drug resistance or different clinical sequelae, and automates comparative genomic analyses among M. tuberculosis strains. PMID:24767249

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Strain E38, Isolated from South Korea with a Novel Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Kwon, Young-Woo; Choi, Eun-Jin; Ouh, In-Ohk; Choe, Se-Eun; Lee, Jienny; Song, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of the European type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus E38 strain, isolated from South Korea with a novel deletion. It contains a 61-nucleotide discontinuous deletion of the Nsp2 and Nsp12 regions. This study will aid in understanding the genetic diversity of type 1 PRRSV and in manufacturing a construct based on Korean vaccine candidate development. PMID:26472832

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Canine-Origin H3N2 Feline Influenza Virus Isolated from Domestic Cats in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Jun; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Park, Bong-Kyun; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Jeong-Ki; An, Dong-Jun; Song, Dae-Sub

    2013-01-01

    A canine-origin Korean H3N2 feline influenza virus (FIV), A/feline/Korea/01/2010 (H3N2), was isolated in 2010 from a dead cat with severe respiratory disease. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of this virus, containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions, which will help elucidate the molecular basis of the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of FIV. PMID:23516235

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis KT-0133, Isolated in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taesoo; Han, Seung Jung; Yoo, Won Gi; Yun, Mi-Ran; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis KT-0133, which belongs to the Korean-Beijing family. This sequence will provide a new perspective on the evolution and accommodation of M. tuberculosis KT-0133 in human hosts. PMID:26868407

  1. Complete genome sequence of Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2(T), a bacterium with Gamma-radiation resistance isolated from soil in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Kang, Myung Suk; Lee, Do Hee; Joo, Eun Sun; Kim, Eun Bit; Jeon, Seon Hwa; Jung, Hee-Young; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2016-04-20

    A Gram-positive, short-rod shaped and non-motile bacterium Deinococcus actinosclerus BM2(T), resistant to gamma and UV radiation, was isolated from a soil sample collected in South Korea. Strain BM2(T) showed high resistance to gamma radiation with D10 value of 9 kGy. The complete genome of D. actinosclerus BM2(T) consists of a single chromosome (3,264,334bp). The genome features showed the presence of intracellular proteases that help to eliminate radiation-induced ROS during recovery from ionizing radiation damage. PMID:26953742

  2. Utility of Whole-Genome Sequencing in Characterizing Acinetobacter Epidemiology and Analyzing Hospital Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Margaret A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii frequently causes nosocomial infections and outbreaks. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a promising technique for strain typing and outbreak investigations. We compared the performance of conventional methods with WGS for strain typing clinical Acinetobacter isolates and analyzing a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) outbreak. We performed two band-based typing techniques (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR), multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis, and WGS on 148 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex bloodstream isolates collected from a single hospital from 2005 to 2012. Phylogenetic trees inferred from core-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confirmed three Acinetobacter species within this collection. Four major A. baumannii clonal lineages (as defined by MLST) circulated during the study, three of which are globally distributed and one of which is novel. WGS indicated that a threshold of 2,500 core SNPs accurately distinguished A. baumannii isolates from different clonal lineages. The band-based techniques performed poorly in assigning isolates to clonal lineages and exhibited little agreement with sequence-based techniques. After applying WGS to a CRAB outbreak that occurred during the study, we identified a threshold of 2.5 core SNPs that distinguished nonoutbreak from outbreak strains. WGS was more discriminatory than the band-based techniques and was used to construct a more accurate transmission map that resolved many of the plausible transmission routes suggested by epidemiologic links. Our study demonstrates that WGS is superior to conventional techniques for A. baumannii strain typing and outbreak analysis. These findings support the incorporation of WGS into health care infection prevention efforts. PMID:26699703

  3. Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration.

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Dave A.; Parker, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic epidemiology is a field of research that seeks to improve the prevention and management of common diseases through an understanding of their molecular origins. It involves studying thousands of individuals, often from different populations, with exacting techniques. The scale and complexity of such research has required the formation of research consortia. Members of these consortia need to agree on policies for managing shared resources and handling genetic data. Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. We outline specific guidelines governing how samples and data are transferred among its members; how results are released into the public domain; when to seek protection for intellectual property; and how intellectual property should be managed. We outline some pragmatic solutions founded on the basic principles of promoting innovation and access. PMID:16710548

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sebastes pachycephalus (Scorpaenidae, Scorpaeniformes) from the East Sea, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yo-Soon; Park, Kwang-Jae; Kim, Ki-Yong; Kim, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Due to variations in coloration as well as other morphological features, the identification of Sebastes pachycephalus has been problematic. The complete mitogenome of S. pachycephalus was acquired using next-generation sequencing. The full genome was 16,415 base pairs (bp) in length, assembling two rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, one control region and 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs). The genome constitutes 27.9% A, 26.3% T, 17.2% G and 28.5% C, showing a slight AT bias (54.2%). All PCGs start with an ATG initial codon except COX1, which contains GTG. Most PCG stop codons were TAA, except for ND1 and ND3 (TAG) and Cytb (incomplete termination codon, T). All tRNAs showed the typical cloverleaf structure, except tRNA(Ser(AGY)), which lacks the DHU arm. The complete mitogenome of S. pachycephalus will help further identification and speciation analyses. PMID:24438257

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Wook; Yoo, Jae Il; Kang, Gi Su; Lee, Yeong Seon; Yu, Jae-Yon; Park, Chan; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of four vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains from South Korean hospitals participating in a nationwide laboratory surveillance program for vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus All strains harbor mutations in the walKR, graSR, and/or rpoB genes that are known frequently mutated determinants of VISA. PMID:27313284

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wook; Yoo, Jae Il; Kang, Gi Su; Lee, Yeong Seon; Yu, Jae-Yon; Park, Chan

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of four vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains from South Korean hospitals participating in a nationwide laboratory surveillance program for vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. All strains harbor mutations in the walKR, graSR, and/or rpoB genes that are known frequently mutated determinants of VISA. PMID:27313284

  7. Kvik: three-tier data exploration tools for flexible analysis of genomic data in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fjukstad, Bjørn; Standahl Olsen, Karina; Jareid, Mie; Lund, Eiliv; Bongo, Lars Ailo

    2015-01-01

    Kvik is an open-source framework that we developed for explorative analysis of functional genomics data from large epidemiological studies. Creating such studies requires a significant amount of time and resources. It is therefore usual to reuse the data from one study for several research projects. Often each project requires implementing new analysis code, integration with specific knowledge bases, and specific visualizations. Although existing data exploration tools are available for single study data exploration, no tool provides all the required functionality for multistudy data exploration. We have therefore used the Kvik framework to develop Kvik Pathways, an application for exploring gene expression data in the context of biological pathways. We have used Kvik Pathways to explore data from both a cross-sectional study design and a case-control study within the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort. Kvik Pathways follows the three-tier architecture in web applications using a powerful back-end for statistical analyses and retrieval of metadata.In this note, we describe how we used the Kvik framework to develop the Kvik Pathways application. Kvik Pathways was used by our team of epidemiologists toexplore gene expression data from healthy women with high and low plasma ratios of essential fatty acids. PMID:26425340

  8. Epidemiologic features of the first MERS outbreak in Korea: focus on Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Min; Ki, Moran; Cho, Sung-il; Sung, Minki; Hong, Jin Kwan; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Jong-Hun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Changhwan; Lee, Keon-Joo; Park, Yong-Shik; Kim, Seung Woo; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the epidemiologic features of the confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital, where the outbreak first began, in order to identify lessons relevant for the prevention and control of future outbreaks. METHODS: The patients’ clinical symptoms and test results were collected from their medical records. The caregivers of patients were identified by phone calls. RESULTS: After patient zero (case #1) was admitted to Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital (May 15-May 17), an outbreak occurred, with 36 cases between May 18 and June 4, 2015. Six patients died (fatality rate, 16.7%). Twenty-six cases occurred in the first-generation, and 10 in the second-generation. The median incubation period was five days, while the median period from symptom onset to death was 12.5 days. While the total attack rate was 3.9%, the attack rate among inpatients was 7.6%, and the inpatients on the eighth floor, where patient zero was hospitalized, had an 18.6% attack rate. In contrast, caregivers and medical staff showed attack rates of 3.3% and 1.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The attack rates were higher than those of the previous outbreaks in other countries. The outbreak spread beyond Pyeongtaek St. Mary’s Hospital when four of the patients were moved to other hospitals without appropriate quarantine. The best method of preventing future outbreaks is to overcome the vulnerabilities observed in this outbreak, such as ward crowding, patient migration without appropriate data sharing, and the lack of an initial broad quarantine. PMID:26725225

  9. Genomic Epidemiology of an Endoscope-Associated Outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)-Producing K. pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Jane W.; Krauland, Mary G.; Nelson, Jemma S.; Schlackman, Jessica L.; Brooks, Anthony M.; Pasculle, A. William; Shutt, Kathleen A.; Doi, Yohei; Querry, Ashley M.; Muto, Carlene A.; Harrison, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Increased incidence of infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) was noted among patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) at a single hospital. An epidemiologic investigation identified KPC-Kp and non-KPC-producing, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Kp in cultures from 2 endoscopes. Genotyping was performed on patient and endoscope isolates to characterize the microbial genomics of the outbreak. Genetic similarity of 51 Kp isolates from 37 patients and 3 endoscopes was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Five patient and 2 endoscope isolates underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS). Two KPC-encoding plasmids were characterized by single molecule, real-time sequencing. Plasmid diversity was assessed by endonuclease digestion. Genomic and epidemiologic data were used in conjunction to investigate the outbreak source. Two clusters of Kp patient isolates were genetically related to endoscope isolates by PFGE. A subset of patient isolates were collected post-ERCP, suggesting ERCP endoscopes as a possible source. A phylogeny of 7 Kp genomes from patient and endoscope isolates supported ERCP as a potential source of transmission. Differences in gene content defined 5 ST258 subclades and identified 2 of the subclades as outbreak-associated. A novel KPC-encoding plasmid, pKp28 helped define and track one endoscope-associated ST258 subclade. WGS demonstrated high genetic relatedness of patient and ERCP endoscope isolates suggesting ERCP-associated transmission of ST258 KPC-Kp. Gene and plasmid content discriminated the outbreak from endemic ST258 populations and assisted with the molecular epidemiologic investigation of an extended KPC-Kp outbreak. PMID:26637170

  10. Utility of Whole-Genome Sequencing of Escherichia coli O157 for Outbreak Detection and Epidemiological Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Lesley; Ward, Melissa; Dallman, Timothy J.; Clark, Richard; Fawkes, Angie; Murphy, Lee; Hanson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Detailed laboratory characterization of Escherichia coli O157 is essential to inform epidemiological investigations. This study assessed the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance of E. coli O157, and the data were used to identify discernible associations between genotypes and clinical outcomes. One hundred five E. coli O157 strains isolated over a 5-year period from human fecal samples in Lothian, Scotland, were sequenced with the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. A total of 8,721 variable sites in the core genome were identified among the 105 isolates; 47% of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were attributable to six “atypical” E. coli O157 strains and included recombinant regions. Phylogenetic analyses showed that WGS correlated well with the epidemiological data. Epidemiological links existed between cases whose isolates differed by three or fewer SNPs. WGS also correlated well with multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing data, with only three discordant results observed, all among isolates from cases not known to be epidemiologically related. WGS produced a better-supported, higher-resolution phylogeny than MLVA, confirming that the method is more suitable for epidemiological surveillance of E. coli O157. A combination of in silico analyses (VirulenceFinder, ResFinder, and local BLAST searches) were used to determine stx subtypes, multilocus sequence types (15 loci), and the presence of virulence and acquired antimicrobial resistance genes. There was a high level of correlation between the WGS data and our routine typing methods, although some discordant results were observed, mostly related to the limitation of short sequence read assembly. The data were used to identify sublineages and clades of E. coli O157, and when they were correlated with the clinical outcome data, they showed that one clade, Ic3, was significantly associated with severe disease. Together

  11. Rice-eating pattern and the risk of metabolic syndrome especially waist circumference in Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome poses a serious health threat in Asian countries. Rice is a staple food in Korea, and carbohydrate intake is associated with the risk of MetS. We hypothesized that various rice-eating patterns in a carbohydrate-based diet would have different effects on the risk of MetS. Methods Participants were 26,006 subjects enrolled in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study between 2004 and 2006. They were classified into four dietary patterns - white rice, rice with beans, rice with multi-grains, and mixed based on their food frequency questionnaire responses. We compared metabolic risk traits according to the rice-eating patterns. Results Nutrients consumption and the presence of MetS risk factors differed according to rice-eating patterns. In men odds ratio(OR) for central obesity was slightly elevated in mixed group(1.18). In women, the risk for central obesity and abnormal fasting glucose were lower in the rice with beans group (adjusted OR =0.79, 0.83 respectively) and central obesity in rice with multi-grains(adjusted OR=0.91) than the white rice group. In postmenopausal women, ORs for central obesity (0.78) and abnormal fasting glucose (0.75) in the rice with beans group and ORs for central obesity (0.83), abnormal HDL-cholesterol (0.87) and MetS(0.85) in the rice with multi-grains group was lower than those in white rice group. In premenopausal women, the risk for central obesity (OR=0.77) was reduced in the rice with beans group. Conclusion The risk for MetS was lower in the rice with beans and rice with multi-grains groups compared with the white rice group, particularly in postmenopausal women. PMID:23339671

  12. Comparison of whole genome sequencing typing results and epidemiological contact information from outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin in Swedish cattle herds

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Estelle C. C.; Wahlström, Helene; Vesterlund-Carlson, Catrin; Lahti, Elina; Melin, Lennart; Söderlund, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S. Dublin. Material and methods In this study, 28 isolates from 26 cattle herds were analysed and the WGS results were compared with results from the epidemiological investigations, for example, information on contacts between herds. The isolates originated from herds in three different outbreaks separated geographically and to some extent also in time, and from the only region in Sweden where S. Dublin is endemic (Öland). Results The WGS results of isolates from the three non-endemic regions were reliably separated from each other and from the endemic isolates. Within the outbreaks, herds with known epidemiological contacts generally showed smaller differences between isolates as compared to when there were no known epidemiological contacts. Conclusion The results indicate that WGS can provide valuable supplemental information in S. Dublin outbreak investigations. The resolution of the WGS was sufficient to distinguish isolates from the different outbreaks and provided additional information to the investigations within an outbreak. PMID:27396609

  13. Brief report: genome sequence and construction of an infectious cDNA clone of Ribgrass mosaic virus from Chinese cabbage in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, So-Young; Hong, Jin-Sung; Rhee, Sun-Ju; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2012-04-01

    Ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV) has severely decreased the production and lowered quality of Chinese cabbage co-infected with Turnip mosaic virus (63.4%) in Korea. The complete genome sequence of RMV isolated from Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis was determined. The full genome consisted of 6,304 nucleotides and showed sequence identities of 91.5-94.2% with the corresponding genome of other RMV strains. Full-length cDNA of RMV-Br was amplified by RT-PCR with a 5'-end primer harboring a T7 promoter sequence and a 3'-end RMV specific primer. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA was cloned into plasmid vectors. Capped transcripts synthesized from the cDNA clone were highly infectious and caused characteristic symptoms in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and several indicator plants, similar to wild type RMV. Since there has not been found RMV resistant Chinese cabbage yet and the virus has been prevalent already throughout the natural fields of Korea, the identification of full sequence and development of infectious clone would help developing breeding program for RMV resistant crops. PMID:22143325

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis in Sicily: genome macrorestriction analysis and rapid PCR-ribotyping.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Sciacca, A; Campanile, F; Messina, C; Barchitta, M; Sciacca, S; Stefani, S

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the epidemiologic relatedness of a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients attending the Pediatric Clinic, Catania, Sicily. Genome macrorestriction analysis after pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterise all strains. Furthermore, a rapid typing procedure, developed in this study, based on polymerase chain reaction amplified ribosomal DNA spacer polymorphisms (PCR-ribotyping), straight from bacterial cultures, was used. On the basis of macrorestriction analysis after PFGE, persistence of infection was shown in all patients; two cross-transmission episodes were identified in the nosocomial as well as in the familiar environment. PCR-ribotyping proved to be useful for a DNA-based identification test, suitable for screening purposes. The rapid amplification protocol here tested is proposed to evaluate the discriminatory power of other specific target sequences in PCR-based typing assays, for epidemiologic purposes. PMID:10939047

  15. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  16. Integration of Genomic and Other Epidemiologic Data to Investigate and Control a Cross-Institutional Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, Victoria J.; Smith, Alyson; Al-Shahib, Ali; Botchway, Stella; Macdonald, Emily; Daniel, Roger; Phillips, Sarah; Platt, Steven; Doumith, Michel; Tewolde, Rediat; Coelho, Juliana; Jolley, Keith A.; Underwood, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Single-strain outbreaks of Streptococcus pyogenes infections are common and often go undetected. In 2013, two clusters of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infection were identified in independent but closely located care homes in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. Investigation included visits to each home, chart review, staff survey, microbiologic sampling, and genome sequencing. S. pyogenes emm type 1.0, the most common circulating type nationally, was identified from all cases yielding GAS isolates. A tailored whole-genome reference population comprising epidemiologically relevant contemporaneous isolates and published isolates was assembled. Data were analyzed independently using whole-genome multilocus sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Six isolates from staff and residents of the homes formed a single cluster that was separated from the reference population by both analytical approaches. No further cases occurred after mass chemoprophylaxis and enhanced infection control. Our findings demonstrate the ability of 2 independent analytical approaches to enable robust conclusions from nonstandardized whole-genome analysis to support public health practice. PMID:27192043

  17. Integration of Genomic and Other Epidemiologic Data to Investigate and Control a Cross-Institutional Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Chalker, Victoria J; Smith, Alyson; Al-Shahib, Ali; Botchway, Stella; Macdonald, Emily; Daniel, Roger; Phillips, Sarah; Platt, Steven; Doumith, Michel; Tewolde, Rediat; Coelho, Juliana; Jolley, Keith A; Underwood, Anthony; McCarthy, Noel D

    2016-06-01

    Single-strain outbreaks of Streptococcus pyogenes infections are common and often go undetected. In 2013, two clusters of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infection were identified in independent but closely located care homes in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. Investigation included visits to each home, chart review, staff survey, microbiologic sampling, and genome sequencing. S. pyogenes emm type 1.0, the most common circulating type nationally, was identified from all cases yielding GAS isolates. A tailored whole-genome reference population comprising epidemiologically relevant contemporaneous isolates and published isolates was assembled. Data were analyzed independently using whole-genome multilocus sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses. Six isolates from staff and residents of the homes formed a single cluster that was separated from the reference population by both analytical approaches. No further cases occurred after mass chemoprophylaxis and enhanced infection control. Our findings demonstrate the ability of 2 independent analytical approaches to enable robust conclusions from nonstandardized whole-genome analysis to support public health practice. PMID:27192043

  18. Aspects of pathogen genomics, diversity, epidemiology, vector dynamics, and disease management for a newly emerged disease of potato: zebra chip.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Gudmestad, Neil C

    2013-06-01

    An overview is provided for the aspects of history, biology, genomics, genetics, and epidemiology of zebra chip (ZC), a destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) that represents a major threat to the potato industries in the United States as well as other potato-production regions in the world. The disease is associated with a gram-negative, phloem-limited, insect-vectored, unculturable prokaryote, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', that belongs to the Rhizobiaceae family of α-Proteobacteria. The closest cultivated relatives of 'Ca. L. solanacearum' are members of the group of bacteria known as the α-2 subgroup. In spite of the fact that Koch's postulates sensu stricto have not been fulfilled, a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the ZC disease complex since discovery of the disease. Nevertheless, more research is needed to better understand vector biology, disease mechanisms, host response, and epidemiology in the context of vector-pathogen-plant interactions. Current ZC management strategies focus primarily on psyllid control. The ultimate control of ZC likely relies on host resistance. Unfortunately, all commercial potato cultivars are susceptible to ZC. Elucidation of the 'Ca. L. solanacearum' genome sequence has provided insights into the genetic basis of virulence and physiological and metabolic capability of this organism. Finally, the most effective, sustainable management of ZC is likely to be based on integrated strategies, including removal or reduction of vectors or inocula, improvement of host resistance to the presumptive pathogen and psyllid vectors, and novel gene-based therapeutic treatment. PMID:23268582

  19. Genetic Variability among Complete Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subgroup A Genomes: Bridging Molecular Evolutionary Dynamics and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lydia; Lemey, Philippe; Houspie, Lieselot; C. Viveen, Marco; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; van Loon, Anton M.; Wiertz, Emmanuel; van Bleek, Grada M.; Martin, Darren P.; Coenjaerts, Frank E.

    2012-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. In the vast majority of cases, however, RSV infections run mild and symptoms resemble those of a common cold. The immunological, clinical, and epidemiological profile of severe RSV infections suggests a disease caused by a virus with typical seasonal transmission behavior, lacking clear-cut virulence factors, but instead causing disease by modifying the host’s immune response in a way that stimulates pathogenesis. Yet, the interplay between RSV-evoked immune responses and epidemic behavior, and how this affects the genomic evolutionary dynamics of the virus, remains poorly understood. Here, we present a comprehensive collection of 33 novel RSV subgroup A genomes from strains sampled over the last decade, and provide the first measurement of RSV-A genomic diversity through time in a phylodynamic framework. In addition, we map amino acid substitutions per protein to determine mutational hotspots in specific domains. Using Bayesian genealogical inference, we estimated the genomic evolutionary rate to be 6.47×10−4 (credible interval: 5.56×10−4, 7.38×10−4) substitutions/site/year, considerably slower than previous estimates based on G gene sequences only. The G gene is however marked by elevated substitution rates compared to other RSV genes, which can be attributed to relaxed selective constraints. In line with this, site-specific selection analyses identify the G gene as the major target of diversifying selection. Importantly, statistical analysis demonstrates that the immune driven positive selection does not leave a measurable imprint on the genome phylogeny, implying that RSV lineage replacement mainly follows nonselective epidemiological processes. The roughly 50 years of RSV-A genomic evolution are characterized by a constant population size through time and general co-circulation of lineages over many epidemic seasons

  20. Genomic Epidemiology and Molecular Resistance Mechanisms of Azithromycin-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Canada from 1997 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Demczuk, Walter; Martin, Irene; Peterson, Shelley; Bharat, Amrita; Van Domselaar, Gary; Graham, Morag; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Allen, Vanessa; Hoang, Linda; Tyrrell, Greg; Horsman, Greg; Wylie, John; Haldane, David; Archibald, Chris; Wong, Tom; Unemo, Magnus; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins and azithromycin (AZM) resistance (AZM(r)) represents a public health threat of untreatable gonorrhea infections. Genomic epidemiology through whole-genome sequencing was used to describe the emergence, dissemination, and spread of AZM(r) strains. The genomes of 213 AZM(r) and 23 AZM-susceptible N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected in Canada from 1989 to 2014 were sequenced. Core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) phylogenomic analysis resolved 246 isolates into 13 lineages. High-level AZM(r) (MICs ≥ 256 μg/ml) was found in 5 phylogenetically diverse isolates, all of which possessed the A2059G mutation (Escherichia coli numbering) in all four 23S rRNA alleles. One isolate with high-level AZM(r) collected in 2009 concurrently had decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC = 0.125 μg/ml). An increase in the number of 23S rRNA alleles with the C2611T mutations (E. coli numbering) conferred low to moderate levels of AZM(r) (MICs = 2 to 4 and 8 to 32 μg/ml, respectively). Low-level AZM(r) was also associated with mtrR promoter mutations, including the -35A deletion and the presence of Neisseria meningitidis-like sequences. Geographic and temporal phylogenetic clustering indicates that emergent AZM(r) strains arise independently and can then rapidly expand clonally in a region through local sexual networks. PMID:26935729

  1. Genome-wide Studies of Verbal Declarative Memory in Nondemented Older People: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Debette, Stéphanie; Ibrahim Verbaas, Carla A.; Bressler, Jan; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Davies, Gail; Wolf, Christiane; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Chibnik, Lori B.; Yang, Qiong; deStefano, Anita L.; de Quervain, Dominique J.F.; Srikanth, Velandai; Lahti, Jari; Grabe, Hans J.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Priebe, Lutz; Yu, Lei; Karbalai, Nazanin; Hayward, Caroline; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Petrovic, Katja; Fornage, Myriam; Chauhan, Ganesh; Yeo, Robin; Boxall, Ruth; Becker, James; Stegle, Oliver; Mather, Karen A.; Chouraki, Vincent; Sun, Qi; Rose, Lynda M.; Resnick, Susan; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Kirin, Mirna; Wright, Alan F.; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Au, Rhoda; Becker, Albert; Amin, Najaf; Nalls, Mike A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Oostra, Ben; Windham, Gwen; Coker, Laura H.; Zhao, Wei; Knopman, David S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Griswold, Michael E.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Vitart, Veronique; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Zgaga, Lina; Rudan, Igor; Polasek, Ozren; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Schofield, Peter; Choi, Seung Hoan; Tanaka, Toshiko; An, Yang; Perry, Rodney T.; Kennedy, Richard E.; Sale, Michèle M.; Wang, Jing; Wadley, Virginia G.; Liewald, David C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Gow, Alan J.; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David; Liu, Xuan; Thomson, Russell; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Assareh, Arezoo A.; Kochan, Nicole A.; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vogler, Christian; van Swieten, John C.; Shulman, Joshua M.; Beiser, Alexa; Rotter, Jerome; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Nöthen, Markus M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Attia, John; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Amouyel, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Amieva, Hélène; Räikkönen, Katri; Garcia, Melissa; Wolf, Philip A.; Hofman, Albert; Longstreth, W.T.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; DeJager, Philip L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Breteler, Monique M.B.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Oscar L.; Cichon, Sven; Chasman, Daniel I.; Grodstein, Francine; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Tzourio, Christophe; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Bennett, David A.; Ikram, Arfan M.; Deary, Ian J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Launer, Lenore; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. METHODS We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia-and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10−6) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. RESULTS rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10−10) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10−8). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10−8, and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10−8) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. CONCLUSIONS This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~ 40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. PMID:25648963

  2. Integrated Bioinformatics, Environmental Epidemiologic and Genomic Approaches to Identify Environmental and Molecular Links between Endometriosis and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Deodutta; Morgan, Marisa; Yoo, Changwon; Deoraj, Alok; Roy, Sandhya; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Garoub, Mohannad; Assaggaf, Hamza; Doke, Mayur

    2015-01-01

    We present a combined environmental epidemiologic, genomic, and bioinformatics approach to identify: exposure of environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity; epidemiologic association between endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) and health effects, such as, breast cancer or endometriosis; and gene-EDC interactions and disease associations. Human exposure measurement and modeling confirmed estrogenic activity of three selected class of environmental chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenols (BPs), and phthalates. Meta-analysis showed that PCBs exposure, not Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, increased the summary odds ratio for breast cancer and endometriosis. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EDC interactions and disease associations identified several hundred genes that were altered by exposure to PCBs, phthalate or BPA. EDCs-modified genes in breast neoplasms and endometriosis are part of steroid hormone signaling and inflammation pathways. All three EDCs–PCB 153, phthalates, and BPA influenced five common genes—CYP19A1, EGFR, ESR2, FOS, and IGF1—in breast cancer as well as in endometriosis. These genes are environmentally and estrogen responsive, altered in human breast and uterine tumors and endometriosis lesions, and part of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in cancer. Our findings suggest that breast cancer and endometriosis share some common environmental and molecular risk factors. PMID:26512648

  3. Genomic Epidemiology of the Haitian Cholera Outbreak: a Single Introduction Followed by Rapid, Extensive, and Continued Spread Characterized the Onset of the Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Talima; Koenig, Sara S. K.; Pearson, Ofori; Hicks, Nathan; Agrawal, Sonia; Sanjar, Fatemeh; Galens, Kevin; Daugherty, Sean; Crabtree, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Price, Lance B.; Upadhyay, Bishnu P.; Shakya, Geeta; Fraser, Claire M.; Ravel, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT For centuries, cholera has been one of the most feared diseases. The causative agent Vibrio cholerae is a waterborne Gram-negative enteric pathogen eliciting a severe watery diarrheal disease. In October 2010, the seventh pandemic reached Haiti, a country that had not experienced cholera for more than a century. By using whole-genome sequence typing and mapping strategies of 116 serotype O1 strains from global sources, including 44 Haitian genomes, we present a detailed reconstructed evolutionary history of the seventh pandemic with a focus on the Haitian outbreak. We catalogued subtle genomic alterations at the nucleotide level in the genome core and architectural rearrangements from whole-genome map comparisons. Isolates closely related to the Haitian isolates caused several recent outbreaks in southern Asia. This study provides evidence for a single-source introduction of cholera from Nepal into Haiti followed by rapid, extensive, and continued clonal expansion. The phylogeographic patterns in both southern Asia and Haiti argue for the rapid dissemination of V. cholerae across the landscape necessitating real-time surveillance efforts to complement the whole-genome epidemiological analysis. As eradication efforts move forward, phylogeographic knowledge will be important for identifying persistent sources and monitoring success at regional levels. The results of molecular and epidemiological analyses of this outbreak suggest that an indigenous Haitian source of V. cholerae is unlikely and that an indigenous source has not contributed to the genomic evolution of this clade. PMID:25370488

  4. Complete genome sequence of hypervirulent and outbreak-associated Acinetobacter baumannii strain LAC-4: epidemiology, resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Hong-Yu; Kuang, Shan N.; He, Xinyi; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ewing, Peter J.; Deng, Zixin; Osby, Melanie; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important human pathogen due to its multi-drug resistance. In this study, the genome of an ST10 outbreak A. baumannii isolate LAC-4 was completely sequenced to better understand its epidemiology, antibiotic resistance genetic determinants and potential virulence factors. Compared with 20 other complete genomes of A. baumannii, LAC-4 genome harbors at least 12 copies of five distinct insertion sequences. It contains 12 and 14 copies of two novel IS elements, ISAba25 and ISAba26, respectively. Additionally, three novel composite transposons were identified: Tn6250, Tn6251 and Tn6252, two of which contain resistance genes. The antibiotic resistance genetic determinants on the LAC-4 genome correlate well with observed antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Moreover, twelve genomic islands (GI) were identified in LAC-4 genome. Among them, the 33.4-kb GI12 contains a large number of genes which constitute the K (capsule) locus. LAC-4 harbors several unique putative virulence factor loci. Furthermore, LAC-4 and all 19 other outbreak isolates were found to harbor a heme oxygenase gene (hemO)-containing gene cluster. The sequencing of the first complete genome of an ST10 A. baumannii clinical strain should accelerate our understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms of resistance and virulence of A. baumannii. PMID:25728466

  5. Genomics, Molecular Epidemiology and Diagnostics of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Rai, Praveen; Safeena, Muhammed P; Krabsetsve, Kjersti; La Fauce, Kathy; Owens, Leigh; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-09-01

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is one of the major viral pathogens of penaeid shrimps worldwide, which has resulted in severe mortalities of up to 90 % in cultured Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris from Hawaii and hence designated Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). IHHNV is distributed in shrimp culture facilities worldwide. It causes large economic loss to the shrimp farming industry. Our knowledge about the natural reservoirs of IHHNV is still scarce. Recent studies suggest that there is sufficient sequence variation among the isolates from different locations in Asia, suggesting multiple geographical strains of the virus. Four complete genomes and several partial sequences of the virus are available in the GenBank. Complete genome information would be useful for assessing the specificity of diagnostics for viruses from different geographical areas. Comparisons of complete genome sequences will help us gain insights into point mutations that can affect virulence of the virus. In addition, because of unavailability of shrimp cell lines for culturing IHHNV in vitro, quantification of virus is difficult. The recent progress in research regarding clinical signs, geographical distribution, complete genome sequence and genetic variation, transmission has made it possible to obtain information on IHHNV. A comprehensive understanding of IHHNV infection process, pathogenesis, structural proteins and replication is essential for developing prevention measures. To date, no effective prophylactic measure for IHHNV infection is available for shrimp to reduce its impact. This review provides an overview of key issues regarding IHHNV infection and disease in commercially important shrimp species. PMID:23997444

  6. Genomic epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis based on population structure of prevalent lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. The low genetic diversity of SE measured by fingerprinting methods has made subtyping a challenge. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to characterize a total of 125 SE and Sa...

  7. Genomic Epidemiology of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from Temporally Related Cases of Infant Botulism in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Nadine; Gray, Timothy J; Wang, Qinning; Ng, Jimmy; Hicks, Leanne; Nguyen, Trang; Yuen, Marion; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-09-01

    Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) found that two of the BoNT/A-producing isolates shared an identical novel sequence type, ST84. The other two isolates were single-locus variants of this sequence type (ST85 and ST86). All BoNT/A-producing isolates contained the same chromosomally integrated BoNT/A2 neurotoxin gene cluster. The BoNT/B-producing isolate carried a single plasmid-borne bont/B gene cluster, encoding BoNT subtype B6. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing results corresponded well with MLST; however, the extra resolution provided by the whole-genome SNP comparisons showed that the isolates differed from each other by >3,500 SNPs. WGS analyses indicated that the four infant botulism cases were caused by genomically distinct strains of C. botulinum that were unlikely to have originated from a common environmental source. The isolates did, however, cluster together, compared with international isolates, suggesting that C. botulinum from environmental reservoirs throughout NSW have descended from a common ancestor. Analyses showed that the high resolution of WGS provided important phylogenetic information that would not be captured by standard seven-loci MLST. PMID:26109442

  8. Genomic Epidemiology of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from Temporally Related Cases of Infant Botulism in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Timothy J.; Wang, Qinning; Ng, Jimmy; Hicks, Leanne; Nguyen, Trang; Yuen, Marion; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-01-01

    Infant botulism is a potentially life-threatening paralytic disease that can be associated with prolonged morbidity if not rapidly diagnosed and treated. Four infants were diagnosed and treated for infant botulism in NSW, Australia, between May 2011 and August 2013. Despite the temporal relationship between the cases, there was no close geographical clustering or other epidemiological links. Clostridium botulinum isolates, three of which produced botulism neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) and one BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B), were characterized using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In silico multilocus sequence typing (MLST) found that two of the BoNT/A-producing isolates shared an identical novel sequence type, ST84. The other two isolates were single-locus variants of this sequence type (ST85 and ST86). All BoNT/A-producing isolates contained the same chromosomally integrated BoNT/A2 neurotoxin gene cluster. The BoNT/B-producing isolate carried a single plasmid-borne bont/B gene cluster, encoding BoNT subtype B6. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing results corresponded well with MLST; however, the extra resolution provided by the whole-genome SNP comparisons showed that the isolates differed from each other by >3,500 SNPs. WGS analyses indicated that the four infant botulism cases were caused by genomically distinct strains of C. botulinum that were unlikely to have originated from a common environmental source. The isolates did, however, cluster together, compared with international isolates, suggesting that C. botulinum from environmental reservoirs throughout NSW have descended from a common ancestor. Analyses showed that the high resolution of WGS provided important phylogenetic information that would not be captured by standard seven-loci MLST. PMID:26109442

  9. Full-Genome Sequencing as a Basis for Molecular Epidemiology Studies of Bluetongue Virus in India

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Rao, Pavuluri Panduranga; Singh, Karam Pal; Hemadri, Divakar; Putty, Kalyani; Kumar, Aman; Batra, Kanisht; Krishnajyothi, Yadlapati; Chandel, Bharat S.; Reddy, G. Hanmanth; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Reddy, Yella Narasimha; Attoui, Houssam; Hegde, Nagendra R.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998 there have been significant changes in the global distribution of bluetongue virus (BTV). Ten previously exotic BTV serotypes have been detected in Europe, causing severe disease outbreaks in naïve ruminant populations. Previously exotic BTV serotypes were also identified in the USA, Israel, Australia and India. BTV is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and changes in the distribution of vector species, climate change, increased international travel and trade are thought to have contributed to these events. Thirteen BTV serotypes have been isolated in India since first reports of the disease in the country during 1964. Efficient methods for preparation of viral dsRNA and cDNA synthesis, have facilitated full-genome sequencing of BTV strains from the region. These studies introduce a new approach for BTV characterization, based on full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, facilitating the identification of BTV serotype, topotype and reassortant strains. Phylogenetic analyses show that most of the equivalent genome-segments of Indian BTV strains are closely related, clustering within a major eastern BTV ‘topotype’. However, genome-segment 5 (Seg-5) encoding NS1, from multiple post 1982 Indian isolates, originated from a western BTV topotype. All ten genome-segments of BTV-2 isolates (IND2003/01, IND2003/02 and IND2003/03) are closely related (>99% identity) to a South African BTV-2 vaccine-strain (western topotype). Similarly BTV-10 isolates (IND2003/06; IND2005/04) show >99% identity in all genome segments, to the prototype BTV-10 (CA-8) strain from the USA. These data suggest repeated introductions of western BTV field and/or vaccine-strains into India, potentially linked to animal or vector-insect movements, or unauthorised use of ‘live’ South African or American BTV-vaccines in the country. The data presented will help improve nucleic acid based diagnostics for Indian serotypes/topotypes, as part of control strategies. PMID

  10. Comparison of Whole-Genome Sequencing and Molecular-Epidemiological Techniques for Clostridium difficile Strain Typing.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Samuel R; Anderson, Lydia J; Kotter, Cassandra V; Littlehorn, Cynthia A; Arms, Lesley E; Dowell, Elaine; Todd, James K; Frank, Daniel N

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed in parallel 27 pediatric Clostridium difficile isolates by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (RepPCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome next-generation sequencing. Next-generation sequencing distinguished 3 groups of isolates that were indistinguishable by RepPCR and 1 isolate that clustered in the same PFGE group as other isolates. PMID:26407257

  11. Complete genome sequence of canine astrovirus with molecular and epidemiological characterisation of UK strains

    PubMed Central

    Caddy, Sarah L.; Goodfellow, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses are a common cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. These viruses can also cause infection in a range of domestic and wild animal species. Canine astrovirus (CaAstV) was first identified in the USA, and has since been reported in dogs from Europe, the Far East and South America. We sought to determine whether CaAstV is circulating in the UK dog population, and to characterise any identified strains. Stool samples were collected from pet dogs in the UK with and without gastroenteritis, and samples were screened for CaAstV by qPCR. Four CaAstV positive samples were identified from dogs with gastroenteritis (4/67, 6.0%), whereas no samples from healthy dogs were positive (p < 0.001). Sequencing of the capsid sequences from the four CaAstV strains found significant genetic heterogeneity, with only 80% amino acid identity between strains. The full genome sequence of two UK CaAstV strains was then determined, confirming that CaAstV conforms to the classic genome organisation of other astroviruses with ORF1a and ORF1b separated by a frameshift and ORF2 encoding the capsid protein. This is the first report describing the circulation of CaAstV in UK dogs with clinical signs of gastroenteritis, and the first description of the full-length genomes of two CaAstV strains. PMID:25818578

  12. Evaluation of an Optimal Epidemiological Typing Scheme for Legionella pneumophila with Whole-Genome Sequence Data Using Validation Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Mentasti, Massimo; Tewolde, Rediat; Aslett, Martin; Harris, Simon R.; Afshar, Baharak; Underwood, Anthony; Harrison, Timothy G.

    2016-01-01

    Sequence-based typing (SBT), analogous to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), is the current “gold standard” typing method for investigation of legionellosis outbreaks caused by Legionella pneumophila. However, as common sequence types (STs) cause many infections, some investigations remain unresolved. In this study, various whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based methods were evaluated according to published guidelines, including (i) a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method, (ii) extended MLST using different numbers of genes, (iii) determination of gene presence or absence, and (iv) a kmer-based method. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates (n = 106) from the standard “typing panel,” previously used by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology Study Group on Legionella Infections (ESGLI), were tested together with another 229 isolates. Over 98% of isolates were considered typeable using the SNP- and kmer-based methods. Percentages of isolates with complete extended MLST profiles ranged from 99.1% (50 genes) to 86.8% (1,455 genes), while only 41.5% produced a full profile with the gene presence/absence scheme. Replicates demonstrated that all methods offer 100% reproducibility. Indices of discrimination range from 0.972 (ribosomal MLST) to 0.999 (SNP based), and all values were higher than that achieved with SBT (0.940). Epidemiological concordance is generally inversely related to discriminatory power. We propose that an extended MLST scheme with ∼50 genes provides optimal epidemiological concordance while substantially improving the discrimination offered by SBT and can be used as part of a hierarchical typing scheme that should maintain backwards compatibility and increase discrimination where necessary. This analysis will be useful for the ESGLI to design a scheme that has the potential to become the new gold standard typing method for L. pneumophila. PMID:27280420

  13. Evaluation of an Optimal Epidemiological Typing Scheme for Legionella pneumophila with Whole-Genome Sequence Data Using Validation Guidelines.

    PubMed

    David, Sophia; Mentasti, Massimo; Tewolde, Rediat; Aslett, Martin; Harris, Simon R; Afshar, Baharak; Underwood, Anthony; Fry, Norman K; Parkhill, Julian; Harrison, Timothy G

    2016-08-01

    Sequence-based typing (SBT), analogous to multilocus sequence typing (MLST), is the current "gold standard" typing method for investigation of legionellosis outbreaks caused by Legionella pneumophila However, as common sequence types (STs) cause many infections, some investigations remain unresolved. In this study, various whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based methods were evaluated according to published guidelines, including (i) a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method, (ii) extended MLST using different numbers of genes, (iii) determination of gene presence or absence, and (iv) a kmer-based method. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates (n = 106) from the standard "typing panel," previously used by the European Society for Clinical Microbiology Study Group on Legionella Infections (ESGLI), were tested together with another 229 isolates. Over 98% of isolates were considered typeable using the SNP- and kmer-based methods. Percentages of isolates with complete extended MLST profiles ranged from 99.1% (50 genes) to 86.8% (1,455 genes), while only 41.5% produced a full profile with the gene presence/absence scheme. Replicates demonstrated that all methods offer 100% reproducibility. Indices of discrimination range from 0.972 (ribosomal MLST) to 0.999 (SNP based), and all values were higher than that achieved with SBT (0.940). Epidemiological concordance is generally inversely related to discriminatory power. We propose that an extended MLST scheme with ∼50 genes provides optimal epidemiological concordance while substantially improving the discrimination offered by SBT and can be used as part of a hierarchical typing scheme that should maintain backwards compatibility and increase discrimination where necessary. This analysis will be useful for the ESGLI to design a scheme that has the potential to become the new gold standard typing method for L. pneumophila. PMID:27280420

  14. Genome-Wide Gene-Sodium Interaction Analyses on Blood Pressure: The Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Changwei; He, Jiang; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Jinying; Gu, Dongfeng; Hixson, James E; Rao, Dabeeru C; Jaquish, Cashell E; Gu, Charles C; Chen, Jichun; Huang, Jianfeng; Chen, Shufeng; Kelly, Tanika N

    2016-08-01

    We performed genome-wide analyses to identify genomic loci that interact with sodium to influence blood pressure (BP) using single-marker-based (1 and 2 df joint tests) and gene-based tests among 1876 Chinese participants of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt-Sensitivity (GenSalt) study. Among GenSalt participants, the average of 3 urine samples was used to estimate sodium excretion. Nine BP measurements were taken using a random zero sphygmomanometer. A total of 2.05 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms were imputed using Affymetrix 6.0 genotype data and the Chinese Han of Beijing and Japanese of Tokyo HapMap reference panel. Promising findings (P<1.00×10(-4)) from GenSalt were evaluated for replication among 775 Chinese participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Single-nucleotide polymorphism and gene-based results were meta-analyzed across the GenSalt and MESA studies to determine genome-wide significance. The 1 df tests identified interactions for UST rs13211840 on diastolic BP (P=3.13×10(-9)). The 2 df tests additionally identified associations for CLGN rs2567241 (P=3.90×10(-12)) and LOC105369882 rs11104632 (P=4.51×10(-8)) with systolic BP. The CLGN variant rs2567241 was also associated with diastolic BP (P=3.11×10(-22)) and mean arterial pressure (P=2.86×10(-15)). Genome-wide gene-based analysis identified MKNK1 (P=6.70×10(-7)), C2orf80 (P<1.00×10(-12)), EPHA6 (P=2.88×10(-7)), SCOC-AS1 (P=4.35×10(-14)), SCOC (P=6.46×10(-11)), CLGN (P=3.68×10(-13)), MGAT4D (P=4.73×10(-11)), ARHGAP42 (P≤1.00×10(-12)), CASP4 (P=1.31×10(-8)), and LINC01478 (P=6.75×10(-10)) that were associated with at least 1 BP phenotype. In summary, we identified 8 novel and 1 previously reported BP loci through the examination of single-nucleotide polymorphism and gene-based interactions with sodium. PMID:27271309

  15. Genome-wide SNP and microsatellite variation illuminate population-level epidemiology in the Leishmania donovani species complex.

    PubMed

    Downing, Tim; Stark, Olivia; Vanaerschot, Manu; Imamura, Hideo; Sanders, Mandy; Decuypere, Saskia; de Doncker, Simonne; Maes, Ilse; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Berriman, Matthew; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The species of the Leishmania donovani species complex cause visceral leishmaniasis, a debilitating infectious disease transmitted by sandflies. Understanding molecular changes associated with population structure in these parasites can help unravel their epidemiology and spread in humans. In this study, we used a panel of standard microsatellite loci and genome-wide SNPs to investigate population-level diversity in L. donovani strains recently isolated from a small geographic area spanning India, Bihar and Nepal, and compared their variation to that found in diverse strains of the L. donovani complex isolates from Europe, Africa and Asia. Microsatellites and SNPs could clearly resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the strains between continents, and microsatellite phylogenies indicated that certain older Indian strains were closely related to African strains. In the context of the anti-malaria spraying campaigns in the 1960s, this was consistent with a pattern of episodic population size contractions and clonal expansions in these parasites that was supported by population history simulations. In sharp contrast to the low resolution provided by microsatellites, SNPs retained a much more fine-scale resolution of population-level variability to the extent that they identified four different lineages from the same region one of which was more closely related to African and European strains than to Indian or Nepalese ones. Joining results of in vitro testing the antimonial drug sensitivity with the phylogenetic signals from the SNP data highlighted protein-level mutations revealing a distinct drug-resistant group of Nepalese and Indian L. donovani. This study demonstrates the power of genomic data for exploring parasite population structure. Furthermore, markers defining different genetic groups have been discovered that could potentially be applied to investigate drug resistance in clinical Leishmania strains. PMID:22119748

  16. Epidemiologic study of Taylorella equigenitalis strains by field inversion gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction endonuclease fragments.

    PubMed

    Bleumink-Pluym, N; ter Laak, E A; van der Zeijst, B A

    1990-09-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted bacterial disease, was first described in thoroughbred horses. It also occurs in nonthoroughbred horses, in which it produces isolated, apparently unrelated outbreaks. Thirty-two strains of Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of CEM, from all over the world were characterized by field inversion gel electrophoresis of fragments of genomic DNA obtained by digestion with low-cleavage-frequency restriction enzymes. This resulted in a division into five clearly distinct groups. Strains from thoroughbred horses from all continents belonged to one group. Strains from nonthoroughbred horses from various countries were different from strains from thoroughbred horses; four groups could be determined. Two groups contained both streptomycin-resistant and streptomycin-susceptible strains. The data indicate that CEM in nonthoroughbreds did not originate from the thoroughbred population; also, the reverse was not demonstrated. Thus, extensive international transportation directives regarding the testing of nonthoroughbred horses for CEM may need reconsideration. PMID:2172296

  17. Feral swine brucellosis in the United States and prospective genomic techniques for disease epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Leiser, Owen P; Corn, Joseph L; Schmit, Brandon S; Keim, Paul S; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2013-09-27

    Brucellosis is a common infection of feral swine throughout the United States. With the recent expansion of feral swine populations across the country, this disease poses an increasing threat to agriculture and hunters. The standard approach to Brucella surveillance in feral swine has been serological testing, which gives an indication of past exposure and is a rapid method of determining populations where Brucella is present. More in-depth analyses require bacterial isolation to determine the Brucella species and biovar involved. Ultimately, for a comprehensive understanding of Brucella epizootiology in feral swine, incorporation of genotyping assays has become essential. Fortunately, the past decade has given rise to an array of genetic tools for assessing Brucella transmission and dispersal. This review aims to synthesize what is known about brucellosis in feral swine and will cover prospective genomic techniques that may be utilized to develop more complete understanding of the disease and its transmission history. PMID:23548760

  18. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wyrsch, Ethan R; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A; Charles, Ian G; Hammond, Jeffrey M; Djordjevic, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging bacterial pathogens and strains with resistance to more than one antibiotic class remains a challenge. A comprehensive, sequence-based genomic epidemiological surveillance model that captures essential microbial metadata is needed, both to improve surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and to monitor pathogen evolution. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing both intestinal [intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)] and extraintestinal [extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)] disease in humans and food animals. ExPEC are the most frequently isolated Gram negative pathogen affecting human health, linked to food production practices and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Cattle are a known reservoir of IPEC but they are not recognized as a source of ExPEC that impact human or animal health. In contrast, poultry are a recognized source of multiple antibiotic resistant ExPEC, while swine have received comparatively less attention in this regard. Here, we review what is known about ExPEC in swine and how pig production contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27379026

  19. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wyrsch, Ethan R.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A.; Charles, Ian G.; Hammond, Jeffrey M.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging bacterial pathogens and strains with resistance to more than one antibiotic class remains a challenge. A comprehensive, sequence-based genomic epidemiological surveillance model that captures essential microbial metadata is needed, both to improve surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and to monitor pathogen evolution. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing both intestinal [intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)] and extraintestinal [extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)] disease in humans and food animals. ExPEC are the most frequently isolated Gram negative pathogen affecting human health, linked to food production practices and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Cattle are a known reservoir of IPEC but they are not recognized as a source of ExPEC that impact human or animal health. In contrast, poultry are a recognized source of multiple antibiotic resistant ExPEC, while swine have received comparatively less attention in this regard. Here, we review what is known about ExPEC in swine and how pig production contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27379026

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10, a Thiosulfate-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sunflower Fields in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Chung, Hee; Yoo, Jemin; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min; Lee, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10 (KACC 12756(T) = LMG 24673(T)) is a thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soils of sunflower plants. In this study, we completely sequenced the genome of D. thiooxydans ATSB10 and identified the genes involved in thiosulfate oxidation and the metabolism of aromatic intermediates. PMID:27340060

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10, a Thiosulfate-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from Sunflower Fields in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Chung, Hee; Yoo, Jemin; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min

    2016-01-01

    Dyella thiooxydans ATSB10 (KACC 12756T = LMG 24673T) is a thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soils of sunflower plants. In this study, we completely sequenced the genome of D. thiooxydans ATSB10 and identified the genes involved in thiosulfate oxidation and the metabolism of aromatic intermediates. PMID:27340060

  2. Differential recognition of the ORF2 region in a complete genome sequence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) isolated from boar bone marrow in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Chang-Hee; Nguyen, Lien Thi Kim; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won

    2015-09-15

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in swine. Here, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using PCV2 nucleotide sequences derived from the bone marrow of Korean boar and previously reported PCV2 sequences isolated from various countries. PCV2 from Korean boar bone marrow (KC188796) was classified into the group containing PCV2a-Canada and other PCV2 strain from Korea. While the ORF1 region of the PCV2 genome was highly conserved, ORF2 (the capsid protein coding region) was relatively variable. The nucleotide sequences for bone marrow-derived PCV2 were 93.4-99.0% homologous to the other reference sequences. The deduced amino acid sequences for the ORF1 and ORF2 coding regions were 97.4-99.3% and 84.5-97.4% homologous with the other reference strains, respectively, indicating that KC188796 did not differ markedly from the other PCV2 strains. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that bone marrow-derived PCV2 was highly similar to PCV2a from Canada and may be related to persistent PCV2 infections in swine. PMID:25917618

  3. First Complete Genome Sequence of the Dutch Veterinary Coxiella burnetii Strain NL3262, Originating from the Largest Global Q Fever Outbreak, and Draft Genome Sequence of Its Epidemiologically Linked Chronic Human Isolate NLhu3345937.

    PubMed

    Kuley, Runa; Smith, Hilde E; Janse, Ingmar; Harders, Frank L; Baas, Frank; Schijlen, Elio; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H; Smits, Mari A; Roest, Hendrik I J; Bossers, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The largest global Q fever outbreak occurred in The Netherlands during 2007 to 2010. Goats and sheep were identified as the major sources of disease. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of ITALIC! Coxiella burnetiigoat outbreak strain NL3262 and that of an epidemiologically linked chronic human strain, both having the outbreak-related ITALIC! CbNL01multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) genotype. PMID:27103714

  4. First Complete Genome Sequence of the Dutch Veterinary Coxiella burnetii Strain NL3262, Originating from the Largest Global Q Fever Outbreak, and Draft Genome Sequence of Its Epidemiologically Linked Chronic Human Isolate NLhu3345937

    PubMed Central

    Kuley, Runa; Smith, Hilde E.; Janse, Ingmar; Harders, Frank L.; Baas, Frank; Schijlen, Elio; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Smits, Mari A.; Roest, Hendrik I. J.

    2016-01-01

    The largest global Q fever outbreak occurred in The Netherlands during 2007 to 2010. Goats and sheep were identified as the major sources of disease. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of Coxiella burnetii goat outbreak strain NL3262 and that of an epidemiologically linked chronic human strain, both having the outbreak-related CbNL01 multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) genotype. PMID:27103714

  5. Genetic Variation and Reproductive Timing: African American Women from the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Cara L.; Franceschini, Nora; Fernández-Rhodes, Lindsay; Young, Alicia; Cheng, Iona; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilkens, Lynne; ChunyuanWu; Matise, Tara C.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Brennan, Kathleen; Park, Amy; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hindorff, Lucia A.

    2013-01-01

    Age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) define the boundaries of the reproductive lifespan in women. Their timing is associated with various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with either AM or ANM in populations of largely European or Asian descent women. The extent to which these associations generalize to diverse populations remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to replicate previously reported AM and ANM findings and to identify novel AM and ANM variants using the Metabochip (n = 161,098 SNPs) in 4,159 and 1,860 African American women, respectively, in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) studies, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study. We replicated or generalized one previously identified variant for AM, rs1361108/CENPW, and two variants for ANM, rs897798/BRSK1 and rs769450/APOE, to our African American cohort. Overall, generalization of the majority of previously-identified variants for AM and ANM, including LIN28B and MCM8, was not observed in this African American sample. We identified three novel loci associated with ANM that reached significance after multiple testing correction (LDLR rs189596789, p = 5×10−08; KCNQ1 rs79972789, p = 1.9×10−07; COL4A3BP rs181686584, p = 2.9×10−07). Our most significant AM association was upstream of RSF1, a gene implicated in ovarian and breast cancers (rs11604207, p = 1.6×10−06). While most associations were identified in either AM or ANM, we did identify genes suggestively associated with both: PHACTR1 and ARHGAP42. The lack of generalization coupled with the potentially novel associations identified here emphasize the need for additional genetic discovery efforts for AM and ANM in diverse populations. PMID:23424626

  6. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam H.; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo

    2015-01-01

    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 3521, age range = 42–71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1–Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with β-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P < 0.001). After adjusting for most risk factors related with DM, the relative risks of DM development were 0.989 (95% confidence interval, 0.638–1.578), 1.660 (1.025–2.687), and 1.746 (1.037–2.942) in men and 0.939 (0.540–1.769), 1.518 (0.808–2.853), and 2.077 (1.068–4.038) in women in Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively when compared to Q1. This finding indicates negative impact from large neck circumference in the development of DM. PMID:26681338

  7. Epidemiological survey on the infection of intestinal flukes in residents of Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Lee, Dong-Min; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kim, In-Sang; Hwang, Eun-Jung; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2010-06-01

    Infection status of intestinal flukes was investigated in residents of Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 1,257 fecal samples of residents were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique and Kato-Katz thick smear method. Helminth eggs were detected from 95 (7.6%) residents, and eggs of heterophyid flukes and Clonorchis sinensis were found from 62 (4.9%) and 40 (3.2%) cases, respectively. The larger heterophyid eggs, somewhat dark-brown in color and 37.7 x 21.5 microm in average size, and found in 32 (2.6%) out of 62 egg positive cases of heterophyid flukes. To confirm the adult flukes, we performed worm recovery from 12 cases after praziquantel treatment and purgation with MgSO(4). A total of 1,281 adult flukes, assigned to 7 species, were recovered from 9 cooperative cases. Heterophyes nocens (total 981 specimens) was collected from 9 cases, Stictodora fuscata (80) from 7, Gymnophalloides seoi (75) from 5, Pygidiopsis summa (140) from 3, Stellantchasmus falcatus (3) from 2, and Stictodora lari and Acanthotrema felis (each 1 worm) from 1 case each. The intrauterine eggs of S. fuscata collected from the recovered worm were identical with the larger heterophyid eggs detected in the stool examination. By the present study, it was confirmed that A. felis is a new intestinal fluke infecting humans, and residents in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do are infected with variable species of intestinal trematodes. PMID:20585529

  8. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea: A nationwide epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13-19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P < 0.001). About 14.4% of teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P < 0.001). Teenage mothers (<20 years) were 2.47 times more likely to have preterm delivery than older mothers (20-34 years; P < 0.001). Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001). PMID:27559960

  9. Genome-wide association analysis and replication of coronary artery disease in South Korea suggests a causal variant common to diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Young; Jang, Yangsoo; Shin, Eun Soon; Jang, Hye Yoon; Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Sook; Jang, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ji Yeon; Yun, Min Hye; Park, Min Young; Chae, Jey Sook; Lim, Jin Woo; Shin, Dong Jik; Park, Sungha; Lee, Jong Ho; Han, Bok Ghee; Rae, Kim Hyung; Cardon, Lon R; Morris, Andrew P; Lee, Jong Eun; Clarke, Geraldine M

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified and replicated several genetic loci associated with the risk of development of coronary artery disease (CAD) in samples from populations of Caucasian and Asian descent. However, only chromosome 9p21 has been confirmed as a major susceptibility locus conferring risk for development of CAD across multiple ethnic groups. The authors aimed to find evidence of further similarities and differences in genetic risk of CAD between Korean and other populations. Methods The authors performed a GWA study comprising 230 cases and 290 controls from a Korean population typed on 490 032 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 3148 SNPs were taken forward for genotyping in a subsequent replication study using an independent sample of 1172 cases and 1087 controls from the same population. Results The association previously observed on chromosome 9p21 was independently replicated (p=3.08e–07). Within this region, the same risk haplotype was observed in samples from both Korea and of Western European descent, suggesting that the causal mutation carried on this background occurred on a single ancestral allele. Other than 9p21, the authors were unable to replicate any of the previously reported signals for association with CAD. Furthermore, no evidence of association was found at chromosome 1q41 for risk of myocardial infarction, previously identified as conferring risk in a Japanese population. Conclusion A common causal variant is likely to be responsible for risk of CAD in Korean and Western European populations at chromosome 9p21.3. Further investigations are required to confirm non-replication of any other cross-race genetic risk factors. PMID:27325954

  10. Calculation of Evolutionary Correlation between Individual Genes and Full-Length Genome: A Method Useful for Choosing Phylogenetic Markers for Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Luo, Xuenong; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yadong; Dou, Yongxi; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    Individual genes or regions are still commonly used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among viral isolates. The genomic regions that can faithfully provide assessments consistent with those predicted with full-length genome sequences would be preferable to serve as good candidates of the phylogenetic markers for molecular epidemiological studies of many viruses. Here we employed a statistical method to evaluate the evolutionary relationships between individual viral genes and full-length genomes without tree construction as a way to determine which gene can match the genome well in phylogenetic analyses. This method was performed by calculation of linear correlations between the genetic distance matrices of aligned individual gene sequences and aligned genome sequences. We applied this method to the phylogenetic analyses of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), measles virus (MV), hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparisons and the possible factors affecting the method accuracy were also discussed in the calculations. The results revealed that this method could produce results consistent with those of previous studies about the proper consensus sequences that could be successfully used as phylogenetic markers. And our results also suggested that these evolutionary correlations could provide useful information for identifying genes that could be used effectively to infer the genetic relationships. PMID:24312527

  11. South Korea.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role. PMID:12178031

  12. Genomic Epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Italy and Novel Insights into the Origin and Global Evolution of Its Resistance to Carbapenem Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gaiarsa, Stefano; Comandatore, Francesco; Gaibani, Paolo; Corbella, Marta; Dalla Valle, Claudia; Epis, Sara; Scaltriti, Erika; Carretto, Edoardo; Farina, Claudio; Labonia, Maria; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio; Bandi, Claudio; Marone, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is at the forefront of antimicrobial resistance for Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, as strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems are widely reported. The worldwide diffusion of these strains is of great concern due to the high morbidity and mortality often associated with K. pneumoniae infections in nosocomial environments. We sequenced the genomes of 89 K. pneumoniae strains isolated in six Italian hospitals. Strains were selected based on antibiotypes, regardless of multilocus sequence type, to obtain a picture of the epidemiology of K. pneumoniae in Italy. Thirty-one strains were carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, 29 were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, and 29 were susceptible to the aforementioned antibiotics. The genomes were compared to all of the sequences available in the databases, obtaining a data set of 319 genomes spanning the known diversity of K. pneumoniae worldwide. Bioinformatic analyses of this global data set allowed us to construct a whole-species phylogeny, to detect patterns of antibiotic resistance distribution, and to date the differentiation between specific clades of interest. Finally, we detected an ∼1.3-Mb recombination that characterizes all of the isolates of clonal complex 258, the most widespread carbapenem-resistant group of K. pneumoniae. The evolution of this complex was modeled, dating the newly detected and the previously reported recombination events. The present study contributes to the understanding of K. pneumoniae evolution, providing novel insights into its global genomic characteristics and drawing a dated epidemiological scenario for this pathogen in Italy. PMID:25367909

  13. Integrating understanding of epidemiology and genomics in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a pathway to novel management strategies.

    PubMed

    Glass, Samantha; Phan, Anh; Williams, Jessica N; Flowers, Christopher R; Koff, Jean L

    2016-03-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphomas include a biologically and clinically heterogeneous group of cancers distinguished by genetics, histology, and treatment outcomes. New discoveries regarding the genomic alterations and epidemiological exposures associated with these lymphomas have enhanced our understanding of factors that contribute to lymphomagenesis for specific subtypes. We explore the impact of normal B-cell biology engineered for recognizing a wide variety of antigens on the development of specific lymphoma subtypes, review lymphoma genetics, and examine the epidemiology of B-cell NHLs including recent investigations of risk factors for particular lymphoma subtypes based on large pooled analyses. Burkitt lymphoma, an aggressive form of B-cell NHL involving translocation of the MYC gene and an immunoglobulin gene has been associated with a history of eczema, hepatitis C, and occupation as a cleaner. Increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has been associated with increased young adult body mass index, history of B-cell-activating autoimmune diseases, hepatitis C, and several single nucleotide variants involving the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region of chromosome 6 and non-HLA loci near EXOC2, PVT1, MYC, and NCOA1. Tumor sequencing studies suggest that multiple pathways are involved in the development of DLBCL. Additional studies of epidemiological exposures, genome wide associations, and tumor sequencing in follicular, lymphoplasmacytic, marginal zone, and mantle cell lymphoma demonstrate overlapping areas of increased risk factors and unique factors for specific subtypes. Integrating these findings is important for constructing comprehensive models of NHL pathogenesis, which could yield novel targets for therapy and strategies for lymphoma prevention in certain populations. PMID:27115168

  14. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  15. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  18. A Robust e-Epidemiology Tool in Phenotyping Heart Failure with Differentiation for Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction: the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Suzette J; Pathak, Jyotishman; Carrell, David S; Takahashi, Paul Y; Olson, Janet E; Larson, Nicholas B; Liu, Hongfang; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wells, Quinn S; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pacheco, Jennifer Allen; Jackson, Kathryn L; Lesnick, Timothy G; Gullerud, Rachel E; Decker, Paul A; Pereira, Naveen L; Ryu, Euijung; Dart, Richard A; Peissig, Peggy; Linneman, James G; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; Bock, Jonathan A; Tromp, Gerard C; de Andrade, Mariza; Roger, Véronique L

    2015-11-01

    Identifying populations of heart failure (HF) patients is paramount to research efforts aimed at developing strategies to effectively reduce the burden of this disease. The use of electronic medical record (EMR) data for this purpose is challenging given the syndromic nature of HF and the need to distinguish HF with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Using a gold standard cohort of manually abstracted cases, an EMR-driven phenotype algorithm based on structured and unstructured data was developed to identify all the cases. The resulting algorithm was executed in two cohorts from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network with a positive predictive value of >95 %. The algorithm was expanded to include three hierarchical definitions of HF (i.e., definite, probable, possible) based on the degree of confidence of the classification to capture HF cases in a whole population whereby increasing the algorithm utility for use in e-Epidemiologic research. PMID:26195183

  19. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010–2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  20. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  1. Subtype-independent near full-length HIV-1 genome sequencing and assembly to be used in large molecular epidemiological studies and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Sebastian; Nowak, Piotr; Neogi, Ujjwal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV-1 near full-length genome (HIV-NFLG) sequencing from plasma is an attractive multidimensional tool to apply in large-scale population-based molecular epidemiological studies. It also enables genotypic resistance testing (GRT) for all drug target sites allowing effective intervention strategies for control and prevention in high-risk population groups. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a simplified subtype-independent, cost- and labour-efficient HIV-NFLG protocol that can be used in clinical management as well as in molecular epidemiological studies. Methods Plasma samples (n=30) were obtained from HIV-1B (n=10), HIV-1C (n=10), CRF01_AE (n=5) and CRF01_AG (n=5) infected individuals with minimum viral load >1120 copies/ml. The amplification was performed with two large amplicons of 5.5 kb and 3.7 kb, sequenced with 17 primers to obtain HIV-NFLG. GRT was validated against ViroSeq™ HIV-1 Genotyping System. Results After excluding four plasma samples with low-quality RNA, a total of 26 samples were attempted. Among them, NFLG was obtained from 24 (92%) samples with the lowest viral load being 3000 copies/ml. High (>99%) concordance was observed between HIV-NFLG and ViroSeq™ when determining the drug resistance mutations (DRMs). The N384I connection mutation was additionally detected by NFLG in two samples. Conclusions Our high efficiency subtype-independent HIV-NFLG is a simple and promising approach to be used in large-scale molecular epidemiological studies. It will facilitate the understanding of the HIV-1 pandemic population dynamics and outline effective intervention strategies. Furthermore, it can potentially be applicable in clinical management of drug resistance by evaluating DRMs against all available antiretrovirals in a single assay. PMID:26115688

  2. Epidemiological fingerprinting of Enterobacter cloacae by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic restriction fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Haertl, R; Bandlow, G

    1993-01-01

    A cluster of infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae was observed among preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a pediatric hospital in Osnabrück, Germany. The presence of similar antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among the bacterial isolates prompted an investigation to determine whether a limited spread of a single strain existed. All 12 E. cloacae isolates from the NICU and 50 nonrelated strains were fingerprinted by small-fragment restriction endonuclease analysis (SF-REA) of EcoRI DNA digests. Selected isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of NotI- or XbaI-generated genomic restriction fragments. Epidemiologically unrelated strains were clearly discriminated by both methods. Results achieved by SF-REA and PFGE revealed that of the 12 isolates from the NICU, 11 belonged to the same genotypic cluster. Since all reagents and equipment for both techniques are commercially available, DNA fingerprinting by SF-REA or PFGE is proposed as a useful tool in the microbiology laboratory for investigating the epidemiological relatedness of E. cloacae strains of clinical and environmental origin. Images PMID:8093251

  3. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  4. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Using JSpecies Tool Establishes Clonal Relationships between Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Epidemiologically Unrelated Listeriosis Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Burall, Laurel S; Grim, Christopher J; Mammel, Mark K; Datta, Atin R

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to build a comprehensive genomic approach to food safety challenges, the FDA has implemented a whole genome sequencing effort, GenomeTrakr, which involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes of foodborne pathogens. As a part of this effort, we routinely sequence whole genomes of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) isolates associated with human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those isolated through other sources. To rapidly establish genetic relatedness of these genomes, we evaluated tetranucleotide frequency analysis via the JSpecies program to provide a cursory analysis of strain relatedness. The JSpecies tetranucleotide (tetra) analysis plots standardized (z-score) tetramer word frequencies of two strains against each other and uses linear regression analysis to determine similarity (r2). This tool was able to validate the close relationships between outbreak related strains from four different outbreaks. Included in this study was the analysis of Lm strains isolated during the recent caramel apple outbreak and stone fruit incident in 2014. We identified that many of the isolates from these two outbreaks shared a common 4b variant (4bV) serotype, also designated as IVb-v1, using a qPCR protocol developed in our laboratory. The 4bV serotype is characterized by the presence of a 6.3 Kb DNA segment normally found in serotype 1/2a, 3a, 1/2c and 3c strains but not in serotype 4b or 1/2b strains. We decided to compare these strains at a genomic level using the JSpecies Tetra tool. Specifically, we compared several 4bV and 4b isolates and identified a high level of similarity between the stone fruit and apple 4bV strains, but not the 4b strains co-identified in the caramel apple outbreak or other 4b or 4bV strains in our collection. This finding was further substantiated by a SNP-based analysis. Additionally, we were able to identify close relatedness between isolates from clinical cases from 1993-1994 and a single case from 2011 as well as links between two

  5. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Using JSpecies Tool Establishes Clonal Relationships between Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Epidemiologically Unrelated Listeriosis Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Burall, Laurel S.; Grim, Christopher J.; Mammel, Mark K.; Datta, Atin R.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to build a comprehensive genomic approach to food safety challenges, the FDA has implemented a whole genome sequencing effort, GenomeTrakr, which involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes of foodborne pathogens. As a part of this effort, we routinely sequence whole genomes of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) isolates associated with human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those isolated through other sources. To rapidly establish genetic relatedness of these genomes, we evaluated tetranucleotide frequency analysis via the JSpecies program to provide a cursory analysis of strain relatedness. The JSpecies tetranucleotide (tetra) analysis plots standardized (z-score) tetramer word frequencies of two strains against each other and uses linear regression analysis to determine similarity (r2). This tool was able to validate the close relationships between outbreak related strains from four different outbreaks. Included in this study was the analysis of Lm strains isolated during the recent caramel apple outbreak and stone fruit incident in 2014. We identified that many of the isolates from these two outbreaks shared a common 4b variant (4bV) serotype, also designated as IVb-v1, using a qPCR protocol developed in our laboratory. The 4bV serotype is characterized by the presence of a 6.3 Kb DNA segment normally found in serotype 1/2a, 3a, 1/2c and 3c strains but not in serotype 4b or 1/2b strains. We decided to compare these strains at a genomic level using the JSpecies Tetra tool. Specifically, we compared several 4bV and 4b isolates and identified a high level of similarity between the stone fruit and apple 4bV strains, but not the 4b strains co-identified in the caramel apple outbreak or other 4b or 4bV strains in our collection. This finding was further substantiated by a SNP-based analysis. Additionally, we were able to identify close relatedness between isolates from clinical cases from 1993–1994 and a single case from 2011 as well as links between

  6. Targeted sequencing in candidate genes for atrial fibrillation: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Honghuang; Sinner, Moritz F.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Arking, Dan E.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Rienstra, Michiel; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Bis, Joshua C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Gupta, Mayetri; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kääb, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that predispose to atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants in genes implicated by such GWAS confer additional risk of AF. Objective To study the association of genetic variants with AF at GWAS top loci. Methods In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study, we selected and sequenced 77 target gene regions from GWAS loci of complex diseases or traits, including 4 genes hypothesized to be related to AF (PRRX1, CAV1, CAV2, and ZFHX3). Sequencing was performed in participants with (n = 948) and without (n = 3330) AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. Results One common variant (rs11265611; P = 1.70 × 10−6) intronic to IL6R (interleukin-6 receptor gene) was significantly associated with AF after Bonferroni correction (odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.85). The variant was not genotyped or imputed by prior GWAS, but it is in linkage disequilibrium (r2 = .69) with the single-nucleotide polymorphism, with the strongest association with AF so far at this locus (rs4845625). In the rare variant joint analysis, damaging variants within the PRRX1 region showed significant association with AF after Bonferroni correction (P = .01). Conclusions We identified 1 common single-nucleotide polymorphism and 1 gene region that were significantly associated with AF. Future sequencing efforts with larger sample sizes and more comprehensive genome coverage are anticipated to identify additional AF-related variants. PMID:24239840

  7. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  8. A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W.; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M.; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M.; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L.; Pankow, James S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C.; Bovill, Edwin G.; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W.

    2014-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a 2-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended CHARGE VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to ~2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (p≤0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG) (p<5.0×10−13 for both). The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (p<5.0×10-6) and constitute new candidate genes. In conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations. PMID:23650146

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1T, Isolated from Seawater off Dokdo in the East Sea (Sea of Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kitae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jihyun F

    2016-01-01

    Dokdonia spp. have been used for investigating the lifestyles of proteorhodopsin-containing photoheterotrophs and for understanding marine photobiology. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1(T) using the PacBio sequencing platform. It should provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of marine life harboring microbial rhodopsins among others. PMID:27491981

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Proteorhodopsin-Containing Marine Flavobacterium Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1T, Isolated from Seawater off Dokdo in the East Sea (Sea of Korea)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kitae; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Dokdonia spp. have been used for investigating the lifestyles of proteorhodopsin-containing photoheterotrophs and for understanding marine photobiology. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Dokdonia donghaensis DSW-1T using the PacBio sequencing platform. It should provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of marine life harboring microbial rhodopsins among others. PMID:27491981

  11. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  12. Complete genome and molecular epidemiological data infer the maintenance of rabies among kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Scott, Terence P; Fischer, Melina; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Freuling, Conrad; Höper, Dirk; Hoffmann, Bernd; Markotter, Wanda; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H

    2013-01-01

    Rabies in kudu is unique to Namibia and two major peaks in the epizootic have occurred since it was first noted in 1977. Due to the large numbers of kudu that were affected, it was suspected that horizontal transmission of rabies occurs among kudu and that rabies was being maintained independently within the Namibian kudu population - separate from canid cycles, despite geographic overlap. In this study, it was our aim to show, through phylogenetic analyses, that rabies was being maintained independently within the Namibian kudu population. We also tested, through complete genome sequencing of four rabies virus isolates from jackal and kudu, whether specific mutations occurred in the virus genome due to host adaptation. We found the separate grouping of all rabies isolates from kudu to those of any other canid species in Namibia, suggesting that rabies was being maintained independently in kudu. Additionally, we noted several mutations unique to isolates from kudu, suggesting that these mutations may be due to the adaptation of rabies to a new host. In conclusion, we show clear evidence that rabies is being maintained independently in the Namibian kudu population - a unique phenomenon with ecological and economic impacts. PMID:23527015

  13. Complete Genome and Molecular Epidemiological Data Infer the Maintenance of Rabies among Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Terence P.; Fischer, Melina; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Freuling, Conrad; Höper, Dirk; Hoffmann, Bernd; Markotter, Wanda; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies in kudu is unique to Namibia and two major peaks in the epizootic have occurred since it was first noted in 1977. Due to the large numbers of kudu that were affected, it was suspected that horizontal transmission of rabies occurs among kudu and that rabies was being maintained independently within the Namibian kudu population – separate from canid cycles, despite geographic overlap. In this study, it was our aim to show, through phylogenetic analyses, that rabies was being maintained independently within the Namibian kudu population. We also tested, through complete genome sequencing of four rabies virus isolates from jackal and kudu, whether specific mutations occurred in the virus genome due to host adaptation. We found the separate grouping of all rabies isolates from kudu to those of any other canid species in Namibia, suggesting that rabies was being maintained independently in kudu. Additionally, we noted several mutations unique to isolates from kudu, suggesting that these mutations may be due to the adaptation of rabies to a new host. In conclusion, we show clear evidence that rabies is being maintained independently in the Namibian kudu population – a unique phenomenon with ecological and economic impacts. PMID:23527015

  14. ADAM19 and HTR4 Variants and Pulmonary Function: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    London, Stephanie J.; Gao, Wei; Gharib, Sina A.; Hancock, Dana B.; Wilk, Jemma B.; House, John S.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lumley, Thomas; Franceschini, Nora; North, Kari E.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kovar, Christie L.; Coresh, Josef; Zhou, Yanhua; Heckbert, Susan R.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Dupuis, Josée

    2014-01-01

    Background The pulmonary function measures of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FVC) are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases and predict cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC but the causal variants remain uncertain. We hypothesized that novel or rare variants poorly tagged by GWAS may explain the significant associations between FEV1/FVC and two genes: ADAM19 and HTR4. Methods and Results We sequenced ADAM19 and its promoter region along with the approximately 21 kb portion of HTR4 harboring GWAS SNPs for pulmonary function and analyzed associations with FEV1/FVC among 3,983 participants of European ancestry from Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE). Meta-analysis of common variants in each region identified statistically significant associations (316 tests, P < 1.58×10−4) with FEV1/FVC for 14 ADAM19 SNPs and 24 HTR4 SNPs. After conditioning on the sentinel GWAS hit in each gene [ADAM19 rs1422795, minor allele frequency (MAF)=0.33 and HTR4 rs11168048, MAF=0.40] one SNP remained statistically significant (ADAM19 rs13155908, MAF = 0.12, P = 1.56×10−4). Analysis of rare variants (MAF < 1%) using Sequence Kernel Association Test did not identify associations with either region. Conclusions Sequencing identified one common variant associated with FEV1/FVC independently of the sentinel ADAM19 GWAS hit and supports the original HTR4 GWAS findings. Rare variants do not appear to underlie GWAS associations with pulmonary function for common variants in ADAM19 and HTR4. PMID:24951661

  15. Consistent directions of effect for established type 2 diabetes risk variants across populations: the population architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Haiman, Christopher A; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Spencer, Kylee L; Buzková, Petra; Voruganti, V Saroja; Wan, Peggy; Haessler, Jeff; Franceschini, Nora; Monroe, Kristine R; Howard, Barbara V; Jackson, Rebecca D; Florez, Jose C; Kolonel, Laurence N; Buyske, Steven; Goodloe, Robert J; Liu, Simin; Manson, Joann E; Meigs, James B; Waters, Kevin; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Shrader, Peter; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hindorff, Lucia A; Ambite, Jose Luis; North, Kari E; Peters, Ulrike; Crawford, Dana C; Le Marchand, Loic; Pankow, James S

    2012-06-01

    Common genetic risk variants for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have primarily been identified in populations of European and Asian ancestry. We tested whether the direction of association with 20 T2D risk variants generalizes across six major racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Consortium (16,235 diabetes case and 46,122 control subjects of European American, African American, Hispanic, East Asian, American Indian, and Native Hawaiian ancestry). The percentage of positive (odds ratio [OR] >1 for putative risk allele) associations ranged from 69% in American Indians to 100% in European Americans. Of the nine variants where we observed significant heterogeneity of effect by racial/ethnic group (P(heterogeneity) < 0.05), eight were positively associated with risk (OR >1) in at least five groups. The marked directional consistency of association observed for most genetic variants across populations implies a shared functional common variant in each region. Fine-mapping of all loci will be required to reveal markers of risk that are important within and across populations. PMID:22474029

  16. Phylogenetic Analyses of Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli for the Identification of Molecular Epidemiological Markers: Whole-Genome Comparative Analysis Does Not Support Distinct Genera Designation

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Emily A.; Pettengill, James B.; Binet, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of bacterial dysentery, Shigella represents a significant threat to public health and food safety. Related, but often overlooked, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can also cause dysentery. Current typing methods have limited ability to identify and differentiate between these pathogens despite the need for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens for clinical treatment and outbreak response. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of Shigella and EIEC using whole genome sequencing of 169 samples, constituting unparalleled strain diversity, and observe a lack of monophyly between Shigella and EIEC and among Shigella taxonomic groups. The evolutionary relationships in the phylogeny are supported by analyses of population structure and hierarchical clustering patterns of translated gene homolog abundance. Lastly, we identified a panel of 404 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific to each phylogenetic cluster for more accurate identification of Shigella and EIEC. Our findings show that Shigella and EIEC are not distinct evolutionary groups within the E. coli genus and, thus, EIEC as a group is not the ancestor to Shigella. The multiple analyses presented provide evidence for reconsidering the taxonomic placement of Shigella. The SNP markers offer more discriminatory power to molecular epidemiological typing methods involving these bacterial pathogens. PMID:26834722

  17. Phylogenetic Analyses of Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli for the Identification of Molecular Epidemiological Markers: Whole-Genome Comparative Analysis Does Not Support Distinct Genera Designation.

    PubMed

    Pettengill, Emily A; Pettengill, James B; Binet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    As a leading cause of bacterial dysentery, Shigella represents a significant threat to public health and food safety. Related, but often overlooked, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can also cause dysentery. Current typing methods have limited ability to identify and differentiate between these pathogens despite the need for rapid and accurate identification of pathogens for clinical treatment and outbreak response. We present a comprehensive phylogeny of Shigella and EIEC using whole genome sequencing of 169 samples, constituting unparalleled strain diversity, and observe a lack of monophyly between Shigella and EIEC and among Shigella taxonomic groups. The evolutionary relationships in the phylogeny are supported by analyses of population structure and hierarchical clustering patterns of translated gene homolog abundance. Lastly, we identified a panel of 404 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers specific to each phylogenetic cluster for more accurate identification of Shigella and EIEC. Our findings show that Shigella and EIEC are not distinct evolutionary groups within the E. coli genus and, thus, EIEC as a group is not the ancestor to Shigella. The multiple analyses presented provide evidence for reconsidering the taxonomic placement of Shigella. The SNP markers offer more discriminatory power to molecular epidemiological typing methods involving these bacterial pathogens. PMID:26834722

  18. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. PMID:26493266

  19. A Meta-analysis of Four Genome-Wide Association Studies of Survival to Age 90 Years or Older: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M.; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P.; Launer, Lenore J.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V.; Taylor, Kent D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaupel, James W.; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Murabito, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. Results. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 × 10−8. Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 × 10−7 for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Conclusion. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings. PMID:20304771

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis CBMB205, a Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacterium Isolated from the Rhizoplane of Rice in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Kyeong; Um, Yurry; Kim, Ki Yoon; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tong Min

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus velezensis CBMB205 (= KACC 13105T = NCCB 100236T) was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. O-dae). According to previous studies, this bacterium has several genes that can promote plant growth, such as the phosphorus-solubilizing protein-coding gene. Here, we present the first complete genome of B. velezensis CBMB205. PMID:27417835

  1. Dairy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Anseong and Ansan Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353

  2. Evaluation of a Phylogenetic Marker Based on Genomic Segment B of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus: Facilitating a Feasible Incorporation of this Segment to the Molecular Epidemiology Studies for this Viral Agent

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pérez, Orlando; Dolz, Roser; Valle, Rosa; Perera, Carmen L.; Bertran, Kateri; Frías, Maria T.; Ganges, Llilianne; Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Majó, Natàlia; Núñez, José I.; Pérez, Lester J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is a highly contagious and acute viral disease, which has caused high mortality rates in birds and considerable economic losses in different parts of the world for more than two decades and it still represents a considerable threat to poultry. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the reliability of a phylogenetic marker included into segment B. This marker can facilitate molecular epidemiology studies, incorporating this segment of the viral genome, to better explain the links between emergence, spreading and maintenance of the very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV) strains worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequences of the segment B gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank Database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. A phylogenetic marker named B-marker was assessed by different phylogenetic principles such as saturation of substitution, phylogenetic noise and high consistency. This last parameter is based on the ability of B-marker to reconstruct the same topology as the complete segment B of the viral genome. From the results obtained from B-marker, demographic history for both main lineages of IBDV regarding segment B was performed by Bayesian skyline plot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis for both segments of IBDV genome was also performed, revealing the presence of a natural reassortant strain with segment A from vvIBDV strains and segment B from non-vvIBDV strains within Cuban IBDV population. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to a better understanding of the emergence of vvIBDV strains, describing molecular epidemiology of IBDV using the state-of-the-art methodology concerning phylogenetic reconstruction. This study also revealed the presence of a novel natural reassorted strain as possible manifest of change in the genetic structure and stability of the vvIBDV strains. Therefore, it highlights the need to obtain

  3. The Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Using Current or Past Antiviral Therapy in Korea: A Multi-Center, Nation-Wide, Cross-Sectional Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon Seok; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Su-A; Lee, Yil Seob; Choi, Won

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The proper assessment of the current disease status of patients with chronic hepatitis B would be valuable for establishing optimal management strategies. Methods The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 2,954 patients with current or previous antiviral treatment (46.2±10.8 years, 69.7% male) enrolled from 46 referral hospitals and 129 local hospitals or clinics throughout Korea were analyzed. Results The disease status included chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in 79.9%, 16.4%, and 3.7% of the patients, respectively. The major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was vertical transmission. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection rate was 1.5%; however, only 50.8% of patients were evaluated for HCV. The use of herbal or complementary medicines was reported in 33.5% of the patients. The majority of patients (97.6%) were treated with oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Several characteristics were different between the patients treated at referral hospitals and local hospitals/clinics, including the disease state, choice of antiviral drug, and methods of HBV DNA measurement. Conclusions This study provides a comprehensive picture of the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients treated in Korea. Efforts to optimize management strategies are warranted. PMID:22570755

  4. Korea space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Jang-Soo

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the missions, history, and organization of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is presented. The following three projects included in the Korean space program are presented: (1) KOREASAT procurement project to procure multipurpose satellites and have them launched through international tenders to be used for communication and broadcasting in Korea; (2) exploration rocket project, Korea's self-developed rocket project, conducted by KARI to observe the ozone concentration and ionosphere over the country, and conduct microgravity experiment; and (3) KITSAT (Korea Institute of Technology Satellite-A) minisatellite project undergoing joint development with the UK Surrey University to be launched by a ARIANE launch vehicle.

  5. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  6. Association between IL-1RN gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis: a large Human Genome Epidemiology review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, G X; Duan, J Z; Guo, W L; Li, L; Cui, S Q; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    We made a Human Genome Epidemiology review and meta-analysis to examine a possible association between interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) polymorphisms and susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Studies of IL-1RN polymorphisms and susceptibility to AS were found by searching the Pubmed, Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science, Springerlink, CNKI, and CBM databases. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. The meta-analysis was performed with the Review Manager Version 5.1.6 and STATA Version 12.0 software. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated based on the extracted data. Thirteen studies with 5391 AS cases and 5239 healthy controls were retrieved. Seven IL-1RN polymorphisms were addressed, including rs30735, rs31017, rs419598, rs315951, rs315952, rs27810, and VNTR. Meta-analysis showed that the rs30735*C allele/carrier, the rs31017*G carrier and the rs315952*T carrier were positively and significantly associated with susceptibility to AS (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.19-1.76; OR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.34-2.24; OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.01-1.69; OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.16-2.04). A subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed significant positive associations between the rs30735*C allele/carrier and the rs31017*G allele and susceptibility to AS in both Caucasian and Asian populations, while the positive association between the rs315952*T carrier and AS susceptibility was significant only in Asian populations (OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.16-2.04). This meta-analysis suggests that IL-1RN polymorphisms are involved in the pathogenesis of AS. The rs30735*C allele/carrier, and the rs31017*G allele may be risk factors for ankylosing spondylitis in Caucasians and Asians, while the rs315952*T carrier is associated with susceptibility to this disease only in Asians. PMID:23765978

  7. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  8. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains. PMID:26721461

  9. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  10. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  11. China and Korea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

  12. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  13. BCG vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and the first domestic BCG vaccine was produced by the National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), current Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), in 1960. Since 1987, BCG manufacture work was handed over to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT), the freeze-dried BCG vaccine was manufactured at a scale required to meet the whole amount of domestic consumption. However, since 2006, the manufacture of BCG vaccine suspended and the whole amount of BCG was imported at this point of time. Now KIT is planning to re-produce the BCG vaccine in Korea under the supervision of KCDC, this will be render great role to National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) and provide initiating step for developing new tuberculosis vaccines in Korea. PMID:23858398

  14. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  15. Polygenic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  16. Occupational Respiratory Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  17. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  18. Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide poisoning in urban Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y S

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal variation in carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during 1969-78 was examined using the monthly hospital admissions and environmental weather data from Seoul, Korea. The results showed that there were nine times as many cases of CO poisoning in December as in August. CO poisoning cases were significantly correlated with temperature and domestic fires but not significantly with relative humidity. The epidemiological and clinical investigation of CO poisoning in the home needs to be studied in further detail. PMID:3989440

  19. Contig-Layout-Authenticator (CLA): A Combinatorial Approach to Ordering and Scaffolding of Bacterial Contigs for Comparative Genomics and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Sabiha; Kumar, Narender; Lankapalli, Aditya K.; Tiwari, Sumeet K.; Baddam, Ramani; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of genome sequencing platforms have emerged in the recent past. High-throughput platforms like Illumina and 454 are essentially adaptations of the shotgun approach generating millions of fragmented single or paired sequencing reads. To reconstruct whole genomes, the reads have to be assembled into contigs, which often require further downstream processing. The contigs can be directly ordered according to a reference, scaffolded based on paired read information, or assembled using a combination of the two approaches. While the reference-based approach appears to mask strain-specific information, scaffolding based on paired-end information suffers when repetitive elements longer than the size of the sequencing reads are present in the genome. Sequencing technologies that produce long reads can solve the problems associated with repetitive elements but are not necessarily easily available to researchers. The most common high-throughput technology currently used is the Illumina short read platform. To improve upon the shortcomings associated with the construction of draft genomes with Illumina paired-end sequencing, we developed Contig-Layout-Authenticator (CLA). The CLA pipeline can scaffold reference-sorted contigs based on paired reads, resulting in better assembled genomes. Moreover, CLA also hints at probable misassemblies and contaminations, for the users to cross-check before constructing the consensus draft. The CLA pipeline was designed and trained extensively on various bacterial genome datasets for the ordering and scaffolding of large repetitive contigs. The tool has been validated and compared favorably with other widely-used scaffolding and ordering tools using both simulated and real sequence datasets. CLA is a user friendly tool that requires a single command line input to generate ordered scaffolds. PMID:27248146

  20. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  1. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population. PMID:16898206

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of the Potyvirus Sweet potato virus 2 from East Timor and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genome sequences of Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) from sweet potato in Australia and East Timor, and compare these with five complete SPV2 genome sequences from South Korea and one each from Spain and the United States. Both were closely related to SPV2 genomes from South Korea, Spain, and the United States. PMID:27257208

  3. Deep Sequencing Reveals the Complete Genome Sequence of Sweet potato virus G from East Timor.

    PubMed

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; Barbetti, Martin J; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C

    2016-01-01

    We present the first complete Sweet potato virus G (SPVG) genome from sweet potato in East Timor and compare it with seven complete SPVG genomes from South Korea (three), Taiwan (two), Argentina (one), and the United States (one). It most resembles the genomes from the United States and South Korea. PMID:27609925

  4. Complete Genome Sequences of the Potyvirus Sweet potato virus 2 from East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genome sequences of Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2) from sweet potato in Australia and East Timor, and compare these with five complete SPV2 genome sequences from South Korea and one each from Spain and the United States. Both were closely related to SPV2 genomes from South Korea, Spain, and the United States. PMID:27257208

  5. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor environments.…

  6. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  7. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  8. Teaching About South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schisgall, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Identifies reasons why social studies educators should improve their teaching about South Korea. Included in the list is the increasing numbers of Koreans being educated in the United States, the summer Olympics in 1988, and the use of Korean culture as a case study demonstrating the effects of cultural transmission and society in transition. (JDH)

  9. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  10. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  11. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N; Mersha, Tesfaye B; Martin, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to "frictional" effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the "cluster" and "cline" constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin's argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces, and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response. PMID:26925096

  12. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Maglo, Koffi N.; Mersha, Tesfaye B.; Martin, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to “frictional” effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the “cluster” and “cline” constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin's argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces, and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors, and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response. PMID:26925096

  13. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  14. [Precision medicine: new opportunities and challenges for molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Song, Jing; Hu, Yonghua

    2016-04-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 and the announcement of the Precision Medicine Initiative by U.S. President Barack Obama in January 2015, human beings have initially completed the " three steps" of " genomics to biology, genomics to health as well as genomics to society". As a new inter-discipline, the emergence and development of precision medicine have relied on the support and promotion from biological science, basic medicine, clinical medicine, epidemiology, statistics, sociology and information science, etc. Meanwhile, molecular epidemiology is considered to be the core power to promote precision medical as a cross discipline of epidemiology and molecular biology. This article is based on the characteristics and research progress of medicine and molecular epidemiology respectively, focusing on the contribution and significance of molecular epidemiology to precision medicine, and exploring the possible opportunities and challenges in the future. PMID:27087232

  15. [Molecular-genetic and epidemiologic examination of personnel subjected to occupational irradiation in Russian Federal Nuclear Center (Sarov). Report 1. Genome structural damage rate and radiosensitivity].

    PubMed

    Korzeneva, I B; Zaichkina, S I; Malinina, T V; Afanas'ev, K I; Dubrova, Iu E; Skorodumova, E N; Samsonova, V F; Volkova, I V; Shishova, R T; Shcherbakova, I L

    2008-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the cytological and dosimetric examination of the cohort comprised by VNIEF personnel subjected chronically to gamma-neutron ionizing radiation, as well as non-irradiated cohort is given. The obtained data on the influence of the occupational and on X-ray irradiation, age and smoking on the rate of structural genome damage, as well as the activity of the human repair system activity are presented. The influence of the individual heterozygosis by 9 polymorphous loci: Hp, Tf, Gc; 6-PGD, EsD, ACP, PGM1, microsatellite lici SCF1PO and F13AO1 is shown. PMID:19004324

  16. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  17. Urologic cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Kwang Suk; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and prevalence of prostate and kidney cancers have been increasing in Korea during the last decade, and a marked improvement in survival rates has been noted. With a substantial proportion of the cancers diagnosed at an earlier stage of the disease, the landscape of urologic cancer treatment in Korea has been characterized by an exponential increase in the number of patients receiving surgical treatment. Throughout the last decade, an increasing proportion of surgeries have been performed using minimally invasive methods, with a notable increase in robot-assisted surgery.The evaluation and management strategies of urologic cancer in Korea are primarily based on an existing evidence-based framework provided by international guidelines. The adoption and clinical application of novel surgical techniques and systemic agents targeted at advanced stage cancer are promptly adopted; accordingly, multidisciplinary treatment options are often available for various cancers at different stages. At the same time, treatment decisions are greatly influenced by the availability of healthcare resources, which may be limited due to the National Health Insurance reimbursement policy.A racial disparity in cancer features appears to exist for certain urologic cancers among Korean patients, and the optimal management strategy specific for the Korean population has yet to be confirmed. A national comprehensive cancer database is needed for better insight into risk factors, selection of sequential strategies, tumor biology and survival outcome of Korean urologic cancer patients. PMID:26117494

  18. PACS industry in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-Joung

    2002-05-01

    PACS industry in Korea has been rapidly growing, since government had supported collaborative PACS project between industry and university hospital. In the beginning, PACS industry had focused on developing peripheral PACS solutions, while the Korea PACS society was being formed. A few companies had started developing and installing domestic large-scale full-PACS system for teaching hospitals. Several years later, many hospitals have installed full-PACS system with national policy of reimbursement for PACS exams in November 1999. Both experiences of full-PACS installation and national policy generated tremendous intellectual and technological expertise about PACS at all levels, clinical, hospital management, education, and industrial sectors. There are now more than 20 domestic PACS companies. They have enough experiences which are capable of installing a truly full-PACS system for large-scale teaching hospitals. As an example, a domestic company had installed more than 40 full-PACS systems within 2-3 years. Enough experiences of full-PACS installation in Korea lead PACS industry to start exporting their full-PACS solutions. However, further understanding and timely implementation of continuously evolving international standard and integrated healthcare enterprise concepts may be necessary for international leading of PACS technologies for the future.

  19. Ionizing Radiation-induced Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Meeseon; Moon, Kieun; Jo, Min-Heui; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Radiation risk has become well known through epidemiological studies of clinically or occupationally exposed populations, animal experiments, and in vitro studies; however, the study of radiation related or induced disease has been limited in Korea. This study is to find the level of occupational radiation exposure for various kinds of accidents, compensated occupational diseases, related studies, and estimations on future occupational disease risks. Research data of related institutions were additionally investigated. About 67% of 62,553 radiation workers had no exposure or less than 1.2 mSv per year. The 5 reported cases on radiation accident patients in Korea occurred during nondestructive testing. According to the recent rapid increase in the number of workers exposed to radiation, a higher social recognition of cancer, and an increasing cancer mortality rate, it is expected that occupational disease compensation will rapidly increase as well. Therefore, it is important to develop scientific and objective decision methods, such as probability of causation and screening dose in the establishment of an exposure and health surveillance system. PMID:21258594

  20. Clinical Characteristics of Cholinergic Urticaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Eun, Young Sun; Park, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jeong; Yu, Dong Su; Kang, Hoon; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chul Jong; Kim, Si Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholinergic urticaria is a type of physical urticaria characterized by heat-associated wheals. Several reports are available about cholinergic urticaria; however, the clinical manifestations and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of cholinergic urticaria in Korea. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 92 patients with cholinergic urticaria who were contacted by phone and whose diagnoses were confirmed by the exercise provocation test among those who had visited The Catholic University of Korea, Catholic Medical Center from January 2001 to November 2010. Results All 92 patients were male, and their average age was 27.8 years (range, 17~51 years). Most of the patients had onset of the disease in their 20s and 30s. Non-follicular wheals were located on the trunk and upper extremities of many patients, and the symptoms were aggravated by exercise. Eight patients showed general urticaria symptoms and 15 had accompanying atopic disease. Forty-three patients complained of seasonal aggravation. Most patients were treated with first and second-generation antihistamines. Conclusion Dermatologists should consider these characteristics in patients with cholinergic urticaria. Further investigation and follow-up studies are necessary to better understand the epidemiological and clinical findings of cholinergic urticaria. PMID:24882973

  1. Epidemiology of Foodborne Norovirus Outbreak in Incheon, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na-Yeon; Koh, Yeon-Ja; Lee, Hun-Jae

    2010-01-01

    On June 14, 2008, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among elementary school students in Incheon. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and described the extent of the outbreak. We performed a retrospective cohort study among students, teachers and food handlers exposed to canteen food in the elementary school. Using self-administered questionnaires we collected information on symptoms, days of canteen food eaten, food items consumed. Stool samples were collected from 131 symptomatic people and 11 food handlers. The catering kitchen was inspected and food samples were taken. Of the 1,560 people who ate canteen food, 117 were symptomatic cases, and the attack rate was 7.5%. Consumption of cucumber-crown daisy salad (RR=2.71), fresh cabbage mix (RR=2.23), dried radish salad (RR=3.04) and young radish kimchi (RR=2.52) were associated with illness. Sixty-four (45%) of the 142 stool specimens were positive for Norovirus. Norovirus was detected in 2 food handlers. Interviews with kitchen staff indicated the likelihood of contamination from an infected food handler to the dried radish salad during food processing. The excretion of Norovirus from asymptomatic food handlers may be an infection source of Norovirus outbreaks. PMID:20676321

  2. Navigating the future of bacterial molecular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stephen; Hanage, William P; Holt, Kathryn E

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in high-throughput genome sequencing have led to an enhanced appreciation of the genetic diversity found within populations of pathogenic bacteria. Methods based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions or deletions (indels) build upon the framework established by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and permit a detailed, targeted analysis of variation within related organisms. Robust phylogenetics, when combined with epidemiologically informative data, can be applied to study ongoing temporal and geographical fluctuations in bacterial pathogens. As genome sequencing, SNP detection and geospatial information become more accessible these methods will continue to transform the way molecular epidemiology is used to study populations of bacterial pathogens. PMID:20846899

  3. Genetic Epidemiology of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Debbaneh, Maya G.; Liao, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin condition with a prevalence of 0-11.8% across the world. It is associated with a number of cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune disease co-morbidities. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Its genetic basis has long been established through twin studies and familial clustering. The association of psoriasis with the HLA-Cw6 allele has been shown in many studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of other genes associated with psoriasis. Many of these genes regulate the innate and adaptive immune system. These findings indicate that a dysregulated immune system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic epidemiology of psoriasis with a brief description of the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25580373

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  5. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  6. Report from the Maryland epidemiology schizophrenia linkage study: No evidence for linkage between schizophrenia and a number of candidate and other genomic regions using a complex dominant model

    SciTech Connect

    Karayiorgou, M.; Hwang, J.; Elango, R.

    1994-12-15

    Our collaborative group has undertaken a linkage study of schizophrenia, using a systematic sample of patients admitted to Maryland hospitals. An initial sample of 39 families, each having two or more affecteds, was available for genotyping candidate genes, candidate regions, and highly polymorphic markers randomly distributed throughout the genome. We used a single complex dominant model (with a disease gene frequency of 0.005 and age-dependent penetrance for affected phenotype: for under 35, penetrance = .45; for 35 and older, penetrance = .85). We report here 130 markers which met the exclusion criteria of LOD score < -2.00 at theta > 0.01 in at least 10 informative families, and no evidence for heterogeneity. We also report here markers that were tested as candidates for linkage to the schizophrenic phenotype. They were selected based on the following criteria: (a) proximity to reported chromosomal rearrangements (both 5q and 11q), (b) suggestions of linkage from other families (5q), or (c) presence of a candidate gene (5q, 11q, 3q: dopamine receptors 1, 2, and 3, respectively). We also tested for mutations of codon 717 in exon 17 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene and were unable to detect the C to T substitution in our schizophrenic group. 48 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  8. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of deformed wing viruses isolated from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Suk-Chan; Van Quyen, Dong; Kang, Seung-Won

    2013-12-27

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common viral infection in honeybees. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for 16 partial nucleotide sequences of the structural polyprotein region and the RNA helicase region of South Korean DWVs. The sequences were compared with 10 previously reported DWV sequences from different countries and the sequences of two closely related viruses, Kakugo virus (KGV) and Varroa destructor virus-1 (VDV-1). The phylogeny based on these two regions, the Korean DWV genomes were highly conserved with 95-100% identity, while they also shared 93-97% similarity with genotypes from other countries, although they formed a separate cluster. To investigate this phenomenon in more detail, the complete DWV genome sequences of Korea-1 and Korea-2 were determined and aligned with six previously reported complete DWV genome sequences from different countries, as well as KGV and VDV-1, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The two Korean DWVs shared 96.4% similarity. Interestingly, the Korea-2 genome was more similar to the USA (96.5%) genome than the Korea-1. The Korean genotypes highly conserved with USA (96%) but low similarity with the United Kingdom3 (UK3) genome (89%). The end of the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the start of the open reading frame (ORF) region, and the 3' UTR were variable and contained several substitutions/transitions. This phenomenon may be explained by intramolecular recombination between the Korean and other DWV genotypes. PMID:24035266

  9. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    PubMed

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. PMID:27225924

  10. Genomic DNA extraction from whole blood stored from 15- to 30-years at -20 °C by rapid phenol-chloroform protocol: a useful tool for genetic epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Ortenzi, Francesco; Tilio, Martina; Concetti, Fabio; Napolioni, Valerio

    2011-02-01

    Long-term stored (LTS) whole blood collection can be an important source of DNA without collection costs, but there is a lack of information on methods useful to extract genomic DNA from such type of biological material. Here we report a simple and fast revisited phenol/chloroform extraction method from LTS whole blood. Protocol reliability was assessed by comparison with proteinase K and silica-gel membrane spin column-based DNA extraction methods using LTS -20 °C whole blood from 1980, and by testing it on 82 whole blood samples, collected from 1980 to 1995, with high quality (A(260/280) = 1.79 ± 0.32 O.D., A(260/230) = 1.45 ± 0.52 O.D.) and quantity results. Genotyping efficiency was also checked by performing RFLP-PCR and ASP-PCR of p53 Pro72Arg (rs1042522) SNP and hTERT MNS16A VNTR, respectively, resulting in 100% of samples successfully typed. In addition to the goodness and the efficiency of method proposed here, this protocol achieves working time reduction combining extraction and purification steps, allowing to work at room temperature. Furthermore, phenol is able to inactivate any potential nuclease and potential infective sources from the first step on. Based on these results we also conclude that LTS -20 °C whole blood samples may be considered a reliable and potential resource for future genotyping studies and retrospective analysis in a genetic epidemiological setting. PMID:21029772

  11. Prevalence of Vitiligo and Associated Comorbidities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hemin; Lee, Mu-Hyoung; Lee, Dong Youn; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, Ki Ho; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Tae Heung; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Kyoung Wan; Hann, Seung-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vitiligo prevalence and its associated comorbidities rate have been reported variably among different populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitiligo in Korea along with the baseline rate of comorbidities and compared the risks to the general population using hospital visit information of the total population in Korea. Materials and Methods We assessed demographic characteristics of vitiligo patients in Korean population from 2009 to 2011 in a nationwide data from Health Insurance Review Assessment Service. Patients who had at least one visit to Korea's primary, secondary, or tertiary referral hospitals with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for vitiligo were identified. As a supplementary study, comorbidities associated with vitiligo were selected for further review to calculate relative risks compared to the general population. Results The annual prevalence of vitiligo determined by hospital-visiting rate in Korea was 0.12% to 0.13% over a three year period. In sync with other previous epidemiological studies, there was bimodal distribution among the age groups and no difference between genders. Also, vitiligo in Korean population was associated with various autoimmune/non-autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Conclusion This study was by far the most comprehensive review on prevalence of vitiligo using a data of total population in Korea. The prevalence is within a range of those reported in previous literatures, and increased risk of comorbidities such as thyroid diseases and psoriasis in vitiligo might aid clinicians in the initial work up of vitiligo patients and concurrent follow ups. PMID:25837178

  12. Post-genome-wide association study challenges for lipid traits: describing age as a modifier of gene-lipid associations in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Logan; Carty, Cara L; Franceschini, Nora; Hindorff, Lucia A; Cole, Shelley A; Bůžková, Petra; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Eaton, Charles B; Goodloe, Robert J; Duggan, David J; Haessler, Jeff; Cochran, Barbara; Henderson, Brian E; Cheng, Iona; Johnson, Karen C; Carlson, Chris S; Love, Shelly-Ann; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Nato, Alejandro Q; Quibrera, Miguel; Anderson, Garnet; Shohet, Ralph V; Ambite, José Luis; Wilkens, Lynne R; Marchand, Loïc Le; Haiman, Christopher A; Buyske, Steven; Kooperberg, Charles; North, Kari E; Fornage, Myriam; Crawford, Dana C

    2013-09-01

    Numerous common genetic variants that influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride distributions have been identified via genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, whether or not these associations are age-dependent has largely been overlooked. We conducted an association study and meta-analysis in more than 22,000 European Americans between 49 previously identified GWAS variants and the three lipid traits, stratified by age (males: <50 or ≥50 years of age; females: pre- or postmenopausal). For each variant, a test of heterogeneity was performed between the two age strata and significant Phet values were used as evidence of age-specific genetic effects. We identified seven associations in females and eight in males that displayed suggestive heterogeneity by age (Phet < 0.05). The association between rs174547 (FADS1) and LDL-C in males displayed the most evidence for heterogeneity between age groups (Phet = 1.74E-03, I(2) = 89.8), with a significant association in older males (P = 1.39E-06) but not younger males (P = 0.99). However, none of the suggestive modifying effects survived adjustment for multiple testing, highlighting the challenges of identifying modifiers of modest SNP-trait associations despite large sample sizes. PMID:23808484

  13. Morning calm, nuclear sunset: South Korea`s atomic option

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, A.D.

    1998-09-01

    US national security strategy sets nuclear nonproliferation as a high priority. However pursuing nonproliferation without regard for important traditional security relationships might yield undesired results. The Republic of Korea (ROK) requires a high degree of confidence in the US security guarantee one that includes an extended nuclear deterrent. The nuclear weapons program that South Korea began and abandoned in the 1970s was prompted by a decrease in confidence in US security commitments. Conciliatory actions taken recently by the United States toward the Democratic Peoples` Republic of Korea (DPRK) to prevent a possible nuclear weapons program may undermine the US-ROK security arrangement that has been in place for decades. This work examines perceived threats to South Korea and the US security commitment to Korea since 1945 to reveal how US nuclear nonproliferation policy affects Seoul`s propensity to develop nuclear weapons. Recommendations are provided for policy makers regarding strengthening of ROK confidence in the US commitment on the peninsula, with particular emphasis on preventing South Korea from pursuing a nuclear arsenal.

  14. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  15. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  16. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  17. Occupational diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun A

    2010-12-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  18. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  20. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed. PMID:26951987

  1. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed. PMID:26951987

  2. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  3. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  4. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong; Drosten, Christian; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-02-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  5. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  6. Acute gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with ground-waterborne norovirus in South Korea during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cho, H G; Lee, S G; Kim, W H; Lee, J S; Park, P H; Cheon, D S; Jheong, W H; Jho, E H; Lee, J B; Paik, S Y

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological and virological studies indicate that noroviruses-contaminated groundwater was the primary source of four acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in South Korea between 2008 and 2012. Furthermore, cabbage kimchi was first identified as the vehicle of transmission between groundwater and infected patients in an outbreak in 2011. The proper treatment of groundwater sources prior to use for drinking or in food preparation is necessary to prevent further outbreaks. PMID:24534556

  7. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  8. [Future prospects of molecular epidemiology in tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Iwamoto, Tomotada

    2009-12-01

    Before the availability of high-resolution genotyping tools in 1990s, there was a prevailing dogma of little genomic sequence diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to the low levels of genetic variation, it was assumed that M. tuberculosis exhibit very little phenotypic variation in immunologic and virulence factors. The fingerprinting method based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) of IS6110 insertion sequences had unveiled the underestimation of the sequence variation in M. tuberculosis and the importance of strain-to-strain variation for understanding pathogenesis, immune mechanisms, bacterial evolution, and host adaptation. This method became a gold standard for strain differentiation in the molecular epidemiological study. It had lead to a profusion of studies in molecular epidemiology such as the detection of unsuspected transmission, the estimation of the extent of recent transmission, the identification of laboratory cross-contamination, the identification of outbreaks, and distinction between reinfection and relapse. This, in 1990s, is the opening of the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. After the completion of genome project of the M. tuberculosis laboratory strain H37Rv, some of the clinical isolates were completely sequenced. This prompted the in silico genome comparison and identified various genomic markers which can give a unifying framework for both epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of M. tuberculosis population. Of them, variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) was found as the most promising PCR-based method which can provide adequate discrimination of M. tuberculosis strains in many cases, including the estimation of M. tuberculosis transmission and the identification of genetic lineages. PCR-based VNTR analysis is easy, rapid, and highly specific and can generate portable digit-based data, unlike the analog information obtained from IS6110 RFLP which is labor intensive. In this regards, investigators can

  9. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  10. Democratic Citizenship Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eoh, Myung-Ha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of democratic citizenship education in Korea. Highlights the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education especially the role of the nongovernmental organizations and the Korean Educational Developmental Institute. Considers the various forces inhibiting democratic citizenship education, such as corruption in the…

  11. Fuel Safety Activities in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Auh, Geun-Sun; Shin, A.D.; Lee, J.S.; Woo, S.W.; Ryu, Y.H.; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, S.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2007-07-01

    The current regulatory requirements for fuel performance were based on earlier test data of fresh or low burnup Zircaloy fuels of less than 40 GWD/MTU. Most countries have not changed the current regulatory requirements even if they are actively investigating the high burnup and new cladding alloy effects. Korea agrees with commonly accepted international consensus that although there are technical issues requiring resolutions, these issues do not constitute immediate safety concerns. The high burnup fuel reactor performance experiences of Korea do not show any major problems even if there have been some burnup related fuel failures which are described in the paper. KINS has recommended the industry to have lower fuel failure rates than 1-2 per 50,000 fuel rods. A research project of High Burnup Fuel Safety Tests and Evaluations has started in 2002 under a joint cooperation of KAERI/KNFC/KEPRI and KINS to obtain performance results of high burnup fuel and to develop evaluation technologies of high burnup fuel safety issues. From 1998, KINS has closely monitored and actively participated in international activities such as OECD/NEA CABRI Water Loop Program to reflect on regulatory requirements if needed. KINS will closely monitor the high burnup fuel performances of Korea to strength the regulatory activities if needed. The research activities in Korea including of LOCA and RIA being performed at KAERI with active supports of the industry are summarized in the paper. (authors)

  12. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  13. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  14. Biobank Regulation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Bok

    2016-06-01

    Like many other countries, South Korea has recognized the importance of biobanks as a tool for medical research and has engaged in two very important tasks to foster biobanking infrastructure: funding biobanks and setting up rules to protect the integrity of biobanks that share potentially sensitive personal information. PMID:27338609

  15. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  16. First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sukyee; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Kim, Neung-Hee; Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the status of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was assessed in shelter dogs in Seoul, Korea, with PCR and phylogenetic analyses. Nested PCR on 1058 collected blood samples revealed only one A. phagocytophilum positive sample (female, age <1year, mixed breed, collected from the north of the Han River). The genetic variability of A. phagocytophilum was evaluated by genotyping, using the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 gene sequences of the positive sample. BLASTn analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA, groEL, and msp2 genes had 99.6%, 99.9%, and 100% identity with the following sequences deposited in GenBank: a cat 16S rRNA sequence from Korea (KR021166), a rat groEL sequence from Korea (KT220194), and a water deer msp2 sequence from Korea (HM752099), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses classified the groEL gene into two distinct groups (serine and alanine), whereas the msp2 gene showed a general classification into two groups (USA and Europe) that were further subgrouped according to region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the molecular diagnosis of A. phagocytophilum in dogs reared in Korea. In addition, the high genetic identity of the 16S rRNA and groEL sequences between humans and dogs from the same region suggests a possible epidemiological relation. Given the conditions of climate change, tick ecology, and recent incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in Korea, the findings of this study underscore the need to establish appropriate control programs for tick-borne diseases in Korea. PMID:27130537

  17. A snapshot of the emerging tomato genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is being sequenced by an international consortium of 10 countries (Korea, China, the United Kingdom, India, the Netherlands, France, Japan, Spain, Italy and the United States) as part of a larger initiative called the ‘International Solanaceae Genome Proje...

  18. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans. PMID:27012512

  19. Occupational hepatic disorders in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Kim, Tae Woo

    2010-12-01

    Occupational hepatic disorders are classified into toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and chemical-induced malignancy in Korea. Toxic hepatitis cases were reported in workers who were exposed to dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, or trichloroethylene. Pre-placement medical examination and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent the development of toxic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis was chiefly reported among health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinical pathology technicians who could easily be exposed to blood. Preventive measures for these groups therefore include vaccination and serum monitoring programs. Hepatic angiosarcoma caused by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is a very well known occupational disease and it has not been officially reported in Korea yet. Some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were legally approved for compensation as an occupational disease largely by overwork and stress, but not supported by enough scientific evidence. Effort to find the evidence of its causal relationship is needed. PMID:21258588

  20. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time. PMID:25673328

  1. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  2. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  3. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Virgibacillus halodenitrificans 1806

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Han-Seung; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Virgibacillus halodenitrificans 1806 is an endospore-forming halophilic bacterium isolated from salterns in Korea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of V. halodenitrificans 1806, which may reveal the molecular basis of osmoadaptation and insights into carbon and anaerobic metabolism in moderate halophiles. PMID:23105070

  5. [Epidemiology and heterogeny].

    PubMed

    Breilh, J; Granda, E

    1989-01-01

    The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of the Carlavirus Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus from East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel; Jones, Roger A C

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genome sequences of Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV) from sweet potato in Australia and East Timor, and we compare these with four complete SPCFV genomes from South Korea and one from Uganda. The Australian, East Timorese, South Korean, and Ugandan genomes differed considerably from each other. PMID:27231359

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Zhouia amylolytica AD3, Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Baolei; Jin, Hyun Mi; Lee, Hyo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Zhouia amylolytica AD3 was isolated from tidal flat sediment at Taean, South Korea. We report here the draft genome sequence of Z. amylolytica AD3, which is the first report of a genome sequence of the genus Zhouia. The genomic information will provide a better understanding of the physiology, adaptation, and evolution of Zhouia species. PMID:27151796

  8. Complete genome sequence of the crude oil-degrading thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus sp. JS12.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sung-Jong; Park, Ae Kyung; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Hyun; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Kim, Han-Woo; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-07-20

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Geobacillus sp. JS12, isolated from composts located in Namhae, Korea, which shows extracellular lipolytic activities at high temperatures. An array of genes related to the utilization of lipids was identified by whole genome analysis. The genome sequence of the strain JS12 provides basic information for wider exploitation of thermostable industrial lipases. PMID:27184431

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of the Carlavirus Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus from East Timor and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genome sequences of Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV) from sweet potato in Australia and East Timor, and we compare these with four complete SPCFV genomes from South Korea and one from Uganda. The Australian, East Timorese, South Korean, and Ugandan genomes differed considerably from each other. PMID:27231359

  10. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea. PMID:23234093

  11. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  12. Seasonal variability of surface ozone in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, J.; Moon, B. K.; Choi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone around East Asia include Korea impacts on air quality and climate, and has been increased with rapid economic growth. To better understanding, we analyzed seasonal variability of tropospheric ozone simulated by using GEOS-Chem. Surface ozone concentration in Korea has double peaks in April and September. Tropospheric ozone increases primarily associated with westerly wind anomaly in spring, with warming in summer and autumn, and with cloud depletion in winter. Surface ozone in spring elevated after mature-phase El Niño winters. Key words: surface ozone, seasonal variability, Korea, East Asia Acknowledgements This work was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  13. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  14. High Toxoplasma gondii Seropositivity among Brain Tumor Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bong-Kwang; Song, Hyemi; Kim, Min-Jae; Cho, Jaeeun; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that can modulate the environment of the infected host. An unfavorable environment modulated by T. gondii in the brain includes tumor microenvironment. Literature has suggested that T. gondii infection is associated with development of brain tumors. However, in Korea, epidemiological data regarding this correlation have been scarce. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between T. gondii infection and brain tumor development, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 93 confirmed brain tumor patients (various histological types, including meningioma and astrocytoma) in Korea using ELISA. The results revealed that T. gondii seropositivity among brain tumor patients (18.3%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared with that of healthy controls (8.6%). The seropositivity of brain tumor patients showed a significant age-tendency, i.e., higher in younger age group, compared with age-matched healthy controls (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study supports the close relationship between T. gondii infection and incidence of brain tumors. PMID:27180580

  15. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  16. Human Infections with Spirometra decipiens Plerocercoids Identified by Morphologic and Genetic Analyses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Park, Hansol; Lee, Dongmin; Choe, Seongjun; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Huh, Sun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S

    2015-06-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Spirometra are pseudophyllidean cestodes endemic in Korea. At present, it is unclear which Spirometra species are responsible for causing human infections, and little information is available on the epidemiological profiles of Spirometra species infecting humans in Korea. Between 1979 and 2009, a total of 50 spargana from human patients and 2 adult specimens obtained from experimentally infected carnivorous animals were analyzed according to genetic and taxonomic criteria and classified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei or Spirometra decipiens depending on the morphology. Morphologically, S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens are different in that the spirally coiled uterus in S. erinaceieuropaei has 5-7 complete coils, while in S. decipiens it has only 4.5 coils. In addition, there is a 9.3% (146/1,566) sequence different between S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens in the cox1 gene. Partial cox1 sequences (390 bp) from 35 Korean isolates showed 99.4% (388/390) similarity with the reference sequence of S. erinaceieuropaei from Korea (G1724; GenBank KJ599680) and an additional 15 Korean isolates revealed 99.2% (387/390) similarity with the reference sequences of S. decipiens from Korea (G1657; GenBank KJ599679). Based on morphologic and molecular databases, the estimated population ratio of S. erinaceieuropaei to S. decipiens was 35: 15. Our results indicate that both S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens found in Korea infect humans, with S. erinaceieuropaei being 2 times more prevalent than S. decipiens. This study is the first to report human sparganosis caused by S. decipiens in humans in Korea. PMID:26174823

  17. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. PMID:26319950

  18. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  20. Epidemiology of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  1. Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  3. Imported Melioidosis in South Korea: A Case Series with a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Woo; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Bongyoung; Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Jaeseung; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the environmental anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is endemic to areas of northern Australia and Southeast Asia. With increasing international travel and migration, imported cases of melioidosis are being reported regularly. Here, we summarize the 11 cases of melioidosis reported in South Korea from 2003 to 2014. Methods Tracing epidemiological investigations were performed on every patient reported to the National Surveillance System since 2011. A systematic literature search was performed to identify melioidosis cases that occurred prior to 2011. Results The overall fatality rate was 36.4%. All the patients had visited Southeast Asia where melioidosis is endemic. The stay in the endemic region ranged from 4 days to 20 years. Of the seven patients who developed initial symptoms after returning to South Korea, the time interval between returning to South Korea and symptom onset ranged from 1 day to 3 years. The remaining four patients developed symptoms during their stay in the endemic region and were diagnosed with melioidosis in South Korea. Seven (63.6%) patients possessed at least one risk factor, all of whom were diabetic. Pneumonia was the most frequent clinical manifestation, but the patients showed a wide spectrum of clinical features, including internal organ abscesses, a mycotic aneurysm of the aorta, and coinfection with tuberculosis. Conclusion An early diagnosis and initiation of the appropriate antibiotics can reduce the mortality of melioidosis. Consequently, increased awareness of the risk factors and clinical features of melioidosis is required. PMID:26835246

  4. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  5. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  6. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  7. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  8. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  9. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive... (50 U.S.C. 1601- 1651) (the ``NEA''), issued Executive Order 13466 (73 FR 36787, June 27, 2008)...

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Influenza A/H3N2 Viruses Circulating in Mexico from 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Nelson, Martha I.; Cobián Güemes, Ana Georgina; López-Martínez, Irma; Cruz-Ortiz, Natividad; Iguala-Vidales, Miguel; García, Elvia Rodríguez; Barrera-Badillo, Gisela; Díaz-Quiñonez, Jose Alberto; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F.; Isa, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, nineteen influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 2003 and 2012 were studied. Our findings show that different human A/H3N2 viral lineages co-circulate within a same season and can also persist locally in between different influenza seasons, increasing the chance for genetic reassortment events. A novel minor cluster was also identified, named here as Korea, that circulated worldwide during 2003. Frequently, phylogenetic characterization did not correlate with the determined antigenic identity, supporting the need for the use of molecular evolutionary tools additionally to antigenic data for the surveillance and characterization of viral diversity during each flu season. This work represents the first long-term molecular epidemiology study of influenza A/H3N2 viruses in Mexico based on the complete genomic sequences and contributes to the monitoring of evolutionary trends of A/H3N2 influenza viruses within North and Central America. PMID:25075517

  11. Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae Strain LMG 859

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikas; Midha, Samriti; Ranjan, Manish; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We report the 4.94-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae strain LMG 859, the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight disease in pomegranate. The draft genome will aid in comparative genomics, epidemiological studies, and quarantine of this devastating phytopathogen. PMID:22493202

  12. Genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae strain LMG 859.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Midha, Samriti; Ranjan, Manish; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Patil, Prabhu B

    2012-05-01

    We report the 4.94-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae strain LMG 859, the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight disease in pomegranate. The draft genome will aid in comparative genomics, epidemiological studies, and quarantine of this devastating phytopathogen. PMID:22493202

  13. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BLUETONGUE VIRUS IN NORTHERN COLORADO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular epidemiology of Bluetongue virus serotype 11 (BTV11) in an enzootic focus in northern Colorado was investigated. Viruses isolated up to 12 years apart, from both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, were compared by phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence data from three genome seg...

  14. Is Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis More Prevalent in HIV-Infected Patients in Korea?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shinwon; Lee, Sun Hee; Mok, Jeong Ha; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kye Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seung Geun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2016-11-01

    The epidemiological synergy between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to public health. However, the association between HIV and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is not clear. To explore the association between HIV and MDR-TB infection, a case-control study was performed in Korea. A total of 1606 culture-proven TB patients (45 HIV vs. 1561 non-HIV) from January 2006 to October 2014 were included in this analysis. MDR-TB rates were 11.1% and 8.2% in the HIV and non-HIV groups, respectively (p=0.42), thus indicating that MDR-TB was not significantly associated with HIV infection in Korea. PMID:27593882

  15. Surveillance of classical swine fever in wild boar in South Korea from 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kwan; Lim, Seong-In; Kim, Jae-Jo; Cho, Yoon-Young; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hoe; Park, Eun-Hye; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious systemic hemorrhagic viral disease of pigs. Wild boar plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of CSF. Between 2010 and 2014, samples were collected nationwide from 6,654 wild boars hunted in South Korea. Anti-CSF antibodies were identified in 0.59% (39 of 6,654) of the wild boar samples using a virus neutralization test and were primarily detected in wild boars living close to the demilitarized zone and the area of the Taebaek Mountains surroundings. The CSF virus (subgroup 2.1b) was isolated from two wild boars captured in a nearby border area. The criteria used to define high-risk areas for targeted CSF surveillance in South Korea should be further expanded to include other regions nationwide. PMID:26178821

  16. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  17. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  18. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  19. Occupational neurological disorders in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  20. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  1. Genetic epidemiology, genetic maps and positional cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Newton E

    2003-01-01

    Genetic epidemiology developed in the middle of the last century, focused on inherited causes of disease but with methods and results applicable to other traits and even forensics. Early success with linkage led to the localization of genes contributing to disease, and ultimately to the Human Genome Project. The discovery of millions of DNA markers has encouraged more efficient positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium (LD), using LD maps and haplotypes in ways that are rapidly evolving. This has led to large international programmes, some promising and others alarming, with laws about DNA patenting and ethical guidelines for responsible research still struggling to be born. PMID:14561327

  2. Shifting epidemiology of Flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lyle R; Marfin, Anthony A

    2005-04-01

    The dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses are important mosquito-borne viruses whose epidemiology is shifting in response to changing societal factors, such as increasing commerce, urbanization of rural areas, and population growth. All four viruses are expanding geographically, as exemplified by the emergence of West Nile virus in the Americas and Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. The large, recent global outbreaks of severe neurological disease caused by West Nile virus, the increasing frequency of dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Americas, and the emergence of yellow fever virus vaccination-associated viscerotropic disease, are new clinical epidemiologic trends. These worrisome epidemiologic trends will probably continue in coming decades, as a reversal of their societal and biological drivers is not in sight. Nevertheless, the substantial reductions in Japanese encephalitis virus incidence resulting from vaccination programs and economic development in some Asian countries provide some encouragement within this overall guarded outlook. PMID:16225801

  3. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  4. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  5. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  6. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  8. Men's health in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Chul; Kim, Sang Wook; Chung, Yun Jae

    2011-07-01

    Over the last four decades, rapid industrialisation and a Westernized lifestyle have changed disease patterns in South Korea. This study was conducted to review the current state of men's health in South Korea. By reviewing reports of government authorities and domestic and foreign studies related to men's health, we found that in men ≥ 65 years of age, 28.4% considered their health status good, whereas 38.3% considered their health status poor. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms was similar to that in Caucasians. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher than the global average. The incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias showed a tendency towards increase. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continuously increased by 10.8% in 2008 and was the fifth leading cause of death in 2008. The prevalence of obesity increased from 26.0% in 1998 to 31.7% in 2007. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease has continuously increased, with heart diseases causing one of every 12 deaths. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005 was 17.2% among adults ≥ 45 years of age. The top five prevalent cancers in men, in descending order, were cancers of the stomach, lung, liver, large bowel and prostate, among which the incidence of stomach, lung and liver cancers decreased by 0.7%, 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively, from 1999 to 2007, whereas the incidence of large bowel and prostate cancers increased by 7.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The prevalence of depression, dementia and sleep disorders was estimated as 17.3%, 4.21% and 20.2%, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that disease patterns in South Korean men are becoming Westernized. PMID:21478896

  9. Republic of Korea`s security in northeast Asia. Regional strategic appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    Although the Cold War is over, the security environment in Northeast Asia is not stable. This study summarizes Korea`s national interests from a Korean soldier`s perspective. The threats and issues are described according to the format of a regional strategic appraisal. This study recommends the organization of a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Northeast Asia (CSCNEA). This organization would be composed of the two Koreas(or eventually a reunified Korea), the United States, Japan, China, and Russia. Before the establishment of the organization, the enlargement of bilateral cooperation is recommended.

  10. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society. PMID:26676083

  11. Corporate influences on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Neil

    2008-02-01

    Corporate influences on epidemiology have become stronger and more pervasive in the last few decades, particularly in the contentious fields of pharmacoepidemiology and occupational epidemiology. For every independent epidemiologist studying the side effects of medicines and the hazardous effects of industrial chemicals, there are several other epidemiologists hired by industry to attack the research and to debunk it as 'junk science'. In some instances these activities have gone as far as efforts to block publication. In many instances, academics have accepted industry funding which has not been acknowledged, and only the academic affiliations of the company-funded consultants have been listed. These activities are major threats to the integrity of the field, and its survival as a scientific discipline. There is no simple solution to these problems. However, for the last two decades there has been substantial discussion on ethics in epidemiology, partly in response to the unethical conduct of many industry-funded consultants. Professional organizations, such as the International Epidemiological Association, can play a major role in encouraging and supporting epidemiologists to assert positive principles of how science should work, and how it should be applied to public policy decisions, rather than simply having a list of what not to do. PMID:18245050

  12. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  13. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  14. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  15. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  16. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  17. Concepts in Huanglongbing Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was discovered in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Previously, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The perennial nature of the disease necessitates...

  18. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  19. A Pediatric Case of Thelaziasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Chung Hyuk; Ko, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jung Hyun; Choi, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Wook; Ahn, Sang Ki; Ahn, Myoung Hee; Choi, Kyong Eun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we intended to report a clinical pediatric case of thelaziasis in Korea. In addition, we briefly reviewed the literature on pediatric cases of thelaziasis in Korea. In the present case, 3 whitish, thread-like eye-worms were detected in a 6-year-old-boy living in an urban area and contracted an ocular infection known as thelaziasis incidentally during ecological agritainment. This is the first report of pediatric thelaziasis in Seoul after 1995. PMID:27417087

  20. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  1. Genome-wide Association Studies from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Initiative | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    CGEMS identifies common inherited genetic variations associated with a number of cancers, including breast and prostate. Data from these genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are available through the Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics website.

  2. Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Yoon, Ju Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Hee Young; Won, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An epidemiologic study of childhood cancer would provide useful information on cancer etiology and development of management guidelines. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database were used to examine the incidence and survival of cancer in patients aged 0-14 years. Patients were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, 3rd edition. Age-specific and age-standardized incidences per million and estimated annual percentage change (APC) were calculated by sex and age. Five-year relative survival was calculated for four periods from 1993 to 2011. Results The study comprised 15,113 patients with malignant neoplasms. Age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers were 134.9 per million children in 1999-2011 and 144.0 and 124.9 per million for males and females, respectively (M/F ratio, 1.2; p < 0.05). The highest incidences were observed for ‘leukemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and myelodysplastic diseases’ (group I) (46.4), ‘central nervous system neoplasms’ (group III) (18.3), and ‘lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms’ (group II) (13.4). Age-standardized incidence increased from 117.9 in 1999 to 155.3 in 2011, with an APC of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 2.7). There was a significant increase of APC in ‘neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors’ (group IV) (5.6%) and ‘other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas’ (group XI) (5.6%). The 5-year relative survival rate for all childhood cancers improved significantly from 56.2% (1993-1995) to 78.2% (2007-2011) (males, 56.7% to 77.7%; females, 55.5% to 78.8%). Conclusion This study provides reliable information on incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Korea. PMID:26790965

  3. Urbanization of Scrub Typhus Disease in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Methods Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Results Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one’s own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. Conclusions We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention. PMID:26000454

  4. DNA typing of epidemiologically-related isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, M.; Nolard, N.; Shankland, G. S.; Denning, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is often nosocomially acquired and carries a high mortality. Molecular typing methods to discriminate isolates have now been developed. Using simple restriction endonuclease (Sal1 and Xho1) digestion of total genomic DNA, we have typed 25 epidemiologically-related isolates of A. fumigatus from six hospital episodes of invasive aspergillosis. Eight DNA types were found and in each case the DNA type matched precisely the epidemiological data. Thus DNA typing of A. fumigatus can provide the means to match isolates from linked sources and distinguish isolates from diverse origins. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7867735

  5. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong)

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34–8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26–0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31–0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22–0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22–0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  6. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Egg Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults ≥ 40 Years Old: The Yangpyeong Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES_Yangpyeong).

    PubMed

    Woo, Hye Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the public has been advised to limit egg consumption even though there is little evidence of any harmful effect of eggs on blood cholesterol. The purpose of this cross-sectional and prospective study was to evaluate the potential association between egg consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and MetS components in adults ≥ 40 years in KoGES_Yangpyeong. Yangpyeong is a rural area in South Korea. A total of 2,887 subjects (men 1,115, women 1,772) were recruited from 2005 to 2009, based on a physical examination and questionnaires administered using standardized protocol. After excluding subjects who had MetS at baseline, 1,663 subjects (675 men, 958 women) were followed for 3.20 years (range: 0.34-8.70). During the follow-up period, MetS occurred in 289 subjects. More than 3 eggs per week was significantly associated with decreased risk of MetS in both men (RR = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.26-0.82, P for trend = 0.1093) and women (RR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.31-0.93, P for trend 0.0325) compared to non-users. There was a cross-sectional inverse relationship between egg consumption and abdominal obesity in men and women. Also, prospectively, higher egg consumption in men was associated with a decreased risk of high fasting blood glucose (RR = 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.67, P for trend = 0.0042) and high triglycerides (RR = 0.42, 95% CI, 0.22-0.80, P for trend = 0.1080). In conclusion, our findings suggest that higher egg consumption may reduce the risk of MetS both in men and women, and the risk of high fasting blood glucose and high triglycerides in men. Current guidelines regarding egg consumption may need to be re-visited for healthy middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:26808174

  7. RNA virus genomics: a world of possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome sequences of RNA viruses has the potential to shed new light on fundamental aspects of their biology. Here, I use case studies of 3 RNA viruses to explore the impact of genomic sequence data, with particular emphasis on influenza A virus. Notably, the studies of RNA virus genomics undertaken to date largely focused on issues of evolution and epidemiology, and they have given these disciplines new impetus. However, genomic data have so far made fewer inroads into areas of more direct importance for disease, prevention, and control; thus, harnessing their full potential remains an important goal. PMID:19729846

  8. The impact of biomass burning in North Korea to the air quality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    South Korea is contiguous to China, Japan and North Koreas, so air pollutants transported from outside South Korea should be investigated. Nevertheless, few researches have dealt with the influences of air pollutants from North Korea to other areas. The objectives of this study are to understand the influences of air pollutants' emission from North Korea to South Korea, especially Seoul, using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the backward trajectory analysis. CMB model were applied to analyze the source apportionment of PAHs at Seoul between 2006 and 2007. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, the backward trajectories in sampling days were classified to four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through. Based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by CMB and the trajectories, the influence of air pollutants from North Korea to Seoul is quantified. In order to strengthen the uncertainty of CMB result, the trend of levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-b-D-glucopyranose) concentration at Seoul is also discussed depending on the classification of trajectories.

  9. Distribution of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains Virulent to Xa21 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Choi, S H; Han, S S; Lee, D G; Lee, B Y

    1999-10-01

    ABSTRACT Strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae that are virulent to rice lines carrying the Xa21 resistance gene were widely distributed in Korea. A total of 105 strains collected during 1987 to 1996 in Korea was characterized by pathogenicity tests and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the XorII methyltransferase (xorIIM) and avrXa10 genes. Although the lesion lengths on rice line IRBB21, which carries Xa21, decreased as plant age increased, resistance and susceptibility of the plants to 31 strains were clearly differentiated at the seedling (14, 21, and 28 days old), maximum tillering, and flag leaf stages. The resistance or susceptibility of seedlings was correlated with bacterial populations within an inoculated leaf. There was a significant change in the population structure of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with regard to virulence to Xa21 over the last 10 years; this change in population was confirmed by genome analysis. Lineage I, which is avirulent to Xa21 and does not have a genomic xorIIM homolog, was the predominant lineage found between 1987 and 1989, while lineage II, which is virulent to Xa21 and contains the xorIIM homolog, was predominant in strains collected between 1994 and 1995. Our results demonstrate that introduction of Xa21 into commercial rice should be based on the regional structure of X. oryzae pv. oryzae populations and suggest that Xa21 will not be useful in Korea. PMID:18944737

  10. The emergence of translational epidemiology: from scientific discovery to population health impact.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Gwinn, Marta; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-09-01

    Recent emphasis on translational research (TR) is highlighting the role of epidemiology in translating scientific discoveries into population health impact. The authors present applications of epidemiology in TR through 4 phases designated T1-T4, illustrated by examples from human genomics. In T1, epidemiology explores the role of a basic scientific discovery (e.g., a disease risk factor or biomarker) in developing a "candidate application" for use in practice (e.g., a test used to guide interventions). In T2, epidemiology can help to evaluate the efficacy of a candidate application by using observational studies and randomized controlled trials. In T3, epidemiology can help to assess facilitators and barriers for uptake and implementation of candidate applications in practice. In T4, epidemiology can help to assess the impact of using candidate applications on population health outcomes. Epidemiology also has a leading role in knowledge synthesis, especially using quantitative methods (e.g., meta-analysis). To explore the emergence of TR in epidemiology, the authors compared articles published in selected issues of the Journal in 1999 and 2009. The proportion of articles identified as translational doubled from 16% (11/69) in 1999 to 33% (22/66) in 2009 (P = 0.02). Epidemiology is increasingly recognized as an important component of TR. By quantifying and integrating knowledge across disciplines, epidemiology provides crucial methods and tools for TR. PMID:20688899

  11. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Scheidt-Nave, C; Ziegler, R; Raspe, H

    1998-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have identified osteoporosis as a disease of significant public health impact and have delineated numerous potential risk factors. Nevertheless, it has proven difficult to establish preventive strategies for several reasons. First, there has been no final agreement on the definition of osteoporosis, which has hampered efforts to characterize the magnitude of the problem as a whole. Secondly, as osteoporosis is a multifactorial chronic disorder, effective programs for risk assessment and intervention depend on the development of complex disease models. In summarizing the contributions of epidemiological studies to the current understanding of osteoporosis this review intends to outline the scientific background for the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) and its successors. PMID:9564151

  12. [Rickettsioses: the epidemiological assessment].

    PubMed

    Lukin, E P; Makhlaĭ, A A; Perepelkin, V S

    1997-08-01

    Microbe of taxonomical families Rickettsiaceae aceal and Bartonellaceae of Rickettsiales order have caused not less than 14 nosological forms of disease among people in different parts of the world. About 8 of them--in Russia and in the former Soviet Republics. These diseases are not unequivocal from epidemiological point of view. Trench, Marseilles and other forms of fever, murine typhus, vesicules rickettsia, etc. have been liquidated and never recurred for 30-40 years. Prowazek's [correction of Provachek's] rickettsia in its two forms has lost its epidemiological meaning in Russia and is next to full disappearance. However, some types of fever still represent a definite threat to public health. Some diseases, like ehrlichiosis, Bartonella, tsutsugamushi fever have not yet been studied to the end in Russia. PMID:9424811

  13. Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

  14. Molecular characteristics of human coxsackievirus B1 infection in Korea, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Byunghak; Hwang, Seoyeon; Hong, Jiyoung; Chung, Jaekeun; Kim, Sunhee; Jeong, Yong-Seok; Kim, Kisang; Cheon, Doo-Sung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze epidemiological and molecular characteristics of coxsakievirus (CV) B1 infection associated with severe neonatal illness cases and death in Korea during 2008-2009. Through a nationwide surveillance program, specimens were collected from 104 patients infected with CVB1. The detection of enteroviruses (EVs) from specimens was subjected to a diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the 5'-non-coding region (NCR). A semi-nested PCR was conducted to amplify sequences from the VP1 region and sequence comparison was performed with reference strains registered in Genbank. Male-to-female ratio confirmed approximately 5:4. The major clinical manifestation of patients infected with CVB1 was aseptic meningitis (55.8%). The other clinical symptoms were herpangina or hand-foot-mouth disease (22.1%) and neonatal sepsis (7.7%). The sequences of CVB1 isolates were divided into four genetic clusters (A-D) with at least 15% diversity between the clusters. Almost all the CVB1 isolates in Korea from 2008 to 2009 were in cluster D (except for 2 cases). The homology relationship was also similar between the Korean CVB1 strains and US strain (above 93%). It is possible that Korean CVB1 isolates found during 2008-2009 originated from the US strains found during 2006-2008. The identification of CVB1 in South Korea shows the potential of EVs to cause serious disease in an unpredictable fashion. PMID:23073968

  15. [Epidemiology of myopia].

    PubMed

    Pechmann, A; Czepita, D

    2000-01-01

    The present state of knowledge on the epidemiology of myopia is discussed. The history of myopia investigations is described. The prevalence of myopia in different ages, races and populations is presented. The factors influencing myopia occurrence are characterized. Special attention is focused on the results of studies indicating environmental and genetic reasons of myopia. Most recent investigations concerning the influence of light on myopia occurrence as well as concerning a genetic locus for high myopia are described. PMID:11291303

  16. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  17. The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

  18. Epidemiology of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Spoonhower, Kimberly A; Davis, Pamela B

    2016-03-01

    Improved quality of care and rapidly emerging therapeutic strategies to restore chloride transport profoundly impact the epidemiology and pathobiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the twenty-first century. CF now serves as a model for chronic illness management, continuous quality improvement via registry data, and a seamless link between basic science research, translational studies, clinical trials, and outcomes research to enable rapid expansion of treatment options. PMID:26857763

  19. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  20. Epidemiology of Itch.

    PubMed

    Weisshaar, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease frequency and the associations between risk factors and outcome in a population. Clinical populations are highly selective and depend for instance on perceived severity of symptoms and access to health services. Assessment of a disease in the community and in specific populations is an important measure for the purpose of health planning as well as for the understanding of associations between disease and factors in the environment. Itch is definitely the most frequent symptom of the skin and can occur in acute and chronic skin diseases and other diseases like end-stage renal disease, cholestasis, and hematological, neurological, and psychiatric diseases. This diversity may explain why research on the epidemiology of itch was disregarded for a long time. A recent European study demonstrated that the prevalence of itch among dermatological patients is 54.4%. The prevalence of acute itch in the general population is 8.4% and for chronic itch it is 13.5%; however, with a recurrent symptom it is important to consider different prevalence estimates (point, 12-month, and lifetime prevalence). The lifetime prevalence of chronic itch in the general populations is 22%, demonstrating that more than 1 in 5 people experience chronic itch once in their life. This shows that research in this field should not only focus on patients. This chapter briefly summarizes major facts on the epidemiology of itch in the general population and in some patient populations. PMID:27578064

  1. [Occupational epidemiology in Italy].

    PubMed

    Assennato, G; Bisceglia, L

    2003-01-01

    The development of Occupational Epidemiology in Italy is closely correlated with the political and social awareness of the needs of preventive strategies in the workplace. In the late '60s the Trade Unions supported a model of intervention based on the involvement of the so-called "Homogeneous group of workers" in the validation of the preventive measures taken on the workplace. In spite of the shortcomings of the model, it was extremely effective resulting in enhanced perception of the priority of preventive strategies and in the formation within the National Health Service of the Occupational Health Services. In Italy over the period 1973-2002 there has been an impressive trend of research in field of occupational epidemiology (a search on Medline shows an increasing trend over the years and, in terms of international comparison, higher figures than in Germany, France and Spain). Occupational Epidemiology is now present in the activities of the local Occupational Health Services and in the teaching activities of the Medical Schools throughout the country. PMID:14582235

  2. Prevalence and Trends of Dementia in Korea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Won; So, Yoon Seop; Seo, Ji Young; Kim, Ka Young

    2014-01-01

    Through a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on dementia, we assessed the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes-Alzheimer' disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD)-in Korea. We searched for epidemiological studies on dementia published in 1990-2013 using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, KoreaMed, KISS, and RiCH. Dementia prevalence in elderly patients (aged≥65 yr) was 9.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2%-10.4%) from 11 studies, which was higher than those from Western and other Asian countries. AD was the most prevalent dementia type, with a prevalence of 5.7% (95% CI, 5.0%-6.4%) from 10 studies compared with 2.1% (95% CI, 1.6%-2.7%) for VaD from 9 studies. The age-specific prevalence of dementia approximately doubled with each 5.8-yr increase of age. Although a significant increasing trend of dementia prevalence was not observed, it increased slightly from 7.3% to 8.7% after 2005; AD prevalence increased after 1995 and VaD prevalence decreased after the early 2000s. The AD/VaD ratio increased from 1.96 in the early 1990s to 4.13 in the 2010s, similar to the worldwide ratio. Owing to this high prevalence in the aging population, dementia will impose significant economic burdens to Korean society. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045221

  3. Assessment of the risk posed to Singapore by the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; See, Wanhan; Raj, Pream; James, Lyn; Khan, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the public health risk to Singapore posed by the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in the Republic of Korea in 2015. Methods The likelihood of importation of MERS cases and the magnitude of the public health impact in Singapore were assessed to determine overall risk. Literature on the epidemiology and contextual factors associated with MERS coronavirus infection was collected and reviewed. Connectivity between the Republic of Korea and Singapore was analysed. Public health measures implemented by the two countries were reviewed. Results The epidemiology of the 2015 MERS outbreak in the Republic of Korea remained similar to the MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. In addition, strong infection control and response measures were effective in controlling the outbreak. In view of the air traffic between Singapore and MERS-affected areas, importation of MERS cases into Singapore is possible. Nonetheless, the risk of a serious public health impact to Singapore in the event of an imported case of MERS would be mitigated by its strong health-care system and established infection control practices. Discussion The MERS outbreak was sparked by an exported case from the Middle East, which remains a concern as the reservoir of infection (thought to be camels) continues to exist in the Middle East, and sporadic cases in the community and outbreaks in health-care settings continue to occur there. This risk assessment highlights the need for Singapore to stay vigilant and to continue enhancing core public health capacities to detect and respond to MERS coronavirus. PMID:27508087

  4. Scientific framework for research on disaster and mass casualty incident in Korea: building consensus using Delphi method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chu Hyun; Park, Ju Ok; Park, Chang Bae; Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Soo Jin; Hong, Ki Jeong

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the scientific framework for research on disaster and mass casualty incident (MCI) in Korea, especially Korean terminology, feasible definition, and epidemiologic indices. The two staged policy Delphi method was performed by instructors of National Disaster Life Support (NDLS®) with the constructed questionnaire containing items based on the literature review. The first-stage survey was conducted by 11 experts through two rounds of survey for making issue and option. The second-stage survey was conducted by 35 experts for making a generalized group based consensus. Experts were selected among instructors of National Disaster Life Support Course. Through two staged Delphi survey experts made consensus: 1) the Korean terminology "jaenan" with "disaster" and "dajung-sonsang-sago" with "MCI"; 2) the feasible definition of "disaster" as the events that have an effect on one or more municipal local government area (city-county-district) or results in ≥ 10 of death or ≥ 50 injured victims; 3) the feasible definition of MCI as the events that result in ≥ 6 casualties including death; 4) essential 31 epidemiologic indices. Experts could determine the scientific framework in Korea for research on disaster medicine, considering the distinct characteristics of Korea and current research trends. PMID:24431916

  5. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  6. Burden of disease due to dementia in the elderly population of Korea: present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the rapid aging of populations around the world, dementia has become one of the most important public health problems in Eastern Asian countries. The purpose of the present study was to provide an estimate of the burden of dementia and forecast its future burden, as generalized to the Korean population, and to provide detailed gender- and age-specific information regarding the burden of dementia in the elderly population of Korea. Methods ‘Disability-adjusted life years’ (DALYs) were used to estimate the burden of dementia. Epidemiologic data from national statistics and nationwide epidemiologic studies in the year 2008 were used to obtain representative outcomes for the Korean population. We estimated the DALYs due to dementia from the years 2010 to 2050 by applying demographic structure projections in terms of 5-year age groups in Korea. Results The burden of disease due to dementia in Korea is 528 per 100,000 population (males: 435, females: 622) and 5,117 per 100,000 in those over the age of 65 years (males: 5,228; females: 5,041); this accounts for 4.5% of the total burden of disease in the year 2008. In the year 2050, DALYs due to dementia (814,629) are expected to be 3.0 times higher than those in the year 2010 (274,849). Conclusion Dementia has the highest burden of disease in the elderly Korean population, and this burden will increase sharply with the aging of the population. More comprehensive and multi-dimensional approaches, including clinical, psychological, social, and political means will be needed for the management of the dramatically increasing burden of dementia. PMID:23552095

  7. The role of epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Fallin, M Daniele

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology is the branch of science that investigates the causes and distribution of disease in populations in order to provide preventative measures and promote human health. The fields of genetic and environmental epidemiology primarily seek to identify genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, respectively. Epigenetics is emerging as an important piece of molecular data to include in these studies because it can provide mechanistic insights into genetic and environmental risk factors for disease, identify potential intervention targets, provide biomarkers of exposure, illuminate gene-environment interactions and help localize disease-relevant genomic regions. Here, we describe the importance of including epigenetics in genetic and environmental epidemiology studies, provide a conceptual framework when considering epigenetic data in population-based studies and touch upon the many challenges that lie ahead. PMID:26505319

  8. Future perspectives, applications and challenges of genomic epidemiology studies for food-borne pathogens: A case study of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of the O157:H7 serotype

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Mark; Cebula, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The shiga-toxin (Stx)-producing human pathogen Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is a highly pathogenic subgroup of Stx-producing E. coli (STEC) with food-borne etiology and bovine reservoir. Each year in the U. S., approximately 100,000 patients are infected with enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) of the O157:H7 serotype. This food-borne pathogen is a global public health threat responsible for widespread outbreaks of human disease. Since its initial discovery in 1982, O157:H7 has rapidly become the dominant EHEC serotype in North America. Hospitalization rates among patients as high as 50% have been reported for severe outbreaks of human disease. Symptoms of disease can rapidly deteriorate and progress to life-threatening complications such as Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), the leading cause of kidney failure in children, or Hemorrhagic Colitis. In depth understanding of the genomic diversity that exists among currently circulating EHEC populations has broad applications for improved molecular-guided biosurveillance, outbreak preparedness, diagnostic risk assessment, and development of alternative toxin-suppressing therapeutics. PMID:25483335

  9. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  10. The characteristics of emergency department presentations related to acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in South Korea between 2011 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Cho, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine epidemiologic data regarding acute herbicide or insecticide poisoning in adults from 2011 to 2014 at the national level in South Korea. Further, the association between governmental regulations involving pesticides and changes in pesticide poisoning occurrences over time was determined. Data were obtained from the emergency department (ED)-based Injury In-depth Surveillance system conducted by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Governmental regulations on pesticides were downloaded from the homepage of the Korea Rural Development Administration. Pesticides were classified according to guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) and by the respective Resistance Action Committee (RAC). Trends in the number of ED presentations and case fatality rate (CFR) due to pesticide poisoning were investigated. The overall CFR due to poisoning from herbicides or insecticides in adults in South Korea was 16.8% during 2011-2014. However, CFR significantly decreased over the 4-year period. The ED presentations of paraquat (PQ) poisoning fell significantly, whereas poisoning due to glyphosate, glufosinate, or combined herbicides increased markedly over the 4 years. Between 2011 and 2013, PQ was the most common pesticide poisoning, whereas glyphosate became the most frequent in 2014. PQ produced the highest rate of fatality followed by endosulfan. Although the frequency of PQ poisoning decreased, which may be attributed to governmental regulations, the CFR and incidence of pesticide poisoning in adults remain a public health concern that needs to be addressed. PMID:27267557

  11. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  12. Technical aspects of PACS in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongHyo

    2002-05-01

    Korea is one of the fastest growing countries in the number of filmless hospitals. More than 70 hospitals have converted to filmless environments by adopting full PAC systems during the last two years. The patient care environment in Korean hospitals was not favorable to PACS implementation. In many out patient clinics, doctors had to see more than hundred patients a day. It was not rare for a radiologist to read several hundred of exams a day. Also, the PACS teams were mandated to acquire full scale PACS capable of incorporating not only radiological images but also color images produced in other imaging departments. In order to take root in Korean environment, the PACS in Korea had to pass through some technical modifications that included introduction of recent hardware technologies and development of new software features. This paper describes various technical aspects of PAC systems in Korea that have met difficult requirements and enabled wide spread of PAC systems to real clinical practice.

  13. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  14. HEP Data Grid Applications in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Oh, Youngdo; Son, Dongchul; Kim, Bockjoo; Lee, Sangsan

    2003-04-01

    We will introduce the national HEP Data Grid applications in Korea. Through a five-year HEP Data Grid project (2002-2006) for CMS, AMS, CDF, PHENIX, K2K and Belle experiments in Korea, the Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University in Korea will construct the 1,000 PC cluster and related storage system such as 1,200 TByte Raid disk system. This project includes one of the master plan to construct Asia Regional Data Center by 2006 for the CMS and AMS Experiments and DCAF(DeCentralized Analysis Farm) for the CDF Experiments. During the first year of the project, we have constructed a cluster of around 200 CPU's with a 50 TBytes of a storage system. We will present our first year's experience of the software and hardware applications for HEP Data Grid of EDG and SAM Grid testbeds.

  15. Systemic Analysis of Foodborne Disease Outbreak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kyung; Kwak, No-Seong; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-02-01

    This study systemically analyzed data on the prevalence of foodborne pathogens and foodborne disease outbreaks to identify the priorities of foodborne infection risk management in Korea. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to three variables: origin of food source, phase of food supply chain, and 12 pathogens using 358 cases from 76 original papers and official reports published in 1998-2012. In addition, correspondence analysis of two variables--place and pathogen--was conducted based on epidemiological data of 2357 foodborne outbreaks in 2002-2011 provided by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The results of this study revealed three distinct areas of food monitoring: (1) livestock-derived raw food contaminated with Campylobacter spp., pathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes; (2) multi-ingredient and ready-to-eat food related to Staphylococcus aureus; and (3) water associated with norovirus. Our findings emphasize the need to track the sources and contamination pathways of foodborne pathogens for more effective risk management. PMID:26863429

  16. Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office work. Cancer mortality and incidence in workers were observed from 1992 to 2007 and 1997-2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios and standardized incidence ratios were calculated according to the five job classifications. Results There was an increased standardized incidence ratio for stomach cancer of 1.56 (27/17.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26) in production workers. The standardized mortality ratio for lung cancer increased in production workers. However, was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our result suggests a potential association between cement exposure and stomach cancer. Hexavalent chromium contained in cement might be a causative carcinogen. PMID:22953208

  17. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We put on independent variables, which are sex, age, smoking and alcohol experiences, economic status, age of first Internet use, K-YSR and K-CDI score. Results The subjects consisted of addicted users (2.38%), over users (36.89%) and normal Internet users (60.72%). Attention problems, sex, delinquent problems, K-CDI scores, thought problems, age and aggressive behavior were predictable variables of internet addiction. Age of initial Internet use negatively predicted Internet addiction. Conclusion This result showed similar to other researches about sociodemographic, emotional or behavioral factors related to internet addiction. Generally, subjects with more severe internet addiction had more emotional or behavioral problems. It means that they already have had various difficulties when we found internet addiction of adolescents. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate whether the subjects have any emotional or behavioral troubles and to intervene to prevent internet addiction. PMID:25395968

  18. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  19. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  20. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (56 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (65 FR 11984... issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (70 FR 61118)....

  1. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  2. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  3. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  4. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  5. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  6. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  7. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  8. Molecular epidemiology of infectious laryngotracheitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Kimberly R; García, Maricarmen; Spatz, Stephen; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2014-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the poultry industry worldwide. The disease is caused by gallid herpesvirus I (GaHV-1), a member of the genus Iltovirus, family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The current incidence of the disease is heavily influenced by live attenuated vaccines, which have been used extensively since their introduction in the mid-twentieth century. The capability of current live attenuated vaccine viruses to revert to virulence and spread from bird to bird has shaped the molecular epidemiology of ILT. Because of the antigenic homogeneity among GaHV-1 strains, differentiation of strains has been achieved by targeting genomic differences between outbreak-related isolates and vaccine strains. Numerous genes and genomic regions have been utilized in the development of DNA-based diagnostic assays to differentiate outbreak-related isolates from vaccine strains in countries where ILT outbreaks have occurred. More recently, full genome sequences have allowed determination of the origin of some of the outbreak-related isolates circulating in some poultry production countries. Overall, molecular typing data collected worldwide have identified live attenuated vaccine-related isolates as the primary source for outbreaks of the disease. PMID:24460399

  9. Complete Genomic Sequence of Duck Flavivirus from China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Liu, Chunguo; Li, Gang; Li, Xiaojun; Yin, Xiuchen; Chen, Yuhuan

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the Chinese duck flavivirus TA strain. This work is the first to document the complete genomic sequence of this previously unknown duck flavivirus strain. The sequence will help further relevant epidemiological studies and extend our general knowledge of flaviviruses. PMID:22354941

  10. Full Genome Sequence of a Bovine Enterovirus Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-wei; Dong, Hao; Wu, Qing-min

    2014-01-01

    We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of bovine enterovirus type B from China. The virus (BEV-BJ001) was isolated from Beijing, China, from fecal swabs of cattle suffering from severe diarrhea. This genome sequence will give useful insight for future molecular epidemiological studies in China. PMID:24970832

  11. Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae Strain LMG 941

    PubMed Central

    Midha, Samriti; Ranjan, Manish; Sharma, Vikas; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    We report the 5.1-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae strain LMG 941, the causal agent of bacterial black spot in mango. Apart from evolutionary studies, the draft genome will be a valuable resource for the epidemiological studies and quarantine of this phytopathogen. PMID:22582385

  12. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Philasri, Chutikan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Maneenin, Chanvit; Sirilaph, Samaporn; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas. PMID:17072975

  13. Epidemiological Perspectives of Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ziqi; Shi, Aimin; Zhao, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The global statistics of diabetes mellitus in year 2013 indicated, about 382 million people had this disease worldwide, with type 2 diabetes making up about 90 % of the cases. This is equal to 8.3 % of the adult population with equal rates in both women and men. In year 2012 and 2013 diabetes resulted in mortality of 1.5-5.1 million people per year, making it the 8th leading cause of death in the world. It is predicted that by year 2035 about 592 million people will die of diabetes. The economic cost of diabetes seems to have increased worldwide. An average age of onset of diabetes is 42.5 years and could be due to consumption of high sugar and high-calorie diet, low physical activity, genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle. Approximately 8 % children and about 26 % young adults have diabetes mellitus in the world. The results of epidemiological study of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are presented by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural, and other factors in human populations. The prevalence of T1D has been increased by 2-5 % worldwide and its prevalence is approximately one in 300 in US by 18 years of age. The epidemiological studies are important to study the role, causes, clinical care, prevention, and treatment of type1 diabetes in pregnant women and their children before and after birth. In this article, causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and medications, and epidemiology of diabetes will be described. PMID:25711186

  14. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  15. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  16. Epidemiology of urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2014-01-01

    Urethral stricture disease is relatively common and is associated with a significant financial cost and potentially debilitating outcomes. Understanding urethral stricture epidemiology is important to identify risk factors associated with the etiology or progression of the disease. This understanding may lead to better treatments and preventative measures that could ameliorate disease severity, produce better health outcomes, and reduce expenditures. We performed a comprehensive review of urethral stricture disease based on available published case series, identified gaps in knowledge of this disease, and recommend future directions for research. PMID:26813256

  17. Background and Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Don B; Fink, Aliza K

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal-recessive disease in white persons. Significant advances in therapies and outcomes have occurred for people with CF over the past 30 years. Many of these improvements have come about through the concerted efforts of the CF Foundation and international CF societies; networks of CF care centers; and the worldwide community of care providers, researchers, and patients and families. There are still hurdles to overcome to continue to improve the quality of life, reduce CF complications, prolong survival, and ultimately cure CF. This article reviews the epidemiology of CF, including trends in incidence and prevalence, clinical characteristics, common complications, and survival. PMID:27469176

  18. Migraine headache: epidemiologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Linet, M S; Stewart, W F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that a number of factors are associated with the risk of migraine and precipitation of an attack. However, the degree to which causal associations can be inferred from reported studies is very limited and is a result of the methodological problems discussed throughout this review. The study of migraine in many ways parallels the pattern seen in early investigations of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, because a number of methodological problems had to be resolved in the study of these conditions before significant progress could be made. To achieve significant advances in the improvement of our understanding of the causes of migraine, a number of related issues must be addressed and resolved in future studies. Most noteworthy among these are Recognition of the probable heterogeneity of migraine, not merely in the manifestation of symptoms but, more importantly, in the existence of distinct etiologic subtypes. A number of findings suggest that some migraine subtypes are sensitive to certain precipitants, some appear to be a part of a more generalized constitutional disorder, and some are accompanied by a higher prevalence of migraine among family members. Efforts should be made in understanding the relationship between specific biochemical markers and traits (such as monoamine oxidase deficiency and tyramine sensitivity); precipitants related to the migraine attack; and epidemiologic characteristics such as age at onset and sex. Creation of a more precise, reliable, and practically useful definition of migraine. Without such a definition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to compare results between studies, to understand the relationship between risk factors and migraine subtypes, to understand properly associations identified in selected clinic populations, and, in general, to understand the epidemiology of migraine. More accurate characterization of the case group under

  19. Epidemiology--Teaching the Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Donald L.; Finegold, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of epidemiology as an introduction to useful aspects of biology, mathematics, and simulation skills for kindergarten through university undergraduate students. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)

  20. Incidence and Prevalence of Myasthenia Gravis in Korea: A Population-Based Study Using the National Health Insurance Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Yeon; Lee, Jin Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose There have been a few national population-based epidemiological studies of myasthenia gravis (MG) with wide variation of incidence and prevalence rates worldwide. Herein we report the first nationwide population-based epidemiological study of MG in Korea. Methods We attempted to estimate the incidence and prevalence rates of MG using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database for 2010 to 2013. Cases with MG were defined as those having claim records with a principal diagnosis of MG and the prescription of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or immunosuppressive agents including corticosteroids and azathioprine within 2 years after the diagnosis. The year 2010 was set as a washout period, such that patients were defined as incident cases if their first records of MG were observed in 2011. Results In 2011 there were 1,236 incident cases, and the standardized incidence rate was 2.44 per 100,000 person-years. The standardized prevalence rates were 9.67 and 10.66 per 100,000 persons in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The incidence and prevalence rates peaked in the elderly population aged 60 to 69 years for both sexes. Conclusions This is one of the largest national population-based epidemiological studies of MG, and it has confirmed the high incidence and prevalence rates of MG in the elderly population of South Korea. PMID:27165426

  1. [Infectious diseases in the genomic era].

    PubMed

    Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Toledo, Viviana

    2015-10-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have arrived, changing research and infectious disease research into a new era, the "genomic era". Currently, the developed world is introducing NGS in a number of applications, including clinical diagnostics, epidemiology, and microbiology. In developing countries NGS is being progressively introduced. Technologies currently available allow to sequence the whole genome of bacterial and viral strains for an approximate cost of $100 USD, which is highly cost savings compared to old-technologies for genome sequencing. Here we review recent publication of whole genome sequencing used for, (i) tracking of foodborne outbreaks, with emphasis in Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, (ii) building genomic databases for Governments, (iii) investigating nosocomial infections, and (iv) clinical diagnosis. The genomic era is here to stay and researchers should use these "massive databases" generated by this technology to decrease infectious diseases and thus improve health of humans and animals. PMID:26633116

  2. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention. PMID:26073423

  3. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:1339048

  4. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. PMID:25526781

  5. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  6. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  7. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.

    2015-01-01

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology. PMID:26628513

  8. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J

    2015-12-15

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology. PMID:26628513

  9. Concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nur A.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.; Robison, Richard A.; Johnson, W. Evan; Crandall, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. However, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. We sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. (60 new genomes), and combined them with 55 genomes from GenBank to address how different molecular survey approaches (whole genomes, SNPs, and MLST) impact downstream inferences on molecular evolutionary parameters, evolutionary relationships, and trait character associations. We selected isolates for sequencing to represent temporal, geographic origin, and host range variability. We found that substitution rate estimates vary widely among approaches, and that SNP and genomic datasets yielded different but strongly supported phylogenies. MLST yielded poorly supported phylogenies, especially in our low diversity dataset, i.e., Y. pestis. Trait associations showed that B. pseudomallei and Y. pestis phylogenies are significantly associated with geography, irrespective of the molecular survey approach used, while Brucella spp. phylogeny appears to be strongly associated with geography and host origin. We contrast inferences made among monomorphic (clonal) and non-monomorphic bacteria, and between intra- and inter-specific datasets. We also discuss our results in light of underlying assumptions of different approaches. PMID:25737810

  10. Do parents prefer sons in North Korea?

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1999-09-01

    Son preference in South Korea is stronger than anywhere else in the world, yet little is known about such preference in North Korea. Simple indicators of son preference in North Korea are constructed from its 1993 population census and a 1998 survey of child nutrition (conducted in the wake of the recent famine). These indicators include sex ratio at birth, sex ratios of infant and child mortality, and sex ratios of child malnutrition. North Koreans do not evince prenatal discrimination against daughters, a finding that may indicate a lack of prenatal sex-testing technologies. Neither is evidence found of excess female mortality or malnutrition in the postnatal period, during which discrimination requires no special technology. The discrepancy in son preference across the Korean peninsula seems due largely to the socialist agenda pursued in the north following political partition after World War II. An important aspect of that agenda challenged the ancient Confucian ideology presumed to underlie son preference. Apparently, this challenge was more successful in North Korea than in other Asian societies instituting similar political changes, because son preference was not eliminated in China or in Vietnam. PMID:10546312

  11. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  12. Telecommunications and Data Communication in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Moon-Suk

    All facilities of the Ministry of Communications of Korea, which monopolizes telecommunications services in the country, are listed and described. Both domestic facilities, including long-distance telephone and telegraph circuits, and international connections are included. Computer facilities are also listed. The nation's regulatory policies are…

  13. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  14. Country Profiles, The Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dae Woo; And Others

    A profile of the Republic of Korea is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  15. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN KOREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA WAS 27,184,000 IN 1963. AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY THE KOREAN WAR, HAS RECEIVED EMPHASIS THROUGH EXPORT PROMOTION, TAX REFORM, AND A STABILIZATION PROGRAM. A 6-YEAR FREE COMPULSORY EDUCATION IS SUPPLEMENTED BY "CIVIC SCHOOLS" AND "HIGHER CIVIC SCHOOLS" FOR ADULTS. PRIMARY…

  16. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  17. Collaborative Reasoning in China and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Ting; Anderson, Richard C.; Kim, Il-Hee; Li, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Students at two sites in China and one site in Korea engaged in Collaborative Reasoning, an approach to discussion that requires self-management, free participation, and critical thinking. The discontinuity between the usual adult-dominated discourse of Chinese and Korean homes and classrooms and the expected discourse of Collaborative Reasoning…

  18. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  19. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  20. Genetic diversity of Lycoris endemic to Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive taxonomic relationships among Lycoris Herb. (Amaryllidaceae) taxa native to Korea have not been analyzed previously. This study was carried out to investigate the hybrid origin, genetic diversity, and relationships of Lycoris taxa (L. flavescens, L. uydoensis, L. chejuensis, L. chinensis ...

  1. [Epidemiology and control of injury].

    PubMed

    Kim, Soonduck

    2005-05-01

    Injury has recently become a major world-wide health problem. Injury related deaths occur in many actively working young people and produce major social and economical losses. However health related specialists do not recognize the importance of injury and there have not been many studies related to this problem. This research studied the trends of injury related research in Korea, mortality rate and prevalence rate, socio-economical losses and control in Korea and out of the country, based on literature from Korea and without such as statistical yearly reports on causes of deaths and OECD health reports, as well as WHO web sites. Studies in Korea about injury were very few, with 9 in the 1960's, 5 in the 1980's, 4 in the 1990's and 5 in 2000's. Mortality rate of injury was higher in Korea than in England, USA or Japan, especially in car accidents, suicide and falls. In Korea, the yearly trends in mortality rates were highest in car accidents but those rates are falling, suicide is steadily rising, with highest rate in 2003. Falls is in second rank with no change in rates. In 2003, the ten causes of death in Korea were suicide in 5th rank, transport accidents in 7th rank, and falls in 10th rank. Considering age groups, in the teens, transport accidents were 1st rank, in the 20's and 30's, suicide was 1st rank, and although there were some differences, falls, drowning, assault, fire were in the top 10. Prevalence rates of injury could not be known, but in 2001, according to the National Health and Nutrition Survey, lifelong injury was 10%, and yearly major injury was 1.3%, major injury for two weeks was 0.1%, and minor injury was 10%. In other foreign countries, injury has become to be recognized as a major health related problem, and much programs are being set up to reduce injury related deaths and injuries. WHO is putting much effort in prevention of violence and transport accidents, and in the USA, Canada and Europe, there are injury surveillance systems

  2. Utilization of health insurance data in an environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jongsik; Cho, Seongkyung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In South Korea, health insurance data are used as material for the health insurance of national whole subject. In general, health insurance data could be useful for estimating prevalence or incidence rate that is representative of the actual value in a population. The purpose of this study was to apply the concept of episode of care (EoC) in the utilization of health insurance data in the field of environmental epidemiology and to propose an improved methodology through an uncertainty assessment of disease course and outcome. Methods In this study, we introduced the concept of EoC as a methodology to utilize health insurance data in the field of environmental epidemiology. The characterization analysis of the course and outcome of applying the EoC concept to health insurance data was performed through an uncertainty assessment. Results The EoC concept in this study was applied to heat stroke (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, code T67). In the comparison of results between before and after applying the EoC concept, we observed a reduction in the deviation of daily claims after applying the EoC concept. After that, we categorized context, model, and input uncertainty and characterized these uncertainties in three dimensions by using uncertainty typology. Conclusions This study is the first to show the process of constructing episode data for environmental epidemiological studies by using health insurance data. Our results will help in obtaining representative results for the processing of health insurance data in environmental epidemiological research. Furthermore, these results could be used in the processing of health insurance data in the future. PMID:26796891

  3. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  4. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Goo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014) has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff's right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation. PMID:27055545

  5. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field. PMID:26088071

  6. Epidemiology in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the importance of early childhood education as a source of information about health and safety of young children. Discusses the significance of early childhood programs adopting an epidemiological approach to document this information. Outlines a five-step plan to conduct an epidemiological study, using examples from epidemiological…

  7. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  8. Epidemiology of Depression for Clinicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberger, Joyce T.; Costello, Elizabeth Jane

    1992-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology of depression and ways this information can be useful for clinicians. Defines frequently used epidemiological terms; presents prevalence rates and risk factors; discusses impact and consequences of depression; and suggests arenas for prevention, early intervention, and treatment that can help clinicians in their everyday work.…

  9. Update on the Epidemiology of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Steven T.; Geller, Alan C.; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing steadily in incidence over the past 30 years. Recent studies have explored associations between CMM and varying physiologic risk factors, such as nevi or hair and eye color, in addition to historical features such as a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), childhood cancers, Parkinson’s Disease, hormone exposure and family history of CMM. Genome-wide association studies have also uncovered many genetic determinants of CMM risk. Ultimately, ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure remains the most important modifiable risk factor for CMM. Organ transplant recipients, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory usage may also play a role. While risk factors are important to identify, effective campaigns to reduce the burden of disease through early detection and prevention are essential. We present detailed data regarding these facets of care for the CMM patient, and provide an update on the epidemiology of CMM. PMID:23580930

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of Sinergasilus polycolpus (Copepoda:Poecilostomatoida).

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Li; Wang, Li-Xia; Huang, Jinyan; Jiang, Jinbin; Tang, Dunping; Fang, Rui; Su, Ying-Bing

    2016-07-01

    The full mitochondrial (mt) genome of Sinergasilus polycolpus is 14 000 bp in length, and it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 non-coding region. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are different compared to other Copepodas, such as Lernaea cyprinacea. The full mt genome of S. polycolpus provides useful information for further studies on epidemiology and phylogenetics. PMID:26152348

  11. [Descriptive epidemiology of urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Kodama, H; Ohno, Y

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, urolithiasis is remarked from the standpoint of descriptive epidemiology, which examines the frequency distribution of a given disease in a population in terms of time, place and personal characteristics with an aim of identifying risk factors or some clues to the etiology. Some descriptive epidemiological features of urolithiasis are summarized. Prevalence rate is around 4% (4-15% in males and 4-8% in females), and incidence rate varies from area to area: 53.2 per 100,000 population in 1975 in Japan, 364 in 1976 in Malaysia, and 540 in 1979 in West Germany. Prevalence and/or incidence rates have, in general, increased in the developed countries since World War II and in the developing countries as well, where upward trends are quite analogous to the trends observed in the nineteenth century in Europe. Recurrence rate, which is much higher in males than in females, ranges from 31% to 75%, depending on the follow-up periods. In the industrialized countries, upper urinary (renal and ureteral) stones account for more than 90% of total stones, which are ordinarily calcium complexes in composition. More common in the developing countries are lower urinary (bladder and urethral) stones, frequently composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, which indicates a close association with urinary tract infections. Variations in frequency are evident by season and by region within a country. Age and sex differentials in urinary stone formers are substantial: more common in males 30-40 years old in the industrialized countries and in children under 10 years old in the developing countries. Racial differentials are also noted; blacks appear to suffer less frequently than whites. Stone formers experience more frequent episodes of stone formation in their family members, particularly father and brothers, than non-stone formers. These findings on racial differentials and family preponderance suggest the possible relevance of genetic factors in stone formation. Stone

  12. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of

  13. Feasibility study of EEW application in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.

    2008-12-01

    At present, it seems almost impossible to predict where and how much strong a earthquake will happen within very limited time such as two or three days before it occurs. However, the advantage of modern electronic techniques can support us very fast communication tools around nation-wide area so that we can receive P- waves arrival information from seismic stations through communication lines before S-waves strike our living site. This is the key of EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) concept that is under development around world especially including Japan, United State of America, and Taiwan. In this pilot study we proposed the direction for developing Korean Earthquake Early Warning System. Considering the state of the art techniques used in Japan, USA and Taiwan, ElarmS would be more adaptable to Korea since ElarmS can work from the low limit of moderate earthquakes around magnitude 3.5, which would annually happen in Korea. We investigate empirical magnitude scaling relationship for South Korea using 27 events ranging in magnitude from 2.2 to 4.9 recorded by the Korea Institute of Geoscience And Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) for 2007. We measure the maximum predominant period and the peak displacement or velocity amplitude from the first 4 seconds of P wave arrivals to derive period-magnitude and amplitude-magnitude scaling relationship, respectively. For the period-magnitude relationship, we find that 10 Hz low-pass filter yields better estimate than 3 Hz. This is because the magnitudes of most events used in this study are too small (<3.0). It is also shown that peak displacement for velocity instruments and peak velocity for accelerometers have their own magnitude scaling relationships, respectively. Thus, for the amplitude-magnitude relationship, like the relationships in northern California, two individual amplitude scaling relationships would be necessary.

  14. Applying molecular epidemiology in pediatric leukemia.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    Molecular epidemiology is the study of genetic and environmental risk for disease, with much effort centered on cancer. Childhood leukemia occurs in nearly a third of all patients newly diagnosed with pediatric cancer. only a small percentage of these new cases of childhood leukemia are associated with high penetrant hereditary cancer syndromes. Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been associated with a dysregulated immune system due to delayed infectious exposure at a young age. Identical twins with childhood leukemia suggest that acute lymphoblastic leukemia begins in utero and that the concordant presentation is due to a shared preleukemia subclone via placental transfer. Investigation of single nucleotide polymorphisms within candidate genes find that leukemia risk may be attributed to population-based polymorphisms affecting folate metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, immunity, and B-cell development. More recently, genome-wide association studies for leukemia risk has led investigators to genes associated with B-cell development. When describing leukemia predisposition due to hereditary cancer syndromes, the following 6 categories become apparent on the basis of biology and clinical presentation: (1) genetic instability/DNA repair syndromes, (2) cell cycle/differentiation syndromes, (3) bone marrow failure syndromes, (4) telomere maintenance syndromes, (5) immunodeficiency syndromes, and (6) transcription factor syndromes and pure familial leukemia. understanding the molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia can affect the treatment and tumor surveillance strategies for these high risk patients and their family members. PMID:25973690

  15. Current status of Clostridium difficile infection epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Fernanda C; Gould, Carolyn V; McDonald, L Clifford

    2012-08-01

    The dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) during recent years, with increases in incidence and severity of disease in several countries, have made CDI a global public health challenge. Increases in CDI incidence have been largely attributed to the emergence of a previously rare and more virulent strain, BI/NAP1/027. Increased toxin production and high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones have made this strain a very successful pathogen in healthcare settings. In addition, populations previously thought to be at low risk are now being identified as having severe CDI. Recent genetic analysis suggests that C. difficile has a highly fluid genome with multiple mechanisms to modify its content and functionality, which can make C. difficile adaptable to environmental changes and potentially lead to the emergence of more virulent strains. In the face of these changes in the epidemiology and microbiology of CDI, surveillance systems are necessary to monitor trends and inform public health actions. PMID:22752867

  16. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  17. Whole-genome sequence of Clostridium lituseburense L74, isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yookyung; Lim, Sooyeon; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2016-03-01

    Clostridium lituseburense L74 was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus collected in Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea and subjected to whole genome sequencing on HiSeq platform and annotated on RAST. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession NZ_LITJ00000000. PMID:26981432

  18. Genomic analysis of five Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates and biological activity against different host strains of Lymantria dispar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate genetic diversity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) at the genomic level, five isolates of LdMNPV from North America, Europe, and Asia were selected for complete genome sequence determination and analysis. These isolates consist of LdMNPV-2161 from Korea; LdMNPV-3029, a ...

  19. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  20. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    PubMed

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  1. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures. PMID:17580550

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  3. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  4. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

  5. Myeloma aetiology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G J; Davies, F E; Linet, M

    2002-07-01

    Recently there have been substantial improvements in our understanding of the biology of myeloma. These findings have important implications for aetiological studies aimed at defining the causative factors for myeloma. Myeloma is closely related to monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), which is now recognized to be very common in the older population. The epidemiology of these conditions is presented and discussed in the context of the genetic factors governing both the risk of developing MGUS or of transformation to myeloma. Biological studies support a role for aberrant class switch recombination early in the natural history of myeloma suggesting that factors in the environment may interact with this mechanism to increase myeloma risk. Case-control and cohort studies have identified several known and suspected environmental exposures. These exposures include high doses of ionizing radiation, and occupational exposure in the farming and petrochemical industries. The data supporting these associations are presented and discussed in the context of the molecular mechanisms underlying these exposures. In particular DNA damage occurring as a consequence could readily interact with the class switch recombination process to increase the risk of chromosomal translocations, oncogene deregulation and malignant transformation. A further hypothesis, which has been extensively investigated, is the role of chronic immune/antigenic stimulation and the risk of myeloma. This concept is difficult to explain in the context of our current immunological concepts. The data supporting the association and how molecular epidemiological studies using genetic variants in cytokine genes are allowing us to revisit this concept are discussed in detail. PMID:12199621

  6. Genomic Motifs as a Novel Indicator of the Relationship between Strains Isolated from the Epidemic of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takehisa; Suzuki, Tohru; Ohashi, Seiichi; Miyazaki, Ayako; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a positive-sense RNA virus that causes infectious gastroenteritis in pigs. Following a PED outbreak that occurred in China in 2010, the disease was identified for the first time in the United States in April 2013, and was reported in many other countries worldwide from 2013 to 2014. As a novel approach to elucidate the epidemiological relationship between PEDV strains, we explored their genome sequences to identify the motifs that were shared within related strains. Of PED outbreaks reported in many countries during 2013–2014, 119 PEDV strains in Japan, USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, and Korea were selected and used in this study. We developed a motif mining program, which aimed to identify a specific region of the genome that was exclusively shared by a group of PEDV strains. Eight motifs were identified (M1–M8) and they were observed in 41, 9, 18, 6, 10, 14, 2, and 2 strains, respectively. Motifs M1–M6 were shared by strains from more than two countries, and seemed to originate from one PEDV strain, Indiana12.83/USA/2013, among the 119 strains studied. BLAST search for motifs M1–M6 revealed that M3–M5 were almost identical to the strain ZMDZY identified in 2011 in China, while M1 and M2 were similar to other Chinese strains isolated in 2011–2012. Consequently, the PED outbreaks in these six countries may be closely related, and multiple transmissions of PEDV strains between these countries may have occurred during 2013–2014. Although tools such as phylogenetic tree analysis with whole genome sequences are increasingly applied to reveal the connection between isolates, its interpretation is sometimes inconclusive. Application of motifs as a tool to examine the whole genome sequences of causative agents will be more objective and will be an explicit indicator of their relationship. PMID:26808527

  7. Genomic Motifs as a Novel Indicator of the Relationship between Strains Isolated from the Epidemic of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takehisa; Suzuki, Tohru; Ohashi, Seiichi; Miyazaki, Ayako; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a positive-sense RNA virus that causes infectious gastroenteritis in pigs. Following a PED outbreak that occurred in China in 2010, the disease was identified for the first time in the United States in April 2013, and was reported in many other countries worldwide from 2013 to 2014. As a novel approach to elucidate the epidemiological relationship between PEDV strains, we explored their genome sequences to identify the motifs that were shared within related strains. Of PED outbreaks reported in many countries during 2013-2014, 119 PEDV strains in Japan, USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, and Korea were selected and used in this study. We developed a motif mining program, which aimed to identify a specific region of the genome that was exclusively shared by a group of PEDV strains. Eight motifs were identified (M1-M8) and they were observed in 41, 9, 18, 6, 10, 14, 2, and 2 strains, respectively. Motifs M1-M6 were shared by strains from more than two countries, and seemed to originate from one PEDV strain, Indiana12.83/USA/2013, among the 119 strains studied. BLAST search for motifs M1-M6 revealed that M3-M5 were almost identical to the strain ZMDZY identified in 2011 in China, while M1 and M2 were similar to other Chinese strains isolated in 2011-2012. Consequently, the PED outbreaks in these six countries may be closely related, and multiple transmissions of PEDV strains between these countries may have occurred during 2013-2014. Although tools such as phylogenetic tree analysis with whole genome sequences are increasingly applied to reveal the connection between isolates, its interpretation is sometimes inconclusive. Application of motifs as a tool to examine the whole genome sequences of causative agents will be more objective and will be an explicit indicator of their relationship. PMID:26808527

  8. Uncovering Genomic Features and Maternal Origin of Korean Native Chicken by Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Don; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Lee, Jun-Heon; Lee, Woon Kyu; Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2014-01-01

    The Korean Native Chicken (KNC) is an important endemic biological resource in Korea. While numerous studies have been conducted exploring this breed, none have used next-generation sequencing to identify its specific genomic features. We sequenced five strains of KNC and identified 10.9 million SNVs and 1.3 million InDels. Through the analysis, we found that the highly variable region common to all 5 strains had genes like PCHD15, CISD1, PIK3C2A, and NUCB2 that might be related to the phenotypic traits of the chicken such as auditory sense, growth rate and egg traits. In addition, we assembled unaligned reads that could not be mapped to the reference genome. By assembling the unaligned reads, we were able to present genomic sequences characteristic to the KNC. Based on this, we also identified genes related to the olfactory receptors and antigen that are common to all 5 strains. Finally, through the reconstructed mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenomic analysis and elucidated the maternal origin of the artificially restored KNC. Our results revealed that the KNC has multiple maternal origins which are in agreement with Korea's history of chicken breed imports. The results presented here provide a valuable basis for future research on genomic features of KNC and further understanding of KNC's origin. PMID:25501044

  9. Complete genome of Kangiella geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T), putative evidence for recent genome reduction in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hanna; Kim, Seil; Oh, Jeongsu; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Kyung Mo

    2015-12-01

    Kangiella geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T) is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from seawater off the southern coast of Korea. We here report the complete genome of K. geojedonensis KCTC 23420(T), which consists of 2,495,242 bp (G+C content of 43.78%) with 2,257 protein-coding genes, 41 tRNAs, 2 rRNA operons. The genome is smaller than the other closely related genomes, indicating that K. geojedonensis has recently experienced reductive evolution. PMID:26044616

  10. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic research but looms as a towering obstacle in environmental epidemiology. One of the most promising developments in improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology is to find exposure biomarkers, which could serve as built-in dosimeters that reflect the biologic footprint left behind by environmental exposures. Beyond exposure assessment, epidemiologists studying environmental exposures face the difficulty of studying small effects that may be distorted by confounding that eludes easy control. This challenge may prompt reliance on new study designs, such as two-stage designs in which exposure and disease information are collected in the first stage, and covariate information is collected on a subset of subjects in state two. While the analytic methods already available for environmental epidemiology are powerful, analytic methods for ecologic studies need further development. This workshop outlines the range of methodologic issues that environmental epidemiologists must address so that their work meets the goals set by scientists and society at large. PMID:8206029

  11. So-Eum Type as an Independent Risk Factor for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Yi, Hyeryeon; Lee, Si Woo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Jin Kwan; Hong, Jeong Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: It has been hypothesized that Sasang constitutional types (SCTs) have a specific hypoactive organ, which can account for vulnerability to related diseases or symptoms. This study examined the relationship between SCTs and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Design: Cross-sectional study in a population-based cohort study in Korea. Participants: 1362 individuals (705 men and 657 women) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Outcome measures: The participants were classified into SCTs by the integrated diagnostic model and asked about symptoms related to IBS using the Rome II criteria. Results: The prevalence of IBS differed significantly among the SCTs, with 33 (18.3%) of the So-eum (SE) type, 74 (9.9%) of the Tae-eum (TE) type, and 57 (13.2%) of the So-yang (SY) type having IBS. Even after adjustment for possible confounders, the SE type for both sexes continued to show 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–3.16) excess odds of having IBS. Men with SE type had a 2.97 times (95% CI, 1.34–6.58) and a 2.50 times (95% CI, 1.15–5.47) significantly higher odds of having IBS than the TE and SY types, respectively. In analysis for the joint effect of SCT and psychological stress, the multivariate odds ratio of IBS was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.33–7.75) for the SE type and Psychological Well-Being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF) score (<27), and 5.83 (95% CI, 1.80–18.88) for the SE type and PWI-SF (≥27) compared with the TE type and PWI-SF score (<27). Conclusions: The SE type of SCT is an independent risk factor for IBS. The findings support the hypothesis that persons with SE type are vulnerable to gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25148474

  12. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  13. Epidemiology of human and animal kobuviruses.

    PubMed

    Khamrin, Pattara; Maneekarn, Niwat; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Kobuviruses are member of the family Picornaviridae. Initially, members in Kobuvirus genus were named according to the basis of their host species. The viruses found in humans called "Aichi virus", the viruses from cattle called "bovine kobuvirus", and the viruses isolated from pigs called "porcine kobuvirus". Currently, taxonomy of kobuviruses has been proposed and the virus species have been renamed. The "Aichi virus" has been renamed as "Aichivirus A", "bovine kobuvirus" has been renamed as "Aichivirus B", and "porcine kobuvirus" has been changed to "Aichivirus C". Among Aichivirus A, three distinct members, including Aichi virus 1 (Aichivirus in human), canine kobuvirus 1, and murine kobuvirus 1, have been described. Aichi virus 1 in human is globally distributed and has been identified at low incidence (0-3 %) in sporadic acute gastroenteritis cases. Aichi virus 1 has been reported to be associated with variety types of clinical illnesses including diarrhea, vomiting, fever, purulent conjunctivitis, and respiratory symptoms. The studies from Japan, Spain, Germany, and Tunisia demonstrated that high antibody prevalence against Aichi virus 1 were found in the populations. Aichivirus B or previously known as bovine kobuvirus was first reported in 2003. Since then, Aichivirus B has also been reported from several countries worldwide. An overall prevalence of Aichivirus B varies from 1 to 34.5 %, and the highest prevalence was found in cattle with diarrhea in Korea. Aichivirus C or porcine kobuvirus is widely distributed in pigs. Aichivirus C has been found in both diarrhea and healthy pigs and the positive rate of this virus varies from 3.9 up to 100 %. It was reported that Aichivirus C was found with high prevalence in wild boars in Hungary. The accumulated data of the biological, pathological, as well as epidemiological studies of kobuviruses are still limited. Comprehensive global investigations of the prevalence and diversity are required and will be

  14. The value of twins in epigenetic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jordana T; Saffery, Richard

    2012-02-01

    During past decades, twin studies have played an important role in genetic epidemiology studies of complex traits. The strength of twin studies lies in the ability to disentangle genetic and environmental factors that contribute to a phenotype, by comparing genetically identical monozygotic twins to dizygotic twins, who share on average 50% of genetic variants. Twin studies now offer the opportunity to study epigenetic variation across the genome with two aims. First, twin studies can improve our understanding of the factors regulating epigenetic variability by assessing the heritability of epigenetic variants. Secondly, the use of twins in epigenetic research is increasingly recognized as an important approach to help unravel the complexities associated with human development and disease. The strategic use of identical twins discordant for complex disease has revealed the importance of linking epigenetic disruption to the disease-associated risk in humans. Lastly, we also discuss the possibility that epigenetic effects on disease may in part explain some of the missing heritability in genome-wide association studies. The study of human epigenetic factors in twins can inform the role of genetics, as well as in utero and postnatal environments to the establishment, maintenance and functional consequences of human epigenome variation. PMID:22253312

  15. Mortality from and Incidence of Pesticide Poisoning in South Korea: Findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Shil; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9%) and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea. PMID:24743877

  16. Genome walking.

    PubMed

    Shapter, Frances M; Waters, Daniel L E

    2014-01-01

    Genome walking is a method for determining the DNA sequence of unknown genomic regions flanking a region of known DNA sequence. The Genome walking has the potential to capture 6-7 kb of sequence in a single round. Ideal for identifying gene promoter regions where only the coding region. Genome walking also has significant utility for capturing homologous genes in new species when there are areas in the target gene with strong sequence conservation to the characterized species. The increasing use of next-generation sequencing technologies will see the principles of genome walking adapted to in silico methods. However, for smaller projects, PCR-based genome walking will remain an efficient method of characterizing unknown flanking sequence. PMID:24243201

  17. Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system. PMID:25298903

  18. Status of photonic network research in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Hyub

    2004-10-01

    Korea is small country but has recently dramatic growth in broadband internet subscribers. At the present of December in 2003, about 73% of total households are internet subscribers. The country is now pursuing new internet highway with faster speed and broadband services for future intelligent internet. The viable research targets are the switching technologies, the access network and convergence network technologies. The optical burst switching will be discussed as the intermediate solution before the coming sophisticated optical packet switching technologies. Another important issue is how we accept diverse service types in future network. There are always dilemmas to choose "optical" or "electrical" for the network in both cost and technology views. The WDM PON-based FTTH and the broadband convergence network (BcN) plans in Korea will also be discussed.

  19. The Fifth Outbreak of Trichinosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ji-Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-01-01

    Trichinosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode, Trichinella spp., and had been reported several times in Korea. Recently, there was an additional outbreak, involving 5 patients, the findings from which are reported herein. On 30 November 2010, 8 persons ate sashimi of the meat of a wild boar. Then, 2-3 weeks later, they complained of myalgia and fever. Unfortunately, muscle biopsy was not performed, but ELISA was performed using their sera. Two people among 8 were positive for Trichinella on the 34th day post-infection (PI), and 3 patients who initially revealed negative ELISA were additionally proved to be positive for trichinosis on the 42nd day PI. Hence, the confirmed patients of trichinosis were 5 in total in the present outbreak. They were treated with albendazole and discharged uneventfully. This was the fifth outbreak of trichinosis in Korea. PMID:22355208

  20. A case of human thelaziasis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Sook; Im, Kyung Il; Byun, Young Ja; Kim, Sang Chul

    1987-06-01

    The 15th case of human thelaziasis is reported from Korea. The patient was a 15-year-old girl from Seoul. Both of the worms which were removed from her eye were female and were identified by the number of transverse cuticular striations (281, 172 and 162/mm in the oesophageal, middle and posterior portions, respectively), as Thelazia callipaeda. The patient owned a pet dog ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: The 15-year-old patient had herself removed a worm from one eye. Two worms were identified morphologically as Thelazia callipaeda. The source of infection was uncertain, but the patient was known to have close contact with a dog. The authors refer to 14 previously reported cases of thelaziasis in Korea. PMID:12886085

  1. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records, for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006, the authors calculated cumulative probabilities of divorce, by marriage cohort (N = 5,734,577) and educational attainment. The results indicated that the relationship between education and divorce was negative even in the earliest cohort and that this negative gradient has become more pronounced in more recent cohorts. Contrary to expectations, however, little evidence was found that the concentration of divorce at lower levels of education was exacerbated by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. The authors discuss these findings in light of conventional emphases on the costs of divorce and highlight the importance of better understanding this distinctive east Asia pattern of divorce. PMID:23440624

  2. Genetic epidemiology of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Glass, Dan; Bataille, Veronique

    2016-08-01

    The field of melanoma genetics is moving at great pace with new platforms to investigate single nucleotide polymorphism, genome sequencing, gene expression, and methylation. Melanoma incidence is still rising mainly because of screening campaigns, which has increased the number of reported melanomas. However, mortality due to melanoma is not decreasing. Many cutaneous phenotypic risk factors have been linked to melanoma, but the association with UV radiation is very complex. The level of vitamin D affects both the risk of melanoma and prognosis, but more studies are needed. The genetics of melanoma involves genes involved in pigmentation and naevi, as well as genes involved in the cell cycle and senescence, which have been identified via genome-wide association studies over the last 10 years. One area of research highly relevant to melanoma is telomere biology with further links to reduced senescence. At the somatic level, new gene pathways are being explored with many new therapeutic targets, and boosting immune responses against the tumour appears to offer the best long-term outcome. PMID:27436815

  3. Loktanella koreensis sp. nov., isolated from sea sand in Korea.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Byung-Yong; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Jong-Shik; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Go, Seung-Joo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2006-09-01

    A bacterial strain, GA2-M3(T), isolated from a sea-sand sample in Korea, was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterization. Cells of strain GA2-M3(T) were Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and short rod- to ovoid-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed that the bacterium fell within the radiation of the genus Loktanella. Similarity levels between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GA2-M3(T) and those of type strains of Loktanella species with validly published names were 93.5-96.1 %; highest sequence similarity was with Loktanella rosea. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain GA2-M3(T) was 60.0 mol% and the predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. Major fatty acids were 18 : 1omega7c, 18 : 0 and 18 : 1omega7c 11-methyl. On the basis of the evidence presented, it is proposed that strain GA2-M3(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Loktanella koreensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GA2-M3(T) (=KACC 11519(T)=DSM 17925(T)). PMID:16957121

  4. Evidence for two koi herpesvirus (KHV) genotypes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kwon, Se Ryun

    2013-06-13

    The geographic distribution of koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, based on the alleles of 3 domains) and sequence analysis using 3 regions of KHV genomic DNA (SphI-5, 9/5, and the thymidine kinase gene). In this study, samples from 6 carp showing symptoms of KHV infection in 2008 were examined for the presence of KHV by using PCR and cell culture isolation methods. KHV was detected in 2 (Pyeongtaek and Buan) of the samples. Sequence analysis revealed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was Asia genotype variant 1 (A1), and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was European genotype variant 4 (E4). In addition, PCR patterns and sequence analysis based on the alleles of 3 domains of an alternate KHV classification system confirmed that the genotype of the KHV PT-08 isolate was CyHV3-J, and the genotype of the KHV BA-08 isolate was CyHV3-third genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the presence of 2 genotypes of KHV (genotype A1/CyHV3-J; genotype E4/CyHV3-third genotype) in South Korea. PMID:23759557

  5. Sleep in Korea: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Jeong, D U

    1995-05-01

    Sleep is an ubiquitous phenomenon. It is a developmental product, being subjected to the vicissitudes of human behavior and culture. The author will attempt to elaborate on sleep, sleep disorders, and sleep medicine in Korea from various developmental perspectives (i.e. personal, national and scientific). Korea is a rapidly developing industrialized nation and is now experiencing immense cultural changes which force individuals to change their behavior and value systems. For example, shift working is becoming increasingly popular and early working hours are being adopted by more companies as a measure to win competitions in the international market. In the clinical setting it is observed very easily that patients develop and maintain disturbed sleep-wake rhythm and its consequences. More obstructive sleep apnea, presumably due to obesity, are observed and studied in sleep clinics. The nuclear family system, an inevitable outcome of industrialization, produces some profound difference in sleeping arrangement such as children's earlier separation from parental or grandparental sleeping environment. The question is how these and other industrialization-related changes may affect the incidence and the manifestation of sleep and sleep disorders. In the background there is emerging interest in healthy sleep and sleep disorders, exemplified by increasing coverage of the topics in the mass media and the publication business. Development of sleep medicine/research per se also involves a developmental perspective. Interests in sleep and sleep disorders began sporadically decades ago in Korea and are now actively being organized mainly by the Korean Association of Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology as a unified developing force. Understanding of sleep and of sleep disorders is not complete without in-depth understanding of culture, philosophy, and tradition from developmental perspectives. Traditional ideas and wisdom from the past are the unavoidable resources for further

  6. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  7. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  8. Development of Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwang Soon; Jun, Ki Cheon; Lee, Jong Chan; Kwon, Jae Il; Cho, Kyung Ho; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Jin Ah; Kim, Sang Ik; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Byung Ju

    2013-04-01

    Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) is a research project funded by the Minister of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) in Korea and the goal of this project is to develop an integrated operational oceanographic system that will provide nowcasts and forecasts of ocean information around Korean Peninsula to support marine activities for governmental agencies and to mitigate coastal disasters such as storm surge, oil spill, and search and rescue. Since August 2009, KIOST has been leading the project to develop KOOS, which consists of three parts, 1) observing systems, 2) numerical modeling with data management and skill assessment, and 3) practical application systems. In KOOS about 190 real-time coastal/ocean observing platforms such as tidal stations, buoys, off-shore research stations and satellites from various agencies, KIOST, KHOA (Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration), NFRDI (National Fisheries Research & Development Institute), and KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) have been used for input data as well as calibration and validation for numerical models. With observing networks, various atmospheric models and ocean models have been set-up and tested. KOOS enables us to forecast tides, waves, storm surges, currents as well as temperature and salinity for 72-hour time period in two time a day. The performance of numerical models is evaluated by the skill assessment system. For practical purposes, KOOS has various application systems such as storm surge, search and rescues, oil spill, and ports and channel prediction system. All ocean information in KOOS is to be presented via web-based GIS, which is an effective tool that is helpful to decision-makers.

  9. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  10. Prophage Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Canchaya, Carlos; Proux, Caroline; Fournous, Ghislain; Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald

    2003-01-01

    The majority of the bacterial genome sequences deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database contain prophage sequences. Analysis of the prophages suggested that after being integrated into bacterial genomes, they undergo a complex decay process consisting of inactivating point mutations, genome rearrangements, modular exchanges, invasion by further mobile DNA elements, and massive DNA deletion. We review the technical difficulties in defining such altered prophage sequences in bacterial genomes and discuss theoretical frameworks for the phage-bacterium interaction at the genomic level. The published genome sequences from three groups of eubacteria (low- and high-G+C gram-positive bacteria and γ-proteobacteria) were screened for prophage sequences. The prophages from Streptococcus pyogenes served as test case for theoretical predictions of the role of prophages in the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. The genomes from further human, animal, and plant pathogens, as well as commensal and free-living bacteria, were included in the analysis to see whether the same principles of prophage genomics apply for bacteria living in different ecological niches and coming from distinct phylogenetical affinities. The effect of selection pressure on the host bacterium is apparently an important force shaping the prophage genomes in low-G+C gram-positive bacteria and γ-proteobacteria. PMID:12794192

  11. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

  12. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  13. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  14. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  15. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  16. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  17. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  18. Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856

  19. Epidemiology of clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Franco; Gumina, Stefano; De Santis, Pierfrancesco; Albo, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all fractures and 44% of those in the shoulder girdle. Most patients were men (68%), and the left side was involved in 61% of cases. Fractures of the middle third of the clavicle, which were the most common (81%), were displaced in 48% of cases and comminuted in 19%. Fractures of the medial third were the least common (2%). The prevalence of midclavicular fractures was found to decrease progressively with age, starting from the first decade of life when they represented 88.2% of all clavicle fractures and were undisplaced in 55.5% of cases. In adults, the incidence of displaced fractures, independent of location, was higher than that of undisplaced fractures. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of the injury. In the period under study, the incidence of fractures showed no significant change over time and no seasonal variation. PMID:12378163

  20. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Soong, S J

    1996-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology of melanoma indicates increases in both incidence and mortality over the past two to three decades. A moderation in both rates began to emerge in several regions after the 1980s, especially in younger age groups. Recent improvement in survival rates is more likely due to earlier diagnosis than to real improvement in treatment. This suggests the potential effectiveness of secondary prevention. Continued health education efforts to improve awareness about signs and symptoms of melanoma should lead to earlier diagnosis and may increase incidence for a certain period of time. However, reduction in mortality will eventually be achieved owing to thinner melanoma at time of diagnosis. Etiologic studies indicate that the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma is extensive exposure to the sun. Primary prevention efforts should target public education about the risk of sun exposure and the benefit of wearing hats and adequate clothing. Specific prevention and control programs should be implemented among high-risk groups, such as those with light complexions and those sensitive to sunburn. In view of the long latency of melanoma, as much as 10 years, past exposure to the risk factors continues to cause melanoma, and any benefits of preventive efforts do not appear for some time. Although a dramatic decline is not expected in melanoma rates immediately, continuous preventive efforts ultimately should lead to a reduction in incidence and mortality. PMID:8977547

  1. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

  2. Epidemiology: Cornerstone for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markellis, Victoria C.

    1986-01-01

    Epidemiology has been used historically to reduce the incidence of communicable diseases and is used presently to study chronic conditions, environmental conditions, and social conditions. Its analytical method is necessary for health educators to evaluate tactics and recommend programs. (MT)

  3. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

  4. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  5. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  6. Modeling Flood Risk for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic flood events have caused significant losses for South Korea each year. It is very important to generate high resolution flood return period map for the government and insurance company to evaluate the flood risk. This research was initiated to achieve this goal. A 2000 year spatial distributed stochastical rainfall was generated by analyzing the historical rainfall of South Korea using principle component analysis. A rainfall-runoff model and a routing model were calibrated by driving the model with historical forcing and calibrated against gauge observations. The calibrated model was used to couple with the stochastical forcing to generate 2000 year discharge and runoff. The flood maps with different return periods were generated by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. The results of this research showed a reasonable flood map in South Korea, compared with the observed data. Further, this research could be used as an important reference for the government and insurance companies for risk management purpose.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus Strain MD-2, Isolated from a Contaminated Turkey Herpesvirus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junping; Yang, Chenghuai; Li, Qihong; Li, Huijiao; Xia, Yecai; Liu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genomic sequence of a reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) isolated from a contaminated turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vaccine. This report will be helpful for epidemiological studies on REV infection in avian flocks. PMID:24092783

  8. Molecular genetic analysis of cucumber mosaic virus populations infecting pepper suggests unique patterns of evolution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeong-Jin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Studying genetic structure and diversity of viruses is important to understand the evolutionary mechanisms that generate and maintain variations in viral populations. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is endemic in most pepper fields in Korea. Currently, no effective methods for control of CMV are available due to many environmental and biological factors such as the extensive evolutionary capacity of CMV. Thus, analyzing the genetic structure of CMV populations may facilitate the development of strategies for the control of CMV. In this study, 252 pepper (Capsicum annuum) samples showing virus symptoms were collected by field surveys performed throughout Korea in 2007. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that, in total, 165 collected samples were infected with CMV. Forty-five CMV isolates were randomly selected within each regional subpopulation and analyzed by full-genome sequencing. Analyses of genetic diversity showed that the 2b gene of CMV is under weaker purifying selection than the other genes. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of RNA1, the CMV isolates from pepper were divided into three clusters in subgroup I. Our full-genome sequence-based molecular analyses of the CMV Korean population suggest that the subpopulations of CMV have been geographically localized in pepper fields in Korea. PMID:25116642

  9. Molecular analyses of H3N2 canine influenza viruses isolated from Korea during 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bo-Hye; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Canine influenza A virus (CIV) causes a respiratory disease among dog populations and is prevalent in North America and Asia. Recently, Asian H3N2 CIV infection has been of particular concern, with recent reports related to reassortants with pandemic 2009 strains, direct transmission from a human H3N2, a possibility of H3N2 CIV transmission to other mammals, and even the first outbreak of H3N2 CIVs in North America in April 2015. However, despite these global concerns, our understanding of how influenza A virus transmission impacts the overall populations of H3N2 CIVs remains incomplete. Hence, we investigated the evolutionary history of the most recent two Korean CIV isolates, A/canine/Korea/BD-1/2013 and A/canine/Korea/DG1/2014, along with 57 worldwide CIVs, using comprehensive molecular analyses based on genomic genotyping. This study presents that the new Korean CIV isolates are closely related to the predominantly circulating H3N2 CIVs with genotypes K, G, E, 3B, F, 2D, F, and 1E, carrying several mutations in antigenic and host determinant sites. Also, our findings show that the genome-wide genetic variations within the H3N2 CIVs are low; however, two antigenic protein (HA and NA) analysis demonstrates genetic diversification of the H3N2 CIVs, which evolves independently between Korea and China. PMID:26810402

  10. Quantitative trait loci on chromosome 8q24 for pancreatic beta-cell function and 7q11 for insulin sensitivity in obese nondiabetic white and black families: evidence from genome-wide linkage scans in the NHLBI Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study.

    PubMed

    An, Ping; Freedman, Barry I; Rich, Stephen S; Mandel, Stephen A; Arnett, Donna K; Myers, Richard H; Chen, Yii-Der I; Hunt, Steven C; Rao, D C

    2006-02-01

    Genome-wide linkage scans were carried out using a multipoint variance components method in white and black families of the NHLBI Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity estimated through the newly released nonlinear computer version of homeostasis model assessment 2. Participants fasting <8 h, with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, or taking blood glucose or blood lipid-lowering medications were excluded. Both phenotypes were adjusted separately by race and sex for the effects of age, BMI, and field center before linkage scans using 370 microsatellite markers were performed. A total of 685 white families (1,180 sibpairs) and 773 black families (775 sibpairs) were evaluated as well as subsets including 267 obese white families (757 sibpairs) and 427 obese black families (599 sibpairs) identified through tree-linkage analyses using interacting covariates of age, sex, and BMI. For beta-cell function in the obese white families, significant (logarithm of odds [LOD] score >3.6) evidence supporting linkages was detected on chromosome 8q24 at D8S1179 (135 cM, LOD score 4.2, empirical P = 0.002) and at D8S1128 (140 cM, LOD score 3.7, empirical P = 0.003). In addition, two regions supported linkage for insulin sensitivity index in the obese black families on chromosome 7q11 at D7S3046 (79 cM, LOD score 3.0, empirical P = 0.018) and on chromosome 6q26 at D6S1277 (173 cM, LOD score 3.0, empirical P = 0.018). Reducing clinical heterogeneity using obesity data and improved estimates of beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity may have permitted identification of a QTL on chromosome 8q24 for beta-cell function in the presence of estimated insulin resistance and a QTL on chromosome 7q11 for insulin sensitivity. These regions replicate previous reports for type 2 diabetes-associated traits. PMID:16443794

  11. 77 FR 39319 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department invites... for implementing the United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which entered...

  12. 77 FR 33181 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 4279 (January... Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 13559... Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 17410 (March 26, 2012)...

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household cats in Korea and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2013-06-01

    Several epidemiological surveys have reported the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in stray cats in Korea, but little information is available on T. gondii infection in household cats. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection among household cats reared in Seoul, Korea. A total of 474 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy household cats. All samples were tested using ELISA and PCR. The risk factor analysis was based on a questionnaire filled out by the owners. The overall positive rate for ELISA and PCR assays was 2.2% (10/437) and 2.1% (10/474), respectively. With regard to the origin of cats, the positive rates among cats adopted from the animal shelter and veterinary clinic for stray cats were significantly different (P<0.05). Our study demonstrated that the positive rate of T. gondii infection in household cats was low and that this low prevalence was assumed to be associated with keeping the cats indoors and restriction of eating raw food and uncooked meat. Therefore, we suggest that the owners check the origin of the cats prior to adoption to prevent infection of other animals, including humans. PMID:23864749

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA SEROGROUPS ISOLATED FROM WATER SYSTEMS OF PUBLIC FACILITIES IN BUSAN, SOUTH KOREA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Yeong; Park, Eun-Hee; Park, Yon-Koung; Park, Sun-Hee; Sung, Gyung-Hye; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Young-Choon

    2016-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the major causes of legionellosis worldwide. The distribution of L. pneumophila was investigated in water systems of public facilities in Busan, South Korea during 2007 and 2013-2014. L. pneumophila was isolated from 8.3% of 3,055 samples, of which the highest isolation rate (49%) was from ships and the lowest 4% from fountains. Serogroups of L. pneumophila isolated in 2007 were distributed among serogroups (sgs) 1-7 with the exception of sg 4, while those of isolates during 2013 and 2014 included also 11 sgs ( 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15). L. pneumophila sg 1 was predominated among isolates from fountains (75%), hotels (60%), buildings (44%), hospitals (38%), and public baths (37%), whereas sg 3 and sg 7 was the most prevalent from ships (46%) and factories (40%), respectively. The predominated serogroup of L. pneumophila isolates from hot and cooling tower water was sg 1 (35% and 46%, respectively), while from cold water was sg 3 (29%). These results should be useful for epidemiological surveys to identify sources of outbreaks of legionellosis in Busan, South Korea. PMID:27405130

  15. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-02-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease. PMID:26951983

  16. Detection of Encephalitozoon spp. from human diarrheal stool and farm soil samples in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sejoung; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2015-03-01

    Microsporidia are eukaryotic organisms that cause zoonosis and are major opportunistic pathogens in HIV-positive patients. However, there is increasing evidence that these organisms can also cause gastrointestinal and ocular infections in immunocompetent individuals. In Korea, there have been no reports on human infections with microsporidia to date. In the present study, we used real-time PCR and nucleotide sequencing to detect Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in seven of 139 human diarrheal stool specimens (5%) and Encephalitozoon hellem in three of 34 farm soil samples (8.8%). Genotype analysis of the E. hellem isolates based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and polar tube protein genes showed that all isolates were genotype 1B. To our knowledge, this is the first report on human E. intestinalis infection in Korea and the first report revealing farm soil samples as a source of E. hellem infection. Because microsporidia are an important public health issue, further large-scale epidemiological studies are warranted. PMID:25729242

  17. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-01-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease. PMID:26951983

  18. Outbreaks of mumps: an observational study over two decades in a single hospital in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji-Ung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youn, You-Sook; Rhim, Jung-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The introduction of the mumps vaccine has dramatically reduced the number of mumps cases, but outbreaks have recently occurred among highly vaccinated populations in developed countries. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with mumps admitted between 1989 and 2012 in a single hospital in Korea are described in the present study. Methods We retrospectively evaluated inpatients with mumps between 1989 and 2012 and outpatients and inpatients with mumps in 2011-2012. Results A total of 152 patients with mumps were admitted between 1989 and 2012, and 163 patients were recorded in 2011-2012. The highest number of admitted cases occurred in 1998 and 2012 (35 and 34 cases, respectively). Among the patients admitted in 2011-2012, the highest frequency was observed among people aged 15-19 years, and low frequency was observed in those aged <4 years and >20 years, compatible to the city data and national data. In patients admitted to our department in 1998 (35 cases) and in 2010-2012 (27 cases), there were significant differences in the mean age and the rate of secondary measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination, but had similar clinical features, including complications, except aseptic meningitis. Antimumps immunoglobulin (Ig) G was positive in 83% and 100%, and IgM was positive in 67% and 41%, respectively, in the two periods. Conclusion In Korea, recent mumps outbreaks have occurred mainly among secondary school students who received two doses of the MMR vaccine. The vaccinees might have a modified immune reaction to viral insults, manifesting modified epidemiological and clinical features. PMID:25324865

  19. Molecular identification of anisakid nematodes third stage larvae isolated from common squid ( Todarodes pacificus) in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyobudi, Eko; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Choi, Kwangho; Lee, Sung Il; Lee, Chung Il; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of Genus Anisakis nematode larvae in marine fishes and cephalopods is epidemiologically important because Anisakis simplex larval stage can cause a clinical disease in humans when infected hosts are consumed raw. Common squid ( Todarodes pacificus) from Korean waters were investigated for anisakid nematodes infection during 2009˜2011. In total, 1,556 larvae were collected from 615 common squids and 732 of them were subsequently identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS rDNA. Depending on the sampling locations, the nematode larvae from common squid showed different prevalence, intensity and species distribution. A high prevalence (P) and mean intensity (MI) of infection were observed in the Yellow Sea (n = 250, P = 86.0%, MI = 5.99 larvae/host) and the southern sea of Korea (n = 126, P = 57.1%, MI = 3.36 larvae/host). Anisakis pegreffii was dominantly found in common squid from the southern sea (127/ 140, 90.7%) and the Yellow Sea (561/565, 98.9%). In contrast, the P and MI of infection were relatively low in the East Sea (n = 239, P = 8.37%, MI = 1.25 larvae/host). A. pegreffii was not found from the East Sea and 52.0% (13/25) of the nematodes were identified as A. simplex. Most of them were found in the body cavity or digestive tract of common squid, which are rarely consumed raw by humans. Considering the differenences in anisakid nematode species distribution and their microhabitat in common squid, it remains unclear whether common squid plays an important role in the epidemiology of human anisakis infection in Korea. Further extensive identification of anisakid nematodes in common squid, with geographical and seasonal information will be necessary.

  20. Application and evaluation of the MLVA typing assay for the Brucella abortus strains isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A Brucella eradication program has been executed in Korea. To effectively prevent and control brucellosis, a molecular method for genetic identification and epidemiological trace-back must be established. As part of that, the MLVA typing assay was evaluated and applied to B. abortus isolates for analyzing the characteristics of the regional distribution and relationships of foreign isolates. Results A total of 177 isolates originating from 105 cattle farms for the period 1996 to 2008 were selected as representatives for the nine provinces of South Korea. A dendrogram of strain relatedness was constructed in accordance with the number of tandem repeat units for 17 loci so that it was possible to trace back in the restricted areas. Even in a farm contaminated by one source, however, the Brucella isolates showed an increase or decrease in one TRs copy number at some loci with high DI values. Moreover, those 17 loci was confirmed in stability via in-vitro and in-vivo passage, and found to be sufficiently stable markers that can readily identify the inoculated strain even if minor changes were detected. In the parsimony analysis with foreign Brucella isolates, domestic isolates were clustered distinctively, and located near the Central and Southern American isolates. Conclusion The MLVA assay has enough discrimination power in the Brucella species level and can be utilized as a tool for the epidemiological trace-back of the B. abortus isolates. But it is important to consider that Brucella isolates may be capable of undergoing minor changes at some loci in the course of infection or in accordance with the changes of the host. PMID:19863821