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Sample records for korea triga snf

  1. Assessment results of the South Korea TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, C.M.; Dirk, W.J.; Cottam, R.E.; Paik, S.T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination at the Seoul and the Taejon Research Reactor Facilities in South Korea. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation and storage at the INEEL. The results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. A description of the examination team training, the examination work plan and examination equipment is also included. This paper also explains the technical basis for the examination and physical condition criteria used to determine what, if any, additional packaging would be required for transportation and for the receipt and storage of the fuel at the INEEL. This paper delineates the preparation activities prior to the fuel examinations and includes (1) collecting spent fuel data; (2) preparatory work by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for fuel examination: (3) preparation of a radionuclide report, Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels needed to provide input data for transportation and fuel acceptance at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); (4) gathering FRR Facility data; and (5) coordination between the INEEL and KAERI. Included, are the unanticipated conditions encountered in the unloading of fuel from the dry storage casks in Taejon in preparation for examination, a description of the damaged condition of the fuel removed from the casks, and the apparent cause of the damages. Lessons learned from all the activities are also addressed. A brief description of the preparatory work for the shipment of the spent fuel from Korea to INEEL is included.

  2. Assessment results of the Indonesian TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jefimoff, J.; Robb, A.K.; Wendt, K.M.; Syarip, I.; Alfa, T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination performed by technical personnel from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) at the Bandung and Yogyakarta research reactor facilities in Indonesia. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation to and storage at the INEEL. This paper delineates the Initial Preparations prior to the Indonesian foreign research reactor (FRR) fuel examination. The technical basis for the examination, the TRIGA SNF Acceptance Criteria, and the physical condition required for transportation, receipt and storage of the TRIGA SNF at the INEEL is explained. In addition to the initial preparations, preparation descriptions of the Work Plan For TRIGA Fuel Examination, the Underwater Examination Equipment used, and personnel Examination Team Training are included. Finally, the Fuel Examination and Results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. Lessons learned from all the activities completed to date is provided in an addendum. The initial preparations included: (1) coordination between the INEEL, FRR or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN), DOE-HQ, and the US State Department and Embassy; (2) incorporating Savannah River Site (SRS) FRR experience and lessons learned; (3) collecting both FRR facility and spent fuel data, and issuing a radionuclide report (Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels) needed for transportation and fuel acceptance at the INEEL; and (4) preexamination work at the research reactor for the fuel examination.

  3. Dose Calculations for the Co-Disposal WP-of HLW-Glass and the Triga SNF

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulescu

    1999-08-02

    This calculation is prepared by the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Operations (WPO). The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of a codisposal waste package (WP) containing a centrally located Department of Energy (DOE) standardized 18-in. spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, loaded with the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) SNF. This canister is surrounded by five 3-m long canisters, loaded with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) glass. The results are to support the WP design and radiological analyses.

  4. Dose Rate Calucaltion for the DHL W/DOE SNF Codisposal Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulescu

    2000-02-12

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of the short codisposal waste package (WP) of defense high-level waste (DHLW) and TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The WP contains the TRIGA SNF, in a standardized 18-in. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) SNF canister, and five 3-m-long Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW pour glass canisters, which surround the DOE SNF canister.

  5. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Mustin, T.; Stump, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1997-10-09

    This paper reports the activities underway by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for returning Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from foreign research reactors (FRR) in four European countries to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Those countries are Germany, Italy, Romania, and Slovenia. This is part of the ``Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy`` of returning research reactor SNF containing uranium enriched in the US. This paper describes the results of a pre-assessment trip in September, 1997, to these countries, including: history of the reactors and research being performed; inventory of TRIGA SNF; fuel types (stainless steel, aluminum, or Incoloy) and enrichments; and each country`s plans for returning their TRIGA SNF to the INEEL.

  6. TRIGA FUEL PHASE I AND II CRITICALITY CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    L. Angers

    1999-11-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to characterize the criticality aspect of the codisposal of TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomic) reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW). The TRIGA SNF is loaded into a Department of Energy (DOE) standardized SNF canister which is centrally positioned inside a five-canister defense SRS HLW waste package (WP). The objective of the calculation is to investigate the criticality issues for the WP containing the five SRS HLW and DOE SNF canisters in various stages of degradation. This calculation will support the analysis that will be performed to demonstrate the viability of the codisposal concept for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR).

  7. NRF TRIGA packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA{reg_sign}) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask`s small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads.

  8. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  9. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  10. STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS FOR THE CODISPOSAL OF TRIGA SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN A WASTE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic

    1999-07-28

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the structural response of a TRIGA Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal canister placed in a 5-Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) waste package (WP) and subjected to a tipover design basis event (DBE) dynamic load; the results will be reported in terms of displacements and stress magnitudes. This activity is associated with the WP design.

  11. EXTERNAL CRITICALITY CALCULATION FOR DOE SNF CODISPOSAL WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    H. Radulescu

    2002-10-18

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the potential for criticality for the fissile material that could accumulate in the near-field (invert) and in the far-field (host rock) beneath the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the proposed monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to the following DOE SNF types: Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Enrico Fermi, Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Fort St. Vrain, Melt and Dilute, Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, and Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics reactor (TRIGA). The results of this calculation are intended to be used for estimating the probability of criticality in the near-field and in the far-field. There are no limitations on use of the results of this calculation. The calculation is associated with the waste package design and was developed in accordance with the technical work plan, ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel and Plutonium Disposition Work Packages'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC [BSC], 2002a). This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) per the activity evaluation under work package number P6212310Ml in the technical work plan TWP-MGR-MD-0000 10 REV 01 (BSC 2002a).

  12. SNF Project Engineering Process Improvement Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DESAI, S.P.

    2000-02-09

    This plan documents the SNF Project activities and plans to support its engineering process. It describes five SNF Project Engineering initiatives: new engineering procedures, qualification cards process; configuration management, engineering self assessments, and integrated schedule for engineering activities.

  13. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J.; Johnston, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK’s homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source. PMID:24108357

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  15. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tyacke, M.; George, W.; Petrasek, A.; Stump, R.C.; Patterson, J.

    1997-10-09

    This paper will report on preparations being made for returning Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) foreign research reactor (FRR) spent fuel from South Korea and Indonesia to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The roles of US Department of Energy, INEEL, and NAC International in implementing a safe shipment are provided. Special preparations necessitated by making a shipment through a west coast port of the US to the INEEL will be explained. The institutional planning and actions needed to meet the unique political and operational environment for making a shipment from Asia to INEEL will be discussed. Facility preparation at both the INEEL and the FRRs is discussed. Cask analysis needed to properly characterize the various TRIGA configurations, compositions, and enrichments is discussed. Shipping preparations will include an explanation of the integrated team of spent fuel transportation specialists, and shipping resources needed to retrieve the fuel from foreign research reactor sites and deliver it to the INEEL.

  16. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... Requirements § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  17. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  18. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... Requirements § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  19. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... Requirements § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  20. Technology development for DOE SNF management

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.L.; Einziger, R.E.; Murphy, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the process used to identify technology development needs for the same management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) inventory. Needs were assessed for each of the over 250 fuel types stores at DOE sites around the country for each stage of SNF management--existing storage, transportation, interim storage, and disposal. The needs were then placed into functional groupings to facilitate integration and collaboration among the sites.

  1. Radio Detection of Type Ib SNF20061011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Alicia

    2006-10-01

    "I observed the Type Ib SNF20061011 (ATEL 918) with the Very Large Array on Oct 23.1 UT as part of an ongoing program to study the radio properties of Type Ibc supernovae discovered through the SNF and SDSS search campaigns. The SN is clearly detected at 4.9 and 8.5 GHz with a radio luminosity of about 10^27 erg/cm^2/s/Hz. Further observations are planned.

  2. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  3. ISOTOPIC MODEL FOR COMMERCIAL SNF BURNUP CREDIT

    SciTech Connect

    A.H. Wells

    2004-11-17

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate a process for selecting bounding depletion parameters, show that they are conservative for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and establish the range of burnup for which the parameters are conservative. The general range of applicability is for commercial light water reactor (LWR) SNF with initial enrichments between 2.0 and 5.0 weight percent {sup 235}U and burnups between 10 and 50 gigawatt-day per metric ton of uranium (GWd/MTU).

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  5. SNF project engineering process improvement plan

    SciTech Connect

    DESAI, S.P.

    1999-07-13

    This Engineering Process Improvement Plan documents the activities and plans to be taken by the SNF Project to support its engineering process and to produce a consolidated set of engineering procedures that are fully compliant with the requirements of HNF-PRO-1819. All new procedures will be issued and implemented by September 30, 1999.

  6. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex subunit SNF5 is essential for hepatocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gresh, Lionel; Bourachot, Brigitte; Reimann, Andreas; Guigas, Bruno; Fiette, Laurence; Garbay, Serge; Muchardt, Christian; Hue, Louis; Pontoglio, Marco; Yaniv, Moshe; Klochendler-Yeivin, Agnès

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression underlies cell differentiation and organogenesis. Both transcription factors and chromatin modifiers are crucial for this process. To study the role of the ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex in cell differentiation, we inactivated the gene encoding the core complex subunit SNF5/INI1 in the developing liver. Hepatic SNF5 deletion caused neonatal death due to severe hypoglycemia; mutant animals fail to store glycogen and have impaired energetic metabolism. The formation of a hepatic epithelium is also affected in SNF5-deficient livers. Transcriptome analyses showed that SNF5 inactivation is accompanied by defective transcriptional activation of 70% of the genes that are normally upregulated during liver development. These include genes involved in glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis and cell–cell adhesion. A fraction of hepatic developmentally activated genes were normally expressed, suggesting that cell differentiation was not completely blocked. Moreover, SNF5-deleted cells showed increased proliferation and we identified several misexpressed genes that may contribute to cell cycle deregulation in these cells. Our results emphasize the role of chromatin remodeling in the activation of cell-type-specific genetic programs and driving cell differentiation. PMID:16138077

  7. Extension of TRIGA reactor capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gietzen, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    The first TRIGA reactor went into operation at 10 kW about 22 years ago. Since that time 55 TRIGAs have been put into operation including steady-state powers up to 14,000 kW and pulsing reactors that pulse to 20,000,000 kW. Five more are under construction and a proposal will soon be submitted for a reactor of 25,000 kW. Along with these increases in power levels (and the corresponding fluxes) the experimental facilities have also been expanded. In addition to the installation of new TRIGA reactors with enhanced capabilities many of the older reactors have been modified and upgraded. Also, a number of reactors originally fueled with plate fuel were converted to TRIGA fuel to take advantage of the improved technical and safety characteristics, including the ability for pulsed operation. In order to accommodate increased power and performance the fuel has undergone considerable evolution. Most of the changes have been in the geometry, enrichment and cladding material. However, more recently further development on the UZrH alloy has been carried out to extend the uranium content up to 45% by weight. This increased U content is necessary to allow the use of less than 20% enrichment in the higher powered reactors while maintaining longer core lifetime. The instrumentation and control system has undergone remarkable improvement as the electronics technology has evolved so rapidly in the last two decades. The information display and the circuitry logic has also undergone improvements for enhanced ease of operation and safety. (author)

  8. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Chesworth, R.H.; Razvi, J.; Whittemore, W.L. )

    1991-11-01

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia.

  9. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  10. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  12. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) TRAINING RESEARCH ISOTOPE GENERAL ATOMICS (TRIGA) OVERPACK CLOSURE WELDING PROCESS PARAMETER DEVELOPMENT & QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-11

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Oregon State University (OSU) TRIGA{reg_sign} Reactor is currently being stored in thirteen 55-gallon drums at the Hanford Site's low-level burial grounds. This fuel is soon to be retrieved from buried storage and packaged into new containers (overpacks) for interim storage at the Hanford Interim Storage Area (ISA). One of the key activities associated with this effort is final closure of the overpack by welding. The OSU fuel is placed into an overpack, a head inserted into the overpack top, and welded closed. Weld quality, for typical welded fabrication, is established through post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE); however, in this case, once the SNF is placed into the overpack, routine testing and NDE are not feasible. An alternate approach is to develop and qualify the welding process/parameters, demonstrate beforehand that they produce the desired weld quality, and then verify parameter compliance during production welding. Fluor engineers have developed a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) technique and parameters, demonstrating that weld quality requirements for closure of packaged SNF overpacks are met, using this alternate approach. The following reviews the activities performed for this development and qualification effort.

  13. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  14. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE NAVAL SNF WASTE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-05-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF WP will be discussed; however, only a sub-set of such analyses will be presented and shall be limited to those identified in the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The objective of this analysis is to describe the naval SNF WP design method and to show that the design of the naval SNF WP complies with the ''Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Interface Control Document (ICD) criteria for Site Recommendation. Additional criteria for the design of the naval SNF WP have been outlined in Section 6.2 of the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the naval long WP containing one naval long SNF canister. This WP is representative of the WPs that will contain both naval short SNF and naval long SNF canisters. The following items are included in the scope of this analysis: (1) Providing a general description of the applicable design criteria; (2) Describing the design methodology to be used; (3) Presenting the design of the naval SNF waste package; and (4) Showing compliance with all applicable design criteria. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the technical product development plan (TPDP) ''Design Analysis for the Naval SNF Waste Package (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  15. The Chromatin Remodelling Enzymes SNF2H and SNF2L Position Nucleosomes adjacent to CTCF and Other Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wiechens, Nicola; Gkikopoulos, Triantaffyllos; Schofield, Pieta; Rocha, Sonia; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Within the genomes of metazoans, nucleosomes are highly organised adjacent to the binding sites for a subset of transcription factors. Here we have sought to investigate which chromatin remodelling enzymes are responsible for this. We find that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling enzyme SNF2H plays a major role organising arrays of nucleosomes adjacent to the binding sites for the architectural transcription factor CTCF sites and acts to promote CTCF binding. At many other factor binding sites SNF2H and the related enzyme SNF2L contribute to nucleosome organisation. The action of SNF2H at CTCF sites is functionally important as depletion of CTCF or SNF2H affects transcription of a common group of genes. This suggests that chromatin remodelling ATPase’s most closely related to the Drosophila ISWI protein contribute to the function of many human gene regulatory elements. PMID:27019336

  16. South Korea.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Background notes and statistics on South Korea are provided in the document. 98,500 sq. km. of diversified terrain are encompassed by the country, with a 1988 population of 43 million growing at the annual rate of 1%. The work force totals 17 million. South Korea claims a population comprised of Koreans with a small Chinese minority, 4 religious beliefs, and native Korean-speakers. 6 years of education are compulsory, with the country overall enjoying 98% literacy. The infant mortality rate is 6/1,000, while life expectancy is 67-73 years. 1990 estimated GNP was $224 billion, and was growing at the estimated rate of 9%. Per capita GNP was $5,500, while a 9% increase was reported in the consumer price index for 1990. Agriculture accounts for 9% of GNP, mining and manufacturing for 35%; 1990 international trade deficit totalled $5 billion. Additional data are provided on South Korea's people, government, economy, international affiliations, history, political conditions, principal government officials, foreign relations, and bilateral relations with the United States. South Korea has enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 25 years, and has grown to become a middle-ranking industrial power. Korea's bilateral trade surpluses with the United States of nearly $10 billion in 1987 and 1988 declined decisively in 1989 due to a variety of factors. Surplus remained, however, approximately $4 billion in 1990. Whether or not these declines are indicative of structural, lasting trends is not yet discernible. Long-term growth prospects remain good, Korea's ability to adapt to a more open democratic system playing an important role. PMID:12178031

  17. Interaction of DOE SNF and Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Anderson

    1998-09-01

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify and evaluate potential destructive interactions between the materials in US Department of Energy (USDOE) spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) and their storage/disposal canisters. The technical assessment was based on the thermodynamic properties as well as the chemical and physical characteristics of the materials expected inside the canisters. No chemical reactions were disclosed that could feasibly corrode stainless steel canisters to the point of failure. However, the possibility of embrittlement (loss of ductility) of the stainless steel through contact with liquid metal fission products or hydrogen inside the canisters cannot be dismissed. Higher-than-currently-permitted internal gas pressures must also be considered. These results, based on the assessment of two representative 90-year-cooled fuels that are stored at 200°C in stainless steel canisters with internal blankets of helium, may be applied to most of the fuels in the USDOE's SNF inventory.

  18. SNF project engineering process improvement plan

    SciTech Connect

    KELMENSON, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This Engineering Process Improvement Plan documents the activities and plans to be taken by the SNF Project (the Project) to support its engineering process and to produce a consolidated set of engineering procedures that are fully compliant with the requirements of HNF-PRO-1819 (1819). These requirements are imposed on all engineering activities performed for the Project and apply to all life-cycle stages of the Project's systems, structures and components (SSCs). This Plan describes the steps that will be taken by the Project during the transition period to ensure that new procedures are effectively integrated into the Project's work process as these procedures are issued. The consolidated procedures will be issued and implemented by September 30, 1999.

  19. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  20. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  1. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  2. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  3. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  4. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  5. A Computer Code for TRIGA Type Reactors.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-04-09

    Version 00 TRIGAP was developed for reactor physics calculations of the 250 kW TRIGA reactor. The program can be used for criticality predictions, power peaking predictions, fuel element burn-up calculations and data logging, and in-core fuel management and fuel utilization improvement.

  6. Decommissioning of the Northrop TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cozens, George B.; Woo, Harry; Benveniste, Jack; Candall, Walter E.; Adams-Chalmers, Jeanne

    1986-07-01

    An overview of the administrative and operational aspects of decommissioning and dismantling the Northrop Mark F TRIGA Reactor, including: planning and preparation, personnel requirements, government interfacing, costs, contractor negotiations, fuel shipments, demolition, disposal of low level waste, final survey and disposition of the concrete biological shielding. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Neutron Poison Materials for DOE SNF Disposal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (more than 20 percent 235U), which challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years. Recent criticality analyses have shown that the addition of neutron absorbing materials (poisons) is needed in waste packages containing DOE SNF canisters fully loaded with Al-SNF under flooded and degraded configurations to demonstrate compliance with the requirement that Keff less than 0.95. Compatibility of poison matrix materials and the Al-SNF, including their relative degradation rate and solubility, are important to maintain criticality control. An assessment of the viability of poison and matrix materials has been conducted, and an experimental corrosion program has been initiated to provide data on degradation rates of poison and matrix materials and Al-SNF materials under repository relevant vapor and aqueous environments. Initial testing includes Al6061, Type 316L stainless steel, and A516Gr55 in synthesized J-13 water vapor at 50 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C and in condensate water vapor at 100 degrees C. Preliminary results are presented herein.

  8. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  9. SNF5 is Involved in Suppression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression via TGF-Beta 1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongmiao; Zhong, Xinping; Wang, Chunyu; Wang, Shengli; Lin, Lin; Zou, Renlong; Wu, Yi; Sun, Ning; Sun, Ge; Wen, Tao; Chi, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Yue

    2016-07-01

    SNF5 (SMARCB1/INI1/BAF47), a core subunit of SWI/SNF complex, has been reported to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Genetic evidence has suggested that SNF5 participates in tumor suppression. However, the detailed biological function and underlying mechanisms of SNF5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain unclear. Here, SNF5 expression reduction in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues has been demonstrated. Importantly, the results showed that reduced SNF5 expression has a strong correlation with worse overall survival of HCC patients. The data demonstrated that knockdown of SNF5 significantly promoted cell growth and migration in Hep3B and HCCLM3 cell lines. Interestingly, it was found that SNF5 suppressed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression, and SNF5 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with TGF-β1 in HCC tissues. Furthermore, depletion of SNF5 attenuated the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib. Thus, the data suggested that SNF5 may participate in HCC suppression, and reduced expression of SNF5 correlates with the poor differentiation and prognosis of HCC, indicating that SNF5 might be an important prognostic biomarker and promising therapeutic target for HCC. Anat Rec, 299:869-877, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27111394

  10. Thermal Evaluation for the Naval SNF Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the naval long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) under multiple disposal conditions in a monitored geologic repository (MGR). The scope of this calculation is limited to determination of thermal temperature profiles upon the surface of, and within, the naval long SNF WP. The objective is to develop a temperature profile history within the WP, at time increments up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The results of this calculation are intended to support the Naval SNF WP Analysis and Model Report (AMR) for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was performed to the specifications within its Technical Development Plan (TDP) (Ref. 8.16). This calculation is developed and documented in accordance with the AP-3.12Q/REV. 0IICN. 0 procedure, Calculations.

  11. Air Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Moses, S.D.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Morenko, A.

    2007-07-01

    Sometimes the only feasible means of shipping research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) among countries is via air transport because of location or political conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a regulatory framework to certify air transport Type C casks. However, no such cask has been designed, built, tested, and certified. In lieu of an air transport cask, research reactor SNF has been transported using a Type B cask under an exemption with special arrangements for administrative and security controls. This work indicates that it may be feasible to transport commercial power reactor SNF assemblies via air, and that the cost is only about three times that of shipping it by railway. Optimization (i.e., reduction) of this cost factor has yet to be done. (authors)

  12. CONTAINMENT EVALUATION OF BREACHED AL-SNF FOR CASK TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D. W.; Sindelar, R. L.; Iyer, N. C.

    2005-11-07

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors (FRR/DRR) is being shipped to the Savannah River Site. To enter the U.S., the cask with loaded fuel must be certified to comply with the requirements in the Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The requirements include demonstration of containment of the cask with its contents under normal and accident conditions. Al-SNF is subject to corrosion degradation in water storage, and many of the fuel assemblies are ''failed'' or have through-clad damage. A methodology has been developed with technical bases to show that Al-SNF with cladding breaches can be directly transported in standard casks and maintained within the allowable release rates. The approach to evaluate the limiting allowable leakage rate, L{sub R}, for a cask with breached Al-SNF for comparison to its test leakage rate could be extended to other nuclear material systems. The approach for containment analysis of Al-SNF follows calculations for commercial spent fuel as provided in NUREG/CR-6487 that adopts ANSI N14.5 as a methodology for containment analysis. The material-specific features and characteristics of damaged Al-SNF (fuel materials, fabrication techniques, microstructure, radionuclide inventory, and vapor corrosion rates) that were derived from literature sources and/or developed in laboratory testing are applied to generate the four containment source terms that yield four separate cask cavity activity densities; namely, those from fines; gaseous fission product species; volatile fission product species; and fuel assembly crud. The activity values, A{sub 2}, are developed per the guidance of 10CFR71. The analysis is performed parametrically to evaluate maximum number of breached assemblies and exposed fuel area for a proposed shipment in a cask with a test leakage rate.

  13. Accelerated Closure of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD, W.W.

    2001-02-01

    The K East and K West Basins, built in the early 1950s, have been used to store irradiated nuclear fuel from the Hanford N Reactor. This fuel, which is referred to as spent nuclear fuel (SNF), has been stored underwater since 1975 in KE Basin and since 1981 in KW Basin. There are 54,000 N Reactor fuel assemblies in 3,800 canisters in the K West Basin, and 51,000 fuel assemblies in 3,700 canisters in the K East Basin that total 2,100 metric tons of SNF.

  14. Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakkari, B.; Nacir, B.; El Bardouni, T.; El Younoussi, C.; Merroun, O.; Htet, A.; Boulaich, Y.; Zoubair, M.; Boukhal, H.; Chakir, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucléaires de la Maâmora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S( α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file "up259". The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.

  15. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  16. N-Terminal Mutations Modulate Yeast Snf1 Protein Kinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Estruch, F.; Treitel, M. A.; Yang, X.; Carlson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The SNF1 protein kinase is required for expression of glucose-repressed genes in response to glucose deprivation. The SNF4 protein is physically associated with SNF1 and positively affects the kinase activity. We report here the characterization of a dominant mutation, SNF1-G53R, that was isolated as a suppressor of the requirement for SNF4. The mutant SNF1-G53R protein is still responsive to SNF4 but has greatly elevated kinase activity in immune complex assays; in contrast, the activity is wild type in a protein blot assay. Deletion of the region N-terminal to the kinase domain (codons 5-52) reduces kinase activity in vitro, but the mutant SNF1-ΔN kinase is still dependent on SNF4. The N terminus is not required for the regulatory response to glucose. In gel filtration chromatography, the SNF1, SNF1-G53R and SNF1-ΔN proteins showed different elution profiles, consistent with differential formation of high molecular weight complexes. Taken together, the results suggest that the N terminus positively affects the function of the SNF1 kinase and may be involved in interaction with a positive effector other than SNF4. We also showed that the conserved threonine residue 210 in subdomain VIII, which is a phosphorylation site in other kinases, is essential for SNF1 activity. Finally, we present evidence that when the C terminus is deleted, overexpression of the SNF1 kinase domain is deleterious to the cell. PMID:1468623

  17. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF...

  18. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF...

  19. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF...

  20. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF...

  1. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF...

  2. 14. U.S. TRIGA users conference. Final program and summary of papers

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The following papers were presented at the Conference: Early Development and Use of the TRIGA Reactor; Results of the MCNP Analysis of 20/20 LEU Fuel for the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor; Upgradeable 2MW TRIGA Reactor Design for the Morocco Nuclear Energy Center McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center TRIGA Reactor: Four Years of Operations.

  3. Fission product release from TRIGA-LEU reactor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.L.; Foushee, F.C.; Greenwood, J.S

    1980-07-01

    Due to present international concerns over nuclear proliferation, TRIGA reactor fuels will utilize only low-enriched uranium (LEU) (enrichment <20%). This requires increased total uranium loading per unit volume of fuel in order to maintain the appropriate fissile loading. Tests were conducted to determine the fractional release of gaseous and metallic fission products from typical uranium-zirconium hydride TRIGA fuels containing up to 45 wt-% uranium. These tests, performed in late 1977 and early 1978, were similar to those conducted earlier on TRIGA fuels with 8.5 wt-% U. Fission gas release measurements were made on prototypic specimens from room temperature to 1100 deg. C in the TRIGA King Furnace Facility. The fuel specimens were irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at a low power level. The fractional releases of the gaseous nuclides of krypton and xenon were measured under steady-state operating conditions. Clean helium was used to sweep the fission gases released during irradiation from the furnace into a standard gas collection trap for gamma counting. The results of these tests on TRIGA-LEU fuel agree well with data from the similar, earlier tests on TRIGA fuel. The correlation used to calculate the release of fission products from 8.5 wt-% U TRIGA fuel applies equally well for U contents up to 45 wt-%. (author)

  4. 12. U.S. TRIGA users conference. Papers and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    The Conference presentations were devoted to the following topics: new developments and improvements, including modifications of TRIGA reactors and equipment; experiments with TRIGA reactors (Neutron Radiography); radiochemistry, radioisotope production and beam irradiations (experiment applications, simulation); reactor physics - fuel utilization; reactor operation and maintenance experience; safety aspects, licensing and radiation protection.

  5. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... that, as a practical matter, can only be provided in an SNF or a swing-bed hospital on an inpatient... practitioner or clinical nurse specialist meets the common law definition of the facility's “employee,” as... practitioner or clinical nurse specialist meets this definition with respect to an entity other than...

  6. Lessons learned from CIRFT testing on SNF vibration integrity study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L.; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) was developed to support U.S. NRC and DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign studies on high burn-up (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation during normal conditions of transport (NCT). Two devices were developed; the first CIRFT was successfully installed and operated in the ORNL hot-cells in September 2013. Since hot cell testing commenced several HBU SNF samples from both Zr-4 and M5 clads were investigated. The second CIRFT device was developed in February 2014, and has been used to test clad/fuel surrogate rods (stainless steel with alumina pellet inserts). The second CIRFT machine has also been used for sensor development and test sensitivity analyses, as well as loading boundary condition parameter studies. The lessons learned from CIRFT testing will be presented in this paper.

  7. SNF2H promotes hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanan; Qin, Juanxiu; Liu, Qian; Hong, Xufen; Li, Tianming; Zhu, Yuanjun; He, Lei; Zheng, Bing; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and has an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical resection is always inapplicable to HCC patients diagnosed at an advanced tumor stage. The mechanisms underlying HCC cell proliferation remain obscure. In the present study, SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable catalytic subunit SNF2 (SNF2H) expression was tested in HCC tissues and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation upon overexpression of SNF2H or knockdown of SNF2H expression was investigated in cultured HCC cells. It was demonstrated that SNF2H is a vital factor for HCC growth. The SNF2H expression level is increased in HCC tissues compared with paratumoral liver tissues. SNF2H promotes HCC cell proliferation and colony formation ability in vitro. SNF2H may increase the protein level of β-catenin and enhance its nuclear accumulation in HCC cells, thereby leading to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results indicate that SNF2H plays a vital role in HCC cell growth, suggesting that SNF2H may be a promising therapeutic target for HCC treatment. PMID:27446433

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  9. SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMANN, D.W.

    1999-02-24

    This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

  10. Structure and novel functional mechanism of Drosophila SNF in sex-lethal splicing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Cui, Gaofeng; Li, Congmin; Liu, Cong; Shang, Erchang; Lai, Luhua; Jin, Changwen; Wang, Jiwu; Xia, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Sans-fille (SNF) is the Drosophila homologue of mammalian general splicing factors U1A and U2B'', and it is essential in Drosophila sex determination. We found that, besides its ability to bind U1 snRNA, SNF can also bind polyuridine RNA tracts flanking the male-specific exon of the master switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) pre-mRNA specifically, similar to Sex-lethal protein (SXL). The polyuridine RNA binding enables SNF directly inhibit Sxl exon 3 splicing, as the dominant negative mutant SNF(1621) binds U1 snRNA but not polyuridine RNA. Unlike U1A, both RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SNF can recognize polyuridine RNA tracts independently, even though SNF and U1A share very high sequence identity and overall structure similarity. As SNF RRM1 tends to self-associate on the opposite side of the RNA binding surface, it is possible for SNF to bridge the formation of super-complexes between two introns flanking Sxl exon 3 or between a intron and U1 snRNP, which serves the molecular basis for SNF to directly regulate Sxl splicing. Taken together, a new functional model for SNF in Drosophila sex determination is proposed. The key of the new model is that SXL and SNF function similarly in promoting Sxl male-specific exon skipping with SNF being an auxiliary or backup to SXL, and it is the combined dose of SXL and SNF governs Drosophila sex determination. PMID:19727396

  11. Fission-product release from TRIGA-LEU reactor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.L.; Foushee, F.C.; Greenwood, J.S.

    1980-11-01

    The release of fission products, both gaseous and volatile metals, from TRIGA fuel is important for the analysis of possible accident conditions related to reactor operation and the design of future TRIGA fuel systems. Because of present national concerns over nuclear proliferation, it has become clear that future reactor fuels will, of necessity, utilize low-enriched uranium (LEU, enrichment <20%). This will require increasing the total uranium loading per unit volume of the higher-loaded TRIGA fuels for the purpose of maintaining the appropriate fissile loading. Because of these new developments, tests were conducted to determine the fractional release of gaseous and metallic fission products from typical uranium-zirconium hydride TRIGA fuels containing 8.5 to 45 wt % uranium.

  12. Northrop Triga facility decommissioning plan versus actual results

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper compares the Triga facility decontamination and decommissioning plan to the actual results and discusses key areas where operational activities were impacted upon by the final US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved decontamination and decommissioning plan. Total exposures for fuel transfer were a factor of 4 less than planned. The design of the Triga reactor components allowed the majority of the components to be unconditionally released.

  13. TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiment; Part II: Pulse operation

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, I.; Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A. )

    1994-01-01

    Experimental results of pulse parameters and control rod worth measurements at TRIGA Mark 2 reactor in Ljubljana are presented. The measurements were performed with a completely fresh, uniform, and compact core. Only standard fuel elements with 12 wt% uranium were used. Special efforts were made to get reliable and accurate results at well-defined experimental conditions, and it is proposed to use the results as a benchmark test case for TRIGA reactors.

  14. The Role of SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Hormone Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Sarnowska, Elzbieta; Gratkowska, Dominika M; Sacharowski, Sebastian P; Cwiek, Pawel; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Koncz, Csaba; Sarnowski, Tomasz J

    2016-07-01

    SWI/SNF-type ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) are evolutionarily conserved multiprotein machineries controlling DNA accessibility by regulating chromatin structure. We summarize here recent advances highlighting the role of SWI/SNF in the regulation of hormone signaling pathways and their crosstalk in Arabidopsis thaliana. We discuss the functional interdependences of SWI/SNF complexes and key elements regulating developmental and hormone signaling pathways by indicating intriguing similarities and differences in plants and humans, and summarize proposed mechanisms of SWI/SNF action on target loci. We postulate that, given their viability, several plant SWI/SNF mutants may serve as an attractive model for searching for conserved functions of SWI/SNF CRCs in hormone signaling, cell cycle control, and other regulatory pathways. PMID:26920655

  15. The SNF2H Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Has Opposing Effects on Cytokine Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Precht, Patricia; Wurster, Andrea L.; Pazin, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine gene expression is a key control point in the function of the immune system. Cytokine gene regulation is linked to changes in chromatin structure; however, little is known about the remodeling enzymes mediating these changes. Here we investigated the role of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme SNF2H in mouse T cells; to date, SNF2H has not been investigated in T cells. We found that SNF2H repressed expression of IL-2 and other cytokines in activated cells. By contrast, SNF2H activated expression of IL-3. The ISWI components SNF2H and ACF1 bound to the tested loci, suggesting the regulation was direct. SNF2H decreased accessibility at some binding sites within the IL2 locus, and increased accessibility within some IL3 binding sites. The changes in gene expression positively correlated with accessibility changes, suggesting a simple model that accessibility enables transcription. We also found that loss of the ISWI ATPase SNF2H reduced binding to target genes and protein expression of ACF1, a binding partner for SNF2H, suggesting complex formation stabilized ACF1. Together, these findings reveal a direct role for SNF2H in both repression and activation of cytokine genes. PMID:20471682

  16. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimer Core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK Homologue SNF1

    SciTech Connect

    Amodeo,G.; Rudolph, M.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis in mammals and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, obesity and other diseases. The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems to be activated by a ligand other than AMP. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.6 resolution of the heterotrimer core of SNF1. The ligand-binding site in the {gamma}-subunit (Snf4) has clear structural differences from that of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe enzyme, although our crystallographic data indicate that AMP can also bind to Snf4. The glycogen-binding domain in the {beta}-subunit (Sip2) interacts with Snf4 in the heterotrimer but should still be able to bind carbohydrates. Our structure is supported by a large body of biochemical and genetic data on this complex. Most significantly, the structure reveals that part of the regulatory sequence in the {alpha}-subunit (Snf1) is sequestered by Snf4, demonstrating a direct interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits and indicating that our structure may represent the heterotrimer core of SNF1 in its activated state.

  17. Korea space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Jang-Soo

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the missions, history, and organization of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is presented. The following three projects included in the Korean space program are presented: (1) KOREASAT procurement project to procure multipurpose satellites and have them launched through international tenders to be used for communication and broadcasting in Korea; (2) exploration rocket project, Korea's self-developed rocket project, conducted by KARI to observe the ozone concentration and ionosphere over the country, and conduct microgravity experiment; and (3) KITSAT (Korea Institute of Technology Satellite-A) minisatellite project undergoing joint development with the UK Surrey University to be launched by a ARIANE launch vehicle.

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-02-08

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR UNCANISTERED SNF DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) uncanistered spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  20. Diverse Roles and Interactions of the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex Revealed Using Global Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidov, Eugene; Gianoulis, Tara A.; Zhong, Guoneng; Rozowsky, Joel; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A systems understanding of nuclear organization and events is critical for determining how cells divide, differentiate, and respond to stimuli and for identifying the causes of diseases. Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes including gene expression, nuclear organization, centromere function, and chromosomal stability, and mutations in SWI/SNF components have been linked to several types of cancer. To better understand the biological processes in which chromatin remodeling proteins participate, we globally mapped binding regions for several components of the SWI/SNF complex throughout the human genome using ChIP-Seq. SWI/SNF components were found to lie near regulatory elements integral to transcription (e.g. 5′ ends, RNA Polymerases II and III, and enhancers) as well as regions critical for chromosome organization (e.g. CTCF, lamins, and DNA replication origins). Interestingly we also find that certain configurations of SWI/SNF subunits are associated with transcripts that have higher levels of expression, whereas other configurations of SWI/SNF factors are associated with transcripts that have lower levels of expression. To further elucidate the association of SWI/SNF subunits with each other as well as with other nuclear proteins, we also analyzed SWI/SNF immunoprecipitated complexes by mass spectrometry. Individual SWI/SNF factors are associated with their own family members, as well as with cellular constituents such as nuclear matrix proteins, key transcription factors, and centromere components, implying a ubiquitous role in gene regulation and nuclear function. We find an overrepresentation of both SWI/SNF-associated regions and proteins in cell cycle and chromosome organization. Taken together the results from our ChIP and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that SWI/SNF facilitates gene regulation and genome function more broadly and through a greater diversity of interactions

  1. 7. biennial U.S. TRIGA users' conference. Papers and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The conference covers the following topics: new developments in the TRIGA system; uses of microprocessors in control and monitoring and measurement of TRIGA performance parameters; safeguards, emergency planning, reactor standards; research facilities, fuel tests and calculations; TRIGA reactor parameters: emergency training.

  2. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  3. The Roles of SNF2/SWI2 Nucleosome Remodeling Enzymes in Blood Cell Differentiation and Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Punit; Lennartsson, Andreas; Ekwall, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Here, we review the role of sucrose nonfermenting (SNF2) family enzymes in blood cell development. The SNF2 family comprises helicase-like ATPases, originally discovered in yeast, that can remodel chromatin by changing chromatin structure and composition. The human genome encodes 30 different SNF2 enzymes. SNF2 family enzymes are often part of multisubunit chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs), which consist of noncatalytic/auxiliary subunit along with the ATPase subunit. However, blood cells express a limited set of SNF2 ATPases that are necessary to maintain the pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and drive normal blood cell development and differentiation. The composition of CRCs can be altered by the association of specific auxiliary subunits. Several auxiliary CRC subunits have specific functions in hematopoiesis. Aberrant expressions of SNF2 ATPases and/or auxiliary CRC subunit(s) are often observed in hematological malignancies. Using large-scale data from the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) we observed frequent mutations in genes encoding SNF2 helicase-like enzymes and auxiliary CRC subunits in leukemia. Hence, orderly function of SNF2 family enzymes is crucial for the execution of normal blood cell developmental program, and defects in chromatin remodeling caused by mutations or aberrant expression of these proteins may contribute to leukemogenesis. PMID:25789315

  4. Sp1 and CREB regulate basal transcription of the human SNF2L gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xia Yu; Jiang Baichun; Zou Yongxin; Gao Guimin; Shang Linshan; Chen Bingxi; Liu Qiji; Gong Yaoqin

    2008-04-04

    Imitation Switch (ISWI) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, which are involved in multiple nuclear functions, including transcriptional regulation, replication, and chromatin assembly. Mammalian genomes encode two ISWI orthologs, SNF2H and SNF2L. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms governing the expression of human SNF2L gene, we functionally examined the transcriptional regulation of human SNF2L promoter. Reporter gene assays demonstrated that the minimal SNF2L promoter was located between positions -152 to -86 relative to the transcription start site. In this region we have identified a cAMP-response element (CRE) located at -99 to -92 and a Sp1-binding site at -145 to -135 that play a critical role in regulating basal activity of human SNF2L gene, which were proven by deletion and mutation of specific binding sites, EMSA, and down-regulating Sp1 and CREB via RNAi. This study provides the first insight into the mechanisms that control basal expression of human SNF2L gene.

  5. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthesis controls yeast gluconeogenesis downstream and independent of SNF1.

    PubMed

    Deroover, Sofie; Ghillebert, Ruben; Broeckx, Tom; Winderickx, Joris; Rolland, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose-6-P (T6P), an intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, was identified as an important regulator of yeast sugar metabolism and signaling. tps1Δ mutants, deficient in T6P synthesis (TPS), are unable to grow on rapidly fermentable medium with uncontrolled influx in glycolysis, depletion of ATP and accumulation of sugar phosphates. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We show that SNF1 deletion restores the tps1Δ growth defect on glucose, suggesting that lack of TPS hampers inactivation of SNF1 or SNF1-regulated processes. In addition to alternative, non-fermentable carbon metabolism, SNF1 controls two major processes: respiration and gluconeogenesis. The tps1Δ defect appears to be specifically associated with deficient inhibition of gluconeogenesis, indicating more downstream effects. Consistently, Snf1 dephosphorylation and inactivation on glucose medium are not affected, as confirmed with an in vivo Snf1 activity reporter. Detailed analysis shows that gluconeogenic Pck1 and Fbp1 expression, protein levels and activity are not repressed upon glucose addition to tps1Δ cells, suggesting a link between the metabolic defect and persistent gluconeogenesis. While SNF1 is essential for induction of gluconeogenesis, T6P/TPS is required for inactivation of gluconeogenesis in the presence of glucose, downstream and independent of SNF1 activity and the Cat8 and Sip4 transcription factors. PMID:27189362

  6. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes and cancer.

    PubMed

    Biegel, Jaclyn A; Busse, Tracy M; Weissman, Bernard E

    2014-09-01

    The identification of mutations and deletions in the SMARCB1 locus in chromosome band 22q11.2 in pediatric rhabdoid tumors provided the first evidence for the involvement of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in cancer. Over the last 15 years, alterations in more than 20 members of the complex have been reported in a variety of human tumors. These include germline mutations and copy number alterations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, and PBRM1 that predispose carriers to both benign and malignant neoplasms. Somatic mutations, structural abnormalities, or epigenetic modifications that lead to reduced or aberrant expression of complex members have now been reported in more than 20% of malignancies, including both solid tumors and hematologic disorders in both children and adults. In this review, we will highlight the role of SMARCB1 in cancer as a paradigm for other tumors with alterations in SWI/SNF complex members and demonstrate the broad spectrum of mutations observed in complex members in different tumor types. PMID:25169151

  7. Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2001-09-01

    With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

  8. SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegel, Jaclyn A; Busse, Tracy M.; Weissman, Bernard E.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of mutations and deletions in the SMARCB1 locus in chromosome band 22q11.2 in pediatric rhabdoid tumors provided the first evidence for the involvement of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in cancer. Over the last 15 years, alterations in more than 20 members of the complex have been reported in a variety of human tumors. These include germline mutations and copy number alterations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, and PBRM1 that predispose carriers to both benign and malignant neoplasms. Somatic mutations, structural abnormalities, or epigenetic modifications that lead to reduced or aberrant expression of complex members have now been reported in more than twenty percent of malignancies, including both solid tumors and hematologic disorders in both children and adults. In this review, we will highlight the role of SMARCB1 in cancer as a paradigm for other tumors with alterations in SWI/SNF complex members and demonstrate the broad spectrum of mutations observed in complex members in different tumor types. PMID:25169151

  9. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect

    Veca, Anthony R.; Whittemore, William L.

    1994-07-01

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  10. NSNFP Activities in Support of Repository Licensing for Disposal of DOE SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Henry H. Loo; Brett W.. Carlsen; Sheryl L. Morton; Larry L. Taylor; Gregg W. Wachs

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is in the process of preparing the Yucca Mountain license application for submission to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the nation’s first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. Because the DOE SNF will be part of the license application, there are various components of the license application that will require information relative to the DOE SNF. The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is the organization that directs the research, development, and testing of treatment, shipment, and disposal technologies for all DOE SNF. This report documents the work activities conducted by the NSNFP and discusses the relationship between these NSNFP technical activities and the license application. A number of the NSNFP activities were performed to provide risk insights and understanding of DOE SNF disposal as well as to prepare for anticipated questions from the regulatory agency.

  11. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes.

    PubMed

    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J

    2016-08-01

    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species. PMID:27450547

  12. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  13. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  14. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  15. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  16. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  17. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  18. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  19. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  20. TRIGA spent-fuel storage criticality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnik, M.; Glumac, B.

    1996-06-01

    A criticality safety analysis of a pool-type storage for spent TRIGA Mark II reactor fuel is presented. Two independent computer codes are applied: the MCNP Monte Carlo code and the WIMS lattice cell code. Two types of fuel elements are considered: standard fuel elements with 12 wt% uranium concentration and FLIP fuel elements. A parametric study of spent-fuel storage lattice pitch, fuel element burnup, and water density is presented. Normal conditions and postulated accident conditions are analyzed. A strong dependence of the multiplication factor on the distance between the fuel elements and on the effective water density is observed. A multiplication factor <1 may be expected for an infinite array of fuel rods at center-to-center distances >6.5 cm, regardless of the fuel element type and burnup. At shorter distances, the subcriticality can be ensured only by adding absorbers to the array of fuel rods even if the fuel rods were burned to {approximately}20% burnup. The results of both codes agree well for normal conditions. The results show that WIMS may be used as a complement to the Monte Carlo code in some parts of the criticality analysis.

  1. China and Korea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

  2. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David G.

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  3. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Snf2h regulates embryonic lens differentiation and denucleation.

    PubMed

    He, Shuying; Limi, Saima; McGreal, Rebecca S; Xie, Qing; Brennan, Lisa A; Kantorow, Wanda Lee; Kokavec, Juraj; Majumdar, Romit; Hou, Harry; Edelmann, Winfried; Liu, Wei; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Zavadil, Jiri; Kantorow, Marc; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Stopka, Tomas; Cvekl, Ales

    2016-06-01

    Ocular lens morphogenesis is a model for investigating mechanisms of cellular differentiation, spatial and temporal gene expression control, and chromatin regulation. Brg1 (Smarca4) and Snf2h (Smarca5) are catalytic subunits of distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes implicated in transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have shown that Brg1 regulates both lens fiber cell differentiation and organized degradation of their nuclei (denucleation). Here, we employed a conditional Snf2h(flox) mouse model to probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lens formation. Depletion of Snf2h induces premature and expanded differentiation of lens precursor cells forming the lens vesicle, implicating Snf2h as a key regulator of lens vesicle polarity through spatial control of Prox1, Jag1, p27(Kip1) (Cdkn1b) and p57(Kip2) (Cdkn1c) gene expression. The abnormal Snf2h(-/-) fiber cells also retain their nuclei. RNA profiling of Snf2h(-/) (-) and Brg1(-/-) eyes revealed differences in multiple transcripts, including prominent downregulation of those encoding Hsf4 and DNase IIβ, which are implicated in the denucleation process. In summary, our data suggest that Snf2h is essential for the establishment of lens vesicle polarity, partitioning of prospective lens epithelial and fiber cell compartments, lens fiber cell differentiation, and lens fiber cell nuclear degradation. PMID:27246713

  4. Snf1-Dependent Transcription Confers Glucose-Induced Decay upon the mRNA Product

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Katherine A.; Dombek, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the switch from respiratory metabolism to fermentation causes rapid decay of transcripts encoding proteins uniquely required for aerobic metabolism. Snf1, the yeast ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been implicated in this process because inhibiting Snf1 mimics the addition of glucose. In this study, we show that the SNF1-dependent ADH2 promoter, or just the major transcription factor binding site, is sufficient to confer glucose-induced mRNA decay upon heterologous transcripts. SNF1-independent expression from the ADH2 promoter prevented glucose-induced mRNA decay without altering the start site of transcription. SNF1-dependent transcripts are enriched for the binding motif of the RNA binding protein Vts1, an important mediator of mRNA decay and mRNA repression whose expression is correlated with decreased abundance of SNF1-dependent transcripts during the yeast metabolic cycle. However, deletion of VTS1 did not slow the rate of glucose-induced mRNA decay. ADH2 mRNA rapidly dissociated from polysomes after glucose repletion, and sequences bound by RNA binding proteins were enriched in the transcripts from repressed cells. Inhibiting the protein kinase A pathway did not affect glucose-induced decay of ADH2 mRNA. Our results suggest that Snf1 may influence mRNA stability by altering the recruitment activity of the transcription factor Adr1. PMID:26667037

  5. Potential dispositioning flowsheets for ICPP SNF and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Anderson, P.A.; Bendixsen, C.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1953. This activity resulted mainly in the recovery of uranium and the management of the resulting wastes. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste was routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then calcined to form a dry granular solid. The calcine is stored in stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. In April 1992, the DOE discontinued the practice of reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels. This decision has left a legacy of 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons of heavy metal within unprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) left in inventory at the ICPP. The nation`s radioactive waste policy has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), which requires the final disposal of SNF and radioactive waste in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. In accordance with these regulations and other legal agreements between the State of Idaho and the DOE, the DOE must, among other requirements, (1) complete a final Environmental Impact Statement by April 30, 1995, (2) evaluate and test sodium-bearing waste pre-treatment technologies, (3) select the sodium-bearing and calcine waste pre-treatment technology, if necessary, by June 1, 1995, and (4) select a technology for converting calcined waste into an appropriate disposal form by June 1, 1995.

  6. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2017, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and SNF Payment Models Research. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2017. In addition, it specifies a potentially preventable readmission measure for the Skilled Nursing Facility Value-Based Purchasing Program (SNF VBP), and implements requirements for that program, including performance standards, a scoring methodology, and a review and correction process for performance information to be made public, aimed at implementing value-based purchasing for SNFs. Additionally, this final rule includes additional polices and measures in the Skilled Nursing Facility Quality Reporting Program (SNF QRP). This final rule also responds to comments on the SNF Payment Models Research (PMR) project. PMID:27529900

  7. Effects of transportation of spent nuclear fuel on repository SNF performance

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Robert

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) destined for emplacement in a repository must be transported to the repository. Most worldwide experience with SNF transportation has been with low burnup SNF, Further, since much of the transported SNF was destined for reprocessing, the integrity of the fuel upon arrival was only a minimal concern. For repository emplacement, the long term performance of many of the barriers is crucial to the analytical predictions of overall performance of the repository over the long time spans which must be considered. As a result, the condition of the SNF after transportation is very important. This evaluation looks at the issues associated with SNF performance in a repository, specifically issues associated with high burnup fuel and transportation effects on cladding conditions. The issues associated with high-burnup fuels include hydride formation and post-irradiation temperatures that can lead to hydrogen embrittlement and hydride reorientation which can affect cladding integrity performance. Issues associated with effects of post-irradiation discharge wet and dry storage of SNF and effects on transportation as they relate to the integrity of the SNF cladding materials include the effects of potential oxidation of the fuel, as well as effects of transportation conditions due to vibration. The evaluation also considers how such issues, and the ability to address them, may be affected by the US DOE canister-based repository design approach. Experience in licensing SNF for transportation will be cited in developing suggestions for addressing these issues, and possible future activities which may be needed to further to address these issues will be identified. (author)

  8. Volumes, Masses, and Surface Areas for Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a DOE SNF Canister

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    1999-10-22

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate volumes, masses, and surface areas associated with (a) an empty Department of Energy (DOE) 18-inch diameter, 15-ft long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, (b) an empty DOE 24-inch diameter, 15-ft long SNF canister, (c) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) SNF, and (d) the internal basket structure for the 18-in. canister that has been designed specifically to accommodate Seed fuel from the Shippingport LWBR. Estimates of volumes, masses, and surface areas are needed as input to structural, thermal, geochemical, nuclear criticality, and radiation shielding calculations to ensure the viability of the proposed disposal configuration.

  9. Review of Heat Transfer Models in GOTH_SNF for Spent Fuel MCO Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Kirkpatrick; Chris A. Dahl

    2003-09-01

    The present report is one of a series of three. The series provides an independent technical review of certain aspects of the GOTH-SNF code that is used for accident analysis of the multicanister overpack that is proposed for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in the planned repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The work documented in the present report and its two companions was done under the auspices of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. The other two reports in the series are DOE/SNF/REP-0871 and DOE/SNF/REP-089.2

  10. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  11. ORIGEN2 calculations supporting TRIGA irradiated fuel data package

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-09-20

    ORIGEN2 calculations were performed for TRIGA spent fuel elements from the Hanford Neutron Radiography Facility. The calculations support storage and disposal and results include mass, activity,and decay heat. Comparisons with underwater dose-rate measurements were used to confirm and adjust the calculations.

  12. Lithium Storage in Heat-Treated SnF2 /Polyacrylonitrile Anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lian; Shen, Lanyao; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2015-06-01

    Tin(II) fluoride (SnF2 ) has a high Li-storage capacity because it stores lithium first by a conversion reaction and then by a Li/Sn alloying/dealloying reaction. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-bound SnF2 electrode was heat-treated to enhance the integral electrical contact and the mechanical strength through its cross-linked framework. The heat-treated SnF2 electrode showed reversible capacities of 1047 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle and 902 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles. Part of the excess capacity is due to lithium storage at the Sn/LiF interface, and the other part is assumed to correspond to the presence of reduced SnF2 with protons released during the thermal cross-linking of PAN. PMID:25925247

  13. An assessment of KW Basin radionuclide activity when opening SNF canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D.W.; Mollerus, F.J.; Wray, J.L.

    1995-02-06

    N Reactor spent fuel is being stored in sealed canisters in the KW Basin. Some of the canisters contain damaged fuel elements. There is the potential for release of Cs 137, Kr 85, H3, and other fission products and transuranics (TRUs) when canisters are opened. Canister opening is required to select and transfer fuel elements to the 300 Area for examination as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Characterization program. This report estimates the amount of radionuclides that can be released from Mark II spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters in KW Basin when canisters are opened for SNF fuel sampling as part of the SNF Characterization Program. The report also assesses the dose consequences of the releases and steps that can be taken to reduce the impacts of these releases.

  14. The yeast SNF3 gene encodes a glucose transporter homologous to the mammalian protein.

    PubMed Central

    Celenza, J L; Marshall-Carlson, L; Carlson, M

    1988-01-01

    The SNF3 gene is required for high-affinity glucose transport in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has also been implicated in control of gene expression by glucose repression. We report here the nucleotide sequence of the cloned SNF3 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence shows that SNF3 encodes a 97-kilodalton protein that is homologous to mammalian glucose transporters and has 12 putative membrane-spanning regions. We also show that a functional SNF3-lacZ gene-fusion product cofractionates with membrane proteins and is localized to the cell surface, as judged by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of the fusion protein is regulated by glucose repression. Images PMID:3281163

  15. Recent Optical Transients Found by SNF/PQ: Possible Blazars and a Dwarf Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Nugent, P. E.; Glikman, E.; Mahabal, A.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.

    2008-09-01

    Further to ATel #1694, additional transients found in the PQ data by the SNF pipeline, not associated with known radio sources, but possibly previously unidentified blazars, judging by their strong variability and blue colors, include:

  16. SWI/SNF has intrinsic nucleosome disassembly activity that is dependent on adjacent nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Sabri, Abdellah; Pondugula, Santhi; Kassabov, Stefan R.; Chatterjee, Nilanjana; Kladde, Michael P.; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF regulates transcription and has been implicated in promoter nucleosome eviction. Efficient nucleosome disassembly by SWI/SNF alone in biochemical assays has however not been directly observed. Employing a model system of dinucleosomes rather than mononucleosomes, we demonstrate that remodeling leads to ordered and efficient disassembly of one of the two nucleosomes. An H2A/H2B dimer is first rapidly displaced and then in a slower reaction an entire histone octamer is lost. Nucleosome disassembly by SWI/SNF did not require additional factors such as chaperones or acceptors of histones. Observations in single molecules as well as bulk measurement suggest that a key intermediate in this process is one in which a nucleosome is moved towards the adjacent nucleosome. SWI/SNF recruited by the transcriptional activator Gal4-VP16 preferentially mobilizes the proximal nucleosome and destabilizes the adjacent nucleosome. PMID:20513433

  17. 78 FR 26811 - Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...) published a notice in the Federal Register on July 20, 2012 (77 FR 42771), ``License Renewal for the Dow...: I. Correction In the Federal Register (FR) of July 20, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012- 17733, on page 42772... COMMISSION Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical...

  18. BCG vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and the first domestic BCG vaccine was produced by the National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), current Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), in 1960. Since 1987, BCG manufacture work was handed over to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT), the freeze-dried BCG vaccine was manufactured at a scale required to meet the whole amount of domestic consumption. However, since 2006, the manufacture of BCG vaccine suspended and the whole amount of BCG was imported at this point of time. Now KIT is planning to re-produce the BCG vaccine in Korea under the supervision of KCDC, this will be render great role to National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) and provide initiating step for developing new tuberculosis vaccines in Korea. PMID:23858398

  19. Early-Stage Induction of SWI/SNF Mutations during Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Hidetsugu; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Kishino, Takayoshi; Kubo, Emi; Hattori, Naoko; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tachimori, Yuji; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is frequently inactivated by somatic mutations of its various components in various types of cancers, and also by aberrant DNA methylation. However, its somatic mutations and aberrant methylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we aimed to clarify in ESCC, what components of the SWI/SNF complex have somatic mutations and aberrant methylation, and when somatic mutations of the SWI/SNF complex occur. Deep sequencing of components of the SWI/SNF complex using a bench-top next generation sequencer revealed that eight of 92 ESCCs (8.7%) had 11 somatic mutations of 7 genes, ARID1A, ARID2, ATRX, PBRM1, SMARCA4, SMARCAL1, and SMARCC1. The SMARCA4 mutations were located in the Forkhead (85Ser>Leu) and SNF2 family N-terminal (882Glu>Lys) domains. The PBRM1 mutations were located in a bromodomain (80Asn>Ser) and an HMG-box domain (1,377Glu>Lys). For most mutations, their mutant allele frequency was 31–77% (mean 61%) of the fraction of cancer cells in the same samples, indicating that most of the cancer cells in individual ESCC samples had the SWI/SNF mutations on one allele, when present. In addition, a BeadChip array analysis revealed that a component of the SWI/SNF complex, ACTL6B, had aberrant methylation at its promoter CpG island in 18 of 52 ESCCs (34.6%). These results showed that genetic and epigenetic alterations of the SWI/SNF complex are present in ESCCs, and suggested that genetic alterations are induced at an early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis. PMID:26812616

  20. Early-Stage Induction of SWI/SNF Mutations during Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Hidetsugu; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Kishino, Takayoshi; Kubo, Emi; Hattori, Naoko; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tachimori, Yuji; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is frequently inactivated by somatic mutations of its various components in various types of cancers, and also by aberrant DNA methylation. However, its somatic mutations and aberrant methylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we aimed to clarify in ESCC, what components of the SWI/SNF complex have somatic mutations and aberrant methylation, and when somatic mutations of the SWI/SNF complex occur. Deep sequencing of components of the SWI/SNF complex using a bench-top next generation sequencer revealed that eight of 92 ESCCs (8.7%) had 11 somatic mutations of 7 genes, ARID1A, ARID2, ATRX, PBRM1, SMARCA4, SMARCAL1, and SMARCC1. The SMARCA4 mutations were located in the Forkhead (85Ser>Leu) and SNF2 family N-terminal (882Glu>Lys) domains. The PBRM1 mutations were located in a bromodomain (80Asn>Ser) and an HMG-box domain (1,377Glu>Lys). For most mutations, their mutant allele frequency was 31-77% (mean 61%) of the fraction of cancer cells in the same samples, indicating that most of the cancer cells in individual ESCC samples had the SWI/SNF mutations on one allele, when present. In addition, a BeadChip array analysis revealed that a component of the SWI/SNF complex, ACTL6B, had aberrant methylation at its promoter CpG island in 18 of 52 ESCCs (34.6%). These results showed that genetic and epigenetic alterations of the SWI/SNF complex are present in ESCCs, and suggested that genetic alterations are induced at an early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis. PMID:26812616

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets in SNF5-Deleted Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wöhrle, Simon; Jagani, Zainab; Thuery, Anne; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Reimann, Flavia; Stamm, Christelle; Pornon, Astrid; Romanet, Vincent; Guagnano, Vito; Brümmendorf, Thomas; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Roberts, Charles W. M.; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs. PMID:24204904

  2. SWI/SNF-mutant cancers depend on catalytic and non-catalytic activity of EZH2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kimberly H; Kim, Woojin; Howard, Thomas P; Vazquez, Francisca; Tsherniak, Aviad; Wu, Jennifer N; Wang, Weishan; Haswell, Jeffrey R; Walensky, Loren D; Hahn, William C; Orkin, Stuart H; Roberts, Charles W M

    2015-12-01

    Human cancer genome sequencing has recently revealed that genes that encode subunits of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are frequently mutated across a wide variety of cancers, and several subunits of the complex have been shown to have bona fide tumor suppressor activity. However, whether mutations in SWI/SNF subunits result in shared dependencies is unknown. Here we show that EZH2, a catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is essential in all tested cancer cell lines and xenografts harboring mutations of the SWI/SNF subunits ARID1A, PBRM1, and SMARCA4, which are several of the most frequently mutated SWI/SNF subunits in human cancer, but that co-occurrence of a Ras pathway mutation is correlated with abrogation of this dependence. Notably, we demonstrate that SWI/SNF-mutant cancer cells are primarily dependent on a non-catalytic role of EZH2 in the stabilization of the PRC2 complex, and that they are only partially dependent on EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. These results not only reveal a shared dependency of cancers with genetic alterations in SWI/SNF subunits, but also suggest that EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors now in clinical development may not fully suppress the oncogenic activity of EZH2. PMID:26552009

  3. SWI/SNF mutant cancers depend upon catalytic and non–catalytic activity of EZH2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kimberly H.; Kim, Woojin; Howard, Thomas P.; Vazquez, Francisca; Tsherniak, Aviad; Wu, Jennifer N.; Wang, Weishan; Haswell, Jeffrey R.; Walensky, Loren D.; Hahn, William C.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Roberts, Charles W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Human cancer genome sequencing has recently revealed that genes encoding subunits of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are frequently mutated across a wide variety of cancers, and several subunits of the complex have been shown to have bona fide tumor suppressor activity1. However, whether mutations in SWI/SNF subunits result in shared dependencies is unknown. Here we show that EZH2, a catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is essential in all tested cancer cell lines and xenografts harboring mutations of the SWI/SNF subunits ARID1A, PBRM1, and SMARCA4, which are several of the most frequently mutated SWI/SNF subunits in human cancer but that co–occurrence of a Ras pathway mutation correlates with abrogation of this dependence. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that SWI/SNF mutant cancer cells are primarily dependent upon a non–catalytic role of EZH2 in stabilization of the PRC2 complex, and only partially dependent on EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. These results not only reveal a shared dependency of cancers with genetic alterations in SWI/SNF subunits, but also suggest that EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors now in clinical development may not fully suppress the oncogenic activity of EZH2. PMID:26552009

  4. Fibroblast growth factor receptors as novel therapeutic targets in SNF5-deleted malignant rhabdoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Simon; Weiss, Andreas; Ito, Moriko; Kauffmann, Audrey; Murakami, Masato; Jagani, Zainab; Thuery, Anne; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Reimann, Flavia; Stamm, Christelle; Pornon, Astrid; Romanet, Vincent; Guagnano, Vito; Brümmendorf, Thomas; Sellers, William R; Hofmann, Francesco; Roberts, Charles W M; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs. PMID:24204904

  5. The Hsp70 homolog Ssb is essential for glucose sensing via the SNF1 kinase network

    PubMed Central

    von Plehwe, Ulrike; Berndt, Uta; Conz, Charlotte; Chiabudini, Marco; Fitzke, Edith; Sickmann, Albert; Petersen, Astrid; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Rospert, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Yeast senses the availability of external energy sources via multiple interconnected signaling networks. One of the central components is SNF1, the homolog of mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase, which in yeast is essential for the expression of glucose-repressed genes. When glucose is available hyperphosphorylated SNF1 is rendered inactive by the type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7. Dephosphorylation requires Reg1, which physically targets Glc7 to SNF1. Here we show that the chaperone Ssb is required to keep SNF1 in the nonphosphorylated state in the presence of glucose. Using a proteome approach we found that the Δssb1Δssb2 strain displays alterations in protein expression and suffers from phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of glucose repression mutants. Microarray analysis revealed a correlation between deregulation on the protein and on the transcript level. Supporting studies uncovered that SSB1 was an effective multicopy suppressor of severe growth defects caused by the Δreg1 mutation. Suppression of Δreg1 by high levels of Ssb was coupled to a reduction of Snf1 hyperphosphorylation back to the wild-type phosphorylation level. The data are consistent with a model in which Ssb is crucial for efficient regulation within the SNF1 signaling network, thereby allowing an appropriate response to changing glucose levels. PMID:19723765

  6. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  7. Completed Decommissioning of the Research Reactor TRIGA Heidelberg We are specialised in Decommissioning a Research Reactor in Germany now

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger-Graef, B.; Hoever, K.; Moser, T.; Berthold, M.; Blenski, H.J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the decommissioning of the TRIGA Heidelberg II reactor which was used until 1999, and of the TRIGA Heidelberg I reactor, which was for the last 20 years in a safe containment. (authors)

  8. TRIGA reactor facility at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute: A simplified technical description. revision. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This publication provides a simplified technical description of the TRIGA research reactor at AFRRI. Topics covered include general principles of reactor operation and a description of the TRIGA reactor and its unique features.

  9. Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6 in hydrothermal solutions-An experimental study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; I-Ming, C.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6, which is used as the starting material, in hydrothermal solutions have been studied at 200-602??C and 1 kbar. Experimental results show that intense hydrolysis of Na2SnF6 occurs at high temperatures and that with the rise of temperature the hydrolysis will become more intense. Under the present experimental conditions the most possible existing form of Sn in the hydrothermal solutions is SnF3(OH) or Na2SnF3(OH). In addition, the hydrolysis constants for Na2SnF6 have also been calculated at 200-602??C, and the relationship between Na2SnF6 hydrolysis and temperature is discussed. ?? 1987 Science Press.

  10. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor environments.…

  11. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  12. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  13. Teaching About South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schisgall, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Identifies reasons why social studies educators should improve their teaching about South Korea. Included in the list is the increasing numbers of Koreans being educated in the United States, the summer Olympics in 1988, and the use of Korean culture as a case study demonstrating the effects of cultural transmission and society in transition. (JDH)

  14. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  15. GzSNF1 is required for normal sexual and asexual development in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jungkwan; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Woo; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won

    2009-01-01

    The sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1) protein kinase of yeast plays a central role in the transcription of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose starvation. In this study, we deleted an ortholog of SNF1 from Gibberella zeae to characterize its functions by using a gene replacement strategy. The mycelial growth of deletion mutants (DeltaGzSNF1) was reduced by 21 to 74% on diverse carbon sources. The virulence of DeltaGzSNF1 mutants on barley decreased, and the expression of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes was reduced. The most distinct phenotypic changes were in sexual and asexual development. DeltaGzSNF1 mutants produced 30% fewer perithecia, which matured more slowly, and asci that contained one to eight abnormally shaped ascospores. Mutants in which only the GzSNF1 catalytic domain was deleted had the same phenotype changes as the DeltaGzSNF1 strains, but the phenotype was less extreme in the mutants with the regulatory domain deleted. In outcrosses between the DeltaGzSNF1 mutants, each perithecium contained approximately 70% of the abnormal ascospores, and approximately 50% of the asci showed unexpected segregation patterns in a single locus tested. The asexual spores of the DeltaGzSNF1 mutants were shorter and had fewer septa than those of the wild-type strain. The germination and nucleation of both ascospores and conidia were delayed in DeltaGzSNF1 mutants in comparison with those of the wild-type strain. GzSNF1 expression and localization depended on the developmental stage of the fungus. These results suggest that GzSNF1 is critical for normal sexual and asexual development in addition to virulence and the utilization of alternative carbon sources. PMID:19028993

  16. Identification of leaking TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, John S.; Crawford, Kevan C.; Gansauge, Todd C.; Sandquist, Gary M.

    1990-07-01

    The 100 kW TRIGA Mark I Nuclear Reactor at the University of Utah achieved initial criticality in October, 1975. Previously irradiated fuel consisting of stainless-steel- and aluminum-clad elements was acquired from the University of Arizona and the U.S. Army's Harry Diamond Laboratories in Adelphi, Maryland. Past core configurations have been comprised of both types of fuel with the aluminum-clad elements normally restricted to outer hexagonal rings of the core to provide a large safety margin between actual fuel temperature and limits set forth in the facility Technical Specifications. On October 20, 1987, trace cesium-137 contamination was discovered during routine analysis of the ion-exchange resin in the demineralizer circuit. The presence of Cs-137 indicated a possible clad defect resulting in the leakage of fission products. Reactor operations were allowed only to assist in identifying the source of the leakage. Pool water samples obtained following a two-hour operation at full power were spectroscopically analyzed and found to contain very small amounts of short-lived noble gases (e.g., Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Xe-138) and their decay daughter products (e.g., Rb-88, Cs-138). Samples of the gaseous effluent from the facility collected in activated charcoal canisters showed no indication of fission product contamination. The small amount of activity released to the pool water suggested that a single defective element was responsible for the leakage. The instrumented fuel element and the aluminum-clad fuel were initially suspected as sources of the leakage. A simple scheme was devised to identify the defective element by exchanging four or five elements from the core with fuel in storage and then operating the reactor at 90 kW power for two hours. A pool water sample was then taken and analyzed to determine if the damaged element had been removed from the core. This process was repeated several times until all of the aluminum-clad fuel and several stainless

  17. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by Biochemically Distinct SWI/SNF Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Jesse R.; Resnick, Samuel; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Multiple positions within the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex can be filled by mutually exclusive subunits. Inclusion or exclusion of these proteins defines many unique forms of SWI/SNF and has profound functional consequences. Often this complex is studied as a single entity within a particular cell type and we understand little about the functional relationship between these biochemically distinct forms of the remodeling complex. Here we examine the functional relationships among three complex-specific ARID (AT-Rich Interacting Domain) subunits using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, transcriptome analysis, and transcription factor binding maps. We find widespread overlap in transcriptional regulation and the genomic binding of distinct SWI/SNF complexes. ARID1B and ARID2 participate in wide-spread cooperation to repress hundreds of genes. Additionally, we find numerous examples of competition between ARID1A and another ARID, and validate that gene expression changes following loss of one ARID are dependent on the function of an alternative ARID. These distinct regulatory modalities are correlated with differential occupancy by transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that distinct SWI/SNF complexes dictate gene-specific transcription through functional interactions between the different forms of the SWI/SNF complex and associated co-factors. Most genes regulated by SWI/SNF are controlled by multiple biochemically distinct forms of the complex, and the overall expression of a gene is the product of the interaction between these different SWI/SNF complexes. The three mutually exclusive ARID family members are among the most frequently mutated chromatin regulators in cancer, and understanding the functional interactions and their role in transcriptional regulation provides an important foundation to understand their role in cancer. PMID:26716708

  18. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by Biochemically Distinct SWI/SNF Complexes.

    PubMed

    Raab, Jesse R; Resnick, Samuel; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-12-01

    Multiple positions within the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex can be filled by mutually exclusive subunits. Inclusion or exclusion of these proteins defines many unique forms of SWI/SNF and has profound functional consequences. Often this complex is studied as a single entity within a particular cell type and we understand little about the functional relationship between these biochemically distinct forms of the remodeling complex. Here we examine the functional relationships among three complex-specific ARID (AT-Rich Interacting Domain) subunits using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, transcriptome analysis, and transcription factor binding maps. We find widespread overlap in transcriptional regulation and the genomic binding of distinct SWI/SNF complexes. ARID1B and ARID2 participate in wide-spread cooperation to repress hundreds of genes. Additionally, we find numerous examples of competition between ARID1A and another ARID, and validate that gene expression changes following loss of one ARID are dependent on the function of an alternative ARID. These distinct regulatory modalities are correlated with differential occupancy by transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that distinct SWI/SNF complexes dictate gene-specific transcription through functional interactions between the different forms of the SWI/SNF complex and associated co-factors. Most genes regulated by SWI/SNF are controlled by multiple biochemically distinct forms of the complex, and the overall expression of a gene is the product of the interaction between these different SWI/SNF complexes. The three mutually exclusive ARID family members are among the most frequently mutated chromatin regulators in cancer, and understanding the functional interactions and their role in transcriptional regulation provides an important foundation to understand their role in cancer. PMID:26716708

  19. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-01

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  20. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Smorra, C.; Eibach, M.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Eberhardt, K.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-30

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  1. Operational characteristics of the new 12 wt% TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, P.; Levine, S.H.

    1997-12-01

    It has been reported that an instrumented TRIGA fuel element, I-15, had higher than normal fuel temperatures. As shown in Fig. 1, one of the newest instrumented fuel elements, I-17, has fuel temperatures equal to/and or higher than that of I-15. Another new fuel element, I-16, behaves similarly to I-17, and this is before they have been pulsed (the first pulses increase the steady-state temperature). Thus, there is a significant increase in the measured fuel temperatures of the newest TRIGA fuel received from General Atomics. They are estimated to measure fuel temperatures that exceed 600{degrees}C when in the B-ring at 1 MW at their beginning of life (BOL). The purpose of this summary is to report on the measurements performed with these new fuel elements and to describe the effect that the new information is having on the future fuel management plans for the Penn State Breazeale Research Reactor.

  2. Implementation of an aerodynamic lens for TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Nagy, Sz.; van de Laar, J. J. W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the optimization of the gas-jet system employed to couple the TRIGA-SPEC experiment to the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. CdI2 aerosol particles suspended in N2 as carrier gas are used for an effective transport of fission products from neutron induced 235 U fission from the target chamber to a surface ion source. Operating conditions of the gas-jet were modified to enable the implementation of an aerodynamic lens, fitting into the limited space available in front of the ion source. The lens boosts the gas-jet efficiency by a factor of 4-10. The characterization of the gas-jet system as well as the design of the aerodynamic lens and efficiency studies are presented and discussed.

  3. Computational analysis of irradiation facilities at the JSI TRIGA reactor.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Luka; Zerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej

    2012-03-01

    Characterization and optimization of irradiation facilities in a research reactor is important for optimal performance. Nowadays this is commonly done with advanced Monte Carlo neutron transport computer codes such as MCNP. However, the computational model in such calculations should be verified and validated with experiments. In the paper we describe the irradiation facilities at the JSI TRIGA reactor and demonstrate their computational characterization to support experimental campaigns by providing information on the characteristics of the irradiation facilities. PMID:22154389

  4. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  5. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; M. Rawi M., Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  6. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  7. Wongabel Rhabdovirus Accessory Protein U3 Targets the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, D. Albert; Rodriguez-Andres, Julio; Monaghan, Paul; Cummins, Michelle; McKinstry, William J.; Paradkar, Prasad N.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Wongabel virus (WONV) is an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. It is one of the growing array of rhabdoviruses with complex genomes that encode multiple accessory proteins of unknown function. In addition to the five canonical rhabdovirus structural protein genes (N, P, M, G, and L), the 13.2-kb negative-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) WONV genome contains five uncharacterized accessory genes, one overlapping the N gene (Nx or U4), three located between the P and M genes (U1 to U3), and a fifth one overlapping the G gene (Gx or U5). Here we show that WONV U3 is expressed during infection in insect and mammalian cells and is required for efficient viral replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen against a mosquito cell cDNA library identified that WONV U3 interacts with the 83-amino-acid (aa) C-terminal domain of SNF5, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. The interaction was confirmed by affinity chromatography, and nuclear colocalization was established by confocal microscopy. Gene expression studies showed that SNF5 transcripts are upregulated during infection of mosquito cells with WONV, as well as West Nile virus (Flaviviridae) and bovine ephemeral fever virus (Rhabdoviridae), and that SNF5 knockdown results in increased WONV replication. WONV U3 also inhibits SNF5-regulated expression of the cytokine gene CSF1. The data suggest that WONV U3 targets the SWI/SNF complex to block the host response to infection. IMPORTANCE The rhabdoviruses comprise a large family of RNA viruses infecting plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates. In addition to the major structural proteins (N, P, M, G, and L), many rhabdoviruses encode a diverse array of accessory proteins of largely unknown function. Understanding the role of these proteins may reveal much about host-pathogen interactions in infected cells. Here we examine accessory protein U3 of Wongabel virus, an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus that infects birds. We show that U3 enters the

  8. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  9. Altered control of cellular proliferation in the absence of mammalian brahma (SNF2alpha).

    PubMed

    Reyes, J C; Barra, J; Muchardt, C; Camus, A; Babinet, C; Yaniv, M

    1998-12-01

    The mammalian SWI-SNF complex is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit machine, involved in chromatin remodelling during transcriptional activation. Within this complex, the BRM (SNF2alpha) and BRG1 (SNF2beta) proteins are mutually exclusive subunits that are believed to affect nucleosomal structures using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. In order to characterize possible differences in the function of BRM and BRG1, and to gain further insights into the role of BRM-containing SWI-SNF complexes, the mouse BRM gene was inactivated by homologous recombination. BRM-/- mice develop normally, suggesting that an observed up-regulation of the BRG1 protein can functionally replace BRM in the SWI-SNF complexes of mutant cells. Nonetheless, adult mutant mice were approximately 15% heavier than control littermates. This may be caused by increased cell proliferation, as demonstrated by a higher mitotic index detected in mutant livers. This is supported further by the observation that mutant embryonic fibroblasts were significantly deficient in their ability to arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle in response to cell confluency or DNA damage. These studies suggest that BRM participates in the regulation of cell proliferation in adult mice. PMID:9843504

  10. White Paper: Multi-purpose canister (MPC) for DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-04-01

    The paper examines the issue, What are the advantages, disadvantages, and other considerations for using the MPC concept as part of the strategy for interim storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF? The paper is based in part on the results of an evaluation made for the DOE National Spent Fuel Program by the Waste Form Barrier/Canister Team, which is composed of knowledgeable DOE and DOE-contractor personnel. The paper reviews the MPC and DOE SNF status, provides criteria and other considerations applicable to the issue, and presents an evaluation, conclusions, and recommendations. The primary conclusion is that while most of DOE SNF is not currently sufficiently characterized to be sealed into an MPC, the advantages of standardized packages in handling, reduced radiation exposure, and improved human factors should be considered in DOE SNF program planning. While the design of MPCs for DOE SNF are likely premature at this time, the use of canisters should be considered which are consistent with interim storage options and the MPC design envelope.

  11. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  12. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  13. Structural basis for activation, assembly and membrane binding of ESCRT-III Snf7 filaments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaogeng; Henne, W Mike; Borbat, Peter P; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Freed, Jack H; Mao, Yuxin; Fromme, J Christopher; Emr, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) constitute hetero-oligomeric machines that catalyze multiple topologically similar membrane-remodeling processes. Although ESCRT-III subunits polymerize into spirals, how individual ESCRT-III subunits are activated and assembled together into a membrane-deforming filament remains unknown. Here, we determine X-ray crystal structures of the most abundant ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 in its active conformation. Using pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS), we show that Snf7 activation requires a prominent conformational rearrangement to expose protein-membrane and protein-protein interfaces. This promotes the assembly of Snf7 arrays with ~30 Å periodicity into a membrane-sculpting filament. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that mutations on these protein interfaces halt Snf7 assembly and block ESCRT function. The architecture of the activated and membrane-bound Snf7 polymer provides crucial insights into the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12548.001 PMID:26670543

  14. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  15. An RFQ cooler and buncher for the TRIGA-SPEC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krieger, A.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörterhäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Smorra, C.; Will, E.

    2014-01-01

    A linear Paul trap for cooling of ion beams, the former cooler for emittance elimination radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) at MISTRAL/ISOLDE, has been installed and commissioned at the TRIGA-SPEC experiment located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. It is connected to a hot-surface-ionization ion source and a subsequent mass separator for ionization and pre-separation of neutron-rich fission products as delivered from the reactor. The capability of accumulating and bunching ion beams has been implemented to provide low-emittance ion pulses of 250 ns width containing up to 106 ions. A technical description of the upgraded RFQ as well as its characterization with stable ions is presented. Its installation allows delivery of low-emittance ion bunches to the two branches of the TRIGA-SPEC experiment, namely TRIGA-TRAP and TRIGA-LASER.

  16. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  17. Urologic cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Kwang Suk; Chung, Byung Ha

    2015-09-01

    The incidence and prevalence of prostate and kidney cancers have been increasing in Korea during the last decade, and a marked improvement in survival rates has been noted. With a substantial proportion of the cancers diagnosed at an earlier stage of the disease, the landscape of urologic cancer treatment in Korea has been characterized by an exponential increase in the number of patients receiving surgical treatment. Throughout the last decade, an increasing proportion of surgeries have been performed using minimally invasive methods, with a notable increase in robot-assisted surgery.The evaluation and management strategies of urologic cancer in Korea are primarily based on an existing evidence-based framework provided by international guidelines. The adoption and clinical application of novel surgical techniques and systemic agents targeted at advanced stage cancer are promptly adopted; accordingly, multidisciplinary treatment options are often available for various cancers at different stages. At the same time, treatment decisions are greatly influenced by the availability of healthcare resources, which may be limited due to the National Health Insurance reimbursement policy.A racial disparity in cancer features appears to exist for certain urologic cancers among Korean patients, and the optimal management strategy specific for the Korean population has yet to be confirmed. A national comprehensive cancer database is needed for better insight into risk factors, selection of sequential strategies, tumor biology and survival outcome of Korean urologic cancer patients. PMID:26117494

  18. PACS industry in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-Joung

    2002-05-01

    PACS industry in Korea has been rapidly growing, since government had supported collaborative PACS project between industry and university hospital. In the beginning, PACS industry had focused on developing peripheral PACS solutions, while the Korea PACS society was being formed. A few companies had started developing and installing domestic large-scale full-PACS system for teaching hospitals. Several years later, many hospitals have installed full-PACS system with national policy of reimbursement for PACS exams in November 1999. Both experiences of full-PACS installation and national policy generated tremendous intellectual and technological expertise about PACS at all levels, clinical, hospital management, education, and industrial sectors. There are now more than 20 domestic PACS companies. They have enough experiences which are capable of installing a truly full-PACS system for large-scale teaching hospitals. As an example, a domestic company had installed more than 40 full-PACS systems within 2-3 years. Enough experiences of full-PACS installation in Korea lead PACS industry to start exporting their full-PACS solutions. However, further understanding and timely implementation of continuously evolving international standard and integrated healthcare enterprise concepts may be necessary for international leading of PACS technologies for the future.

  19. Proposed modification of an instrumented TRIGA fuel element so that it may be handled with a standard TRIGA fuel handling tool

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, Harry J.

    1992-07-01

    Instrumented fuel elements whose thermocouples are no longer functional are still a useful source of reactor fuel. Their usefulness is hampered somewhat by the extension tubing that must extend above water level to keep the thermocouple extension leads dry and to keep pool water from interacting with the gas tight lead seal which is made below the lower coupling in the extension tubing. This facility proposes to modify an instrumented TRIGA fuel element by removing the extension tubing at the lower coupling and attaching to it a top end fixture that is normally supplied with a standard TRIGA fuel element. This would then allow movement of the modified fuel element with a standard TRIGA fuel handling tool. This paper will present the considerations involved in performing this modification and the presenter will solicit any useful information that might be contributed by attendees of the TRIGA Owners' Conference. (author)

  20. SWI/SNF complex prevents lineage reversion and induces temporal patterning in neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Elif; Burkard, Thomas R; Jiang, Yanrui; Saini, Nidhi; Homem, Catarina C F; Reichert, Heinrich; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2014-03-13

    Members of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex are among the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer, but how they suppress tumorigenesis is currently unclear. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the SWI/SNF component Osa (ARID1) prevents tumorigenesis by ensuring correct lineage progression in stem cell lineages. We show that Osa induces a transcriptional program in the transit-amplifying population that initiates temporal patterning, limits self-renewal, and prevents dedifferentiation. We identify the Prdm protein Hamlet as a key component of this program. Hamlet is directly induced by Osa and regulates the progression of progenitors through distinct transcriptional states to limit the number of transit-amplifying divisions. Our data provide a mechanistic explanation for the widespread tumor suppressor activity of SWI/SNF. Because the Hamlet homologs Evi1 and Prdm16 are frequently mutated in cancer, this mechanism could well be conserved in human stem cell lineages. PAPERCLIP: PMID:24630726

  1. A New Way Forward in Cancer Drug Discovery: Inhibiting the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Complex.

    PubMed

    Zinzalla, Giovanna

    2016-04-15

    Mutations in subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex are found in 20 % of human cancers. At face value, this would appear to indicate that this multiprotein complex is a potent tumour suppressor. However, it has recently emerged that some mutations in the SWI/SNF complex can have a gain-of-function effect and that in other tumours, such as pancreatic cancer, leukaemia, and breast cancer, the wild-type complex is used to drive cancer. Thus, paradoxically, this "tumour suppressor" has become an attractive target for developing anticancer agents. The SWI/SNF complex makes several protein-protein interactions both within the complex and with a wide range of transcription factors, and targeting these protein-protein interactions is emerging as the best approach to modulating the activity of the complex selectively. PMID:26684344

  2. AMPK/Snf1 signaling regulates histone acetylation: Impact on gene expression and epigenetic functions.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kauppinen, Anu; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its yeast homolog, Snf1, are critical regulators in the maintenance of energy metabolic balance not only stimulating energy production but also inhibiting energy-consuming processes. The AMPK/Snf1 signaling controls energy metabolism by specific phosphorylation of many metabolic enzymes and transcription factors, enhancing or suppressing their functions. The AMPK/Snf1 complexes can be translocated from cytoplasm into nuclei where they are involved in the regulation of transcription. Recent studies have indicated that AMPK/Snf1 activation can control histone acetylation through different mechanisms affecting not only gene transcription but also many other epigenetic functions. For instance, AMPK/Snf1 enzymes can phosphorylate the histone H3S10 (yeast) and H2BS36 (mammalian) sites which activate specific histone acetyltransferases (HAT), consequently enhancing histone acetylation. Moreover, nuclear AMPK can phosphorylate type 2A histone deacetylases (HDAC), e.g. HDAC4 and HDAC5, triggering their export from nuclei thus promoting histone acetylation reactions. AMPK activation can also increase the level of acetyl CoA, e.g. by inhibiting fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses. Acetyl CoA is a substrate for HATs, thus increasing their capacity for histone acetylation. On the other hand, AMPK can stimulate the activity of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) which increases the level of NAD(+). NAD(+) is a substrate for nuclear sirtuins, especially for SIRT1 and SIRT6, which deacetylate histones and transcription factors, e.g. those regulating ribosome synthesis and circadian clocks. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic modification which subsequently can affect chromatin remodeling, e.g. via bromodomain proteins. We will review the signaling mechanisms of AMPK/Snf1 in the control of histone acetylation and subsequently clarify their role in the epigenetic regulation of ribosome synthesis and circadian clocks

  3. HORIZONTAL DROP OF THE NAVAL SNF LONG WASTE PACKAGE ON UNYIELDING SURFACE

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2000-05-23

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Long Waste Package (WP) subjected to a 2.4-m horizontal drop on an unyielding surface (US). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Waste Package Design section in accordance with the development plan for ''Horizontal Drop of the Naval SNF Long Waste Package on Unyielding Surface''.

  4. Beyond Mutations: Additional Mechanisms and Implications of SWI/SNF Complex Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth W.; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

    2015-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a major regulator of gene expression. Its role is to facilitate the shifting and exposure of DNA segments within the promoter and other key domains to transcription factors and other essential cellular proteins. This complex interacts with a wide range of proteins and does not function within a single, specific pathway; thus, it is involved in a multitude of cellular processes, including DNA repair, differentiation, development, cell adhesion, and growth control. Given SWI/SNF’s prominent role in these processes, many of which are important for blocking cancer development, it is not surprising that the SWI/SNF complex is targeted during cancer initiation and progression both by mutations and by non-mutational mechanisms. Currently, the understanding of the types of alterations, their frequency, and their impact on the SWI/SNF subunits is an area of intense research that has been bolstered by a recent cadre of NextGen sequencing studies. These studies have revealed mutations in SWI/SNF subunits, indicating that this complex is thus important for cancer development. The purpose of this review is to put into perspective the role of mutations versus other mechanisms in the silencing of SWI/SNF subunits, in particular, BRG1 and BRM. In addition, this review explores the recent development of synthetic lethality and how it applies to this complex, as well as how BRM polymorphisms are becoming recognized as potential clinical biomarkers for cancer risk. Significance: Recent reviews have detailed the occurrence of mutations in nearly all SWI/SNF subunits, which indicates that this complex is an important target for cancer. However, when the frequency of mutations in a given tumor type is compared to the frequency of subunit loss, it becomes clear that other non-mutational mechanisms must play a role in the inactivation of SWI/SNF subunits. Such data indicate that epigenetic mechanisms that are known to regulate BRM may also be involved in the loss of

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage System [OCRWM PER REV2

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-12-20

    As part of the decommissioning of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells there is a need to remove commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presently stored in these hot cells. To enable fuel removal from the hot cells, the commercial LWR SNF will be packaged and shipped to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) in a manner that satisfies site requirements for SNF interim storage. This document identifies the criteria that the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cell Clean-out Project must satisfy for acceptance of the LWR SNF by the SNF Project at the 200 Area ISA. In addition to the acceptance criteria identified herein, acceptance is contingent on adherence to applicable Project Hanford Management Contract requirements and procedures in place at the time of work execution.

  6. [SWI/SNF Protein Complexes Participate in the Initiation and Elongation Stages of Drosophila hsp70 Gene Transcription].

    PubMed

    Mazina, M Yu; Nikolenko, Yu V; Krasnov, A N; Vorobyeva, N E

    2016-02-01

    The participation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in the stimulation of the RNA polymerase II binding to gene promotors was demonstrated in all model eukaryotic organisms. It was shown eight years ago that the SWI/SNF complex influence on transcription is not limited to its role in initiation but also includes participation in elongation and alternative splicing. In the current work, we describe the subunit composition of the SWI/SNF complexes participating in initiation, preparing for the elongation and elongation of hsp70 gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. The data reveal the high mobility of the SWI/SNF complex composition during the hsp 70 gene transcription process. We suggest a model describing the process of sequential SWI/SNF complex formation during heat-shock induced transcription of the hsp 70 gene. PMID:27215030

  7. SWI/SNF mediates polycomb eviction and epigenetic reprogramming of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus.

    PubMed

    Kia, Sima Kheradmand; Gorski, Marcin M; Giannakopoulos, Stavros; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2008-05-01

    Stable silencing of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a tumor suppressor locus occurs in a variety of human cancers, including malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs). MRTs are extremely aggressive cancers caused by the loss of the hSNF5 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. We found previously that, in MRT cells, hSNF5 is required for p16(INK4a) induction, mitotic checkpoint activation, and cellular senescence. Here, we investigated how the balance between Polycomb group (PcG) silencing and SWI/SNF activation affects epigenetic control of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus in MRT cells. hSNF5 reexpression in MRT cells caused SWI/SNF recruitment and activation of p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a), but not of p14(ARF). Gene activation by hSNF5 is strictly dependent on the SWI/SNF motor subunit BRG1. SWI/SNF mediates eviction of the PRC1 and PRC2 PcG silencers and extensive chromatin reprogramming. Concomitant with PcG complex removal, the mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) protein is recruited and active histone marks supplant repressive ones. Strikingly, loss of PcG complexes is accompanied by DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B dissociation and reduced DNA methylation. Thus, various chromatin states can be modulated by SWI/SNF action. Collectively, these findings emphasize the close interconnectivity and dynamics of diverse chromatin modifications in cancer and gene control. PMID:18332116

  8. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. In addition to meeting... residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  9. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. In addition to meeting... residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  10. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR...: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. In addition to meeting the... of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  11. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. In addition to meeting... residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  12. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nurhayati; Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  13. TRIGA high wt -% LEU fuel development program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B.

    1980-07-01

    The principal purpose of this work was to investigate the characteristics of TRIGA fuel where the contained U-235 was in a relatively high weight percent (wt %) of LEU (low enriched uranium - enrichment of less than 20%) rather than a relatively low weight percent of HEU (high enriched uranium). Fuel with up to 45 wt % U was fabricated and found to be acceptable after metallurgical examinations, fission product retention tests and physical property examinations. Design and safety analysis studies also indicated acceptable prompt negative temperature coefficient and core lifetime characteristics for these fuels.

  14. The SANS facility at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ionita, I. Grabcev, B.; Todireanu, S.; Constantin, F.; Shvetsov, V.; Anghel, E.; Popescu, G.; Mincu, M.; Datcu, A.

    2006-12-15

    The SANS facility existing at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor is presented. The main characteristics and the preliminary evaluation of the installation performances are given. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A {<=} {lambda} {<=} 5 A is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. A fruitful partnership was established between INR Pitesti (Romania) and JINR Dubna (Russia). The first step in this cooperation consists in the manufacturing in Dubna of a battery of gas-filled positional detectors devoted to the SANS instrument.

  15. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Production in the UT TRIGA Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. O'Kelly

    2000-11-12

    In December 1999, The University of Texas at Austin (UT) reported an unusual condition associated with the annular graphite reflector surrounding the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) TRIGA reactor. The aluminum container encapsulating the graphite showed signs of bulging or swelling. Further, during an investigation of this occurrence, bubbles were detected coming from a weld in the aluminum. The gas composition was approximately 2:1 hydrogen to oxygen. After safety review and equipment fabrication, the reflector was successfully vented and flooded. The ratio of the gases produced is unusual, and the gas production mechanism has not yet been explained.

  16. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  17. Role of SWI/SNF in acute leukemia maintenance and enhancer-mediated Myc regulation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junwei; Whyte, Warren A.; Zepeda-Mendoza, Cinthya J.; Milazzo, Joseph P.; Shen, Chen; Roe, Jae-Seok; Minder, Jessica L.; Mercan, Fatih; Wang, Eric; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A.; Campbell, Amy E.; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Shareef, Sarah; Zhu, Zhu; Kendall, Jude; Muhar, Matthias; Haslinger, Christian; Yu, Ming; Roeder, Robert G.; Wigler, Michael H.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Zuber, Johannes; Spector, David L.; Young, Richard A.; Vakoc, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells frequently depend on chromatin regulatory activities to maintain a malignant phenotype. Here, we show that leukemia cells require the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex for their survival and aberrant self-renewal potential. While Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, is known to suppress tumor formation in several cell types, we found that leukemia cells instead rely on Brg1 to support their oncogenic transcriptional program, which includes Myc as one of its key targets. To account for this context-specific function, we identify a cluster of lineage-specific enhancers located 1.7 Mb downstream from Myc that are occupied by SWI/SNF as well as the BET protein Brd4. Brg1 is required at these distal elements to maintain transcription factor occupancy and for long-range chromatin looping interactions with the Myc promoter. Notably, these distal Myc enhancers coincide with a region that is focally amplified in ∼3% of acute myeloid leukemias. Together, these findings define a leukemia maintenance function for SWI/SNF that is linked to enhancer-mediated gene regulation, providing general insights into how cancer cells exploit transcriptional coactivators to maintain oncogenic gene expression programs. PMID:24285714

  18. Criticality Potential of Waste Packages Containing DOE SNF Affected by Igneous Intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Kimball; C.E. Sanders

    2006-02-07

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently preparing an application to submit to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a construction authorization for a monitored geologic repository. The repository will contain spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and defense high-level waste (DHLW) in waste packages placed in underground tunnels, or drifts. The primary objective of this paper is to perform a criticality analysis for waste packages containing DOE SNF affected by a disruptive igneous intrusion event in the emplacement drifts. The waste packages feature one DOE SNF canister placed in the center and surrounded by five High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canisters. The effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) is determined for potential configurations of the waste package during and after an intrusive igneous event. Due to the complexity of the potential scenarios following an igneous intrusion, finding conservative and bounding configurations with respect to criticality requires some additional considerations. In particular, the geometry of a slumped and damaged waste package must be examined, drift conditions must be modeled over a range of parameters, and the chemical degradation of DOE SNF and waste package materials must be considered for the expected high temperatures. The secondary intent of this calculation is to present a method for selecting conservative and bounding configurations for a wide range of end conditions.

  19. Human SWI-SNF Component BRG1 Represses Transcription of the c-fos Gene

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Daniel J.; Hardy, Stephen; Engel, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Yeast and mammalian SWI-SNF complexes regulate transcription through active modification of chromatin structure. Human SW-13 adenocarcinoma cells lack BRG1 protein, a component of SWI-SNF that has a DNA-dependent ATPase activity essential for SWI-SNF function. Expression of BRG1 in SW-13 cells potentiated transcriptional activation by the glucocorticoid receptor, which is known to require SWI-SNF function. BRG1 also specifically repressed transcription from a transfected c-fos promoter and correspondingly blocked transcriptional activation of the endogenous c-fos gene. Mutation of lysine residue 798 in the DNA-dependent ATPase domain of BRG1 significantly reduced its ability to repress c-fos transcription. Repression by BRG1 required the cyclic AMP response element of the c-fos promoter but not nearby binding sites for Sp1, YY1, or TFII-I. Using human C33A cervical carcinoma cells, which lack BRG1 and also express a nonfunctional Rb protein, transcriptional repression by BRG1 was weak unless wild-type Rb was also supplied. Interestingly, Rb-dependent repression by BRG1 was found to take place through a pathway that is independent of transcription factor E2F. PMID:10082538

  20. Transport of fission products with a helium gas-jet at TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibach, M.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Herfurth, F.; Geppert, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.

    2010-02-01

    A helium gas-jet system for the transport of fission products from the research reactor TRIGA Mainz has been developed, characterized and tested within the TRIGA-SPEC experiment. For the first time at TRIGA Mainz carbon aerosol particles have been used for the transport of radionuclides from a target chamber with high efficiency. The radionuclides have been identified by means of γ-spectroscopy. Transport time, efficiency as well as the absolute number of transported radionuclides for several species have been determined. The design and the characterization of the gas-jet system are described and discussed.

  1. Analysis of cocked fuel elements in the AFRRI TRIGA Mark-F reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sholtis, Joseph A. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) TRIGA Mark-F pulsing reactor has experienced eight cocked fuel elements during the period 5 November 1974 through 17 February 1982. Although there are no adverse health and safety consequences associated with their occurrence and there is no credible potential for system damage, cocked TRIGA fuel elements do cause inconvenience to the reactor staff and a temporary delay in operations. This paper presents the history of cocked TRIGA fuel elements at AFRRI, discusses possible mechanisms for their occurrence, and outlines a plan to isolate and ultimately determine their actual cause.

  2. Loss of the tumor suppressor Snf5 leads to aberrant activation of the Hedgehog-Gli pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jagani, Zainab; Mora-Blanco, E Lorena; Sansam, Courtney G; McKenna, Elizabeth S; Wilson, Boris; Chen, Dongshu; Klekota, Justin; Tamayo, Pablo; Nguyen, Phuong T L; Tolstorukov, Michael; Park, Peter J; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hsiao, Kathy; Buonamici, Silvia; Pomeroy, Scott L; Mesirov, Jill P; Ruffner, Heinz; Bouwmeester, Tewis; Luchansky, Sarah J; Murtie, Joshua; Kelleher, Joseph F; Warmuth, Markus; Sellers, William R; Roberts, Charles W M; Dorsch, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway can drive tumorigenesis1. To investigate the mechanism by which glioma-associated oncogene family zinc finger-1 (GLI1), a crucial effector of Hh signaling2, regulates Hh pathway activation, we searched for GLI1-interacting proteins. We report that the chromatin remodeling protein SNF5 (encoded by SMARCB1, hereafter called SNF5), which is inactivated in human malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs), interacts with GLI1. We show that Snf5 localizes to Gli1-regulated promoters and that loss of Snf5 leads to activation of the Hh-Gli pathway. Conversely, re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells represses GLI1. Consistent with this, we show the presence of a Hh-Gli–activated gene expression profile in primary MRTs and show that GLI1 drives the growth of SNF5-deficient MRT cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our studies reveal that SNF5 is a key mediator of Hh signaling and that aberrant activation of GLI1 is a previously undescribed targetable mechanism contributing to the growth of MRT cells. PMID:21076395

  3. SNF2H interacts with XRCC1 and is involved in repair of H2O2-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiko; Shimizu, Shinji; Yasuhira, Shinji; Horiuchi, Saburo

    2016-07-01

    The protein XRCC1 has no inherent enzymatic activity, and is believed to function in base excision repair as a dedicated scaffold component that coordinates other DNA repair factors. Repair foci clearly represent the recruitment and accumulation of DNA repair factors at sites of damage; however, uncertainties remain regarding their organization in the context of nuclear architecture and their biological significance. Here we identified the chromatin remodeling factor SNF2H/SMARCA5 as a novel binding partner of XRCC1, with their interaction dependent on the casein kinase 2-mediated constitutive phosphorylation of XRCC1. The proficiency of repairing H2O2-induced damage was strongly impaired by SNF2H knock-down, and similar impairment was observed with knock-down of both XRCC1 and SNF2H simultaneously, suggesting their role in a common repair pathway. Most SNF2H exists in the nuclear matrix fraction, forming salt extraction-resistant foci-like structures in unchallenged nuclei. Remarkably, damage-induced formation of both PAR and XRCC1 foci depended on SNF2H, and the PAR and XRCC1 foci co-localized with the SNF2H foci. We propose a model in which a base excision repair complex containing damaged chromatin is recruited to specific locations in the nuclear matrix for repair, with this recruitment mediated by XRCC1-SNF2H interaction. PMID:27268481

  4. Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

    2010-06-22

    To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24 deg. C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

  5. Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

    2010-06-01

    To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24°C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

  6. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 1 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-11-04

    Metallic uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) is currently stored within two water filled pools, 105-KE Basin (KE Basin) and 105-KW Basin (KW Basin), at the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) is responsible to DOE for operation of these fuel storage pools and for the 2100 metric tons of SNF materials that they contain. The SNF Project mission includes safe removal and transportation of all SNF from these storage basins to a new storage facility in the 200 East Area. To accomplish this mission, the SNF Project modifies the existing KE Basin and KW Basin facilities and constructs two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), which drains and dries the SNF; and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building (CSB), which stores the SNF. The purpose of this document is to describe the design basis feed compositions for materials stored or processed by SNF Project facilities and activities. This document is not intended to replace the Hanford Spent Fuel Inventory Baseline (WHC 1994b), but only to supplement it by providing more detail on the chemical and radiological inventories in the fuel (this volume) and sludge. A variety of feed definitions is required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of these new facilities. Six separate feed types have been identified for development of new storage or processing facilities. The approach for using each feed during design evaluations is to calculate the proposed facility flowsheet assuming each feed. The process flowsheet would then provide a basis for material compositions and quantities which are used in follow-on calculations.

  7. Design Verification Report Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA Fuel Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2002-01-31

    This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed during the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) Training, Research and Isotope Production, General Atomics (TRIGA) fuel storage system design and fabrication.

  8. TRIGA-SPEC: the prototype of MATS and LaSpec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Krämer, J.; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of short-lived nuclei is a challenging task that MATS and LaSpec will handle at the low energy branch of Super-FRS at FAIR. The groundwork for those experiments is laid-out already today at the TRIGA-SPEC facility as a powerful development platform located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. The latest status, new developments and first results of commissioning runs are presented here.

  9. A combined wet/dry sipping cell for investigating failed TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.; Gallhammer, H.; Bock, H.

    1988-07-01

    Investigation for a failed TRIGA fuel element is performed with the help of a combined wet/dry sipping cell, which has been designed and fabricated at the Atominstitut Vienna. In this sipping cell a TRIGA fuel element can be studied for fission product release, both at normal and at elevated temperatures. This report describes the design features of the sipping cell and the fission product identification procedure with the help of a high purity Germanium detector and a multichannel analyzer.

  10. Code System to Calculate Mixed Cores in TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-29

    Version 00 TRIGLAV is a computer program for reactor calculations of mixed cores in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor. It can be applied for fuel element burn-up calculations, for power and flux distributions calculations and for reactivity predictions. The TRIGLAV program requires the WIMS-D4 program with the original WIMS cross-section library extended for TRIGA reactor specific nuclides. This package includes the code TRIGAC, which is a new version of TRIGAP.

  11. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and storage of TRIGA{reg_sign} reactor fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    In order to allow the shutdown of the Hanford 308 Building in the 300 Area, it is proposed to relocate fuel assemblies (101 irradiated, three unirradiated) from the Mark I TRIGA Reactor storage pool. The irradiated fuel assemblies would be stored in casks in the Interim Storage Area in the Hanford 400 Area; the three unirradiated ones would be transferred to another TRIGA reactor. The relocation is not expected to change the offsite exposure from all Hanford Site 300 and 400 Area operations.

  12. Morning calm, nuclear sunset: South Korea`s atomic option

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, A.D.

    1998-09-01

    US national security strategy sets nuclear nonproliferation as a high priority. However pursuing nonproliferation without regard for important traditional security relationships might yield undesired results. The Republic of Korea (ROK) requires a high degree of confidence in the US security guarantee one that includes an extended nuclear deterrent. The nuclear weapons program that South Korea began and abandoned in the 1970s was prompted by a decrease in confidence in US security commitments. Conciliatory actions taken recently by the United States toward the Democratic Peoples` Republic of Korea (DPRK) to prevent a possible nuclear weapons program may undermine the US-ROK security arrangement that has been in place for decades. This work examines perceived threats to South Korea and the US security commitment to Korea since 1945 to reveal how US nuclear nonproliferation policy affects Seoul`s propensity to develop nuclear weapons. Recommendations are provided for policy makers regarding strengthening of ROK confidence in the US commitment on the peninsula, with particular emphasis on preventing South Korea from pursuing a nuclear arsenal.

  13. Description of the Canadian particulate-fill waste-package (WP) system for spent-nuclear fuel (SNF) and its applicability to light-water reactor SNF WPs with depleted uranium-dioxide fill

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-10-20

    The US is beginning work on an advanced, light-water reactor (LWR), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), waste package (WP) that uses depleted uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) fill. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program has completed a 15-year development program of its repository concept for CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor SNF. As one option, Canada has developed a WP that uses a glass-bead or silica-sand fill. The Canadian development work on fill materials inside WPs can provide a guide for the development of LWR SNF WPs using depleted uranium (DU) fill materials. This report summarizes the Canadian work, identifies similarities and differences between the Canadian design and the design being investigated in the US to use DU fill, and identifies what information is applicable to the development of a DU fill for LWR SNF WPs. In both concepts, empty WPs are loaded with SNF, the void space between the fuel pins and the outer void space between SNF assemblies and the inner WP wall would be filled with small particles, the WPs are then sealed, and the WPs are placed into the repository.

  14. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-02-03

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of the Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the spent nuclear fuel project (SNFP) Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  16. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  17. New fuel management plan for the Penn State TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, D.; Boyle, P.; Levine, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Breazeale TRIGA has utilized 12 wt% U fuel in the core since July 1992, when six 12 wt% U fuel elements were loaded to replace the depleted 8.5 wt% U fuel in the centermost ring, the B ring. This reload increased the cold k{sub eff} from 1.03 to 1.05, the cold k{sub eff} of 1.03 being the minimum k{sub eff} that will permit 1-MW operation for a sustained period. In the next fuel reload, this 12 wt% U fuel is to be moved outward to the adjacent ring, the C ring, and six fresh 12 wt% U fuel elements are to be added to the B ring. It was determined that using the 12 wt% U in place of 8.5 wt% U fuel reduced fuel costs by a factor of 6, and continuing this use of six 12 wt% U fuel elements for each reload maintained the lower fuel costs. This reloading technique worked successfully, requiring only 26 additional 12 wt% U elements to be loaded into the core during the last 23 yr. Recently, however, a new instrumented 12 wt% U fuel element read much higher temperatures than all previous similar fuel elements. Its measured fuel temperature at 1 MW is 585{degrees}C. As a result, the PSU TRIGA now operates at or below 60% full power to prevent this element from reaching fuel temperatures well above 500{degrees}C. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new fuel management strategy developed to use 12 wt% U fuel, which permits 1-MW operation and limits the maximum fuel temperature to {approx}500{degrees}C.

  18. Reactor instrumentation renewal of the TRIGA reactor Vienna, Austria

    SciTech Connect

    Boeck, H.; Weiss, H.; Hood, W.E.; Hyde, W.K.

    1992-07-01

    The TRIGA Mark-II reactor at the Atominstitut in Vienna, Austria is replacing its twenty-four year old instrumentation system with a microprocessor based control system supplied by General Atomics. Ageing components, new governmental safety requirements and a need for state of the art instrumentation for training students has spurred the demand for new reactor instrumentation. In Austria a government appointed expert is assigned the responsibility of reviewing the proposed installation and verifying all safety aspects. After a positive review, final assembly and checkout of the instrumentation system may commence. The instrumentation system consists of three basic modules: the control system console, the data acquisition console and the NH-1000 wide range channel. Digital communications greatly reduce interwiring requirements. Hardwired safety channels are independent of computer control, thus, the instrumentation system in no way relies on any computer intervention for safety function. In addition, both the CSC and DAC computers are continuously monitored for proper operation via watchdog circuits which are capable of shutting down the reactor in the event of computer malfunction. Safety channels include two interlocked NMP-1000 multi-range linear channels for steady state mode, an NPP-1000 linear safety channel for pulse mode and a set of three independent fuel temperature monitoring channels. The microprocessor controlled wide range NM- 1000 digital neutron monitor (fission chamber based) functions as a startup/operational channel, and provides all power level related Interlocks. The Atominstitut TRIGA reactor is configured for four modes of operation: manual mode, automatic mode (servo control), pulsing mode and square wave mode. Control of the standard control rods is via stepping motor control rod drives, which offers the operator the choice of which control rods are operated by the servo system in automatic and square wave model. (author)

  19. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-05-10

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  20. Unique challenges for storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, T.A.

    1998-03-01

    Non-commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy presents some unique challenges for interim storage as well as ultimate disposal in a repository. There is an important link between Yucca Mountain Repository work and the future needs of the DOE SNF program. Close coordination and early definition of acceptance criteria are essential. Much of the Yucca Mountain Repository work has focused on commercial SNF which has very high structural integrity and a well documented set of characteristics and burn-up histories. In contrast, DOE non-commercial SNF at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) represents over two hundred fifty fuel types, much of which is degraded. Fuel designs by DOE were centered around various test objectives in experimental reactors. The result was a proliferation of fuel types. Interest in enhanced heat transfer led to use of sodium as a bond between the fuel and cladding. The desire for smaller more compact reactors with higher power densities led to a variety of enrichments from less than 20% to greater than 90%. INEEL has most of the US U-233 spent nuclear fuel, which came from breeder reactor concepts and consideration of a thorium fuel cycle. These various fuel types now must be placed in safe, stable interim dry storage. Emphasis is being placed on the use of commercially available dry storage designs and independent spent fuel storage installations licensed under NRC criteria. A lot of technological development is being done to characterize fuels that do not have the documented fabrication and operational histories of commercial LWR fuels. Program objectives are safe interim storage and least cost transition to geological repository storage.

  1. Below Grade Assessment of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cask Transport Route

    SciTech Connect

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    1999-11-23

    The report provides an assessment of the route for the SNF Fuel transport system from the K Basins to the CVDF and to the CSB. Results include the identification of any underground structures or utilities traveled over by the transport, the overburden depths for all locations identified, evaluation of the loading conditions, and determination of the effects of the loads on the structures and utilities.

  2. Snf2h-mediated chromatin organization and histone H1 dynamics govern cerebellar morphogenesis and neural maturation

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Saavedra, Matías; De Repentigny, Yves; Lagali, Pamela S.; Raghu Ram, Edupuganti V. S.; Yan, Keqin; Hashem, Emile; Ivanochko, Danton; Huh, Michael S.; Yang, Doo; Mears, Alan J.; Todd, Matthew A. M.; Corcoran, Chelsea P.; Bassett, Erin A.; Tokarew, Nicholas J. A.; Kokavec, Juraj; Majumder, Romit; Ioshikhes, Ilya; Wallace, Valerie A.; Kothary, Rashmi; Meshorer, Eran; Stopka, Tomas; Skoultchi, Arthur I.; Picketts, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin compaction mediates progenitor to post-mitotic cell transitions and modulates gene expression programs, yet the mechanisms are poorly defined. Snf2h and Snf2l are ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling proteins that assemble, reposition and space nucleosomes, and are robustly expressed in the brain. Here we show that mice conditionally inactivated for Snf2h in neural progenitors have reduced levels of histone H1 and H2A variants that compromise chromatin fluidity and transcriptional programs within the developing cerebellum. Disorganized chromatin limits Purkinje and granule neuron progenitor expansion, resulting in abnormal post-natal foliation, while deregulated transcriptional programs contribute to altered neural maturation, motor dysfunction and death. However, mice survive to young adulthood, in part from Snf2l compensation that restores Engrailed-1 expression. Similarly, Purkinje-specific Snf2h ablation affects chromatin ultrastructure and dendritic arborization, but alters cognitive skills rather than motor control. Our studies reveal that Snf2h controls chromatin organization and histone H1 dynamics for the establishment of gene expression programs underlying cerebellar morphogenesis and neural maturation. PMID:24946904

  3. New mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that partially relieve both glucose and galactose repression activate the protein kinase Snf1.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Sanz, Pascual; Gancedo, Carlos

    2003-03-01

    We isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae two mutants, esc1-1 and ESC3-1, in which genes FBP1, ICL1 or GDH2 were partially derepressed during growth in glucose or galactose. The isolation was done starting with a triple mutant pyc1 pyc2 mth1 unable to grow in glucose-ammonium medium and selecting for mutants able to grow in the non-permissive medium. HXT1 and HXT2 which encode glucose transporters were expressed at high glucose concentrations in both esc1-1 and ESC3-1 mutants, while derepression of invertase at low glucose concentrations was impaired. REG1, cloned as a suppressor of ESC3-1, was not allelic to ESC3-1. Two-hybrid analysis showed an increased interaction of the protein kinase Snf1 with Snf4 in the ESC3-1 mutant; this was not due to mutations in SNF1 or SNF4. ESC3-1 did not bypass the requirement of Snf1 for derepression. We hypothesize that ESC3-1 either facilitates activation of Snf1 or interferes with its glucose-dependent inactivation. PMID:12702249

  4. hSNF5/INI1 inactivation is mainly associated with homozygous deletions and mitotic recombinations in rhabdoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Rousseau-Merck, M F; Versteege, I; Legrand, I; Couturier, J; Mairal, A; Delattre, O; Aurias, A

    1999-07-01

    The chromatin-remodeling hSNF5/INI1 gene has recently been shown to act as a tumor suppressor gene in rhabdoid tumors (RTs). In an attempt to further characterize the main chromosomal mechanisms involved in hSNF5/INI1 inactivation in RTs, we report here the molecular cytogenetic data obtained in 12 cell lines harboring hSNF5/INI1 mutations and/or deletions in relation to the molecular genetic analysis using polymorphic markers extended to both extremities of chromosome 22q. On the whole, mitotic recombination occurring in the proximal part of chromosome 22q, as demonstrated in five cases, and nondisjunction/duplication, highly suspected in two cases (processes leading respectively to partial or complete isodisomy), appear to be major mechanisms associated with hSNF5/INI1 inactivation. Such isodisomy accompanies each of the RTs exhibiting two cytogenetically normal chromosomes 22. This results in homozygosity for the mutation at the hSNF5/INI1 locus. An alternate mechanism accounting for hSNF5/INI1 inactivation observed in these tumors is homozygous deletion in the rhabdoid consensus region. This was observed in each of the four tumors carrying a chromosome 22q abnormality and, in particular, in the three tumors with chromosomal translocations. Only one case of our series illustrates the mutation/deletion classical model proposed for the double-hit inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:10397258

  5. Tri-Gas Pressurization System Testing and Modeling for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.; Polsgrove, R.; Stephens, J.; Hedayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Tri-gas in rocket propulsion systems is somewhat of a new technology. This paper defines Tri-gas as a mixture of gases composed largely of helium with a small percentage of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. When exposed to a catalyst the hydrogen and oxygen in the mixture combusts, significantly raising the temperature of the mixture. The increase in enthalpy resulting from the combustion process significantly decreases the required quantity of gas needed to pressurize the ullage of the vehicle propellant tanks. The objective of this effort was to better understand the operating characteristics of Tri-gas in a pressurization system with low temperature applications. In conjunction with ongoing programs at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, an effort has been undertaken to evaluate the operating characteristics of Tri-gas through modeling and bench testing. Through improved understanding of the operating characteristics, the risk of using this new technology in a launch vehicle propulsion system was reduced. Bench testing of Tri-gas was a multistep process that targeted gas characteristics and performance aspects that pose a risk to application in a pressurization system. Pressurization systems are vital to propulsion system performance. Keeping a target ullage pressure in propulsions tanks is necessary to supply propellant at the conditions and flow rates required to maintain desired engine functionality. The first component of testing consisted of sampling Tri-gas sources that had been stagnant for various lengths of time in order to determine the rate at which stratification takes place. Second, a bench test was set up in which Tri-gas was sent through a catalyst bed. This test was designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Tri-gas, under low temperature inlet temperatures, in a flight-like catalyst bed reactor. The third, most complex, test examined the performance characteristics of Tri-gas at low temperature temperatures

  6. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression. PMID:26457678

  7. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A.; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J.; Poirier, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as “readers,” which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  8. SWI/SNF-Mediated Lineage Determination in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Confers Resistance to Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kevin Hong; Xu, Fuhua; Flowers, Stephen; Williams, Edek A J; Fritton, J Christopher; Moran, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Redirecting the adipogenic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to other lineages, particularly osteoblasts, is a key goal in regenerative medicine. Controlling lineage selection through chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF, which act coordinately to establish new patterns of gene expression, would be a desirable intervention point, but the requirement for the complex in essentially every lineage pathway has generally precluded selectivity. However, a novel approach now appears possible by targeting the subset of SWI/SNF powered by the alternative ATPase, mammalian brahma (BRM). BRM is not required for development, which has hindered understanding of its contributions, but knockdown genetics here, designed to explore the hypothesis that BRM-SWI/SNF has different regulatory roles in different mesenchymal stem cell lineages, shows that depleting BRM from mesenchymal stem cells has a dramatic effect on the balance of lineage selection between osteoblasts and adipocytes. BRM depletion enhances the proportion of cells expressing markers of osteoblast precursors at the expense of cells able to differentiate along the adipocyte lineage. This effect is evident in primary bone marrow stromal cells as well as in established cell culture models. The altered precursor balance has major physiological significance, which becomes apparent as protection against age-related osteoporosis and as reduced bone marrow adiposity in adult BRM-null mice. PMID:26059320

  9. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2015-12-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  10. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation. PMID:26580148

  11. Uranium Oxide Rate Summary for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-09-20

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the uranium oxidation reaction rate information developed by the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and describe the basis for selecting reaction rate correlations used in system design. The selection basis considers the conditions of practical interest to the fuel removal processes and the reaction rate application during design studies. Since the reaction rate correlations are potentially used over a range of conditions, depending of the type of evaluation being performed, a method for transitioning between oxidation reactions is also documented. The document scope is limited to uranium oxidation reactions of primary interest to the SNF Project processes. The reactions influencing fuel removal processes, and supporting accident analyses, are: uranium-water vapor, uranium-liquid water, uranium-moist air, and uranium-dry air. The correlation selection basis will consider input from all available sources that indicate the oxidation rate of uranium fuel, including the literature data, confirmatory experimental studies, and fuel element observations. Trimble (2000) summarizes literature data and the results of laboratory scale experimental studies. This document combines the information in Trimble (2000) with larger scale reaction observations to describe uranium oxidation rate correlations applicable to conditions of interest to the SNF Project.

  12. Thermal properties and phase transition in the fluoride, (NH4)3SnF7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Bogdanov, E. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Calorimetric, dilatometric and differential thermal analysis studies were performed on (NH4)3SnF7 for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Large entropy (δS0=22 J/mol K) and elastic deformation (δ(ΔV/V)0=0.89%) jumps have proven that the Pa-3↔Pm-3m phase transition is a strong first order structural transformation. A total entropy change of ΔS0=32.5 J/mol K is characteristic for the order-disorder phase transition, and is equal to the sum of entropy changes in the related material, (NH4)3TiF7, undergoing transformation between the two cubic phases through the intermediate phases. Hydrostatic pressure decreases the stability of the high temperature Pm-3m phase in (NH4)3SnF7, contrary to (NH4)3TiF7, characterised by a negative baric coefficient. The effect of experimental conditions on the chemical stability of (NH4)3SnF7 was observed.

  13. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  14. Occupational diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun A

    2010-12-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  15. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed

  17. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... documents at the NRC's PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  18. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115... No. R-115, for the University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor (ATR). The NRC has terminated the..., Facility Operating License No. R-115 is terminated. The above referenced documents may be examined,...

  19. Assessment of crosstalks between the Snf1 kinase complex and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae via systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Borklu Yucel, Esra; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2013-11-01

    Sphingolipids are essential building blocks of the plasma membranes and are highly bioactive in the regulation of diverse cellular functions and pathological processes, a fact which renders the sphingolipid metabolism an important research area. In this study, a computational framework was recruited for the reconstruction of a functional interaction network for sphingolipid metabolism in Baker's yeast, SSN. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations were integrated with functional interaction data of the BIOGRID database and the reconstructed protein interaction network was subjected to topological and descriptive analyses. SSN was of a scale-free nature, following a power law model with γ=1.41. Prominent processes of SSN revealed that the reconstructed network encapsulated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in vital cellular processes such as energy homeostasis, cell growth and/or death and synthesis of building blocks. To investigate the potential of SSN for predicting signal transduction pathways regulating and/or being regulated by sphingolipid biosynthesis in yeast, a case study involving the S. cerevisiae counterpart of AMP-activated protein kinase, the Snf1 kinase complex, was conducted. The mutant strain lacking the catalytic α subunit, snf1Δ/snf1Δ, had elevated inositol phosphorylceramide and mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide levels, and decreased mannosyl-diinositol phosphorylceramide levels compared to the wild type strain, revealing that Snf1p has a regulatory role in the sphingolipid metabolism. Transcriptome data belonging to that strain available in the literature were mapped onto SSN and the correlated SSN was further investigated to evaluate the possible crosstalk machineries where sphingolipids and Snf1p function in coordination, in other words the crosstalk points between sphingolipid-mediated and Snf1 kinase signalling. The subsequent investigation of the discovered candidate crosstalk processes by performing sensitivity experiments imply a

  20. A compare-and-contrast NMR dynamics study of two related RRMs: U1A and SNF.

    PubMed

    DeKoster, Gregory T; Delaney, Kimberly J; Hall, Kathleen B

    2014-07-01

    The U1A/U2B″/SNF family of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins uses a phylogenetically conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM1) to bind RNA stemloops in U1 and/or U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). RRMs are characterized by their α/β sandwich topology, and these RRMs use their β-sheet as the RNA binding surface. Unique to this RRM family is the tyrosine-glutamine-phenylalanine (YQF) triad of solvent-exposed residues that are displayed on the β-sheet surface; the aromatic residues form a platform for RNA nucleobases to stack. U1A, U2B″, and SNF have very different patterns of RNA binding affinity and specificity, however, so here we ask how YQF in Drosophila SNF RRM1 contributes to RNA binding, as well as to domain stability and dynamics. Thermodynamic double-mutant cycles using tyrosine and phenylalanine substitutions probe the communication between those two residues in the free and bound states of the RRM. NMR experiments follow corresponding changes in the glutamine side-chain amide in both U1A and SNF, providing a physical picture of the RRM1 β-sheet surface. NMR relaxation and dispersion experiments compare fast (picosecond to nanosecond) and intermediate (microsecond-to-millisecond) dynamics of U1A and SNF RRM1. We conclude that there is a network of amino acid interactions involving Tyr-Gln-Phe in both SNF and U1A RRM1, but whereas mutations of the Tyr-Gln-Phe triad result in small local responses in U1A, they produce extensive microsecond-to-millisecond global motions throughout SNF that alter the conformational states of the RRM. PMID:24988355

  1. An analysis of decommissioning costs for the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Forsbacka, Matt

    1990-07-01

    A decommissioning cost analysis for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility was made. AFRRI is not at this time suggesting that the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility be decommissioned. This report was prepared to be in compliance with paragraph 50.33 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations which requires the assurance of availability of future decommissioning funding. The planned method of decommissioning is the immediate decontamination of the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor site to allow for restoration of the site to full public access - this is called DECON. The cost of DECON for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility in 1990 dollars is estimated to be $3,200,000. The anticipated ancillary costs of facility site demobilization and spent fuel shipment is an additional $600,000. Thus the total cost of terminating reactor operations at AFRRI will be about $3,800,000. The primary basis for this cost estimate is a study of the decommissioning costs of a similar reactor facility that was performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as provided in USNRC publication NUREG/CR-1756. The data in this study were adapted to reflect the decommissioning requirements of the AFRRI TRIGA. (author)

  2. Neutron and gamma radiography of UO{sub 2} and TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.H.; Gao, Y.C.; Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.

    1982-07-01

    The Oregon State TRIGA Reactor neutron radiography facility has been used to produce both neutron and gamma radiographs of reactor fuel. In this paper a comparison of the applicability of neutron and gamma radiography to both UO{sub 2} fuel pins and TRIGA fuel elements is made. In the case of UO{sub 2} fuel, conventional thermal neutron radiography produces excellent quality radiographs. These radiographs may be used to detect various defects in the fuel such as enrichment differences, cracks, end-capping, inclusions, etc. For TRIGA fuel elements, conventional thermal neutron radiography will not show the internal structure. This is due to the high hydrogen content of the fuel. These elements are typically 8.5 w/o uranium in Zr-H{sub 1.7}; the density of hydrogen in the fuel being about 80 percent that of water. Further, while epithermal radiography significantly improves the radiographs, defects may go undetected. As an alternative to neutron radiography, high energy gamma radiographs of TRIGA fuel elements have been taken using the same facility. The gamma spectrum emitted by the reactor core is sufficiently high in energy that very good radiographs may be obtained with this technique. These radiographs show excellent detail for the internal structure of the TRIGA fuel. (author)

  3. SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking CHFR mediated ubiquitination and degradation of its major components

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Inkyung; Sohn, Dong H.; Choi, Jinwook; Kim, Joo Mi; Jeon, Shin; Seol, Jae Hong; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediates the ubiquitination of the major components of the SWI/SNF complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediated-ubiquitination induces the degradation of the major components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRG3 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking the CHFR activity. -- Abstract: The murine SWI/SNF-like BAF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that functions as a transcriptional regulator in cell proliferation, differentiation and development. The SWI/SNF-like BAF complex consists of several components including core subunits such as BRG1, BAF155/SRG3, BAF47/SNF5/INI1, and BAF170. We have previously shown that the interaction between SRG3/mBAF155 and other components of the complex stabilizes them by attenuating their proteasomal degradation. However, it has not been known how the major components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex such as BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a are targeted for the ubiquitination and degradation, and how SRG3/mBAF155 protects them from the degradation process. Here we report that CHFR interacts with BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex and ubiquitinates them to target for degradation through a proteasome-mediated pathway, and that SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes these components by blocking their interaction with CHFR.

  4. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  5. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  6. Thermal hydraulics modeling of the US Geological Survey TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaabi, Ahmed K.

    The Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW Mark I TRIGA reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. Single channel GSTR thermal hydraulics models built using RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, TRACE, and COMSOL Multiphysics predict the fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures as a function of position in the core. The results from the RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, and COMSOL models are similar. The TRACE model predicts significantly higher temperatures, potentially resulting from inappropriate convection correlations. To more accurately study the complex fluid flow patterns within the core, this research develops detailed RELAP5/MOD3.3 and COMSOL multichannel models of the GSTR core. The multichannel models predict lower fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures compared to the single channel models by up to 16.7°C, 4.8°C, and 9.6°C, respectively, as a result of the higher mass flow rates predicted by these models. The single channel models and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 multichannel model predict that the coolant temperatures in all fuel rings rise axially with core height, as the coolant in these models flows predominantly in the axial direction. The coolant temperatures predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model rise with core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings and peak and then decrease in the E-, F-, and G-rings, as the coolant tends to flow from the bottom sides of the core to the center of the core in this model. Experiments at the GSTR measured coolant temperatures in the GSTR core to validate the developed models. The axial temperature profiles measured in the GSTR show that the flow patterns predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model are consistent with the actual conditions in the core. Adjusting the RELAP5/MOD3.3 single and multichannel models by modifying the axial and cross-flow areas allow them to better predict the GSTR coolant temperatures; however, the adjusted models still fail to predict accurate axial temperature profiles in the E-, F-, and G-rings.

  7. Review of Uranium Hydriding and Dehydriding Rate Models in GOTH_SNF for Spent Fuel MCO Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Kirkpatrick; Chris A. Dahl

    2003-09-01

    The present report is one of a series of three. The series provides an independent technical review of certain aspects of the GOTH_SNF code that is used for accident analysis of the multicanister overpack (MCO) that is proposed for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in the planned repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The work documented in the present report and its two companions was done under the auspices of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. The other reports in the series are DOE/SNF/REP-087 and DOE/SNF/REP-088. This report analyzes the model for uranium hydriding and dissociation of the hydride that was documented in the SNF report titled MCO Work Book GOTH_SNF Input Data.1 Reference 1 used a single expression from a model by Bloch and Mintz for both the uranium hydriding and dehydriding reactions. This report compares the results of the GOTH_SNF expression for both phenomena with those from the models proposed by J. B. Condon and further developed by Condon and J. R. Kirkpatrick. The expression for the uranium hydriding rate used in GOTH_SNF (from the model of Bloch and Mintz) gives consistently lower values than those from the models of Condon and Kirkpatrick. This is true for all hydrogen pressures and for all temperatures. For a hydrogen pressure of 1 atm, the hydriding rates given by the models of Condon and Kirkpatrick are zero by the time the temperature reaches 400°C. That is, the term representing the dehydriding reaction has become large enough to overwhelm the term representing the hydriding reaction. The same is true for the expression used in GOTH_SNF. For lower hydrogen pressures, the hydriding rates reach zero at even lower temperatures for the Bloch and Mintz model and also for the Condon and Kirkpatrick models. Uranium dehydriding rates can be calculated for temperatures as high as 2,000°C. The dehydriding rates from GOTH_SNF contain an assumption that there is a 0.22 psia hydrogen pressure in the atmosphere surrounding the

  8. Effect of self-administered daily irrigation with 0.02% SnF2 on periodontal disease activity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P; Quinn, R; Buchanan, S; Eakle, W; Chambers, D

    1985-07-01

    To determine the effect on periodontal health of a daily self-administered irrigation with 0.02% stannous fluoride (SnF2) solution, 28 subjects who had moderate to advanced periodontitis were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (n = 9) which used no irrigation, a group (n = 8) which used a self-administered water irrigation device (Water Pik) daily with water (H2O group) and a group (n = 11) which used the Water Pik in a similar manner but with SnF2 solution (SnF2 group). All subjects were instructed in routine tooth brushing and flossing but received no other periodontal treatment. 4 study sites were selected from each patient which had pocket depths greater than 4 mm and bleeding upon probing. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, pocket depth, loss of attachment, and microbiologic samples of subgingival plaque for morphologic determinations were collected from all study sites at baseline, 2, 6, and 10 weeks. A cross-over was then initiated for 2 additional monthly checks in which the H2O group changed to SnF2 and the SnF2 group was divided into 2 subgroups which either continued to use SnF2 or changed to H2O. The control group completed the study at the beginning of the crossover. The clinical data showed significantly more improvement in periodontal health during the first 10 weeks for the SnF2 group (p less than 0.01). After cross-over, the clinical data indicated the group that changed from H2O to SnF2 significantly improved their periodontal health, while the group that changed from SnF2 to H2O became worse. The microbiologic data showed trends which agreed with the clinical data during the first 10 weeks but were less significant. After cross-over, the %s of motile rods and spirochetes were too small (0-7%) to establish statistically significant changes considering the accuracy of the technique used. PMID:3860511

  9. Direct interactions promote eviction of the Sir3 heterochromatin protein by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Benjamin J.; Peterson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. Here, we show that the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, Swi2p/Snf2p, interacts with the heterochromatin structural protein Sir3p. Two interaction surfaces are defined, including an interaction between the ATPase domain of Swi2p and the nucleosome binding, Bromo-Adjacent-Homology domain of Sir3p. A SWI/SNF complex harboring a Swi2p subunit that lacks this Sir3p interaction surface is unable to evict Sir3p from nucleosomes, even though its ATPase and remodeling activities are intact. In addition, we find that the interaction between Swi2p and Sir3p is key for SWI/SNF to promote resistance to replication stress in vivo and for establishment of heterochromatin at telomeres. PMID:25453095

  10. Ultrastructural changes caused by Snf7 RNAi in larval enterocytes of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte).

    PubMed

    Koči, Juraj; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Bolognesi, Renata; Segers, Gerrit; Flannagan, Ronald; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The high sensitivity to oral RNA interference (RNAi) of western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) provides a novel tool for pest control. Previous studies have shown that RNAi of DvSnf7, an essential cellular component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), caused deficiencies in protein de-ubiquitination and autophagy, leading to WCR death. Here we investigated the detailed mechanism leading to larval death by analyzing the ultrastructural changes in midgut enterocytes of WCR treated with double-stranded RNA (ds-DvSnf7). The progressive phases of pathological symptoms caused by DvSnf7-RNAi in enterocytes include: 1) the appearance of irregularly shaped macroautophagic complexes consisting of relatively large lysosomes and multi-lamellar bodies, indicative of failure in autolysosome formation; 2) cell sloughing and loss of apical microvilli, and eventually, 3) massive loss of cellular contents indicating loss of membrane integrity. These data suggest that the critical functions of Snf7 in insect midgut cells demonstrated by the ultrastructural changes in DvSnf7 larval enterocytes underlies the conserved essential function of the ESCRT pathway in autophagy and membrane stability in other organisms. PMID:24409288

  11. Interpretation of TRIGA reactivity transients with RELAP5/PARCS coupled-code

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, G.; Meloni, P.; Polidori, M.

    2006-07-01

    In the frame of future experiments to carried out upon TRIGA reactors, which aim to verify the real feasibility of the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept, it is essential to build a numerical tool able to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the reactor in subcritical configuration. This model developed to support the design of subcritical experiments and the safety analysis of the reactor, as a first step has to be assessed against the experimental data available for the critical reactor. To this purpose the thermal-hydraulic/ neutronic numerical model based on the RELAP5/PARCS coupled-code is been tested against the experimental reactivity transients conducted on the RC1-TRIGA reactor at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center in forecast of the TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) subcritical experience. The results of the calculations already performed show a qualitative good agreement with the experimental data and allow to address the future developments and improvements of the numerical model. (authors)

  12. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    SciTech Connect

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  13. Downregulation of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor subunits modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kahali, Bhaskar; Reisman, David; Patrick, Steve M.

    2012-10-01

    Chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF plays important roles in many cellular processes including transcription, proliferation, differentiation and DNA repair. In this report, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits Brg1 and Brm in the cellular response to cisplatin in lung cancer and head/neck cancer cells. Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhanced cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Repair kinetics of cisplatin DNA adducts revealed that downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impeded the repair of both intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Cisplatin ICL-induced DNA double strand break repair was also decreased in Brg1 and Brm depleted cells. Altered checkpoint activation with enhanced apoptosis as well as impaired chromatin relaxation was observed in Brg1 and Brm deficient cells. Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm did not affect the recruitment of DNA damage recognition factor XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions, but affected ERCC1 recruitment, which is involved in the later stages of DNA repair. Based on these results, we propose that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity by facilitating efficient repair of the cisplatin DNA lesions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhances cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impedes the repair of cisplatin intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brg1 and Brm deficiency results in impaired chromatin relaxation, altered checkpoint activation as well as enhanced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm affects recruitment of ERCC1, but not XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions.

  14. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  15. Democratic Citizenship Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eoh, Myung-Ha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of democratic citizenship education in Korea. Highlights the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education especially the role of the nongovernmental organizations and the Korean Educational Developmental Institute. Considers the various forces inhibiting democratic citizenship education, such as corruption in the…

  16. Fuel Safety Activities in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Auh, Geun-Sun; Shin, A.D.; Lee, J.S.; Woo, S.W.; Ryu, Y.H.; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, S.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2007-07-01

    The current regulatory requirements for fuel performance were based on earlier test data of fresh or low burnup Zircaloy fuels of less than 40 GWD/MTU. Most countries have not changed the current regulatory requirements even if they are actively investigating the high burnup and new cladding alloy effects. Korea agrees with commonly accepted international consensus that although there are technical issues requiring resolutions, these issues do not constitute immediate safety concerns. The high burnup fuel reactor performance experiences of Korea do not show any major problems even if there have been some burnup related fuel failures which are described in the paper. KINS has recommended the industry to have lower fuel failure rates than 1-2 per 50,000 fuel rods. A research project of High Burnup Fuel Safety Tests and Evaluations has started in 2002 under a joint cooperation of KAERI/KNFC/KEPRI and KINS to obtain performance results of high burnup fuel and to develop evaluation technologies of high burnup fuel safety issues. From 1998, KINS has closely monitored and actively participated in international activities such as OECD/NEA CABRI Water Loop Program to reflect on regulatory requirements if needed. KINS will closely monitor the high burnup fuel performances of Korea to strength the regulatory activities if needed. The research activities in Korea including of LOCA and RIA being performed at KAERI with active supports of the industry are summarized in the paper. (authors)

  17. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  18. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  19. Biobank Regulation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Bok

    2016-06-01

    Like many other countries, South Korea has recognized the importance of biobanks as a tool for medical research and has engaged in two very important tasks to foster biobanking infrastructure: funding biobanks and setting up rules to protect the integrity of biobanks that share potentially sensitive personal information. PMID:27338609

  20. TRIGA Mark II Criticality Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz

    2000-12-15

    The experimental results of criticality benchmark experiments performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor are presented. The experiments were performed with partly burned fuel in two compact and uniform core configurations in the same arrangements as were used in the fresh fuel criticality benchmark experiment performed in 1991. In the experiments, both core configurations contained only 12 wt% U-ZrH fuel with 20% enriched uranium. The first experimental core contained 43 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.22 MWd or 2.8% {sup 235}U burned. The last experimental core configuration was composed of 48 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.15 MWd or 2.6% {sup 235}U burned. The experimental determination of k{sub eff} for both core configurations, one subcritical and one critical, are presented. Burnup for all fuel elements was calculated in two-dimensional four-group diffusion approximation using the TRIGLAV code. The burnup of several fuel elements was measured also by the reactivity method.

  1. Storage and treatment of SNF of Alfa class nuclear submarines: current status and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatiev, Sviatoslav; Zabudko, Alexey; Pankratov, Dmitry; Somov, Ivan; Suvorov, Gennady

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allocated in the North-West region of Russia. (authors)

  2. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  3. 3RD WP PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: METHODOLOGY FOR BASKET DEGRADATION WITH APPLICANTION TO COMMERICAL SNF

    SciTech Connect

    P. Goulib

    1997-09-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department to describe the latest version of the probabilistic criticality analysis methodology and its application to the entire commercial waste stream of commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) expected to be emplaced in the repository. The purpose of this particular application is to evaluate the 21 assembly PWR absorber plate waste package (WP) with respect to degraded mode criticality performance. The degradation of principal concern is the borated stainless steel absorber plates which are part of the waste package basket and which constitute a major part of the waste package criticality control. The degradation (corrosion, dissolution) of this material will result in the release of most of the boron from the waste package and increase the possibility of criticality. The results of this evaluation will be expressed in terms of the fraction of the PWR SNF which can exceed a given k{sub eff}, as a function of time and the peak value of that fraction over a time period up to several hundred thousand years. The ultimate purpose of this analysis is to support the waste package design which defines waste packages to cover a range of SNF characteristics. In particular, with respect to PWR criticality the current categories are: (1) no specific criticality control material, (2) borated stainless steel plates in the waste package basket, and (3) zirconium clad boron carbide control rods (Ref. 5.4). The results of this analysis will indicate the coverage provided by the first two categories. With these results, this study will provide the first quantitative estimate of the benefit expected from the control measure consisting of borated stainless steel plates. This document is the third waste package probabilistic criticality analysis. The first two (Ref. 5.12 for the first and Ref. 5.15 for the second) analyses were based primarily on the

  4. Ptc1 protein phosphatase 2C contributes to glucose regulation of SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Amparo; Xu, Xinjing; Carlson, Marian

    2013-10-25

    The SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs) function in energy regulation in eukaryotic cells. SNF1/AMPKs are αβγ heterotrimers that are activated by phosphorylation of the activation loop Thr on the catalytic subunit. Protein kinases that activate SNF1/AMPK have been identified, but the protein phosphatases responsible for dephosphorylation of the activation loop are less well defined. For Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1/AMPK, Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase 1 and Sit4 type 2A-related phosphatase function together to dephosphorylate Thr-210 on the Snf1 catalytic subunit during growth on high concentrations of glucose; reg1Δ and sit4Δ single mutations do not impair dephosphorylation when inappropriate glycogen synthesis, also caused by these mutations, is blocked. We here present evidence that Ptc1 protein phosphatase 2C also has a role in dephosphorylation of Snf1 Thr-210 in vivo. The sit4Δ ptc1Δ mutant exhibited partial defects in regulation of the phosphorylation state of Snf1. The reg1Δ ptc1Δ mutant was viable only when expressing mutant Snf1 proteins with reduced kinase activity, and Thr-210 phosphorylation of the mutant SNF1 heterotrimers was substantially elevated during growth on high glucose. This evidence, together with findings on the reg1Δ sit4Δ mutant, indicates that although Reg1-Glc7 plays the major role, all three phosphatases contribute to maintenance of the Snf1 activation loop in the dephosphorylated state during growth on high glucose. Ptc1 has overlapping functions with Reg1-Glc7 and Sit4 in glucose regulation of SNF1/AMPK and cell viability. PMID:24019512

  5. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  6. Behavior of 12 wt% TRIGA fuel after many years of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.H.; Boyle, P.

    1997-12-01

    In July 1972, six 12 wt% Uzr-H TRIGA fuel elements were loaded into the B-ring, the innermost ring, of the Penn State Breazeale Research Reactor (PSBR) to increase its k{sub eff}. Of these initial six fuel elements, three remain in the core, and the other three fuel elements had to be removed from the core. The purpose of this summary is to present operational-type data on the 12 wt% Uzr-H TRIGA fuel elements that have been in the PSBR during the past 25 yr and to postulate reasons for the structural change of those removed from the core.

  7. TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiment; Part I: Steady-state operation

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, I.; Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A. )

    1994-01-01

    The experimental results of startup tests after reconstruction and modification of the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana are presented. The experiments were performed with a completely fresh, compact, and uniform core. The operating conditions were well defined and controlled, so that the results can be used as a benchmark test case for TRIGA reactor calculations. Both steady-state and pulse mode operation were tested. In this paper, the following steady-state experiments are treated: critical core and excess reactivity, control rod worths, fuel element reactivity worth distribution, fuel temperature distribution, and fuel temperature reactivity coefficient.

  8. Neutron fluence and energy reproducibility of a 2-dollar TRIGA reactor Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Rosara F.; Drader, Jessica A.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hines, Corey C.; Metz, Lori A.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; King, Matthew D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Smith, Jeremy D.; Wall, Donald E.

    2009-10-01

    Washington State University’s 1 MW TRIGA reactor has a long history of utilization for neutron activation analysis (NAA). TRIGA reactors have the ability to pulse, reach supercritical (k>1) for short bursts of time. At this high power and fast time the energy spectrum and neutron fluence are largely uncharacterized. The pulse neutron energy spectrum and fluence were determined by the activation of Cu, Au, Co, Fe, and Ti. These analyses were completed with and without Cd shielding to determine reproducibility between pulses. The applications and implications of the neutron energy and fluence reproducibility to the use of pulsed NAA will be discussed.

  9. Two actin-related proteins are shared functional components of the chromatin-remodeling complexes RSC and SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Cairns, B R; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Winston, F; Kornberg, R D

    1998-11-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains two related chromatin-remodeling complexes, RSC and SWI/SNF, which are shown to share the actin-related proteins Arp7 and Arp9. Depending on the genetic background tested, arp7 delta and arp9 delta mutants are either inviable or show greatly impaired growth and Swi-/Snf- mutant phenotypes. Unlike swi/snf mutants, viable arp7 delta or arp9 delta mutants have an Spt- phenotype, suggesting that RSC affects transcription. Temperature-sensitive mutations in ARP7 and ARP9 were isolated, and the amino acid changes support the structural relationship of Arp7 and Arp9 to actin. However, site-directed mutations predicted to impair ATP binding or hydrolysis did not detectably affect Arp7 or Arp9 function. Our results suggest that actin-related proteins perform important roles in chromatin-remodeling complexes by virtue of structural rather than enzymatic similarities to actin. PMID:9844636

  10. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  11. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  12. SLC6 family transporter SNF-10 is required for protease-mediated activation of sperm motility in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fenker, Kristin E.; Hansen, Angela A.; Chong, Conrad A.; Jud, Molly C.; Duffy, Brittany A.; Norton, J. Paul; Hansen, Jody M.; Stanfield, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Motility of sperm is crucial for their directed migration to the egg. The acquisition and modulation of motility are regulated to ensure that sperm move when and where needed, thereby promoting reproductive success. One specific example of this phenomenon occurs during differentiation of the amoeboid sperm of C. elegans as they activate from a round spermatid to a mature, crawling spermatozoon. Sperm activation is regulated by redundant pathways to occur at a specific time and place for each sex. Here, we report the identification of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) transporter protein SNF-10 as a key regulator of C. elegans sperm activation in response to male protease activation signals. We find that SNF-10 is present in sperm and is required for activation by the male but not by the hermaphrodite. Loss of both snf-10 and a hermaphrodite activation factor render sperm completely insensitive to activation. Using in vitro assays, we find that snf-10 mutant sperm show a specific deficit in response to protease treatment but not to other activators. Prior to activation, SNF-10 is present in the plasma membrane, where it represents a strong candidate to receive signals that lead to subcellular morphogenesis. After activation, it shows polarized localization to the cell body region that is dependent on membrane fusions mediated by the dysferlin FER-1. Our discovery of snf-10 offers insight into the mechanisms differentially employed by the two sexes to accomplish the common goal of producing functional sperm, as well as how the physiology of nematode sperm may be regulated to control motility as it is in mammals. PMID:24929237

  13. Physiological and Cellular Responses Caused by RNAi- Mediated Suppression of Snf7 Orthologue in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Segers, Gerrit; Flannagan, Ronald; Wiggins, Elizabeth; Clinton, William; Ilagan, Oliver; McNulty, Brian; Clark, Thomas; Bolognesi, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in triggering RNA interference (RNAi) in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), providing potential novel opportunities for insect pest control. The putative Snf7 homolog of WCR (DvSnf7) has previously been shown to be an effective RNAi target for insect control, as DvSnf7 RNAi leads to lethality of WCR larvae. Snf7 functions as a part of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) pathway which plays a crucial role in cellular housekeeping by internalization, transport, sorting and lysosomal degradation of transmembrane proteins. To understand the effects that lead to death of WCR larvae by DvSnf7 RNAi, we examined some of the distinct cellular processes associated with ESCRT functions such as de-ubiquitination of proteins and autophagy. Our data indicate that ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in DvSnf7 dsRNA-fed larval tissues and that the autophagy process seems to be impaired. These findings suggest that the malfunctioning of these cellular processes in both midgut and fat body tissues triggered by DvSnf7 RNAi were the main effects leading to the death of WCR. This study also illustrates that Snf7 is an essential gene in WCR and its functions are consistent with biological functions described for other eukaryotes. PMID:23349844

  14. Physiological and cellular responses caused by RNAi- mediated suppression of Snf7 orthologue in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Segers, Gerrit; Flannagan, Ronald; Wiggins, Elizabeth; Clinton, William; Ilagan, Oliver; McNulty, Brian; Clark, Thomas; Bolognesi, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in triggering RNA interference (RNAi) in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), providing potential novel opportunities for insect pest control. The putative Snf7 homolog of WCR (DvSnf7) has previously been shown to be an effective RNAi target for insect control, as DvSnf7 RNAi leads to lethality of WCR larvae. Snf7 functions as a part of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) pathway which plays a crucial role in cellular housekeeping by internalization, transport, sorting and lysosomal degradation of transmembrane proteins. To understand the effects that lead to death of WCR larvae by DvSnf7 RNAi, we examined some of the distinct cellular processes associated with ESCRT functions such as de-ubiquitination of proteins and autophagy. Our data indicate that ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in DvSnf7 dsRNA-fed larval tissues and that the autophagy process seems to be impaired. These findings suggest that the malfunctioning of these cellular processes in both midgut and fat body tissues triggered by DvSnf7 RNAi were the main effects leading to the death of WCR. This study also illustrates that Snf7 is an essential gene in WCR and its functions are consistent with biological functions described for other eukaryotes. PMID:23349844

  15. 78 FR 59427 - Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.13, Fiscal Year 2014 Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... the Federal Register on December 20, 2012 (77 FR 75499). Based on the methodologies set forth in 38... AFFAIRS Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.13, Fiscal Year 2014 Update... (SNF) geographic factors found on Web site under ``Reasonable Charges Data Tables).'' The...

  16. 77 FR 55269 - Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.11, 2013; Fiscal Year Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... the Federal Register on December 12, 2011 (76 FR 77328). ] Based on the methodologies set forth in 38... AFFAIRS Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.11, 2013; Fiscal Year Update... where the care is provided (See Table ``N'' Acute Inpatient and Table ``O'' SNF geographic factors...

  17. 76 FR 60136 - Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.8, 2012 Fiscal Year Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... the Federal Register on December 27, 2010 (75 FR 81335). Based on the methodologies set forth in 38... AFFAIRS Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.8, 2012 Fiscal Year Update... where the care is provided (See Table ``N'' Acute Inpatient and Table ``O'' SNF geographic factors...

  18. Identification and characterization of Drosophila relatives of the yeast transcriptional activator SNF2/SWI2.

    PubMed Central

    Elfring, L K; Deuring, R; McCallum, C M; Peterson, C L; Tamkun, J W

    1994-01-01

    The Drosophila brahma (brm) gene encodes an activator of homeotic genes that is highly related to the yeast transcriptional activator SWI2 (SNF2), a potential helicase. To determine whether brm is a functional homolog of SWI2 or merely a member of a family of SWI2-related genes, we searched for additional Drosophila genes related to SWI2 and examined their function in yeast cells. In addition to brm, we identified one other Drosophila relative of SWI2: the closely related ISWI gene. The 1,027-residue ISWI protein contains the DNA-dependent ATPase domain characteristic of the SWI2 protein family but lacks the three other domains common to brm and SWI2. In contrast, the ISWI protein is highly related (70% identical) to the human hSNF2L protein over its entire length, suggesting that they may be functional homologs. The DNA-dependent ATPase domains of brm and SWI2, but not ISWI, are functionally interchangeable; a chimeric SWI2-brm protein partially rescued the slow growth of swi2- cells and supported transcriptional activation mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor in vivo in yeast cells. These findings indicate that brm is the closest Drosophila relative of SWI2 and suggest that brm and SWI2 play similar roles in transcriptional activation. Images PMID:7908117

  19. PRC2 and SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Kadoch, Cigall; Copeland, Robert A; Keilhack, Heike

    2016-03-22

    The dynamic structure of histones and DNA, also known as chromatin, is regulated by two classes of enzymes: those that mediate covalent modifications on either histone proteins or DNA and those that use the energy generated by ATP hydrolysis to mechanically alter chromatic structure. Both classes of enzymes are often found in large protein complexes. In this review, we describe two such complexes: polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), with the protein methyltransferase EZH2 as its catalytic subunit, and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF). EZH2 catalyzes the methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3, a covalent chromatin modification that is associated with repressed heterochromatin. The catalytic activity of SWI/SNF, in contrast, leads to a state of open chromatin associated with active transcription. In this review, we discuss the biochemical properties of both complexes, outline the principles of their regulation, and describe their opposing roles in normal development, which can be perturbed in disease settings such as cancer. PMID:26836503

  20. The SWI/SNF ATPases Are Required for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Madany, Pasil; Akech, Jacqueline; Dobson, Jason R; Douthwright, Stephen; Browne, Gillian; Colby, Jennifer L; Winter, Georg E; Bradner, James E; Pratap, Jitesh; Sluder, Greenfield; Bhargava, Rohit; Chiosea, Simion I; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Nickerson, Jeffrey A; Imbalzano, Anthony N

    2015-11-01

    The Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related Gene 1 (BRG1) ATPases are highly conserved homologs that catalyze the chromatin remodeling functions of the multi-subunit human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes in a mutually exclusive manner. SWI/SNF enzyme subunits are mutated or missing in many cancer types, but are overexpressed without apparent mutation in other cancers. Here, we report that both BRG1 and BRM are overexpressed in most primary breast cancers independent of the tumor's receptor status. Knockdown of either ATPase in a triple negative breast cancer cell line reduced tumor formation in vivo and cell proliferation in vitro. Fewer cells in S phase and an extended cell cycle progression time were observed without any indication of apoptosis, senescence, or alterations in migration or attachment properties. Combined knockdown of BRM and BRG1 showed additive effects in the reduction of cell proliferation and time required for completion of cell cycle, suggesting that these enzymes promote cell cycle progression through independent mechanisms. Knockout of BRG1 or BRM using CRISPR/Cas9 technology resulted in the loss of viability, consistent with a requirement for both enzymes in triple negative breast cancer cells. PMID:25808524

  1. lin-35/Rb cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex to control Caenorhabditis elegans larval development.

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Mingxue; Fay, David S; Han, Min

    2004-01-01

    Null mutations in lin-35, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of the mammalian Rb protein, cause no obvious morphological defects. Using a genetic approach to identify genes that may function redundantly with lin-35, we have isolated a mutation in the C. elegans psa-1 gene. lin-35; psa-1 double mutants display severe developmental defects leading to early larval arrest and adult sterility. The psa-1 gene has previously been shown to encode a C. elegans homolog of yeast SWI3, a critical component of the SWI/SNF complex, and has been shown to regulate asymmetric cell divisions during C. elegans development. We observed strong genetic interactions between psa-1 and lin-35 as well as a subset of the class B synMuv genes that include lin-37 and lin-9. Loss-of-function mutations in lin-35, lin-37, and lin-9 strongly enhanced the defects of asymmetric T cell division associated with a psa-1 mutation. Our results suggest that LIN-35/Rb and a certain class B synMuv proteins collaborate with the SWI/SNF protein complex to regulate the T cell division as well as other events essential for larval growth. PMID:15280233

  2. Role of Snf1p in regulation of intracellular sorting of the lactose and galactose transporter Lac12p in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Wiedemuth, Christian; Breunig, Karin D

    2005-04-01

    The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK plays a central role in carbon and energy homeostasis in yeasts and higher eukaryotes. To work out which aspects of the Snf1-controlled regulatory network are conserved in evolution, the Snf1 requirement in galactose metabolism was analyzed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Whereas galactose induction was only delayed, K. lactis snf1 mutants failed to accumulate the lactose/galactose H+ symporter Lac12p in the plasma membran,e as indicated by Lac12-green fluorescent protein fusions. In contrast to wild-type cells, the fusion protein was mostly intracellular in the mutant. Growth on galactose and galactose uptake could be restored by the KHT3 gene, which encodes a new transporter of the HXT subfamily of major facilitators These findings indicate a new role of Snf1p in regulation of sugar transport in K. lactis. PMID:15821131

  3. Occupational hepatic disorders in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Kim, Tae Woo

    2010-12-01

    Occupational hepatic disorders are classified into toxic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, and chemical-induced malignancy in Korea. Toxic hepatitis cases were reported in workers who were exposed to dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, or trichloroethylene. Pre-placement medical examination and regular follow-up are necessary to prevent the development of toxic hepatitis. Viral hepatitis was chiefly reported among health care workers such as doctors, nurses and clinical pathology technicians who could easily be exposed to blood. Preventive measures for these groups therefore include vaccination and serum monitoring programs. Hepatic angiosarcoma caused by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) exposure is a very well known occupational disease and it has not been officially reported in Korea yet. Some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were legally approved for compensation as an occupational disease largely by overwork and stress, but not supported by enough scientific evidence. Effort to find the evidence of its causal relationship is needed. PMID:21258588

  4. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) for FY 2016, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and Staffing Data Collection. Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2016. In addition, it specifies a SNF all-cause all-condition hospital readmission measure, as well as adopts that measure for a new SNF Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, and includes a discussion of SNF VBP Program policies we are considering for future rulemaking to promote higher quality and more efficient health care for Medicare beneficiaries. Additionally, this final rule will implement a new quality reporting program for SNFs as specified in the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 (IMPACT Act). It also amends the requirements that a long-term care (LTC) facility must meet to qualify to participate as a skilled nursing facility (SNF) in the Medicare program, or a nursing facility (NF) in the Medicaid program, by establishing requirements that implement the provision in the Affordable Care Act regarding the submission of staffing information based on payroll data. PMID:26242002

  5. The U-ZrH{sub x} alloy: Its properties and use in TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simnad, M.T.

    1980-07-01

    The uranium-zirconium-hydride fuel is an integral fuel-moderator system. Development of the UZr-hydride fuel technology has been under way at General Atomic since 1957. During this period over 6000 fuel elements have been fabricated for the TRIGA reactors. Over 25,000 pulses have been performed with the TRIGA fuel elements at General Atomic. The TRIGA fuel was developed around the concept of inherent safety. The development and the characteristics of the TRIGA fuels are described in this paper. The fabrication techniques have been developed to the point where the production of fuel bodies containing controlled amounts of hydrogen and burnable poison (erbium) has been carried out in sizes up to 1.5 in. in diameter. The instrumented fuel elements have been designed to determine the temperatures in the fuels and claddings and to record the gas pressures in the fuel elements, under both steady- state and pulsed operations. The physical, mechanical and corrosion properties of the fuel are presented, along with empirical correlations relating irradiation behavior and fission product retention to temperature, composition, burnup, and neutron flux and fluence. (author)

  6. Analysis of decommissioning costs for the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Forsbacka, M.; Moore, M.

    1989-12-01

    This report provides a cost analysis for decommissioning the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) TRIGA reactor facility. AFRRI is not suggesting that the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility be decommissioned. This report was prepared in compliance with paragraph 50.33 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, which requires that funding for the decommissioning of reactor facilities be available when licensed activities cease. The planned method of decommissioning is complete decontamination (DECON) of the AFRRI TRIGA reactor site to allow for restoration of the site to full public access. The cost of DECON in 1990 dollars is estimated to be $3,200,000. The anticipated ancillary costs of facility site demobilization and spent fuel shipment will be an additional $600,000. Thus, the total cost of terminating reactor operations at AFRRI will be about $3,800,000. The primary basis for developing this cost estimate was a study of the decommissioning costs of similar reactor facility performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission publication NUREG/CR-1756. The data in this study were adapted to reflect the decommissioning requirements of the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility.

  7. 10. biennial U.S. TRIGA users' conference. Papers and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    The conference cover the following main topics for TRIGA reactors: reactor instrumentation and measurements of reactor parameters, reactor operation and modifications, design innovation and service works, fast neutron spectrum, fuel examination, neutron flux, heat transfer, accidents analysis, corrosion problems, fuel failures and fuel management, mechanical problems and maintenance.

  8. A combined gamma scanning and optical inspection system for spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Boeck, H.; Allmer, G.

    1990-07-01

    A multipurpose lead container is used to investigate both the burn-up and the mechanical condition of standard TRIGA fuel elements. Especially in view of ageing reactor cores, this equipment is important to determine the further use of a specific fuel element and, therefore, saves operational costs.

  9. 11. biennial U.S. TRIGA users' conference. Papers and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    The Conference was devoted to different aspects of TRIGA reactors design, operation and applications. The main topics concerned fuel elements, control rod drive system; modelling of corrosion damage and other chemical and material studies; neutron flux measurements and spectrum; irradiation devices; fuel element failures; neutron radiography etc.

  10. An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P.; Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

  11. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    PubMed

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time. PMID:25673328

  12. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  13. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea. PMID:23234093

  14. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  15. Using NDA Techniques to Improve Safeguards Metrics on Burnup Quantification and Plutonium Content in LWR SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, Steven F; Charlton, William S; Solodov, Alexander A; Ehinger, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Globally, there exists a long history in reprocessing in evaluation of the shipper/receiver difference (SRD) on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) received and processed. Typically, the declared shipper s values for uranium and plutonium in SNF (based on calculations involving the initial manufacturer s data and reactor operating history) are used as the input quantities to the head-end process of the facility. Problems have been encountered when comparing these values with measured results of the input accountability tank contents. A typical comparison yields a systematic bias indicated as a loss of 5 7 percent of the plutonium (Pu) and approximately 1 percent for the uranium (U). Studies suggest that such deviation can be attributed to the non-linear nature of the axial burnup values of the SNF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Texas A&M University are co-investigating the development of a new method, via Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques, to improve the accuracy in burnup and Pu content quantification. Two major components have been identified to achieve this objective. The first component calculates a measurement-based burnup profile along the axis of a fuel rod. Gamma-ray data is collected at numerous locations along the axis of the fuel rod using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector designed for a wide range of gamma-ray energies. Using two fission products, 137Cs and 134Cs, the burnup is calculated at each measurement location and a profile created along the axis of the rod based on the individual measurement locations. The second component measures the U/Pu ratio using an HPGe detector configured for relatively low-energy gamma-rays including x-rays. Fluorescence x-rays from U and Pu are measured and compared to the U/Pu ratio determined from a destructive analysis of the sample. This will be used to establish a relationship between the measured and actual values. This relationship will be combined with the burnup analysis results to establish a relationship

  16. Seasonal variability of surface ozone in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, J.; Moon, B. K.; Choi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone around East Asia include Korea impacts on air quality and climate, and has been increased with rapid economic growth. To better understanding, we analyzed seasonal variability of tropospheric ozone simulated by using GEOS-Chem. Surface ozone concentration in Korea has double peaks in April and September. Tropospheric ozone increases primarily associated with westerly wind anomaly in spring, with warming in summer and autumn, and with cloud depletion in winter. Surface ozone in spring elevated after mature-phase El Niño winters. Key words: surface ozone, seasonal variability, Korea, East Asia Acknowledgements This work was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program."

  17. Mutant p53 cooperates with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex to regulate VEGFR2 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Neil T.; Fomin, Vitalay; Regunath, Kausik; Zhou, Jeffrey Y.; Zhou, Wen; Silwal-Pandit, Laxmi; Freed-Pastor, William A.; Laptenko, Oleg; Neo, Suat Peng; Bargonetti, Jill; Hoque, Mainul; Tian, Bin; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Engebraaten, Olav; Manley, James L.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Neilsen, Paul M.; Prives, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Mutant p53 impacts the expression of numerous genes at the level of transcription to mediate oncogenesis. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the primary functional VEGF receptor that mediates endothelial cell vascularization, as a mutant p53 transcriptional target in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Up-regulation of VEGFR2 mediates the role of mutant p53 in increasing cellular growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. Mutant p53 binds near the VEGFR2 promoter transcriptional start site and plays a role in maintaining an open conformation at that location. Relatedly, mutant p53 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex, which is required for remodeling the VEGFR2 promoter. By both querying individual genes regulated by mutant p53 and performing RNA sequencing, the results indicate that >40% of all mutant p53-regulated gene expression is mediated by SWI/SNF. We surmise that mutant p53 impacts transcription of VEGFR2 as well as myriad other genes by promoter remodeling through interaction with and likely regulation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Therefore, not only might mutant p53-expressing tumors be susceptible to anti VEGF therapies, impacting SWI/SNF tumor suppressor function in mutant p53 tumors may also have therapeutic potential. PMID:26080815

  18. IL-10 transcription is negatively regulated by BAF180, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes play a critical role in the development of T helper lymphocytes, including Th2 cells, and directly program chromatin structure at Th2 cytokine genes. Different versions of SWI/SNF complexes, including BAF and PBAF, have been described based on unique subunit composition. However, the relative role of BAF and PBAF in Th cell function and cytokine expression has not been reported. Results Here we examine the role of the PBAF SWI/SNF complex in Th cell development and gene expression using mice deficient for a PBAF-specific component, BAF180. We find that T cell development in the thymus and lymphoid periphery is largely normal when the BAF180 gene is deleted late in thymic development. However, BAF180-deficient Th2 cells express high levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. BAF180 binds directly to regulatory elements in the Il-10 locus but is replaced by BAF250 BAF complexes in the absence of BAF180, resulting in increased histone acetylation and CBP recruitment to the IL-10 locus. Conclusions These results demonstrate that BAF180 is a repressor of IL-10 transcription in Th2 cells and suggest that the differential recruitment of different SWI/SNF subtypes can have direct consequences on chromatin structure and gene transcription. PMID:22336179

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-10-24

    This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

  20. FTIR-ATR determination of solid non fat (SNF) in raw milk using PLS and SVM chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Bassbasi, M; Platikanov, S; Tauler, R; Oussama, A

    2014-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics methods have been applied to the fast and non-destructive quantitative determination of solid non fat (SNF) content in raw milk. Partial least squares regression (PLS) and support vector machine (SVM) regression methods were used to model and predict SNF contents in raw milk based on FTIR spectral transmission measurements. Both methods, PLS and SVM, showed good performances in SNF prediction with relative prediction errors in the external validation of between 0.2% and 0.3% depending on the spectral range and regression method. Coefficient of determination of the global fit was always above 0.99. Since, the relative prediction errors were low, it can be concluded that FTIR-ATR with chemometrics can be used for accurate quantitative determinations of SNF contents in raw milk within the investigated calibration range of 79-100g/L. The proposed procedure is fast, non-destructive, simple and easy to implement. PMID:24176339

  1. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 2 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    PEARCE, K.L.

    2000-04-05

    Volume 2 provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories of sludge currently stored within the Hanford Site's 105-K Basin This volume also provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories for the sludge streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities.

  2. LincRNA-Cox2 Promotes Late Inflammatory Gene Transcription in Macrophages through Modulating SWI/SNF-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoku; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Ma, Shibin; Chen, Xiqiang; Chen, Jing; Su, Chun-Jen; Shibata, Annemarie; Strauss-Soukup, Juliane K; Drescher, Kristen M; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2016-03-15

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. One of the most highly induced lincRNAs in macrophages upon TLR ligation is lincRNA-Cox2, which was recently shown to mediate the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes in innate immune cells. We report that lincRNA-Cox2, located at chromosome 1 proximal to the PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2/Cox2) gene, is an early-primary inflammatory gene controlled by NF-κB signaling in murine macrophages. Functionally, lincRNA-Cox2 is required for the transcription of NF-κB-regulated late-primary inflammatory response genes stimulated by bacterial LPS. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 is assembled into the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex in cells after LPS stimulation. This resulting lincRNA-Cox2/SWI/SNF complex can modulate the assembly of NF-κB subunits to the SWI/SNF complex, and ultimately, SWI/SNF-associated chromatin remodeling and transactivation of the late-primary inflammatory-response genes in macrophages in response to microbial challenge. Therefore, our data indicate a new regulatory role for NF-κB-induced lincRNA-Cox2 as a coactivator of NF-κB for the transcription of late-primary response genes in innate immune cells through modulation of epigenetic chromatin remodeling. PMID:26880762

  3. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is critical for the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vachtenheim, Jiri; Ondrusova, Lubica; Borovansky, Jan

    2010-02-12

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required for melanocyte development, maintenance of the melanocyte-specific transcription, and survival of melanoma cells. MITF positively regulates expression of more than 25 genes in pigment cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that expression of several MITF downstream targets requires the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, which contains one of the two catalytic subunits, Brm or Brg1. Here we show that the expression of MITF itself critically requires active SWI/SNF. In several Brm/Brg1-expressing melanoma cell lines, knockdown of Brg1 severely compromised MITF expression with a concomitant dowregulation of MITF targets and decreased cell proliferation. Although Brm was able to substitute for Brg1 in maintaining MITF expression and melanoma cell proliferation, sequential knockdown of both Brm and Brg1 in 501mel cells abolished proliferation. In Brg1-null SK-MEL-5 melanoma cells, depletion of Brm alone was sufficient to abrogate MITF expression and cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of Brg1 or Brm to the promoter of MITF. Together these results demonstrate the essential role of SWI/SNF for expression of MITF and suggest that SWI/SNF may be a promissing target in melanoma therapy.

  4. RNF20-SNF2H Pathway of Chromatin Relaxation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Akihiro; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in the study on the association of histone modifications with chromatin remodeling factors has broadened our understanding of chromatin dynamics in DNA transactions. In DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the well-known mark of histones is the phosphorylation of the H2A variant, H2AX, which has been used as a surrogate marker of DSBs. The ubiquitylation of histone H2B by RNF20 E3 ligase was recently found to be a DNA damage-induced histone modification. This modification is required for DSB repair and regulated by a distinctive pathway from that of histone H2AX phosphorylation. Moreover, the connection between H2B ubiquitylation and the chromatin remodeling activity of SNF2H has been elucidated. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of RNF20-mediated processes and the molecular link to H2AX-mediated processes during DSB repair. PMID:26184323

  5. Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging of SWI/SNF Action: Mapping the Nucleosome Remodeling and Sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montel, F.; Fontaine, E.; Stjean, P.; Castelnovo, M.; Faivremoskalenko, C.

    2007-07-01

    We propose a combined experimental (Atomic Force Microscopy) and theoretical study of the structural and dynamical properties of nucleosomes. In contrast to biochemical approaches, this method allows to determine simultaneously the DNA complexed length distribution and nucleosome position in various contexts. First, we show that differences in the nucleo-proteic structure observed between conventional H2A and H2A.Bbd variant nucleosomes induce quantitative changes in the in the length distribution of DNA complexed with histones. Then, the sliding action of remodeling complex SWI/SNF is characterized through the evolution of the nucleosome position and wrapped DNA length mapping. Using a linear energetic model for the distribution of DNA complexed length, we extract the net wrapping energy of DNA onto the histone octamer, and compare it to previous studies.

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Master Equipment List

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-09-21

    This document provides the master equipment list (MEL) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The MEL was prepared to comply with DOE Standard 3024-98, Content of System Design Descriptions. The MEL was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems and the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDD). The MEL identifies the SSCs and their safety functions, the design criteria, codes and standards, and quality assurance requirements that are required for establishing the safety design basis of the SSCs. The MEL also includes operating parameters, manufacturer information, and references the procurement specifications for the SSCs. This MEL shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future phases of the CVDF SAR, the SDD's, and CVDF operations.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-02

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report Annex B--Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1999, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 4, and the CVDF Final Design Report. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and references to the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This manual has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  8. Preliminary Criticality Analysis of Degraded SNF Accumulations to a Waste Package (SCPB: N/A) 

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    2005-12-15

    This study is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide input to a separate evaluation on the probability of criticality in the far-field environment. These calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide conservatively bounding configurations to support separate probabilistic analyses. The objective of this evaluation is to provide input to a risk analysis which will show that criticalities involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are not credible, or indicate additional measures that are required for the Engineered Barrier Segment (EBS) to make such events incredible. Minimum critical volumes and masses of UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/tuff mixtures are determined without application of regulatory safety limits. This study does not address or demonstrate compliance with regulatory limits.

  9. Functional Interaction of SCAI with the SWI/SNF Complex for Transcription and Tumor Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Kreßner, Camilla; Nollau, Peter; Grosse, Robert; Brandt, Dominique T.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently characterized SCAI (Suppressor of Cancer Cell Invasion), a transcriptional modulator regulating cancer cell motility through suppression of MAL/SRF dependent gene transcription. We show here that SCAI is expressed in a wide range of normal human tissues and its expression is diminished in a large array of primary human breast cancer samples indicating that SCAI expression might be linked to the etiology of human cancer. To establish a functional link between SCAI and tumorigenesis we performed affinity columns to identify SCAI-interacting proteins. Our data show that SCAI interacts with the tumor suppressing SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex to promote changes in gene expression and the invasive capacities of human tumor cells. Moreover our data implicate a functional hierarchy between SCAI and BRM, since SCAI function is abrogated in the absence of BRM expression. PMID:23936361

  10. PAS kinase is activated by direct SNF1-dependent phosphorylation and mediates inhibition of TORC1 through the phosphorylation and activation of Pbp1

    PubMed Central

    DeMille, Desiree; Badal, Bryan D.; Evans, J. Brady; Mathis, Andrew D.; Anderson, Joseph F.; Grose, Julianne H.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the interplay between three sensory protein kinases in yeast: AMP-regulated kinase (AMPK, or SNF1 in yeast), PAS kinase 1 (Psk1 in yeast), and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). This signaling cascade occurs through the SNF1-dependent phosphorylation and activation of Psk1, which phosphorylates and activates poly(A)- binding protein binding protein 1 (Pbp1), which then inhibits TORC1 through sequestration at stress granules. The SNF1-dependent phosphorylation of Psk1 appears to be direct, in that Snf1 is necessary and sufficient for Psk1 activation by alternate carbon sources, is required for altered Psk1 protein mobility, is able to phosphorylate Psk1 in vitro, and binds Psk1 via its substrate-targeting subunit Gal83. Evidence for the direct phosphorylation and activation of Pbp1 by Psk1 is also provided by in vitro and in vivo kinase assays, including the reduction of Pbp1 localization at distinct cytoplasmic foci and subsequent rescue of TORC1 inhibition in PAS kinase–deficient yeast. In support of this signaling cascade, Snf1-deficient cells display increased TORC1 activity, whereas cells containing hyperactive Snf1 display a PAS kinase–dependent decrease in TORC1 activity. This interplay between yeast SNF1, Psk1, and TORC1 allows for proper glucose allocation during nutrient depletion, reducing cell growth and proliferation when energy is low. PMID:25428989

  11. Epigenetic regulation by BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes is indispensable for embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Sokpor, Godwin; Pham, Linh; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-05-18

    The multi-subunit chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF (known as BAF for Brg/Brm-associated factor) complexes play essential roles in development. Studies have shown that the loss of individual BAF subunits often affects local chromatin structure and specific transcriptional programs. However, we do not fully understand how BAF complexes function in development because no animal mutant had been engineered to lack entire multi-subunit BAF complexes. Importantly, we recently reported that double conditional knock-out (dcKO) of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits in mice abolished the presence of the other BAF subunits in the developing cortex. The generated dcKO mutant provides a novel and powerful tool for investigating how entire BAF complexes affect cortical development. Using this model, we found that BAF complexes globally control the key heterochromatin marks, H3K27me2 and -3, by directly modulating the enzymatic activity of the H3K27 demethylases, Utx and Jmjd3. Here, we present further insights into how the scaffolding ability of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits maintains the stability of BAF complexes in the forebrain and throughout the embryo during development. Furthermore, we show that the loss of BAF complexes in the above-described model up-regulates H3K27me3 and impairs forebrain development and embryogenesis. These findings improve our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by the chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF complexes that control embryonic development. PMID:26986003

  12. Regulation of a plant SNF1-related protein kinase by glucose-6-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Toroser, D.; Plaut, Z.; Huber, S.C.

    2000-05-01

    One of the major protein kinases (PK{sub III}) that phosphorylates serine-158 of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), which is responsible for light/dark modulation of activity, is known to be a member of the SNF1-related family of protein kinases. In the present study, the authors have developed a fluorescence-based continuous assay for measurement of PK{sub III} activity. Using the continuous assay, along with the fixed-time-point {sup 32}P-incorporation assay, they demonstrate that PK{sub III} activity is inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P). Relative inhibition by Glc-6-P was increased by decreasing pH from 8.5 to 5.5 and by reducing the concentration of Mg{sup 2+} in the assay from 10 to 2 nM. Under likely physiological conditions (PH 7.0 and 2 mM Mg{sup 2+}), 10 nM Glc-6-P inhibited kinase activity approximately 70%. Inhibition by Glc-6-P could not be ascribed to contaminants in the commercial preparations. Other metabolites inhibited PK{sub III} in the following order: Glc-6-P > mannose-6-P, fructose-1,6P{sub 2} > ribose-5-P, 3-PGA, fructose-6-P. Inorganic phosphate, Glc, and AMP were not inhibitory, and free Glc did not reverse the inhibition by Glc-6-P. Because SNF1-related protein kinases are thought to function broadly in the regulation of enzyme activity and gene expression, Glc-6-P inhibition of PK{sub III} activity potentially provides a mechanism for metabolic regulation of the reactions catalyzed by these important protein kinases.

  13. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex exerts both negative and positive control over LET-23/EGFR-dependent vulval induction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Flibotte, Stephane; Kim, Bo Ram; Van de Laar, Emily; Brown, Louise; Moghal, Nadeem

    2016-07-01

    Signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) generates diverse developmental patterns. This requires precise control over the location and intensity of signaling. Elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms is important for understanding development and disease pathogenesis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, LIN-3/EGF induces vulval formation in the mid-body, which requires LET-23/EGFR activation only in P6.p, the vulval progenitor nearest the LIN-3 source. To identify mechanisms regulating this signaling pattern, we screened for mutations that cooperate with a let-23 gain-of-function allele to cause ectopic vulval induction. Here, we describe a dominant gain-of-function mutation in swsn-4, a component of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Loss-of-function mutations in multiple SWI/SNF components reveal that weak reduction in SWI/SNF activity causes ectopic vulval induction, while stronger reduction prevents adoption of vulval fates, a phenomenon also observed with increasing loss of LET-23 activity. High levels of LET-23 expression in P6.p are thought to locally sequester LIN-3, thereby preventing ectopic vulval induction, with slight reductions in its expression interfering with LIN-3 sequestration, but not vulval fate signaling. We find that SWI/SNF positively regulates LET-23 expression in P6.p descendants, providing an explanation for the similarities between let-23 and SWI/SNF mutant phenotypes. However, SWI/SNF regulation of LET-23 expression is cell-specific, with SWI/SNF repressing its expression in the ALA neuron. The swsn-4 gain-of-function mutation affects the PTH domain, and provides the first evidence that its auto-inhibitory function in yeast Sth1p is conserved in metazoan chromatin remodelers. Finally, our work supports broad use of SWI/SNF in regulating EGFR signaling during development, and suggests that dominant SWI/SNF mutations in certain human congenital anomaly syndromes may be gain-of-functions. PMID:27207389

  14. Overexpression of hSNF2H in glioma promotes cell proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance through its interaction with Rsf-1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Chun; An, Ping; Wu, Xiu-Ying; Zhang, Li-Min; Long, Bo; Tian, Yue; Chi, Xiao-Ying; Tong, Dong-Yi

    2016-06-01

    hSNF2H partners with Rsf-1 to compose the Rsf complex to regulate gene expression. Recent studies indicated that hSNF2H was overexpressed in several human cancers. However, its expression pattern and biological mechanism in glioma remain unexplored. In this study, we found that hSNF2H was overexpressed in 32 % of glioma specimens. hSNF2H overexpression correlated with advanced tumor grade (p = 0.0338) and Rsf-1 positivity in glioma tissues (p = 0.016). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown was performed in A172 and U87 cell lines. MTT, colony formation assay, and cell cycle analysis showed that knockdown of hSNF2H inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation ability, and cell cycle transition. Matrigel invasion assay showed that hSNF2H depletion inhibited invasive ability of glioma cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hSNF2H depletion decreased temozolomide resistance of A172 and U87 cell lines and increased temozolomide induced apoptosis. Furthermore, hSNF2H depletion decreased cyclin D1, cyclin E, p-Rb, MMP2, cIAP1, Bcl-2 expression, and phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, suggesting hSNF2H regulates apoptosis through NF-κB pathway. Immunoprecipitation showed that hSNF2H could interact with Rsf-1 in both cell lines. To validate the involvement of Rsf-1, we checked the change of its downstream targets in Rsf-1 depleted cells. In Rsf-1 depleted cells, changes of cyclin E, Bcl-2, and p-IκBα were not significant using hSNF2H siRNA treatment. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that hSNF2H was overexpressed in human gliomas and contributed to glioma proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance through regulation of cyclin E and NF-κB pathway, which is dependent on its interaction with Rsf-1. PMID:26666816

  15. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  16. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  17. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  18. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  19. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  20. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive... (50 U.S.C. 1601- 1651) (the ``NEA''), issued Executive Order 13466 (73 FR 36787, June 27, 2008)...

  1. Regulatory Experiences for the Decommissioning of the Research Reactor in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    CHOI, Kyung-Woo

    2008-01-15

    The first research reactor in Korea (KRR-1, TRIGA Mark-II) has operated since 1962, and the second one (KRR-2, TRIGA Mark-III), since 1972. Both of them were phased out in 1995 due to their lives and the operation of a new research reactor, HANARO (30 MW thermal power) operated by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). After deciding the shutdown by the Nuclear Development and Utilization Committee in March 1996, KAERI began to prepare the decommissioning plan, including the environmental impact assessment, and submitted the plan to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in December 1998. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) reviewed document and prepared the review report in 1999. KINS is an organization of technical expertise which performs regulatory functions, entrusted by the MOST in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act and its Enforcement Decree. The review report written by KINS was consulted by the Special Committee on Nuclear Safety in January 2000. The committee submitted their consultation results to the Nuclear Safety Commission for the final approval by the Minister of MOST. The license was issued in November 2000. With the consent of the Korean government to the US Record of Decision, the spent fuel of KRR-1 and 2 was safely transported to the United States in July 1998. The decontamination and dismantling of KRR-2 was completed at the end of 2005 but the decommissioning of KRR-1 has been suspended by the problem for the memorial of the reactor. After the decommissioning of the research reactor is finished, the site will be returned to the site owner, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). In this paper, the state-of-art and lessons learnt from recent regulatory activities for decommissioning of KRR- 2 are summarized. In conclusion: since the shutdown of KRR-1 and 2 had been decided, the safe assessment and licensing review were carried out after applying for decommissioning plan of those research reactors by operator. Through

  2. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  3. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  4. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  5. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  6. Occupational neurological disorders in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  7. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  8. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  9. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system. PMID:26141293

  10. Analysis of safety limits of the Moroccan TRIGA MARK II research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erradi, L.; Essadki, H.

    2001-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to check the ability of the Moroccan TRIGA MARK II research reactor, designed to use natural convection cooling, to operate at its nominal power (2 MW) with sufficient safety margins. The neutronic analysis of the core has been performed using Leopard and Mcrac codes and the parameters of interest were the power distributions, the power peaking factors and the core excess reactivity. The thermal hydraulic analysis of the TRIGA core was performed using the French code FLICA designed for transient and study state situations. The main safety related parameters of the core have been evaluated with special emphasises on the following: maximum fuel temperature, minimum DNBR and maximum void fraction. The obtained results confirm the designer predictions except for the void fraction.

  11. Performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Sobolev, Yu.; Beck, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Hampel, G.; Heil, W.; Kieser, R.; Reich, T.; Trautmann, N.; Ziegner, M.

    2014-04-01

    The performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz with a maximum peak energy of 10MJ is described. The solid deuterium converter with a volume of cm3 (8mol), which is exposed to a thermal neutron fluence of n/cm2, delivers up to 240000 UCN ( m/s) per pulse outside the biological shield at the experimental area. UCN densities of 10 cm3 are obtained in stainless-steel bottles of 10 L. The measured UCN yields compare well with the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation developed to model the source and to optimize its performance for the upcoming upgrade of the TRIGA Mainz into a user facility for UCN physics.

  12. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Tri-gas Thruster Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorado, Vanessa; Grunder, Zachary; Schaefer, Bryce; Sung, Meagan; Pedersen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft reaction control systems have primarily utilized cold gas thrusters because of their inherent simplicity and reliability. However, cold gas thrusters typically have a low specific impulse. It has been determined that a higher specific impulse can be achieved by passing a monopropellant fluid mixture through a catalyst bed prior to expulsion through the thruster nozzle. This research analyzes the potential efficiency improvements from using tri-gas, a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and an inert gas, which in this case is helium. Passing tri-gas through a catalyst causes the hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water vapor, ultimately heating the exiting fluid and generating a higher specific impulse. The goal of this project was to optimize the thruster performance by characterizing the effects of varying several system components including catalyst types, catalyst lengths, and initial catalyst temperatures.

  13. Verifying the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method using the TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-Sam; Leyine, S.H.

    1984-07-01

    A new experimental/analytical method has been developed using the Penn State Breazeale (TRIGA) reactor, to measure the k{sub eff} of a damaged core, e.g., the TMI-2 core, and unfold its k{sub infinity} distribution. This new method, the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method, uses the response of several neutron detectors in fixed positions around the core periphery (and possibly in the core) when a neutron source is placed sequentially in different discrete core positions. Experiments have been performed with the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR) and analyzed with appropriate neutron calculations, using PSU-LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II (EXT-II), to verify the method.

  14. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kriangchaiporn, N.; Ivanov, K.; Haghighat, A.; Sears, C. F.

    2006-07-01

    The development of a three-dimensional (3-D) transport model for TRIGA core analysis based on the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) method has been conducted. The effective fine- and broad- group structures for the TRIGA cross-section libraries were selected based on CPXSD (Contribution and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology. Different 3-D pin/core configurations are used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Thirteen-group structure was finally selected to be used for core analysis. The results agree with continuous energy cross-section Monte Carlo calculations for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distributions, which are used as a reference in this research. (authors)

  15. Experimental power density distribution benchmark in the TRIGA Mark II reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Stancar, Z.; Radulovic, V.; Podvratnik, M.; Zerovnik, G.; Trkov, A.; Barbot, L.; Domergue, C.; Destouches, C.

    2012-07-01

    In order to improve the power calibration process and to benchmark the existing computational model of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Josef Stefan Inst. (JSI), a bilateral project was started as part of the agreement between the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA) and the Ministry of higher education, science and technology of Slovenia. One of the objectives of the project was to analyze and improve the power calibration process of the JSI TRIGA reactor (procedural improvement and uncertainty reduction) by using absolutely calibrated CEA fission chambers (FCs). This is one of the few available power density distribution benchmarks for testing not only the fission rate distribution but also the absolute values of the fission rates. Our preliminary calculations indicate that the total experimental uncertainty of the measured reaction rate is sufficiently low that the experiments could be considered as benchmark experiments. (authors)

  16. The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark D; Freund, Stefan M V; Zinzalla, Giovanna; Bycroft, Mark

    2015-07-01

    SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:26073604

  17. The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mark D.; Freund, Stefan M.V.; Zinzalla, Giovanna; Bycroft, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:26073604

  18. Validation of the Serpent 2 code on TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiments.

    PubMed

    Ćalić, Dušan; Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Snoj, Luka

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is the development and validation of a 3D computational model of TRIGA research reactor using Serpent 2 code. The calculated parameters were compared to the experimental results and to calculations performed with the MCNP code. The results show that the calculated normalized reaction rates and flux distribution within the core are in good agreement with MCNP and experiment, while in the reflector the flux distribution differ up to 3% from the measurements. PMID:26516989

  19. Analysis of JSI TRIGA MARK II reactor physical parameters calculated with TRIPOLI and MCNP.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Tiselj, I; Snoj, L

    2015-03-01

    New computational model of the JSI TRIGA Mark II research reactor was built for TRIPOLI computer code and compared with existing MCNP code model. The same modelling assumptions were used in order to check the differences of the mathematical models of both Monte Carlo codes. Differences between the TRIPOLI and MCNP predictions of keff were up to 100pcm. Further validation was performed with analyses of the normalized reaction rates and computations of kinetic parameters for various core configurations. PMID:25576735

  20. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-01

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP).

  1. Production of {sup 99}Mo using LEU and molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The production of {sup 99}Mo using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and natural molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor is investigated. The successive linear programming technique is applied to minimize the target loadings for different yield constraints. The irradiation time is related to the kinetics of the growth and decay of {sup 99}Mo. The feasibility of a neutron generated based {sup 99}Mo production system is discussed.

  2. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    SciTech Connect

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-12

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP)

  3. Conversion and evaluation of the THOR reactor core to TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.-H.; Shiau, L.-C.

    1990-07-01

    The THOR reactor is a pool type 1 MW research reactor and has been operated since 1961. The original MTR fuel elements have been gradually replaced by TRIGA fuel elements since 1977 and the conversion completed in 1987. The calculations were performed for various core configurations by using computer codes, WIMS/CITATION. The computing results have been evaluated and compared with the core measurements after the fuel conversion. The analysis results are in good correspondence with the measurements. (author)

  4. Fundamental approach to TRIGA steady-state thermal-hydraulic CHF analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-03-30

    Methods are investigated for predicting the power at which critical heat flux (CHF) occurs in TRIGA reactors that rely on natural convection for primary flow. For a representative TRIGA reactor, two sets of functions are created. For the first set, the General Atomics STAT code and the more widely-used RELAP5-3D code are each employed to obtain reactor flow rate as a function of power. For the second set, the Bernath correlation, the 2006 Groeneveld table, the Hall and Mudawar outlet correlation, and each of the four PG-CHF correlations for rod bundles are used to predict the power at which CHF occurs as a function of channel flow rate. The two sets of functions are combined to yield predictions of the power at which CHF occurs in the reactor. A combination of the RELAP5-3D code and the 2006 Groeneveld table predicts 67% more CHF power than does a combination of the STAT code and the Bernath correlation. Replacing the 2006 Groeneveld table with the Bernath CHF correlation (while using the RELAP5-3D code flow solution) causes the increase to be 23% instead of 67%. Additional RELAP5-3D flow-versus-power solutions obtained from Reference 1 and presented in Appendix B for four specific TRIGA reactors further demonstrates that the Bernath correlation predicts CHF to occur at considerably lower power levels than does the 2006 Groeneveld table. Because of the lack of measured CHF data in the region of interest to TRIGA reactors, none of the CHF correlations considered can be assumed to provide the definitive CHF power. It is recommended, however, to compare the power levels of the potential limiting rods with the power levels at which the Bernath and 2006 Groeneveld CHF correlations predict CHF to occur.

  5. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  6. Neutron flux characterisation of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II research reactor for radiobiological and microdosimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Prata, M; Salvini, A; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays the Pavia TRIGA reactor is available for national and international collaboration in various research fields. The TRIGA Mark II nuclear research reactor of the Pavia University offers different in- and out-core neutron irradiation channels, each characterised by different neutron spectra. In the last two years a campaign of measurements and simulations has been performed in order to guarantee a better characterisation of these different fluxes and to meet the demands of irradiations that require precise information on these spectra in particular for radiobiological and microdosimetric studies. Experimental data on neutron fluxes have been collected analysing and measuring the gamma activity induced in thin target foils of different materials irradiated in different TRIGA experimental channels. The data on the induced gamma activities have been processed with the SAND II deconvolution code and finally compared with the spectra obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison between simulated and measured spectra showed a good agreement allowing a more precise characterisation of the neutron spectra and a validation of the adopted method. PMID:25958412

  7. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-06-01

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  8. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  9. Transition from HEU to LEU fuel in Romania's 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) located in Pitesti, Romania, first went critical in the fall of 1979. Initially, the core configuration for full power operation used 29 fuel clusters each containing a 5 {times} 5 square array of HEU (10 wt%) -- ZrH -- Er (2.8 wt%) fuel-moderator rods (1.295 cm o.d.) clad in Incology. With a total inventory of 35 HEU fuel clusters, burnup considerations required a gradual expansion of the core from 29 to 32 and finally to 35 clusters before the reactor was shut down because of insufficient excess reactivity. At this time each of the original 29 fuel clusters had an overage {sup 235}U burnup in the range from 50 to 62%. Because of the US policy regarding the export of highly enriched uranium, fresh HEU TRIGA replacement fuel is not available. After a number of safety-related measurements, the SSR is expected to resume full power operation in the near future using a mixed core containing five LEU TRIGA clusters of the same geometry as the original fuel but with fuel-moderator rods containing 45 wt% U (19.7% {sup 235}U enrichment) and 1.1 wt% Er. Rods for 14 additional LEU fuel clusters will be fabricated by General Atomics. In support of the SSR mixed core operation numerous neutronic calculations have been performed. This paper presents some of the results of those calculations.

  10. Transition from HEU to LEU fuel in Romania`s 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) located in Pitesti, Romania, first went critical in the fall of 1979. Initially, the core configuration for full power operation used 29 fuel clusters each containing a 5 {times} 5 square array of HEU (10 wt%) -- ZrH -- Er (2.8 wt%) fuel-moderator rods (1.295 cm o.d.) clad in Incology. With a total inventory of 35 HEU fuel clusters, burnup considerations required a gradual expansion of the core from 29 to 32 and finally to 35 clusters before the reactor was shut down because of insufficient excess reactivity. At this time each of the original 29 fuel clusters had an overage {sup 235}U burnup in the range from 50 to 62%. Because of the US policy regarding the export of highly enriched uranium, fresh HEU TRIGA replacement fuel is not available. After a number of safety-related measurements, the SSR is expected to resume full power operation in the near future using a mixed core containing five LEU TRIGA clusters of the same geometry as the original fuel but with fuel-moderator rods containing 45 wt% U (19.7% {sup 235}U enrichment) and 1.1 wt% Er. Rods for 14 additional LEU fuel clusters will be fabricated by General Atomics. In support of the SSR mixed core operation numerous neutronic calculations have been performed. This paper presents some of the results of those calculations.

  11. Gross Gamma Dose Rate Measurements for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuel Burnup Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, Philip Lon; Sterbentz, James William

    2001-04-01

    Gross gamma-ray dose rates from six spent TRIGA fuel elements were measured and compared to calculated values as a means to validate the reported element burnups. A newly installed and functional gamma-ray detection subsystem of the In-Cell Examination System was used to perform the measurements and is described in some detail. The analytical methodology used to calculate the corresponding dose rates is presented along with the calculated values. Comparison of the measured and calculated dose rates for the TRIGA fuel elements indicates good agreement (less than a factor of 2 difference). The intent of the subsystem is to measure the gross gamma dose rate and correlate the measurement to a calculated dose rate based on the element s known burnup and other pertinent spent fuel information. Although validation of the TRIGA elements’ burnup is of primary concern in this paper, the measurement and calculational techniques can be used to either validate an element’s reported burnup or provide a burnup estimate for an element with an unknown burnup.

  12. NATCRCTR: One-dimensional thermal-hydraulics analysis code for natural-circulation TRIGA reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Feltus, M.A.; Rubinaccio, G.

    1996-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University nuclear engineering department is evaluating the upgrade of the Reed College (Portland, Oregon) TRIGA reactor from 250 kW to 1 MW in two areas: thermal-hydraulics and steady-state neutronics analysis. This analysis was initiated as a cooperative effort between Penn State and Reed College as a training project for two International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fellows from Ghana. The two Ghanaian IAEA fellows were assisted by G. Rubinaccio, an undergraduate, who undertook the task of writing the new computer programs for the thermal-hydraulic and physics evaluation as a three-credit special design project course. The Reed College TRIGA, which has a fixed graphite radial reflector, is cooled by natural circulation, without external cross-flow; whereas, the Penn State Breazeale Reactor has significant crossflow into its sides. To model the Reed TRIGA, the NATCRCTR program has been developed from first principles using the following assumptions: 1. The core is surrounded by the fixed reflector structure, which acts as a one-dimensional channel. 2. The core inlet temperature distribution is constant at the core bottom. 3. The axial heat flux distribution is a chopped cosine shape. 4. The heat transfer in the fuel is primarily in the radial directions. 5. A small gap between the fuel and cladding exists. The NATCRCTR code is used to find the peak centerline fuel, gap, and cladding surface temperatures, based on assumed flux and engineering peaking factors.

  13. Gross Gamma Dose Rate Measurements for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuel Burnup Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, P.L.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    2002-07-01

    Gross gamma-ray dose rates from six spent TRIGA fuel elements were measured and compared to calculated values as a means to validate the reported element burnups. A newly installed and functional gamma-ray detection subsystem of the In-Cell Examination System was used to perform the measurements and is described in some detail. The analytical methodology used to calculate the corresponding dose rates is presented along with the calculated values. Comparison of the measured and calculated dose rates for the TRIGA fuel elements indicates good agreement (less than a factor of 2 difference). The intent of the subsystem is to measure the gross gamma dose rate and correlate the measurement to a calculated dose rate based on the element s known burnup and other pertinent spent fuel information. Although validation of the TRIGA elements' burnup is of primary concern in this paper, the measurement and calculational techniques can be used to either validate an element's reported burnup or provide a burnup estimate for an element with an unknown burnup. (authors)

  14. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-06-22

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  15. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriangchaiporn, Nateekool

    This dissertation addresses the development of a reactor core physics model based on 3-D transport methodology utilizing 3-D multigroup fuel lattice cross-section generation and core calculation for PSBR. The proposed 3-D transport calculation scheme for reactor core simulations is based on the TORT code. The methodology includes development of algorithms for 2-D and 3-D cross-section generation. The fine- and broad-group structures for the TRIGA cross-section generation problems were developed based on the CPXSD (Contributon and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology that selects effective group structure. Along with the study of cross section generation, the parametric studies for SN calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of the spatial meshing, angular, and scattering order variables and to obtain the suitable values for cross-section collapsing of the TRIGA cell problem. The TRIGA core loading 2 is used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Finally, the 13 group structure was selected to use for core calculations. The results agree with continuous energy for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distribution. The Monte Carlo solutions are used as the references.

  16. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    BAZINET, G.D.

    2000-11-03

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted

  17. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  18. Cooperation between SAGA and SWI/SNF complexes is required for efficient transcriptional responses regulated by the yeast MAPK Slt2.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ana Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cell wall stress is mainly mediated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through the MAPK Slt2 and the transcription factor Rlm1. Once activated, Rlm1 interacts with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex which locally alters nucleosome positioning at the target promoters. Here we show that the SAGA complex plays along with the SWI/SNF complex an important role for eliciting both early induction and sustained gene expression upon stress. Gcn5 co-regulates together with Swi3 the majority of the CWI transcriptional program, except for a group of genes which are only dependent on the SWI/SNF complex. SAGA subunits are recruited to the promoter of CWI-responsive genes in a Slt2, Rlm1 and SWI/SNF-dependent manner. However, Gcn5 mediates acetylation and nucleosome eviction only at the promoters of the SAGA-dependent genes. This process is not essential for pre-initiation transcriptional complex assembly but rather increase the extent of the remodeling mediated by SWI/SNF. As a consequence, H3 eviction and Rlm1 recruitment is completely blocked in a swi3Δ gcn5Δ double mutant. Therefore, SAGA complex, through its histone acetylase activity, cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex for the mandatory nucleosome displacement required for full gene expression through the CWI pathway. PMID:27112564

  19. Cooperation between SAGA and SWI/SNF complexes is required for efficient transcriptional responses regulated by the yeast MAPK Slt2

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cell wall stress is mainly mediated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through the MAPK Slt2 and the transcription factor Rlm1. Once activated, Rlm1 interacts with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex which locally alters nucleosome positioning at the target promoters. Here we show that the SAGA complex plays along with the SWI/SNF complex an important role for eliciting both early induction and sustained gene expression upon stress. Gcn5 co-regulates together with Swi3 the majority of the CWI transcriptional program, except for a group of genes which are only dependent on the SWI/SNF complex. SAGA subunits are recruited to the promoter of CWI-responsive genes in a Slt2, Rlm1 and SWI/SNF-dependent manner. However, Gcn5 mediates acetylation and nucleosome eviction only at the promoters of the SAGA-dependent genes. This process is not essential for pre-initiation transcriptional complex assembly but rather increase the extent of the remodeling mediated by SWI/SNF. As a consequence, H3 eviction and Rlm1 recruitment is completely blocked in a swi3Δ gcn5Δ double mutant. Therefore, SAGA complex, through its histone acetylase activity, cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex for the mandatory nucleosome displacement required for full gene expression through the CWI pathway. PMID:27112564

  20. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  1. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  2. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  3. Transcriptional Repression by the BRG1-SWI/SNF Complex Affects the Pluripotency of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Bing; Li, Wenguo; Ma, Lijuan; Zheng, Dongyan; Li, Leping; Yang, Weijing; Chu, Min; Chen, Wei; Mailman, Richard B.; Zhu, Jun; Fan, Guoping; Archer, Trevor K.; Wang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Summary The SWI/SNF complex plays an important role in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), but it remains to be determined whether this complex is required for the pluripotency of human ESCs (hESCs). Using RNAi, we demonstrated that depletion of BRG1, the catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, led to impaired self-renewing ability and dysregulated lineage specification of hESCs. A unique composition of the BRG1-SWI/SNF complex in hESCs was further defined by the presence of BRG1, BAF250A, BAF170, BAF155, BAF53A, and BAF47. Genome-wide expression analyses revealed that BRG1 participated in a broad range of biological processes in hESCs through pathways different from those in mESCs. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) demonstrated that BRG1 played a repressive role in transcriptional regulation by modulating the acetylation levels of H3K27 at the enhancers of lineage-specific genes. Our data thus provide valuable insights into molecular mechanisms by which transcriptional repression affects the self-renewal and differentiation of hESCs. PMID:25241744

  4. Anteroposterior Limb Skeletal Patterning Requires the Bifunctional Action of SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex in Hedgehog Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Shin; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Graded Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling governs vertebrate limb skeletal patterning along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by regulating the activity of bifunctional Gli transcriptional regulators. The genetic networks involved in this patterning are well defined, however, the epigenetic control of the process by chromatin remodelers remains unknown. Here, we report that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is essential for Shh-driven limb AP patterning. Specific inactivation of Srg3/mBaf155, a core subunit of the remodeling complex, in developing limb buds hampered the transcriptional upregulation of Shh/Gli target genes, including the Shh receptor Ptch1 and its downstream effector Gli1 in the posterior limb bud. In addition, Srg3 deficiency induced ectopic activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in the anterior mesenchyme, resulting in loss of progressive asymmetry. These defects in the Hh pathway accompanied aberrant BMP activity and disruption of chondrogenic differentiation in zeugopod and autopod primordia. Notably, our data revealed that dual control of the Hh pathway by the SWI/SNF complex is essential for spatiotemporal transcriptional regulation of the BMP antagonist Gremlin1, which affects the onset of chondrogenesis. This study uncovers the bifunctional role of the SWI/SNF complex in the Hh pathway to determine the fate of AP skeletal progenitors. PMID:26959361

  5. The SNF1 Kinase Ubiquitin-associated Domain Restrains Its Activation, Activity, and the Yeast Life Span*♦

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Rubin; Postnikoff, Spike; Harkness, Troy A.; Arnason, Terra G.

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme family of heterotrimeric AMP-dependent protein kinases is activated upon low energy states, conferring a switch toward energy-conserving metabolic pathways through immediate kinase actions on enzyme targets and delayed alterations in gene expression through its nuclear relocalization. This family is evolutionarily conserved, including the presence of a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) motif in most catalytic subunits. The potential for the UBA domain to promote protein associations or direct subcellular location, as seen in other UBA-containing proteins, led us to query whether the UBA domain within the yeast AMP-dependent protein kinase ortholog, SNF1 kinase, was important in these aspects of its regulation. Here, we demonstrate that conserved UBA motif mutations significantly alter SNF1 kinase activation and biological activity, including enhanced allosteric subunit associations and increased oxidative stress resistance and life span. Significantly, the enhanced UBA-dependent longevity and oxidative stress response are at least partially dependent on the Fkh1 and Fkh2 stress response transcription factors, which in turn are shown to influence Snf1 gene expression. PMID:25869125

  6. Akirin2 is critical for inducing inflammatory genes by bridging IκB-ζ and the SWI/SNF complex

    PubMed Central

    Tartey, Sarang; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Vandenbon, Alexis; Ori, Daisuke; Imamura, Tomoko; Mino, Takashi; Standley, Daron M; Hoffmann, Jules A; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Akira, Shizuo; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-κB, and chromatin modifiers. However, it remains unclear how microbial sensing initiates chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that Akirin2, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein, bridges NF-κB and the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex by interacting with BRG1-Associated Factor 60 (BAF60) proteins as well as IκB-ζ, which forms a complex with the NF-κB p50 subunit. These interactions are essential for Toll-like receptor-, RIG-I-, and Listeria-mediated expression of proinflammatory genes including Il6 and Il12b in macrophages. Consistently, effective clearance of Listeria infection required Akirin2. Furthermore, Akirin2 and IκB-ζ recruitment to the Il6 promoter depend upon the presence of IκB-ζ and Akirin2, respectively, for regulation of chromatin remodeling. BAF60 proteins were also essential for the induction of Il6 in response to LPS stimulation. Collectively, the IκB-ζ–Akirin2–BAF60 complex physically links the NF-κB and SWI/SNF complexes in innate immune cell activation. By recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers to IκB-ζ, transcriptional coactivator for NF-κB, the conserved nuclear protein Akirin2 stimulates pro-inflammatory gene promoters in mouse macrophages during innate immune responses to viral or bacterial infection. PMID:25107474

  7. Akirin2 is critical for inducing inflammatory genes by bridging IκB-ζ and the SWI/SNF complex.

    PubMed

    Tartey, Sarang; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Vandenbon, Alexis; Ori, Daisuke; Imamura, Tomoko; Mino, Takashi; Standley, Daron M; Hoffmann, Jules A; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Akira, Shizuo; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2014-10-16

    Transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-κB, and chromatin modifiers. However, it remains unclear how microbial sensing initiates chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that Akirin2, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein, bridges NF-κB and the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex by interacting with BRG1-Associated Factor 60 (BAF60) proteins as well as IκB-ζ, which forms a complex with the NF-κB p50 subunit. These interactions are essential for Toll-like receptor-, RIG-I-, and Listeria-mediated expression of proinflammatory genes including Il6 and Il12b in macrophages. Consistently, effective clearance of Listeria infection required Akirin2. Furthermore, Akirin2 and IκB-ζ recruitment to the Il6 promoter depend upon the presence of IκB-ζ and Akirin2, respectively, for regulation of chromatin remodeling. BAF60 proteins were also essential for the induction of Il6 in response to LPS stimulation. Collectively, the IκB-ζ-Akirin2-BAF60 complex physically links the NF-κB and SWI/SNF complexes in innate immune cell activation. By recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers to IκB-ζ, transcriptional coactivator for NF-κB, the conserved nuclear protein Akirin2 stimulates pro-inflammatory gene promoters in mouse macrophages during innate immune responses to viral or bacterial infection. PMID:25107474

  8. HIC1 interacts with a specific subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, ARID1A/BAF250A

    SciTech Connect

    Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Leprince, Dominique

    2009-08-07

    HIC1, a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in many human cancers encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. HIC1 is also implicated in growth control since it recruits BRG1, one of the two alternative ATPases (BRM or BRG1) of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to repress transcription of E2F1 in quiescent fibroblasts. Here, through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify ARID1A/BAF250A, as a new HIC1 partner. ARID1A/BAF250A is one of the two mutually exclusive ARID1-containing subunits of SWI/SNF complexes which define subsets of complexes endowed with anti-proliferative properties. Co-immunoprecipitation assays in WI38 fibroblasts and in BRG1-/- SW13 cells showed that endogenous HIC1 and ARID1A proteins interact in a BRG1-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HIC1 does not interact with BRM. Finally, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-reChIP) experiments demonstrated that HIC1 represses E2F1 through the recruitment of anti-proliferative SWI/SNF complexes containing ARID1A.

  9. ANGUSTIFOLIA3 Binds to SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes to Regulate Transcription during Arabidopsis Leaf Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Vercruyssen, Liesbeth; Verkest, Aurine; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Heyndrickx, Ken S.; Eeckhout, Dominique; Han, Soon-Ki; Jégu, Teddy; Archacki, Rafal; Van Leene, Jelle; Andriankaja, Megan; De Bodt, Stefanie; Abeel, Thomas; Coppens, Frederik; Dhondt, Stijn; De Milde, Liesbeth; Vermeersch, Mattias; Maleux, Katrien; Gevaert, Kris; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej; Benhamed, Moussa; Wagner, Doris; Vandepoele, Klaas; De Jaeger, Geert; Inzé, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator ANGUSTIFOLIA3 (AN3) stimulates cell proliferation during Arabidopsis thaliana leaf development, but the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we show that inducible nuclear localization of AN3 during initial leaf growth results in differential expression of important transcriptional regulators, including GROWTH REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs). Chromatin purification further revealed the presence of AN3 at the loci of GRF5, GRF6, CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTOR2, CONSTANS-LIKE5 (COL5), HECATE1 (HEC1), and ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR4 (ARR4). Tandem affinity purification of protein complexes using AN3 as bait identified plant SWITCH/SUCROSE NONFERMENTING (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes formed around the ATPases BRAHMA (BRM) or SPLAYED. Moreover, SWI/SNF ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 73B (SWP73B) is recruited by AN3 to the promoters of GRF5, GRF3, COL5, and ARR4, and both SWP73B and BRM occupy the HEC1 promoter. Furthermore, we show that AN3 and BRM genetically interact. The data indicate that AN3 associates with chromatin remodelers to regulate transcription. In addition, modification of SWI3C expression levels increases leaf size, underlining the importance of chromatin dynamics for growth regulation. Our results place the SWI/SNF-AN3 module as a major player at the transition from cell proliferation to cell differentiation in a developing leaf. PMID:24443518

  10. Anteroposterior Limb Skeletal Patterning Requires the Bifunctional Action of SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex in Hedgehog Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Shin; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Graded Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling governs vertebrate limb skeletal patterning along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by regulating the activity of bifunctional Gli transcriptional regulators. The genetic networks involved in this patterning are well defined, however, the epigenetic control of the process by chromatin remodelers remains unknown. Here, we report that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is essential for Shh-driven limb AP patterning. Specific inactivation of Srg3/mBaf155, a core subunit of the remodeling complex, in developing limb buds hampered the transcriptional upregulation of Shh/Gli target genes, including the Shh receptor Ptch1 and its downstream effector Gli1 in the posterior limb bud. In addition, Srg3 deficiency induced ectopic activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in the anterior mesenchyme, resulting in loss of progressive asymmetry. These defects in the Hh pathway accompanied aberrant BMP activity and disruption of chondrogenic differentiation in zeugopod and autopod primordia. Notably, our data revealed that dual control of the Hh pathway by the SWI/SNF complex is essential for spatiotemporal transcriptional regulation of the BMP antagonist Gremlin1, which affects the onset of chondrogenesis. This study uncovers the bifunctional role of the SWI/SNF complex in the Hh pathway to determine the fate of AP skeletal progenitors. PMID:26959361

  11. Men's health in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Chul; Kim, Sang Wook; Chung, Yun Jae

    2011-07-01

    Over the last four decades, rapid industrialisation and a Westernized lifestyle have changed disease patterns in South Korea. This study was conducted to review the current state of men's health in South Korea. By reviewing reports of government authorities and domestic and foreign studies related to men's health, we found that in men ≥ 65 years of age, 28.4% considered their health status good, whereas 38.3% considered their health status poor. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms was similar to that in Caucasians. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was higher than the global average. The incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias showed a tendency towards increase. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus continuously increased by 10.8% in 2008 and was the fifth leading cause of death in 2008. The prevalence of obesity increased from 26.0% in 1998 to 31.7% in 2007. The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease has continuously increased, with heart diseases causing one of every 12 deaths. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005 was 17.2% among adults ≥ 45 years of age. The top five prevalent cancers in men, in descending order, were cancers of the stomach, lung, liver, large bowel and prostate, among which the incidence of stomach, lung and liver cancers decreased by 0.7%, 0.6% and 2.2%, respectively, from 1999 to 2007, whereas the incidence of large bowel and prostate cancers increased by 7.0% and 13.2%, respectively. The prevalence of depression, dementia and sleep disorders was estimated as 17.3%, 4.21% and 20.2%, respectively. Together, these findings suggest that disease patterns in South Korean men are becoming Westernized. PMID:21478896

  12. Republic of Korea`s security in northeast Asia. Regional strategic appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    Although the Cold War is over, the security environment in Northeast Asia is not stable. This study summarizes Korea`s national interests from a Korean soldier`s perspective. The threats and issues are described according to the format of a regional strategic appraisal. This study recommends the organization of a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Northeast Asia (CSCNEA). This organization would be composed of the two Koreas(or eventually a reunified Korea), the United States, Japan, China, and Russia. Before the establishment of the organization, the enlargement of bilateral cooperation is recommended.

  13. Suppression of the SWI/SNF Component Arid1a Promotes Mammalian Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuxu; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Wu, Linwei; Celen, Cemre; Li, Lin; Liang, Hanquan; Zhang, Shuyuan; Maples, Thomas; Nguyen, Liem H; Wang, Sam C; Signer, Robert A J; Sorouri, Mahsa; Nassour, Ibrahim; Liu, Xin; Xu, Jian; Wu, Meng; Zhao, Yong; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Wang, Zhong; Xing, Chao; Zhu, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Mammals have partially lost the extensive regenerative capabilities of some vertebrates, possibly as a result of chromatin-remodeling mechanisms that enforce terminal differentiation. Here, we show that deleting the SWI/SNF component Arid1a substantially improves mammalian regeneration. Arid1a expression is suppressed in regenerating tissues, and genetic deletion of Arid1a increases tissue repair following an array of injuries. Arid1a deficiency in the liver increases proliferation, reduces tissue damage and fibrosis, and improves organ function following surgical resection and chemical injuries. Hepatocyte-specific deletion is also sufficient to increase proliferation and regeneration without excessive overgrowth, and global Arid1a disruption potentiates soft tissue healing in the ear. We show that Arid1a loss reprograms chromatin to restrict promoter access by transcription factors such as C/ebpα, which enforces differentiation, and E2F4, which suppresses cell-cycle re-entry. Thus, epigenetic reprogramming mediated by deletion of a single gene improves mammalian regeneration and suggests strategies to promote tissue repair after injury. PMID:27044474

  14. Mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes and cancer: Mechanistic insights gained from human genomics

    PubMed Central

    Kadoch, Cigall; Crabtree, Gerald R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, nearly 100 exome sequencing studies have revealed the high frequency of mutations in the genes encoding the subunits of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers in human cancer. Most of these mutations are within the genes encoding subunits of the BAF (Brg/Brahma-associated factors) or mSWI/SNF complex, which is one of two dozen predicted ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in mammals. Considering BAF complexes as a single entity, the 15 subunits encoded by 29 genes are mutated in >20% of human cancer, across a broad range of tumor types. These observations demonstrate that there is little redundancy in the oncogenic function of BAF complexes with the other remodeling complexes, underscoring their unique roles. Several important conclusions emerge from these genomic data: specific subunits appear to be mutated in specific cancers, highlighting tissue-specific protective roles; mutations can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes; mutations can be homozygous or, more commonly, heterozygous, implying their dosage-sensitive roles in an unknown yet fundamental process used to suppress the genesis of cancer. These new human genetic findings paired with biochemical studies are challenging old ideas on how chromatin remodeling complexes function, generating new hypotheses with respect to their normal and oncogenic mechanisms and highlighting potential avenues for therapeutic intervention in human cancer. PMID:26601204

  15. The role of BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes in mammalian neural development

    PubMed Central

    Son, Esther Y.; Crabtree, Gerald R.

    2015-01-01

    The BAF (mammalian SWI/SNF) complexes are a family of multi-subunit ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers that use ATP hydrolysis to alter chromatin structure. Distinct BAF complex compositions are possible through combinatorial assembly of homologous subunit families and can serve non-redundant functions. In mammalian neural development, developmental stage-specific BAF assemblies are found in ES cells, neural progenitors and postmitotic neurons. In particular, the neural progenitor-specific BAF complexes are essential for controlling the kinetics and mode of neural progenitor cell division, while neuronal BAF function is necessary for the maturation of postmitotic neuronal phenotypes as well as long-term memory formation. The microRNA-mediated mechanism for transitioning from npBAF to nBAF complexes is instructive for the neuronal fate and can even convert fibroblasts into neurons. The high frequency of BAF subunit mutations in neurological disorders underscores the rate-determining role of BAF complexes in neural development, homeostasis and plasticity. PMID:25195934

  16. The SWI/SNF ATPase Brm is a gatekeeper of proliferative control in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Powers, Nathan; Saini, Nitin; Comstock, Clay E S; Sharma, Ankur; Weaver, Katherine; Revelo, Monica P; Gerald, William; Williams, Erin; Jessen, Walter J; Aronow, Bruce J; Rosson, Gary; Weissman, Bernard; Muchardt, Christian; Yaniv, Moshe; Knudsen, Karen E

    2008-12-15

    Factors that drive prostate cancer progression remain poorly defined, thus hindering the development of new therapeutic strategies. Disseminated tumors are treated through regimens that ablate androgen signaling, as prostate cancer cells require androgen for growth and survival. However, recurrent, incurable tumors that have bypassed the androgen requirement ultimately arise. This study reveals that the Brm ATPase, a component of selected SWI/SNF complexes, has significant antiproliferative functions in the prostate that protect against these transitions. First, we show that targeted ablation of Brm is causative for the development of prostatic hyperplasia in mice. Second, in vivo challenge revealed that Brm-/- epithelia acquire the capacity for lobe-specific, castration-resistant cellular proliferation. Third, investigation of human specimens revealed that Brm mRNA and protein levels are attenuated in prostate cancer. Fourth, Brm down-regulation was associated with an increased proliferative index, consistent with the mouse model. Lastly, gene expression profiling showed that Brm loss alters factors upstream of E2F1; this was confirmed in murine models, wherein Brm loss induced E2F1 deregulation in a tissue-specific manner. Combined, these data identify Brm as a major effector of serum androgen-induced proliferation in the prostate that is disrupted in human disease, and indicate that loss of Brm confers a proliferative advantage in prostate cancer. PMID:19074882

  17. Swi2/Snf2-related translocases prevent accumulation of toxic Rad51 complexes during mitotic growth

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parisha P.; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Epshtein, Anastasiya; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Klein, Hannah L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purified DNA translocases Rdh54 and Rad54 can dissociate complexes formed by eukaryotic RecA-like recombinases on double-stranded DNA. Here we show Rad51 complexes are dissociated by these translocases in mitotic cells. Rad51 overexpression blocked growth of cells deficient in Rdh54 activity. This toxicity was associated with accumulation of Rad51 foci on undamaged chromatin. At normal Rad51 levels, rdh54 deficiency resulted in slight elevation of Rad51 foci. A triple mutant lacking Rdh54, Rad54, and a third Swi2/Snf2 homologue Uls1, accumulated Rad51 foci, grew slowly, and suffered chromosome loss. Thus, Uls1 and Rad54 can partially substitute for Rdh54 in the removal of toxic, non–damage-associated Rad51-DNA complexes. Additional data suggest that the function of Rdh54 and Rad54 in removal of Rad51 foci is significantly specialized; Rad54 predominates for removal of damage-associated foci and Rdh54 predominates for removal of non-damage-associated foci. PMID:20864034

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Storage Project Fuel Basket Handling Grapple Design Development Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    Acceptance testing of the SNF Fuel Basket Lift Grapple was accomplished to verify the design adequacy. This report shows the results affirming the design. The test was successful in demonstrating the adequacy of the grapple assembly's inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls for in loads excess of design basis loads (3200 pounds), 3X design basis loads (9600 pounds), and 5X design basis loads (16,000 pounds). The test data showed that no appreciable yielding for the inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls at loads in excess of 5X Design Basis loads. The test data also showed the grapple assembly and components to be fully functional after loads in excess of 5X Design Basis were applied and maintained for over 10 minutes. Following testing, each actuator shaft (Item 7) was liquid penetrant inspected per ASME Section 111, Division 1 1989 and accepted per requirements of NF-5350. This examination was performed to insure that no cracking had occurred. The test indicated that no cracking had occurred. The examination reports are included as Appendix C to this document. From this test, it is concluded that the design configuration meets or exceeds the requirements specified in ANSI N 14 6 for Special Lifting Devices for Shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 Pounds (4500 kg) or More.

  19. Snf1-Like Protein Kinase Ssp2 Regulates Glucose Derepression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Fujita, Yasuko; Tohda, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    The function of two fission yeast genes, SPCC74.03c/ssp2+ and SPAC23H4.02/ppk9+, encoding an Snf1-like protein kinase were investigated. Deletion of ssp2+ caused a partial defect in glucose derepression of inv1+, fbp1+, and gld1+ and in assimilation of sucrose and glycerol, while a mutation in ppk9+ had no apparent effect. Scr1, a transcription factor involved in glucose repression, localized to the nucleus under glucose-rich conditions and to the cytoplasm during glucose starvation in wild-type cells. In contrast, in the ssp2Δ mutant, Scr1 localized to the nucleus in cells grown in glucose-rich medium as well as in glucose-starved cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that Ssp2 is required for the phosphorylation of Scr1 upon glucose deprivation. Mutation of five putative Ssp2 recognition sites in Scr1 prevented glucose derepression of invertase in glucose-starved cells. These results indicate that Ssp2 regulates phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Scr1 in response to glucose. PMID:22140232

  20. The SWI/SNF BAF-A complex is essential for neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Ronald L; Magnuson, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence indicates that chromatin remodeler mutations underlie the pathogenesis of human neurocristopathies or disorders that affect neural crest cells (NCCs). However, causal relationships among chromatin remodeler subunit mutations and NCC defects remain poorly understood. Here we show that homozygous loss of ARID1A-containing, SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes (BAF-A) in NCCs results in embryonic lethality in mice, with mutant embryos succumbing to heart defects. Strikingly, monoallelic loss of ARID1A in NCCs led to craniofacial defects in adult mice, including shortened snouts and low set ears, and these defects were more pronounced following homozygous loss of ARID1A, with the ventral cranial bones being greatly reduced in size. Early NCC specification and expression of the BRG1 NCC target gene, PLEXINA2, occurred normally in the absence of ARID1A. Nonetheless, mutant embryos displayed incomplete conotruncal septation of the cardiac outflow tract and defects in the posterior pharyngeal arteries, culminating in persistent truncus arteriosus and agenesis of the ductus arteriosus. Consistent with this, migrating cardiac NCCs underwent apoptosis within the circumpharyngeal ridge. Our data support the notion that multiple, distinct chromatin remodeling complexes govern genetically separable events in NCC development and highlight a potential pathogenic role for NCCs in the human BAF complex disorder, Coffin-Siris Syndrome. PMID:26806701

  1. Mutations in SRCAP, encoding SNF2-related CREBBP activator protein, cause Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hood, Rebecca L; Lines, Matthew A; Nikkel, Sarah M; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Beaulieu, Chandree; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J M; Allanson, Judith; Kim, Chong Ae; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Moilanen, Jukka S; Lacombe, Didier; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Whiteford, Margo L; Quaio, Caio Robledo D C; Gomy, Israel; Bertola, Debora R; Albrecht, Beate; Platzer, Konrad; McGillivray, George; Zou, Ruobing; McLeod, D Ross; Chudley, Albert E; Chodirker, Bernard N; Marcadier, Janet; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E; White, Susan M; Boycott, Kym M

    2012-02-10

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive-language deficits, and a distinctive facial appearance. Occurrence is generally sporadic, although parent-to-child transmission has been reported on occasion. Employing whole-exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous truncating mutations in SRCAP in five unrelated individuals with sporadic FHS. Sanger sequencing identified mutations in SRCAP in eight more affected persons. Mutations were de novo in all six instances in which parental DNA was available. SRCAP is an SNF2-related chromatin-remodeling factor that serves as a coactivator for CREB-binding protein (CREBBP, better known as CBP, the major cause of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome [RTS]). Five SRCAP mutations, two of which are recurrent, were identified; all are tightly clustered within a small (111 codon) region of the final exon. These mutations are predicted to abolish three C-terminal AT-hook DNA-binding motifs while leaving the CBP-binding and ATPase domains intact. Our findings show that SRCAP mutations are the major cause of FHS and offer an explanation for the clinical overlap between FHS and RTS. PMID:22265015

  2. SWI/SNF-Like Chromatin Remodeling Factor Fun30 Supports Point Centromere Function in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, Delphine; Harris, Rachael R.; Crawford, Margaret R.; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Krueger, Felix; Correra, Rosa Maria; Vetter, Anna T.; Miller, J. Ross; Kent, Nicholas A.; Varga-Weisz, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast centromeres are sequence-defined point centromeres and are, unlike in many other organisms, not embedded in heterochromatin. Here we show that Fun30, a poorly understood SWI/SNF-like chromatin remodeling factor conserved in humans, promotes point centromere function through the formation of correct chromatin architecture at centromeres. Our determination of the genome-wide binding and nucleosome positioning properties of Fun30 shows that this enzyme is consistently enriched over centromeres and that a majority of CENs show Fun30-dependent changes in flanking nucleosome position and/or CEN core micrococcal nuclease accessibility. Fun30 deletion leads to defects in histone variant Htz1 occupancy genome-wide, including at and around most centromeres. FUN30 genetically interacts with CSE4, coding for the centromere-specific variant of histone H3, and counteracts the detrimental effect of transcription through centromeres on chromosome segregation and suppresses transcriptional noise over centromere CEN3. Previous work has shown a requirement for fission yeast and mammalian homologs of Fun30 in heterochromatin assembly. As centromeres in budding yeast are not embedded in heterochromatin, our findings indicate a direct role of Fun30 in centromere chromatin by promoting correct chromatin architecture. PMID:23028372

  3. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. PMID:25441425

  4. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society. PMID:26676083

  5. The Antei uranium deposit: A natural analogue of an SNF repository and an underground geodynamic laboratory in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.; Nasimov, R. M.; Hammer, J.; Burmistrov, A. A.; Shchukin, S. I.

    2008-10-01

    The estimation of the long-term stability of crystalline rock massifs with respect to natural and technogenic loads in the course of long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a special area of surveys at underground research laboratories (URLs). In parallel with these surveys, data on uranium deposits—natural analogues of repositories of SNF consisting of 95% UO2—are used for obtaining insight into the dynamics of radionuclide migration and validating barrier properties of host rocks. Examples of URLs located in granitic massifs of Sweden (Äspö), Canada (Whiteshell), Switzerland (Grimsel), Japan (Mizunami), and Finland (ONKALO), as well as the El Berrocal (Spain), Palmottu (Finland), Sanerliu (China), and Kamaishi (Japan) deposits, are considered in the paper. The objects listed above are distinct in tectonic settings, geology, control of ore mineralization, redox conditions of uranium migration, and character and intensity of filtration and transportation, which predetermine the direction and specific features of research conducted therein. A variant in which a URL and a natural analogue are combined in one object is especially promising for validation of safe long-term isolation of SNF. The Antei vein-stockwork uranium deposit in the southeastern Transbaikal region, localized in Paleozoic granite at a depth of 400 1000 m and opened by mine workings at six levels, is such an object. Its geological features, stress-strain state, and infrastructure of mine workings offer an opportunity to study the entire spectrum of processes proceeding in near-and far-field of an SNF repository. The structural geology, mineralogy and petrography, and petrophysical and tectonophysical features of the deposit at its three lower levels are considered. The sequence of metasomatic alteration of rocks and the dynamics of formation of ore-bearing faults that crosscut prototectonic elements, as well as relationships of physicomechanical properties of rocks as a function of

  6. A Safety Case Approach for Deep Geologic Disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in Bedded Salt - 13350

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Frank D.

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and utility of developing a defensible safety case for disposal of United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) high-level waste (HLW) and DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a conceptual deep geologic repository that is assumed to be located in a bedded salt formation of the Delaware Basin [1]. A safety case is a formal compilation of evidence, analyses, and arguments that substantiate and demonstrate the safety of a proposed or conceptual repository. We conclude that a strong initial safety case for potential licensing can be readily compiled by capitalizing on the extensive technical basis that exists from prior work on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), other U.S. repository development programs, and the work published through international efforts in salt repository programs such as in Germany. The potential benefits of developing a safety case include leveraging previous investments in WIPP to reduce future new repository costs, enhancing the ability to effectively plan for a repository and its licensing, and possibly expediting a schedule for a repository. A safety case will provide the necessary structure for organizing and synthesizing existing salt repository science and identifying any issues and gaps pertaining to safe disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in bedded salt. The safety case synthesis will help DOE to plan its future R and D activities for investigating salt disposal using a risk-informed approach that prioritizes test activities that include laboratory, field, and underground investigations. It should be emphasized that the DOE has not made any decisions regarding the disposition of DOE HLW and DOE SNF. Furthermore, the safety case discussed herein is not intended to either site a repository in the Delaware Basin or preclude siting in other media at other locations. Rather, this study simply presents an approach for accelerated development of a safety case for a potential

  7. A Pediatric Case of Thelaziasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Chung Hyuk; Ko, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jung Hyun; Choi, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Wook; Ahn, Sang Ki; Ahn, Myoung Hee; Choi, Kyong Eun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we intended to report a clinical pediatric case of thelaziasis in Korea. In addition, we briefly reviewed the literature on pediatric cases of thelaziasis in Korea. In the present case, 3 whitish, thread-like eye-worms were detected in a 6-year-old-boy living in an urban area and contracted an ocular infection known as thelaziasis incidentally during ecological agritainment. This is the first report of pediatric thelaziasis in Seoul after 1995. PMID:27417087

  8. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  9. The history and perspective of Romania-USA cooperation in the field of technologic transfer of TRIGA reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocaanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-08-01

    The cooperation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW{sub t} TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW{sub t} level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this cooperation and the perspective for a new cooperation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited.

  10. RNA sequencing analysis identifies the metabolic and developmental genes regulated by BbSNF1 during conidiation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    He, Pu-Hong; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Chu, Xin-Ling; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Conidiation promotes fungal dispersal and survival in the environment, and is a determinant for the biocontrol potential of Beauveria bassiana. The SNF1/AMPK protein kinases function as an important regulator of fungal development and energy metabolism, and play a crucial role in conidiation of the filamentous fungi. In previous study, it has been established that the B. bassiana homolog (BbSNF1) controls conidial production. This study showed that the ΔBbSNF1 mutants displayed a delayed development of mycelia and conidia, but the conidiophore morphogenesis was not significantly changed in the mutants. Ablation of BbSNF1 significantly changed the metabolic homeostasis of intracellular amino acids during conidiation, and caused a notable reduction in the contents of seven amino acids (i.e., arginine, alanine, valine, phenylalanine, lysine, leucine, and glutamic acid). All above amino acids could recover conidiation of the mutants in different extents (ranging from 43.3 to 300 %). Transcriptomic analysis revealed many putative target genes regulated by BbSNF1 and associated with conidial development, and these genes were primarily involved in metabolism, cell rescue, and transport. Particularly, four categories related to the amino acid degradation were over-represented in the up-regulated genes, and three categories related to the amino acid biosynthesis were over-represented in the down-regulated genes. Moreover, the ΔBbSNF1 mutants displayed reduced expression level of the upstream and central regulators of conidiation, as well as the other regulator and cytoskeleton genes. Our data indicate that SNF1 kinase contributes to B. bassiana conidiation by regulating the metabolism and the central regulators of conidiation. PMID:25417093

  11. Generation of a mouse model of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system through combined deletion of Snf5 and p53.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jessica M Y; Martinez, Daniel; Marsh, Eric D; Zhang, Zhe; Rappaport, Eric; Santi, Mariarita; Curran, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors arise in several anatomic locations and are associated with poor outcomes. In the brain, these tumors are known as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). While genetically engineered models for malignant rhabdoid tumors exist, none of them recapitulate AT/RT, for which preclinical models remain lacking. In the majority of AT/RT, LOH occurs at the genetic locus SNF5 (Ini1/BAF47/Smarcb1), which functions as a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and a tumor suppressor in familial and sporadic malignant rhabdoid tumors. Therefore, we generated mice in which Snf5 was ablated specifically in nestin-positive and/or glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive progenitor cells of the developing central nervous system (CNS). Snf5 ablation in nestin-positive cells resulted in early lethality that could not be rescued by loss of p53. However, Snf5 ablation in GFAP-positive cells caused a neurodegenerative phenotype exacerbated by p53 loss. Notably, these double mutants exhibited AT/RT development, associated with an earlier failure in granule neuron migration in the cerebellum, reduced neuronal projections in the hippocampus, degeneration of the corpus callosum, and ataxia and seizures. Gene expression analysis confirmed that the tumors that arose in Snf5/p53 mutant mice were distinct from other neural tumors and most closely resembled human AT/RT. Our findings uncover a novel role for Snf5 in oligodendrocyte generation and survival, and they offer evidence of the first genetically engineered mouse model for AT/RT in the CNS. PMID:26363008

  12. The impact of biomass burning in North Korea to the air quality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.; Lee, J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-12-01

    South Korea is contiguous to China, Japan and North Koreas, so air pollutants transported from outside South Korea should be investigated. Nevertheless, few researches have dealt with the influences of air pollutants from North Korea to other areas. The objectives of this study are to understand the influences of air pollutants' emission from North Korea to South Korea, especially Seoul, using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model and the backward trajectory analysis. CMB model were applied to analyze the source apportionment of PAHs at Seoul between 2006 and 2007. To understand the transport of air pollutants emitted from North Korea, the backward trajectories in sampling days were classified to four cases depending on which area the trajectories predominantly passed through. Based on the contribution of biomass burning calculated by CMB and the trajectories, the influence of air pollutants from North Korea to Seoul is quantified. In order to strengthen the uncertainty of CMB result, the trend of levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-b-D-glucopyranose) concentration at Seoul is also discussed depending on the classification of trajectories.

  13. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  14. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    PICKETT, W.W.

    2000-09-22

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

  15. Rice SNF2 family helicase ENL1 is essential for syncytial endosperm development.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tomomi; Katoh, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kagaya, Yasuaki; Sato, Yutaka; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagato, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ono, Akemi; Kinoshita, Tetsu; Takeda, Shin; Hattori, Tsukaho

    2015-01-01

    The endosperm of cereal grains represents the most important source of human nutrition. In addition, the endosperm provides many investigatory opportunities for biologists because of the unique processes that occur during its ontogeny, including syncytial development at early stages. Rice endospermless 1 (enl1) develops seeds lacking an endosperm but carrying a functional embryo. The enl1 endosperm produces strikingly enlarged amoeboid nuclei. These abnormal nuclei result from a malfunction in mitotic chromosomal segregation during syncytial endosperm development. The molecular identification of the causal gene revealed that ENL1 encodes an SNF2 helicase family protein that is orthologous to human Plk1-Interacting Checkpoint Helicase (PICH), which has been implicated in the resolution of persistent DNA catenation during anaphase. ENL1-Venus (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)) localizes to the cytoplasm during interphase but moves to the chromosome arms during mitosis. ENL1-Venus is also detected on a thread-like structure that connects separating sister chromosomes. These observations indicate the functional conservation between PICH and ENL1 and confirm the proposed role of PICH. Although ENL1 dysfunction also affects karyokinesis in the root meristem, enl1 plants can grow in a field and set seeds, indicating that its indispensability is tissue-dependent. Notably, despite the wide conservation of ENL1/PICH among eukaryotes, the loss of function of the ENL1 ortholog in Arabidopsis (CHR24) has only marginal effects on endosperm nuclei and results in normal plant development. Our results suggest that ENL1 is endowed with an indispensable role to secure the extremely rapid nuclear cycle during syncytial endosperm development in rice. PMID:25327517

  16. DESIGN OF A CONCRETE SLAB FOR STORAGE OF SNF AND HLW CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bisset

    2005-02-14

    This calculation documents the design of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and High-Level Waste (HLW) Cask storage slab for the Aging Area. The design is based on the weights of casks that may be stored on the slab, the weights of vehicles that may be used to move the casks, and the layout shown on the sketch for a 1000 Metric Ton of Heavy Metal (MTHM) storage pad on Attachment 2, Sht.1 of the calculation 170-C0C-C000-00100-000-00A (BSC 2004a). The analytical model used herein is based on the storage area for 8 vertical casks. To simplify the model, the storage area of the horizontal concrete modules and their related shield walls is not included. The heavy weights of the vertical storage casks and the tensile forces due to pullout at the anchorages will produce design moments and shear forces that will envelope those that would occur in the storage area of the horizontal modules. The design loadings will also include snow and live loads. In addition, the design will also reflect pertinent geotechnical data. This calculation will document the preliminary thickness and general reinforcing steel requirements for the slab. This calculation also documents the initial design of the cask anchorage. Other slab details are not developed in this calculation. They will be developed during the final design process. The calculation also does not include the evaluation of the effects of cask drop loads. These will be evaluated in this or another calculation when the exact cask geometry is known.

  17. Occupational Respiratory Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  18. Development of TRIGA-based experimental device for fiber optics in-core instrumentation testing for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, J. M.; Tsvetkov, P. V.

    2012-07-01

    Given the harsh environments of high temperature reactors, new in-core instrumentation has to be developed, since existing approaches may fail prematurely in VHTRs. The paper discusses ongoing efforts to support progress of suitable advanced in-core instrumentation technologies and develop an experimental approach for evaluation of their performance within VHTRs via emulation of VHTR in-core conditions in TRIGA reactors. Successful completion of the presented computational analysis concludes the first phase of the project. As demonstrated, it is proposed to use a high temperature furnace with fluence equivalency in operating TRIGA reactors. (authors)

  19. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  20. Independent Action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 Protein in Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Steven L.; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Uffman, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  1. Monte Carlo Simulation of the TRIGA Mark II Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jeraj, Robert; Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-03-15

    Monte Carlo calculations of a criticality experiment with burned fuel on the TRIGA Mark II research reactor are presented. The main objective was to incorporate burned fuel composition calculated with the WIMSD4 deterministic code into the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code and compare the calculated k{sub eff} with the measurements. The criticality experiment was performed in 1998 at the ''Jozef Stefan'' Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the same fuel elements and loading pattern as in the TRIGA criticality benchmark experiment with fresh fuel performed in 1991. The only difference was that in 1998, the fuel elements had on average burnup of {approx}3%, corresponding to 1.3-MWd energy produced in the core in the period between 1991 and 1998. The fuel element burnup accumulated during 1991-1998 was calculated with the TRIGLAV in-house-developed fuel management two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code. The burned fuel isotopic composition was calculated with the WIMSD4 code and compared to the ORIGEN2 calculations. Extensive comparison of burned fuel material composition was performed for both codes for burnups up to 20% burned {sup 235}U, and the differences were evaluated in terms of reactivity. The WIMSD4 and ORIGEN2 results agreed well for all isotopes important in reactivity calculations, giving increased confidence in the WIMSD4 calculation of the burned fuel material composition. The k{sub eff} calculated with the combined WIMSD4 and MCNP4B calculations showed good agreement with the experimental values. This shows that linking of WIMSD4 with MCNP4B for criticality calculations with burned fuel is feasible and gives reliable results.

  2. Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase activates Arf3p to promote invasive yeast growth via a non-canonical GEF domain

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jia-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Lee, Fang-Jen S.

    2015-01-01

    Active GTP-bound Arf GTPases promote eukaryotic cell membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal remodelling. Arf activation is accelerated by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) using the critical catalytic glutamate in all known Sec7 domain sequences. Yeast Arf3p, a homologue of mammalian Arf6, is required for yeast invasive responses to glucose depletion. Here we identify Snf1p as a GEF that activates Arf3p when energy is limited. SNF1 is the yeast homologue of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. As activation of Arf3p does not depend on the Snf1p kinase domain, assay of regulatory domain fragments yield evidence that the C-terminal hydrophobic α-helix core of Snf1p is a non-canonical GEF for Arf3p activation. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism for regulating cellular responses to energy deprivation, in particular invasive cell growth, through direct Arf activation by Snf1/AMPK. PMID:26198097

  3. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented. PMID:25746919

  4. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Nagels, S; Hampel, G; Kratz, J V; Aguilar, A L; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B

    2009-07-01

    For the application of the BNCT for the excorporal treatment of organs at the TRIGA Mainz, the basic characteristics of the radiation field in the thermal column as beam geometry, neutron and gamma ray energies, angular distributions, neutron flux, as well as absorbed gamma and neutron doses must be determined in a reproducible way. To determine the mixed irradiation field thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) made of CaF(2):Tm with a newly developed energy-compensation filter system and LiF:Mg,Ti materials with different (6)Li concentrations and different thicknesses as well as thin gold foils were used. PMID:19380234

  5. Monte Carlo design for a new neutron collimator at the ENEA Casaccia TRIGA reactor.

    PubMed

    Burgio, N; Rosa, R

    2004-10-01

    The TRIGA RC-1 1MW reactor operating at ENEA Casaccia Center is currently being developed as a second neutron imaging facility that shall be devoted to computed tomography as well as neutron tomography. In order to reduce the gamma-ray content in the neutron beam, the reactor tangential piercing channel was selected. A set of Monte Carlo simulation was used to design the neutron collimator, to determine the preliminary choice of the materials to be employed in the collimator design. PMID:15246415

  6. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  7. Technical Specifications for the Neutron Radiography Facility (TRIGA Mark 1 Reactor). Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.L.; Perfect, J.F.

    1988-04-01

    These Technical Specifications state the limits under which the Neutron Radiography Facility, with its associated TRIGA Mark I Reactor, is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. These specifications cover operation of the Facility for the purpose of examination of specimens (including contained fissile material) by neutron radiography, for the irradiation of specimens in the pneumatic transfer system and approved in-core or in-pool irradiation facilities and operator training. The Final Safety Analysis Report (TC-344) and its supplements, and these Technical Specifications are the basic safety documents of the Neutron Radiography Facility.

  8. Unique applications of research reactors with TRIGA UZrH[sub x] fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, W.L. )

    1993-01-01

    The TRIGA reactor fuel (UZrH[sub x]) in research reactors provides significant safety features that have permitted varied and unique applications. The safety features include a very large, prompt, negative temperature coefficient of reactivity; very high safety limit for fuel temperature (1150[degrees]C); and large fission product retention even for unclad fuel. The recognized safety of these reactors has permitted them to be located as appropriate on university campuses in buildings housing lecture halls and in hospitals. It has also facilitated installation of in-core or near-core experiments and facilities, including liquid hydrogen or other cryogenic neutron sources.

  9. Neutronics analysis of the proposed 25-MW leu TRIGA Multipurpose Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdin, M.; Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    More than two years ago the government of Indonesia announced plans to purchase a research reactor for the Puspiptek Research Center in Serpong Indonesia to be used for isotope production, materials testing, neutron physics measurements, and reactor operator training. Reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) plate-type and rod-type fuel elements were considered. This paper deals with the neutronic evaluation of the rod-type 25-MW LEU TRIGA Multipurpose Research Reactor (MPRR) proposed by the General Atomic Company of the United States of America.

  10. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  11. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B.; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C.; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:27267444

  12. MITF interacts with the SWI/SNF subunit, BRG1, to promote GATA4 expression in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gaurav; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Wu, Jian; Walsh, Aaron; Liu, Lijun; Williams, Kandace; Joe, Bina; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptional regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the interplay of transcription factors and chromatin remodeling enzymes. The Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and is required for cardiac hypertrophy. However, the transcriptional mechanisms by which MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy have not been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy by activating transcription of pro-hypertrophy genes through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. In an in vivo model of cardiac hypertrophy, expression of MITF and the BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex increased coordinately in response to pressure overload. Expression of MITF and BRG1 also increased in vitro when cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II or a β-adrenergic agonist. Both MITF and BRG1 were required to increase cardiomyocyte size and activate expression of hypertrophy markers in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. We detected physical interactions between MITF and BRG1 in cardiomyocytes and found that they cooperate to regulate expression of a pro-hypertrophic transcription factor, GATA4. Our data show that MITF binds to the E box element in the GATA4 promoter and facilitates recruitment of BRG1. This is associated with enhanced expression of the GATA4 gene as evidenced by increased Histone3 lysine4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) on the GATA4 promoter. Thus, in hypertrophic cardiomyoctes, MITF is a key transcriptional activator of a pro-hypertrophic gene, GATA4, and this regulation is dependent upon the BRG1 component of the SWI/SNF complex. PMID:26388265

  13. Computational modeling of Repeat1 region of INI1/hSNF5: An evolutionary link with ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Bhutoria, Savita; Kalpana, Ganjam V; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2016-09-01

    The structure of a protein can be very informative of its function. However, determining protein structures experimentally can often be very challenging. Computational methods have been used successfully in modeling structures with sufficient accuracy. Here we have used computational tools to predict the structure of an evolutionarily conserved and functionally significant domain of Integrase interactor (INI)1/hSNF5 protein. INI1 is a component of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex, a tumor suppressor and is involved in many protein-protein interactions. It belongs to SNF5 family of proteins that contain two conserved repeat (Rpt) domains. Rpt1 domain of INI1 binds to HIV-1 Integrase, and acts as a dominant negative mutant to inhibit viral replication. Rpt1 domain also interacts with oncogene c-MYC and modulates its transcriptional activity. We carried out an ab initio modeling of a segment of INI1 protein containing the Rpt1 domain. The structural model suggested the presence of a compact and well defined ββαα topology as core structure in the Rpt1 domain of INI1. This topology in Rpt1 was similar to PFU domain of Phospholipase A2 Activating Protein, PLAA. Interestingly, PFU domain shares similarity with Ubiquitin and has ubiquitin binding activity. Because of the structural similarity between Rpt1 domain of INI1 and PFU domain of PLAA, we propose that Rpt1 domain of INI1 may participate in ubiquitin recognition or binding with ubiquitin or ubiquitin related proteins. This modeling study may shed light on the mode of interactions of Rpt1 domain of INI1 and is likely to facilitate future functional studies of INI1. PMID:27261671

  14. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z

    2016-07-01

    MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:27267444

  15. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-03-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery. PMID:26739451

  16. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  17. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  18. Technical aspects of PACS in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JongHyo

    2002-05-01

    Korea is one of the fastest growing countries in the number of filmless hospitals. More than 70 hospitals have converted to filmless environments by adopting full PAC systems during the last two years. The patient care environment in Korean hospitals was not favorable to PACS implementation. In many out patient clinics, doctors had to see more than hundred patients a day. It was not rare for a radiologist to read several hundred of exams a day. Also, the PACS teams were mandated to acquire full scale PACS capable of incorporating not only radiological images but also color images produced in other imaging departments. In order to take root in Korean environment, the PACS in Korea had to pass through some technical modifications that included introduction of recent hardware technologies and development of new software features. This paper describes various technical aspects of PAC systems in Korea that have met difficult requirements and enabled wide spread of PAC systems to real clinical practice.

  19. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  20. HEP Data Grid Applications in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Oh, Youngdo; Son, Dongchul; Kim, Bockjoo; Lee, Sangsan

    2003-04-01

    We will introduce the national HEP Data Grid applications in Korea. Through a five-year HEP Data Grid project (2002-2006) for CMS, AMS, CDF, PHENIX, K2K and Belle experiments in Korea, the Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University in Korea will construct the 1,000 PC cluster and related storage system such as 1,200 TByte Raid disk system. This project includes one of the master plan to construct Asia Regional Data Center by 2006 for the CMS and AMS Experiments and DCAF(DeCentralized Analysis Farm) for the CDF Experiments. During the first year of the project, we have constructed a cluster of around 200 CPU's with a 50 TBytes of a storage system. We will present our first year's experience of the software and hardware applications for HEP Data Grid of EDG and SAM Grid testbeds.

  1. The BAF60 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex directly controls the formation of a gene loop at FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jégu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Delarue, Marianne; Hirt, Heribert; Domenichini, Séverine; Ariel, Federico; Crespi, Martin; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2014-02-01

    SWI/SNF complexes mediate ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling to regulate gene expression. Many components of these complexes are evolutionarily conserved, and several subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana SWI/SNF complexes are involved in the control of flowering, a process that depends on the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). BAF60 is a SWI/SNF subunit, and in this work, we show that BAF60, via a direct targeting of the floral repressor FLC, induces a change at the high-order chromatin level and represses the photoperiod flowering pathway in Arabidopsis. BAF60 accumulates in the nucleus and controls the formation of the FLC gene loop by modulation of histone density, composition, and posttranslational modification. Physiological analysis of BAF60 RNA interference mutant lines allowed us to propose that this chromatin-remodeling protein creates a repressive chromatin configuration at the FLC locus. PMID:24510722

  2. Epidemiological characteristics of ovarian cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Park, Sohee; Kim, Tae-Joong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Tae Jin; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to examine recent trends in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality and secular trends in demographic factors in Korea. Methods With the data from Korea Central Cancer Registry, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Korean Death Registry, and World Health Organization's Statistical Information System, we calculated age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for ovarian cancer. Also we estimated future incidence of ovarian and cervical cancer using linear regression model. To assess the demographic trend, data from national surveys in Korea or results from published papers were searched. Results Ovarian cancer incidence rate was similar to that in women worldwide but lower than those in Western countries, and the trend has been increased steadily. Ovarian cancer-related mortality rates have been increasing in Korea, even though those in western and some Asian countries, such as China, have been decreasing. Age-specific incidence rate and mortality rate showed steep increases with advancing age. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer was estimated to surpass that of uterine cervix cancer in 2015. Korea showed rapid changes in nutritional, reproductive, and anthropometric factors. Conclusion These recent trends in ovarian cancer incidence and mortality may be partly attributed to gradual westernizing of life styles and to changes in socio-demographic behavior factors. In particular, the increasing trend in ovarian cancer mortality in Korea may be attributed to a real rise in mortality as well as, in part, a decline in misclassification bias related to an increase in the proportion of deaths confirmed by physician diagnosis. PMID:21278886

  3. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  4. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  5. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (56 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (65 FR 11984... issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (70 FR 61118)....

  6. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  7. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  8. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  9. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  10. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  11. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  12. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  13. 76 FR 69296 - University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... published in the Federal Register on July 21, 2011 (76 FR 43733-43737). The NRC received no request for a..., 2011 (76 FR 60091-60094), and concluded that renewal of the facility operating license will not have a... COMMISSION University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of...

  14. SNF3 as High Affinity Glucose Sensor and Its Function in Supporting the Viability of Candida glabrata under Glucose-Limited Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tzu Shan; Chew, Shu Yih; Rangasamy, Premmala; Mohd Desa, Mohd N.; Sandai, Doblin; Chong, Pei Pei; Than, Leslie Thian Lung

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3) as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR) pathway-related genes. The CgSNF3Δ strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01 and 0.1%) in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1 and 2%). It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1%) and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (four out of nine). Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment. PMID:26648919

  15. The core histone N-terminal domains are required for multiple rounds of catalytic chromatin remodeling by the SWI/SNF and RSC complexes.

    PubMed

    Logie, C; Tse, C; Hansen, J C; Peterson, C L

    1999-02-23

    SWI/SNF and RSC are large, distinct multi-subunit complexes that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disrupt nucleosome structure, facilitating the binding of transcription factors or restriction enzymes to nucleosomes [Cote, J., Quinn, J., Workman, J. L., and Peterson, C. L. (1994) Science 265, 53-60 (1); Lorch, Y., Cairns, B. R., Zhang, M., and Kornberg, R. D. (1998) Cell 94, 29-34 (2)]. Here we have used a quantitative assay to measure the activities of these ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes using nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with hypoacetylated, hyperacetylated, or partially trypsinized histones. This assay is based on measuring the kinetics of restriction enzyme digestion of a site located within the central nucleosome of a positioned 11-mer array [Logie, C., and Peterson, C. L. (1997) EMBO J. 16, 6772-6782 (3)]. We find that the DNA-stimulated ATPase activities of SWI/SNF and RSC are not altered by the absence of the histone N-termini. Furthermore, ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling is also equivalent on all three substrate arrays under reaction conditions where the concentrations of nucleosomal array and either SWI/SNF or RSC are equivalent. However, SWI/SNF and RSC cannot catalytically remodel multiple nucleosomal arrays in the absence of the histone termini, and this catalytic activity of SWI/SNF is decreased by histone hyperacetylation. These results indicate that the histone termini are important for SWI/SNF and RSC function; and, furthermore, our data defines a step in the remodeling cycle where the core histone termini exert their influence. This step appears to be after remodeling, but prior to intermolecular transfer of the remodelers to new arrays. PMID:10029546

  16. Startup experience at the University of Texas TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Thomas L.; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1992-07-01

    After eight years of singular effort, the UT-TRIGA Mark II research reactor was licensed and is fully operational. This reactor is the focus of a new reactor laboratory facility which is located at the Balcones Research Center, a north Austin campus of The University of Texas at Austin. The UT-TRIGA reactor is licensed for 1.1 MW steady power operation and 3 dollar pulsing. A startup program was implemented upon receipt of the facility license on January 17, 1992. Several facility features are unique to this startup. Among these were the use of fuel with various burnup and a digital control system. The reactor laboratory staff with assistance from a General Atomics instrumentation engineer performed all phases of the startup program. Core loading began in February 1992 with final testing completed in May 1992. Several unusual problems were encountered during this time. Experiment authorizations have been written to resume Neutron Activation Analysis programs and isotope production. Several neutron beam tube experiments are in the design and test phase. (author)

  17. Study of the effect of {sup 135}Xe poison on the temperature coefficient of TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Iorgulis, Constantin

    1992-07-01

    A study of the influence of {sup 135}Xe on the prompt negative temperature coefficient of the 14-MW Romanian TRIGA reactor has been performed. Because of its large absorption cross section below 0.1 eV, we expected that {sup 135}Xe might make a positive contribution to the temperature coefficient because the higher-energy neutrons are less likely to be absorbed by the Xe. This effect would be largest about 16 hours after reactor shutdown. In order to investigate this phenomenon, we have performed cell and core calculations for various fuel temperatures, burnups, and {sup 135}Xe levels. These calculations indeed show a positive contribution of {sup 135}Xe to the temperature coefficient, especially for high burnups, where little {sup 167}Er remains to absorb the higher-energy neutrons. Work is in progress to evaluate the effect of the smaller negative temperature coefficient on the consequences of reactivity insertion accidents in unfavorable situations of {sup 135}Xe poisoning of the Romanian TRIGA core. (author)

  18. Radionuclide mass inventory, activity, decay heat, and dose rate parametric data for TRIGA spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Parametric burnup calculations are performed to estimate radionuclide isotopic mass and activity concentrations for four different Training, Research, and Isotope General Atomics (TRIGA) nuclear reactor fuel element types: (1) Aluminum-clad standard, (2) Stainless Steel-clad standard, (3) High-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP), and (4) Low-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP-LEU-1). Parametric activity data are tabulated for 145 important radionuclides that can be used to generate gamma-ray emission source terms or provide mass quantity estimates as a function of decay time. Fuel element decay heats and dose rates are also presented parametrically as a function of burnup and decay time. Dose rates are given at the fuel element midplane for contact, 3.0-feet, and 3.0-meter detector locations in air. The data herein are estimates based on specially derived Beginning-of-Life (BOL) neutron cross sections using geometrically-explicit TRIGA reactor core models. The calculated parametric data should represent good estimates relative to actual values, although no experimental data were available for direct comparison and validation. However, because the cross sections were not updated as a function of burnup, the actinide concentrations may deviate from the actual values at the higher burnups.

  19. Fundamental approach to TRIGA steady-state thermal-hydraulic CHF analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.E.

    2008-07-15

    Methods are investigated for predicting the power at which critical heat flux (CHF) occurs in TRIGA reactors that rely on natural convection for primary flow. For a representative TRIGA reactor, two sets of functions are created. For the first set, the General Atomics STAT code and the more widely-used RELAP5-3D code are each employed to obtain reactor flow rate as a function of power. For the second set, the Bernath correlation, the 2006 Groeneveld table, the Hall and Mudawar outlet correlation, and each of the four PG-CHF correlations for rod bundles are used to predict the power at which CHF occurs as a function of channel flow rate. The two sets of functions are combined to yield predictions of the power at which CHF occurs in the reactor. A combination of the RELAP5-3D code and the 2006 Groeneveld table predicts 67% more CHF power than does a combination of the STAT code and the Bernath correlation. (author)

  20. Cross sections for fuel depletion and radioisotope production calculations in TRIGA reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, H.F.; Mazon, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    For TRIGA Reactors, the fuel depletion and isotopic inventory calculations, depends on the computer code and in the cross sections of some important actinides used. Among these we have U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241. We choose ORIGEN2, a code with a good reputation in this kind of calculations, we observed the cross sections for these actinides in the libraries that we have (PWR's and BWR), the fission cross section for U-235 was about 50 barns. We used a PWR library and our results were not satisfactory, specially for standard elements. We decided to calculate cross sections more suitable for our reactor, for that purpose we simulate the standard and FLIP TRIGA cells with the transport code WIMS. We used the fuel average flux and COLAPS (a home made program), to generate suitable cross sections for ORIGEN2, by collapsing the WIMS library cross sections of these nuclides. For the radioisotope production studies using the Central Thimble, we simulate the A and B rings and used the A average flux to collapse cross sections. For these studies, the required nuclides sometimes are not present in WIMS library, for them we are planning to process the ENDF/B data, with NJOY system, and include the cross sections to WIMS library or to collapse them using the appropriate average-flux and the program COLAPS. (author)

  1. Reduced enrichment neutronics evaluation for Texas A and M's TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.J.; Reuscher, J.A. )

    1990-06-01

    The Texas A and M Nuclear Science Center reactor (NSCR) designed by General Atomics (GA) uses a fuel-life improvement program TRIGA fuel element. It is composed of 8.5 wt% uranium in U-ZrH{sub 1.6}-Er fuel with a {sup 235}U enrichment of 70 at.% and 1.5 wt% of erbium. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that the enrichment not exceed 20 at.% for the next loading, provided the fuel is available. To meet this requirement GA has developed shrouded four-rod clusters using low-enriched U-ZrH{sub 1.6}-Er fuel for TRIGA cores operating at powers up to 2 MW. This fuel contains 20 wt% of uranium with an enrichment of 20 at.% and 0.5 wt% of erbium and a homogeneous mixture of hydrogen moderator. Thermal-hydraulic calculations show the feasibility of operating the NSCR at 2 MW. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of the NSCR to operate at 2 MW using the reduced-enrichment fuel. This study also covers a three-dimensional neutronics analysis of the NSCR core using the new fuel. Results obtained are compared with results obtained with another candidate fuel, BeO-UO{sub 2}-Er.

  2. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  3. Both Loss-of-Function and Gain-of-Function Mutations in Snf Define a Role for Snrnp Proteins in Regulating Sex-Lethal Pre-mRNA Splicing in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Salz, H. K.; Flickinger, T. W.

    1996-01-01

    The Drosophila snf gene encodes a protein with functional homology to the mammalian U1A and U2B" snRNP proteins. Studies, based on the analysis of three viable alleles, have suggested a role for snf in establishing the female-specific splicing pattern of the sex determination switch gene, Sex-lethal. Here, we show that the non-sex-specific lethal null allele is required for female sex determination, arguing against the formal possibility that the viable alleles disrupt a function unrelated to snf's wild-type function. Moreover, we find snf is required for normal cell growth and/or survival, as expected for a protein involved in a cell-vital process such as RNA splicing. We also show that of the three viable alleles only one, snf(JA2), is a partial loss-of-function mutation. The other two viable alleles, snf(1621) and snf(e8H), encode antimorphic proteins. We find the antimorphic proteins are mislocalized and correlate their mislocalization with their molecular lesions and mutant phenotypes. Finally, we provide genetic evidence that the antimorphic alleles interfere with the autoregulatory splicing function of the Sex-lethal protein. Based on these studies we suggest a model in which the snRNP protein, Snf, functions with Sex-lethal to block recognition of the regulated male-specific exon. PMID:8878676

  4. MAX inactivation in small cell lung cancer disrupts MYC-SWI/SNF programs and is synthetic lethal with BRG1.

    PubMed

    Romero, Octavio A; Torres-Diz, Manuel; Pros, Eva; Savola, Suvi; Gomez, Antonio; Moran, Sebastian; Saez, Carmen; Iwakawa, Reika; Villanueva, Alberto; Montuenga, Luis M; Kohno, Takashi; Yokota, Jun; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2014-03-01

    Our knowledge of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) genetics is still very limited, amplification of L-MYC, N-MYC, and C-MYC being some of the well-established gene alterations. Here, we report our discovery of tumor-specific inactivation of the MYC-associated factor X gene, MAX, in SCLC. MAX inactivation is mutually exclusive with alterations of MYC and BRG1, the latter coding for an ATPase of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex. We demonstrate that BRG1 regulates the expression of MAX through direct recruitment to the MAX promoter, and that depletion of BRG1 strongly hinders cell growth, specifically in MAX-deficient cells, heralding a synthetic lethal interaction. Furthermore, MAX requires BRG1 to activate neuroendocrine transcriptional programs and to upregulate MYC targets, such as glycolysis-related genes. Finally, inactivation of the MAX dimerization protein, MGA, was also observed in both non-small cell lung cancer and SCLC. Our results provide evidence that an aberrant SWI/SNF-MYC network is essential for lung cancer development. PMID:24362264

  5. CRITICALITY CALCULATION FOR THE MOST REACTIVE DEGRADED CONFIGURATIONS OF THE FFTF SNF CODISPOSAL WP CONTAINING AN INTACT IDENT-69 CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Moscalu

    2002-08-28

    The objective of this calculation is to perform additional degraded mode criticality evaluations of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed in a 5-Defense High-Level Waste (5-DHLW) Waste Package (WP). The scope of this calculation is limited to the most reactive degraded configurations of the codisposal WP with an almost intact Ident-69 container (breached and flooded but otherwise non-degraded) containing intact FFTF SNF pins. The configurations have been identified in a previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the present evaluations include additional relevant information that was left out of the original calculations. The additional information describes the exact distribution of fissile material in each container (DOE 2002a). The effects of the changes that have been included in the baseline design of the codisposal WP (CRWMS M&O 2000) are also investigated. The calculation determines the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for selected degraded mode internal configurations of the codisposal waste package. These calculations will support the demonstration of the technical viability of the design solution adopted for disposing of MOX (FFTF) spent nuclear fuel in the potential repository. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 2002b) per the activity evaluation under work package number P6212310M2 in the technical work plan TWP-MGR-MD-000010 REV 01 (BSC 2002).

  6. SWI/SNF remodeling and p300-dependent transcription of histone variant H2ABbd nucleosomal arrays

    PubMed Central

    Angelov, Dimitar; Verdel, André; An, Woojin; Bondarenko, Vladimir; Hans, Fabienne; Doyen, Cécile-Marie; Studitsky, Vassily M; Hamiche, Ali; Roeder, Robert G; Bouvet, Philippe; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    A histone variant H2ABbd was recently identified, but its function is totally unknown. Here we have studied the structural and functional properties of nucleosome and nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with this histone variant. We show that H2ABbd can replace the conventional H2A in the nucleosome, but this replacement results in alterations of the nucleosomal structure. The remodeling complexes SWI/SNF and ACF are unable to mobilize the variant H2ABbd nucleosome. However, SWI/SNF was able to increase restriction enzyme access to the variant nucleosome and assist the transfer of variant H2ABbd–H2B dimer to a tetrameric histone H3–H4 particle. In addition, the p300- and Gal4-VP16-activated transcription appeared to be more efficient for H2ABbd nucleosomal arrays than for conventional H2A arrays. The intriguing mechanisms by which H2ABbd affects both nucleosome remodeling and transcription are discussed. PMID:15372075

  7. mSWI/SNF (BAF) Complexes Are Indispensable for the Neurogenesis and Development of Embryonic Olfactory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Christina; Nguyen, Huong; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Pham, Linh; Rabe, Tamara; Patwa, Megha; Sokpor, Godwin; Seong, Rho H; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Mansouri, Ahmed; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-09-01

    Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively. We demonstrated that BAF155 subunit is highly expressed in both oNSCs and ORNs, whereas high expression of BAF170 subunit is observed only in ORNs. We report that conditional deletion of BAF155, a core subunit in both onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, causes impaired proliferation of oNSCs as well as defective maturation and axonogenesis of ORNs in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE), while the high expression of BAF170 is important for maturation of ORNs. Interestingly, in the absence of BAF complexes in BAF155/BAF170 double-conditional knockout mice (dcKO), OE is not specified. Mechanistically, BAF complex is required for normal activation of Pax6-dependent transcriptional activity in stem cells/progenitors of the OE. Our findings unveil a novel mechanism mediated by the mSWI/SNF complex in OE neurogenesis and development. PMID:27611684

  8. SWI/SNF Subunits SMARCA4, SMARCD2 and DPF2 Collaborate in MLL-Rearranged Leukaemia Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Aditya; Miyagi, Satoru; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Helin, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in chromatin structure caused by deregulated epigenetic mechanisms collaborate with underlying genetic lesions to promote cancer. SMARCA4/BRG1, a core component of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complex, has been implicated by its mutational spectrum as exerting a tumour-suppressor function in many solid tumours; recently however, it has been reported to sustain leukaemogenic transformation in MLL-rearranged leukaemia in mice. Here we further explore the role of SMARCA4 and the two SWI/SNF subunits SMARCD2/BAF60B and DPF2/BAF45D in leukaemia. We observed the selective requirement for these proteins for leukaemic cell expansion and self-renewal in-vitro as well as in leukaemia. Gene expression profiling in human cells of each of these three factors suggests that they have overlapping functions in leukaemia. The gene expression changes induced by loss of the three proteins demonstrate that they are required for the expression of haematopoietic stem cell associated genes but in contrast to previous results obtained in mouse cells, the three proteins are not required for the expression of c-MYC regulated genes. PMID:26571505

  9. Do parents prefer sons in North Korea?

    PubMed

    Goodkind, D

    1999-09-01

    Son preference in South Korea is stronger than anywhere else in the world, yet little is known about such preference in North Korea. Simple indicators of son preference in North Korea are constructed from its 1993 population census and a 1998 survey of child nutrition (conducted in the wake of the recent famine). These indicators include sex ratio at birth, sex ratios of infant and child mortality, and sex ratios of child malnutrition. North Koreans do not evince prenatal discrimination against daughters, a finding that may indicate a lack of prenatal sex-testing technologies. Neither is evidence found of excess female mortality or malnutrition in the postnatal period, during which discrimination requires no special technology. The discrepancy in son preference across the Korean peninsula seems due largely to the socialist agenda pursued in the north following political partition after World War II. An important aspect of that agenda challenged the ancient Confucian ideology presumed to underlie son preference. Apparently, this challenge was more successful in North Korea than in other Asian societies instituting similar political changes, because son preference was not eliminated in China or in Vietnam. PMID:10546312

  10. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  11. Telecommunications and Data Communication in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Moon-Suk

    All facilities of the Ministry of Communications of Korea, which monopolizes telecommunications services in the country, are listed and described. Both domestic facilities, including long-distance telephone and telegraph circuits, and international connections are included. Computer facilities are also listed. The nation's regulatory policies are…

  12. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  13. Country Profiles, The Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dae Woo; And Others

    A profile of the Republic of Korea is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  14. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN KOREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA WAS 27,184,000 IN 1963. AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY THE KOREAN WAR, HAS RECEIVED EMPHASIS THROUGH EXPORT PROMOTION, TAX REFORM, AND A STABILIZATION PROGRAM. A 6-YEAR FREE COMPULSORY EDUCATION IS SUPPLEMENTED BY "CIVIC SCHOOLS" AND "HIGHER CIVIC SCHOOLS" FOR ADULTS. PRIMARY…

  15. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  16. Collaborative Reasoning in China and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Ting; Anderson, Richard C.; Kim, Il-Hee; Li, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Students at two sites in China and one site in Korea engaged in Collaborative Reasoning, an approach to discussion that requires self-management, free participation, and critical thinking. The discontinuity between the usual adult-dominated discourse of Chinese and Korean homes and classrooms and the expected discourse of Collaborative Reasoning…

  17. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  18. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  19. Genetic diversity of Lycoris endemic to Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive taxonomic relationships among Lycoris Herb. (Amaryllidaceae) taxa native to Korea have not been analyzed previously. This study was carried out to investigate the hybrid origin, genetic diversity, and relationships of Lycoris taxa (L. flavescens, L. uydoensis, L. chejuensis, L. chinensis ...

  20. University of Illinois nuclear pumped laser program. [experiments with a TRIGA pulsed reactor with a broad pulse and a low peak flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of nuclear pumped lasers with improved efficiency, energy storage capability, and UF6 volume pumping is reviewed. Results of nuclear pumped laser experiments using a TRIGA-type pulsed reactor are outlined.

  1. Feasibility study of EEW application in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, H.; Park, J.; Sheen, D.

    2008-12-01

    At present, it seems almost impossible to predict where and how much strong a earthquake will happen within very limited time such as two or three days before it occurs. However, the advantage of modern electronic techniques can support us very fast communication tools around nation-wide area so that we can receive P- waves arrival information from seismic stations through communication lines before S-waves strike our living site. This is the key of EEW(Earthquake Early Warning) concept that is under development around world especially including Japan, United State of America, and Taiwan. In this pilot study we proposed the direction for developing Korean Earthquake Early Warning System. Considering the state of the art techniques used in Japan, USA and Taiwan, ElarmS would be more adaptable to Korea since ElarmS can work from the low limit of moderate earthquakes around magnitude 3.5, which would annually happen in Korea. We investigate empirical magnitude scaling relationship for South Korea using 27 events ranging in magnitude from 2.2 to 4.9 recorded by the Korea Institute of Geoscience And Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) for 2007. We measure the maximum predominant period and the peak displacement or velocity amplitude from the first 4 seconds of P wave arrivals to derive period-magnitude and amplitude-magnitude scaling relationship, respectively. For the period-magnitude relationship, we find that 10 Hz low-pass filter yields better estimate than 3 Hz. This is because the magnitudes of most events used in this study are too small (<3.0). It is also shown that peak displacement for velocity instruments and peak velocity for accelerometers have their own magnitude scaling relationships, respectively. Thus, for the amplitude-magnitude relationship, like the relationships in northern California, two individual amplitude scaling relationships would be necessary.

  2. Relative fission product yield determination in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Michael A.

    Fission product yield data sets are one of the most important and fundamental compilations of basic information in the nuclear industry. This data has a wide range of applications which include nuclear fuel burnup and nonproliferation safeguards. Relative fission yields constitute a major fraction of the reported yield data and reduce the number of required absolute measurements. Radiochemical separations of fission products reduce interferences, facilitate the measurement of low level radionuclides, and are instrumental in the analysis of low-yielding symmetrical fission products. It is especially useful in the measurement of the valley nuclides and those on the extreme wings of the mass yield curve, including lanthanides, where absolute yields have high errors. This overall project was conducted in three stages: characterization of the neutron flux in irradiation positions within the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Mark I Reactor (GSTR), determining the mass attenuation coefficients of precipitates used in radiochemical separations, and measuring the relative fission products in the GSTR. Using the Westcott convention, the Westcott flux, modified spectral index, neutron temperature, and gold-based cadmium ratios were determined for various sampling positions in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor. The differential neutron energy spectrum measurement was obtained using the computer iterative code SAND-II-SNL. The mass attenuation coefficients for molecular precipitates were determined through experiment and compared to results using the EGS5 Monte Carlo computer code. Difficulties associated with sufficient production of fission product isotopes in research reactors limits the ability to complete a direct, experimental assessment of mass attenuation coefficients for these isotopes. Experimental attenuation coefficients of radioisotopes produced through neutron activation agree well with the EGS5 calculated results. This suggests mass attenuation coefficients of molecular

  3. Multiple modes of regulation of the human Ino80 SNF2 ATPase by subunits of the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Conaway, Ronald C.; Conaway, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    SNF2 family ATPases are ATP-dependent motors that often function in multisubunit complexes to regulate chromatin structure. Although the central role of SNF2 ATPases in chromatin biology is well established, mechanisms by which their catalytic activities are regulated by additional subunits of chromatin-remodeling complexes are less well understood. Here we present evidence that the human Inositol auxotrophy 80 (Ino80) SNF2 ATPase is subject to regulation at multiple levels in the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex. The zinc finger histidine triad domain-containing protein Ies2 (Ino Eighty Subunit 2) functions as a potent activator of the intrinsic catalytic activity of the Ino80 ATPase, whereas the YL-1 family Ies6 (Ino Eighty Subunit 6) and actin-related Arp5 proteins function together to promote binding of the Ino80 ATPase to nucleosomes. These findings support the idea that both substrate recognition and the intrinsic catalytic activities of SNF2 ATPases have evolved as important sites for their regulation. PMID:24297934

  4. National spent fuel program preliminary report RCRA characteristics of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel DOE-SNF-REP-002. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report presents information on the preliminary process knowledge to be used in characterizing all Department of Energy (DOE)-owned Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) types that potentially exhibit a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic. This report also includes the process knowledge, analyses, and rationale used to preliminarily exclude certain SNF types from RCRA regulation under 40 CFR {section}261.4(a)(4), ``Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste,`` as special nuclear and byproduct material. The evaluations and analyses detailed herein have been undertaken as a proactive approach. In the event that DOE-owned SNF is determined to be a RCRA solid waste, this report provides general direction for each site regarding further characterization efforts. The intent of this report is also to define the path forward to be taken for further evaluation of specific SNF types and a recommended position to be negotiated and established with regional and state regulators throughout the DOE Complex regarding the RCRA-related policy issues.

  5. Essential Functional Interactions of Saga, a Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Complex of Spt, Ada, and Gcn5 Proteins, with the Snf/Swi and Srb/Mediator Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. M.; Winston, F.

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Spt20/Ada5 was originally identified by mutations that suppress Ty insertion alleles and by mutations that suppress the toxicity caused by Gal4-VP16 overexpression. Here we present evidence for physical associations between Spt20/Ada5 and three other Spt proteins, suggesting that they exist in a complex. A related study demonstrates that this complex also contains the histone acetyltransferase, Gcn5, and Ada2. This complex has been named SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase). To identify functions that genetically interact with SAGA, we have screened for mutations that cause lethality in an spt20Δ/ada5Δ mutant. Our screen identified mutations in SNF2, SIN4, and GAL11. These mutations affect two known transcription complexes: Snf/Swi, which functions in nucleosome remodeling, and Srb/mediator, which is required for regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II. Systematic analysis has demonstrated that spt20Δ/ada5Δand spt7Δ mutations cause lethality with every snf/swi and srb/mediator mutation tested. Furthermore, a gcn5Δ mutation causes severe sickness with snf/swi mutations, but not with srb/mediator mutations. These findings suggest that SAGA has multiple activities and plays critical roles in transcription by RNA polymerase II. PMID:9335585

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask and MCO Helium Purge System Design Review Completion Report Project A.5 and A.6

    SciTech Connect

    ARD, K.E.

    2000-04-19

    This report documents the results of the design verification performed on the Cask and Multiple Canister Over-pack (MCO) Helium Purge System. The helium purge system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask Loadout System (CLS) at 100K area. The design verification employed the ''Independent Review Method'' in accordance with Administrative Procedure (AP) EN-6-027-01.

  7. No impact of DvSnf7 RNA on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) adults and larvae in dietary feeding tests

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Uffman, Joshua P.; Meng, Chen; Song, Zihong; Richards, Kathy B.; Beevers, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is the most important managed pollinator species worldwide and plays a critical role in the pollination of a diverse range of economically important crops. This species is important to agriculture and historically has been used as a surrogate species for pollinators to evaluate the potential adverse effects for conventional, biological, and microbial pesticides, as well as for genetically engineered plants that produce pesticidal products. As part of the ecological risk assessment of MON 87411 maize, which expresses a double‐stranded RNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), dietary feeding studies with honey bee larvae and adults were conducted. Based on the mode of action of the DvSnf7 RNA in western corn rootworm, the present studies were designed to be of sufficient duration to evaluate the potential for adverse effects on larval survival and development through emergence and adult survival to a significant portion of the adult stage. Testing was conducted at concentrations of DvSnf7 RNA that greatly exceeded environmentally relevant exposure levels based on expression levels in maize pollen. No adverse effects were observed in either larval or adult honey bees at these high exposure levels, providing a large margin of safety between environmental exposure levels and no‐observed–adverse‐effect levels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:287–294. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26011006

  8. No impact of DvSnf7 RNA on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) adults and larvae in dietary feeding tests.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianguo; Levine, Steven L; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Uffman, Joshua P; Meng, Chen; Song, Zihong; Richards, Kathy B; Beevers, Michael H

    2016-02-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is the most important managed pollinator species worldwide and plays a critical role in the pollination of a diverse range of economically important crops. This species is important to agriculture and historically has been used as a surrogate species for pollinators to evaluate the potential adverse effects for conventional, biological, and microbial pesticides, as well as for genetically engineered plants that produce pesticidal products. As part of the ecological risk assessment of MON 87411 maize, which expresses a double-stranded RNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), dietary feeding studies with honey bee larvae and adults were conducted. Based on the mode of action of the DvSnf7 RNA in western corn rootworm, the present studies were designed to be of sufficient duration to evaluate the potential for adverse effects on larval survival and development through emergence and adult survival to a significant portion of the adult stage. Testing was conducted at concentrations of DvSnf7 RNA that greatly exceeded environmentally relevant exposure levels based on expression levels in maize pollen. No adverse effects were observed in either larval or adult honey bees at these high exposure levels, providing a large margin of safety between environmental exposure levels and no-observed-adverse-effect levels. PMID:26011006

  9. Cloning and characterization of HARP/SMARCAL1: a prokaryotic HepA-related SNF2 helicase protein from human and mouse.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M A; Eisen, J A; Mohrenweiser, H W

    2000-05-01

    The SNF2 gene family consists of a large group of proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, maintenance of chromosome integrity, and various aspects of DNA repair. We cloned a novel SNF2 family human cDNA, with sequence identity to the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase-binding protein HepA and named the human hepA-related protein (HHARP/SMARCAL1). In addition, the mouse ortholog (Mharp/Smarcal1) was cloned, and the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog (CEHARP) was identified in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HARP proteins share a high level of sequence similarity to the seven motif helicase core region (SNF2 domain) with identifiable orthologs in other eukaryotic species, except for yeast. Purified His-tagged HARP/SMARCAL1 protein exhibits single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity, consistent with it being a member of the SNF2 family of proteins. Both the human and the mouse genes consist of 17 exons and 16 introns. The human gene maps to chromosome 2q34-q36, and the mouse gene is localized to the syntenic region of chromosome 1 (between markers Gls and Acrg). HARP/SMARCAL1 transcripts are ubiquitously expressed in human and mouse tissues, with testis presenting the highest levels of mRNA expression in humans. PMID:10857751

  10. The vacuolar-sorting protein Snf7 is required for export of virulence determinants in members of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex.

    PubMed Central

    da C. Godinho, Rodrigo M.; Crestani, Juliana; Kmetzsch, Lívia; de S. Araujo, Glauber; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pathogenesis requires a number of extracellularly released virulence factors. Recent studies demonstrating that most fungal extracellular molecules lack secretory tags suggest that unconventional secretion mechanisms and fungal virulence are strictly connected. Proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) have been recently associated with polysaccharide export in the yeast-like human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Snf7 is a key ESCRT operator required for unconventional secretion in Eukaryotes. In this study we generated snf7Δ mutant strains of C. neoformans and its sibling species C. gattii. Lack of Snf7 resulted in important alterations in polysaccharide secretion, capsular formation and pigmentation. This phenotype culminated with loss of virulence in an intranasal model of murine infection in both species. Our data support the notion that Snf7 expression regulates virulence in C. neoformans and C. gattii by ablating polysaccharide and melanin traffic. These results are in agreement with the observation that unconventional secretion is essential for cryptococcal pathogenesis and strongly suggest the occurrence of still obscure mechanisms of exportation of non-protein molecules in Eukaryotes. PMID:25178636

  11. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Conditions of...

  12. A theoretical study of SnF2+, SnCl2+, and SnO2+ and their experimental search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima Batista, Ana Paula; de Lima, José Carlos Barreto; Franzreb, Klaus; Ornellas, Fernando R.

    2012-10-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of the stability of the gas-phase diatomic dications SnF2+, SnCl2+, and SnO2+ using ab initio computer calculations. The ground states of SnF2+, SnCl2+, and SnO2+ are thermodynamically stable, respectively, with dissociation energies of 0.45, 0.30, and 0.42 eV. Whereas SnF2+ dissociates into Sn2+ + F, the long range behaviour of the potential energy curves of SnCl2+ and SnO2+ is repulsive and wide barrier heights due to avoided crossing act as a kind of effective dissociation energy. Their equilibrium internuclear distances are 4.855, 5.201, and 4.852 a0, respectively. The double ionisation energies (Te) to form SnF2+, SnCl2+, and SnO2+ from their respective neutral parents are 25.87, 23.71, and 25.97 eV. We combine our theoretical work with the experimental results of a search for these doubly positively charged diatomic molecules in the gas phase. SnO2+ and SnF2+ have been observed for prolonged oxygen (16O-) ion beam sputtering of a tin metal foil and of tin (II) fluoride (SnF2) powder, respectively, for ion flight times of about 10-5 s through a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer. In addition, SnCl2+ has been detected for 16O- ion surface bombardment of stannous (tin (II)) chloride (SnCl2) powder. To our knowledge, SnF2+ is a novel gas-phase molecule, whereas SnCl2+ had been detected previously by electron-impact ionization mass spectrometry, and SnO2+ had been observed before by spark source mass spectrometry as well as by atom probe mass spectrometry. We are not aware of any previous theoretical studies of these molecular systems.

  13. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N.; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  14. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  15. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  16. Verification of MCNP simulation of neutron flux parameters at TRIGA MK II reactor of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yavar, A R; Khalafi, H; Kasesaz, Y; Sarmani, S; Yahaya, R; Wood, A K; Khoo, K S

    2012-10-01

    A 3-D model for 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor was simulated. Neutron flux parameters were calculated using MCNP-4C code and were compared with experimental results obtained by k(0)-INAA and absolute method. The average values of φ(th),φ(epi), and φ(fast) by MCNP code were (2.19±0.03)×10(12) cm(-2)s(-1), (1.26±0.02)×10(11) cm(-2)s(-1) and (3.33±0.02)×10(10) cm(-2)s(-1), respectively. These average values were consistent with the experimental results obtained by k(0)-INAA. The findings show a good agreement between MCNP code results and experimental results. PMID:22885391

  17. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Hampel, G; Wortmann, B; Blaickner, M; Knorr, J; Kratz, J V; Lizón Aguilar, A; Minouchehr, S; Nagels, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L

    2009-07-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz provides ideal conditions for duplicating BNCT treatment as performed in Pavia, Italy, in 2001 and 2003 [Pinelli, T., Zonta, A., Altieri, S., Barni, S., Braghieri, A., Pedroni, P., Bruschi, P., Chiari, P., Ferrari, C., Fossati, F., Nano, R., Ngnitejeu Tata, S., Prati, U., Ricevuti, G., Roveda, L., Zonta, C., 2002. TAOrMINA: from the first idea to the application to the human liver. In: Sauerwein et al. (Eds.), Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy, Monduzzi editore, Bologna, pp. 1065-1072]. In order to determine the optimal parameters for the planned therapy and therefore for the design of the thermal column, calculations were conducted using the MCNP-code and the transport code ATTILA. The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented. PMID:19394836

  18. Accuracy studies with carbon clusters at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelaer, J.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Smorra, C.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-05-01

    Extensive cross-reference measurements of well-known frequency ratios using various sizes of carbon cluster ions 12Cn + (10≤n≤23) were performed to determine the effects limiting the accuracy of mass measurements at the Penning-trap facility TRIGA-TRAP. Two major contributions to the uncertainty of a mass measurement have been identified. Fluctuations of the magnetic field cause an uncertainty in the frequency ratio due to the required calibration by a reference ion of uf(νref)/νref = 6(2) × 10-11/min × Δt. A mass-dependent systematic shift of the frequency ratio of epsilonm(r)/r = -2.2(2) × 10-9 × (m-mref)/u has been found as well. Finally, the nuclide 197Au was used as a cross-check since its mass is already known with an uncertainty of 0.6 keV.

  19. An iterative approach for TRIGA fuel burn-up determination using nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, T K; Peir, J J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132I, and 140La. Fuel irradiation history is not needed in this method. Short-lived fission-product activities were established by reirradiating the spent fuels in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, 235U burn-up values can be deduced by iterative calculations. The complication caused by 239Pu production and fission is also discussed in detail. The burn-up values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those deduced from the conventional method based on long-lived fission products 137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs ratio and 106Ru/137Cs ratio. PMID:10670930

  20. Determination of α and f parameters at the 14-MW TRIGA reactor at Pitesti, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bărbos, D.; Păunoiu, C.; Roth, C.

    2010-10-01

    For experimental α determination the two-monitor method has been applied to determine α parameter in the irradiation channels at TRIGA 14 MW reactor (SCN Pitesti). The modified two-monitor method by using Cd ratio measurements eliminates the introducing of systematic errors due to the inaccuracy of absolute nuclear data. This characterization of the epithermal neutron spectrum is used in the k0-method of NAA, implemented at the SCN Pitesti. Neutron spectrum parameters were determined in the inner irradiation channel XC-1 and for outer irradiation channels: Beryllium J-6, Beryllium J-7, and Beryllium K-11. For α and f parameter verification a standard reference material denominated ECRM379-1 was analyzed using k0 standardization.

  1. Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Hernández-Dávila, V M; Aguilar, F; Paredes, L; Rivera, T

    2014-01-01

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a (6)LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port. PMID:23746708

  2. Final qualification testing results for TRIGA low-enriched uranium fuel

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B.; Simnad, M.T.; Copeland, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Following the adoption of policies by the US government and other fuel supplier nations to limit, with few exceptions, export of fuels to those enriched to < 20% in /sup 235/U, GA Technologies undertook, starting in 1976, a rigorous program to develop uranium zirconium-hydride fuels with high uranium concentrations up to 3.7 g U/cm/sup 3/, while limiting the enrichment to < 20% in /sup 235/U. By increasing the uranium concentration from 8.5 to 45 wt% and by including erbium as a burnable poison, the long reactivity lifetime of the high-enriched uranium cores has been preserved. The achieved purpose of these low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels was also to preserve all the unique safety features of the TRIGA fuel system - prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, high fission product retentivity, chemical stability when quenched from high temperatures in water, and dimensional stability over a broad range of operating temperatures.

  3. Thermal hydraulic analysis for the Oregon State TRIGA reactor using RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Marcum, W.R.; Woods, B.G.; Hartman, M.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal hydraulic analyses have being conducted at Oregon State University (OSU) in support of the conversion of the OSU TRIGA reactor (OSTR) core from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel as part of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program. The goals of the thermal hydraulic analyses were to calculate natural circulation flow rates, coolant temperatures and fuel temperatures as a function of core power for both the HEU and LEU cores; calculate peak values of fuel temperature, cladding temperature, surface heat flux as well as departure from nuclear boiling ratio (DNBR) for steady state and pulse operation; and perform accident analyses for the accident scenarios identified in the OSTR safety analysis report. RELAP5-3D Version 2.4.2 was implemented to develop a model for the thermal hydraulic study. The OSTR core conversion is planned to take place in late 2008. (author)

  4. Development process of the new control console of ININ's TRIGA mark III reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero-Gutierrez, T.

    2006-07-01

    A description of the development of the new ININ's TRIGA Mark III reactor control console is presented in this meeting. Most of the operation and safety monitoring of the reactor is carried out by means of a personal computer (PC), some interface cards, and an auxiliary computer that drives the control rod mechanisms. In this console, the safety actions are taken by the Protection System (SEC), which acquires the data directly from the safety related systems, specified in the reactor's console design technical specifications. The console, based on the concept of virtual instrumentation, is composed of a group of systems that make easier to the operator the activation of the sequential steps required to operate the reactor. (authors)

  5. Core Calculation of 1 MWatt PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) using Monte Carlo MVP Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Julia Abdul

    2008-05-20

    The Monte Carlo MVP code system was adopted for the Reaktor TRIGA PUSAPTI (RTP) core calculation. The code was developed by a group of researcher of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) first in 1994. MVP is a general multi-purpose Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculation and able to estimate an accurate simulation problems. The code calculation is based on the continuous energy method. This code is capable of adopting an accurate physics model, geometry description and variance reduction technique faster than conventional method as compared to the conventional scalar method. This code could achieve higher computational speed by several factors on the vector super-computer. In this calculation, RTP core was modeled as close as possible to the real core and results of keff flux, fission densities and others were obtained.

  6. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy, Irwan, M. N.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of 134Cs, 137Cs, 152Eu, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co and 65Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of 152Eu and 134Cs were leached out from the spent resin while 60Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  7. Loss of expression of the SWI/SNF complex is a frequent event in undifferentiated/dedifferentiated urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Bertz, Simone; Cheng, Liang; Hes, Ondrej; Junker, Kerstin; Keck, Bastian; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Stöckle, Michael; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2016-09-01

    Loss of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of dedifferentiated carcinomas from different organs, but its possible role in undifferentiated urothelial carcinoma (UC) has not been studied to date. In this study, we analyzed by immunohistochemistry 14 undifferentiated UCs (11 from bladder and 3 from renal pelvis) with a nondescript anaplastic or rhabdoid morphology, using commercially available antibodies against the SWI/SNF components SMARCB1 (INI1), SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCC1, SMARCC2, and ARID1A. Patients were eight females and six males aged 40 to 84 years (median, 65). All tumors were muscle-invasive (9 were T3-4). A conventional UC component was seen in eight cases and varied from in situ to papillary. The undifferentiated component comprised 60-100 % of the tumors. Histologically, most tumors showed diffuse dyscohesive or pseudoalveolar growth of variably sized cells with frequent rhabdoid features. Transition from conventional to undifferentiated UC was abrupt, except in one case. The undifferentiated component almost always expressed pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 (13/14) and variably vimentin (8/14) and GATA3 (9/14). Complete loss of at least one SWI/SNF subunit limited to the undifferentiated component was detected in 10/14 cases (71 %). SMARCA2 was most frequently lost (six) followed by ARID1A (four), SMARCB1/INI1 (two), SMARCA4 (one), and SMARCC1 (one). This is the first study exploring SWI/SNF expression in undifferentiated UC of the urinary tract. Our results are in line with recent studies reporting involvement of the SWI/SNF complex in the dedifferentiation process of a variety of epithelial neoplasms in different organs, including the urinary tract, and association with aggressive clinical course. PMID:27339451

  8. JBP2, a SWI2/SNF2-like protein, regulates de novo telomeric DNA glycosylation in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Rudo; Brand, Verena; Ekanayake, Dilrukshi K; Sweeney, Kate; DiPaolo, Courtney; Reznikoff, William S; Sabatini, Robert

    2007-11-01

    Synthesis of the modified thymine base, beta-d-glucosyl-hydroxymethyluracil or J, within telomeric DNA of Trypanosoma brucei correlates with the bloodstream form specific epigenetic silencing of telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes involved in antigenic variation. In order to analyze the function of base J in the regulation of antigenic variation, we are characterizing the regulatory mechanism of J biosynthesis. We have recently proposed a model in which chromatin remodeling by a SWI2/SNF2-like protein (JBP2) regulates the developmental and de novo site-specific localization of J synthesis within bloodstream form trypanosome DNA. Consistent with this model, we now show that JBP2 (-/-) bloodstream form trypanosomes contain five-fold less base J and are unable to stimulate de novo J synthesis in newly generated telomeric arrays. PMID:17706299

  9. The Snf2 Homolog Fun30 Acts as a Homodimeric ATP-dependent Chromatin-remodeling Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Salma; Ryan, Daniel; Prochasson, Philippe; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Hassan, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fun30 (Function unknown now 30) protein shares homology with an extended family of Snf2-related ATPases. Here we report the purification of Fun30 principally as a homodimer with a molecular mass of about 250 kDa. Biochemical characterization of this complex reveals that it has ATPase activity stimulated by both DNA and chromatin. Consistent with this, it also binds to both DNA and chromatin. The Fun30 complex also exhibits activity in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling assays. Interestingly, its activity in histone dimer exchange is high relative to the ability to reposition nucleosomes. Fun30 also possesses a weakly conserved CUE motif suggesting that it may interact specifically with ubiquitinylated proteins. However, in vitro Fun30 was found to have no specificity in its interaction with ubiquitinylated histones. PMID:20075079

  10. The Osa-containing SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates stem cell commitment in the adult Drosophila intestine

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiankun; Lin, Xinhua; Hou, Steven X.

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of stem cells versus differentiated progeny is well balanced to maintain tissue homeostasis, which in turn depends on the balance of the different signaling pathways involved in stem cell self-renewal versus lineage-specific differentiation. In a screen for genes that regulate cell lineage determination in the posterior midgut, we identified that the Osa-containing SWI/SNF (Brahma) chromatin-remodeling complex regulates Drosophila midgut homeostasis. Mutations in subunits of the Osa-containing complex result in intestinal stem cell (ISC) expansion as well as enteroendocrine (EE) cell reduction. We further demonstrated that Osa regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation into enterocytes by elaborating Notch signaling, and ISC commitment to differentiation into EE cells by regulating the expression of Asense, an EE cell fate determinant. Our data uncover a unique mechanism whereby the commitment of stem cells to discrete lineages is coordinately regulated by chromatin-remodeling factors. PMID:23942514

  11. The Hippo transducer TAZ interacts with the SWI/SNF complex to regulate breast epithelial lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Skibinski, Adam; Breindel, Jerrica L.; Prat, Aleix; Galván, Patricia; Smith, Elizabeth; Rolfs, Andreas; Gupta, Piyush B.; LaBaer, Joshua; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Lineage-committed cells of many tissues exhibit substantial plasticity in contexts such as wound healing and tumorigenesis, but the regulation of this process is not well understood. Here, we identified the Hippo transducer WWTR1/TAZ in a screen of transcription factors able to prompt lineage switching of mammary epithelial cells. Forced expression of TAZ in luminal cells induces them to adopt basal characteristics, and depletion of TAZ in basal/myoepithelial cells leads to luminal differentiation. In human and mouse tissues, TAZ is active only in basal cells and is critical for basal cell maintenance during homeostasis. Accordingly, loss of TAZ affects mammary gland development, leading to an imbalance of luminal and basal populations as well as branching defects. Mechanistically, TAZ interacts with components of the SWI/SNF complex to modulate lineage-specific gene expression. Collectively, these findings uncover a new role for Hippo signaling in the determination of lineage identity through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes. PMID:24613358

  12. Criticality safety assessment of a TRIGA reactor spent-fuel pool under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Glumac, B; Ravnik, M.; Logar, M.

    1997-02-01

    Additional criticality safety analysis of a pool-type storage for TRIGA spent fuel at the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. Previous results have shown that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents (earthquake with subsequent fuel rack disintegration resulting in contact fuel pitch) under the assumption that the fuel rack is loaded with fresh 12 wt% standard fuel. To mitigate this deficiency, a study was done on replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with cadmium-loaded absorber rods. The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4A with an ENDF/B-V library and detailed three-dimensional geometrical model of the spent-fuel rack was used for this purpose. First, a minimum critical number of fuel elements was determined for contact pitch, and two possible geometries of rack disintegration were considered. Next, it was shown that subcriticality can be ensured when pitch is decreased from a rack design pitch of 8 cm to contact, if a certain number of fuel elements (8 to 20 out of 70) are replaced by absorber rods, which are uniformly mixed into the lattice. To account for the possibility that random mixing of fuel elements and absorber rods can occur during rack disintegration and result in a supercritical configuration, a probabilistic study was made to sample the probability density functions for random absorber rod lattice loadings. Results of the calculations show that reasonably low probabilities for supercriticality can be achieved (down to 10{sup {minus}6} per severe earthquake, which would result in rack disintegration and subsequent maximum possible pitch decrease) even in the case where fresh 12 wt% standard TRIGA fuel would be stored in the spent-fuel pool.

  13. McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (MNRC) TRIGA reactor: Four years of operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heidel, C.C.; Richards, W.J.

    1994-07-01

    McClellan Air Force Base, at Sacramento, California, is headquarters for the Sacramento Air Force Logistics Center (SM-ALC). McClellan Air Force Base provides extensive inspection and maintenance capabilities for the F-111, F-1 5, and other military aircraft. Criticality of the MNRC TRIGA reactor was obtained on January 20, 1990 with 63 standard TRIGA fuel elements, three fuel-followed control rods and one air-followed control rod. Presently there are 93 fuel elements in the reactor core. The reactor can be operated at 1 MW steady state power, producing pulses up to three dollars worth of reactivity addition, and can be square waved up to 1 MW. The reactor core contains a circular grid plate and a graphite reflector assembly surrounding the core. Four tangential beam ports installed in the reflector assembly provide a thermal neutron flux to four radiography bays. The reactor tank is twenty-four (24) feet deep, seven and one-half (7.5) feet in diameter, and has a protrusion in the upper portion of the reactor tank. This protrusion is scheduled for use as a neutron thermal collimator in the future. Besides the neutron radiography capabilities, the reactor contains a pneumatic rabbit system, a central thimble, an in-core irradiation facility, and three additional cutouts that provide locations for additional irradiation facilities. The central thimble can be removed along with the B-ring locations of the upper portion of the grid plate to provide an additional and larger in-core irradiation facility. A new upper grid plate has been manufactured to expand one triangular cutout so that larger experiments can be inserted directly into the reactor core. Some operational problems experienced during the first four years of operations are the timeout of the CSC and DAC watchdogs, deterioration of the heat exchanger gaskets, and loss of thermocouples in the instrumented fuel elements. (author)

  14. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugart, Nicolas

    The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR's relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of 6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is -0.0135 /K while the average core void coefficient is -0.069 /K from 0-20 % void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 /K. Following the neutronics analysis, the project developed RELAP5 and PARET-ANL models of the GSTR hot-rod fuel channel under steady state and transient conditions. The GSTR limiting core, determined as part of this analysis, provides a worst case operating scenario for the reactor. During steady state operations, the hot rod of the limiting core has a peak fuel temperature of 829 K and a minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio of 2.16. After a $3.00 pulse reactivity insertion the fuel reaches a peak temperature is 1070 K. Examining the model results several seconds after a pulse reveals flow instabilities that result from weaknesses in the current two-channel model.

  15. A protein kinase screen of Neurospora crassa mutant strains reveals that the SNF1 protein kinase promotes glycogen synthase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Candido, Thiago De Souza; Gonçalves, Rodrigo Duarte; Felício, Ana Paula; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; De Carvalho, Ana Carolina Gomes Vieira; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2014-12-15

    Glycogen functions as a carbohydrate reserve in a variety of organisms and its metabolism is highly regulated. The activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of the synthesis and degradation processes, respectively, are regulated by allosteric modulation and reversible phosphorylation. To identify the protein kinases affecting glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa, we performed a screen of 84 serine/threonine kinase knockout strains. We identified multiple kinases that have already been described as controlling glycogen metabolism in different organisms, such as NcSNF1, NcPHO85, NcGSK3, NcPKA, PSK2 homologue and NcATG1. In addition, many hypothetical kinases have been implicated in the control of glycogen metabolism. Two kinases, NcIME-2 and NcNIMA, already functionally characterized but with no functions related to glycogen metabolism regulation, were also identified. Among the kinases identified, it is important to mention the role of NcSNF1. We showed in the present study that this kinase was implicated in glycogen synthase phosphorylation, as demonstrated by the higher levels of glycogen accumulated during growth, along with a higher glycogen synthase (GSN) ±glucose 6-phosphate activity ratio and a lesser set of phosphorylated GSN isoforms in strain Ncsnf1KO, when compared with the wild-type strain. The results led us to conclude that, in N. crassa, this kinase promotes phosphorylation of glycogen synthase either directly or indirectly, which is the opposite of what is described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The kinases also play a role in gene expression regulation, in that gdn, the gene encoding the debranching enzyme, was down-regulated by the proteins identified in the screen. Some kinases affected growth and development, suggesting a connection linking glycogen metabolism with cell growth and development. PMID:25253091

  16. Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system. PMID:25298903

  17. Status of photonic network research in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Hyub

    2004-10-01

    Korea is small country but has recently dramatic growth in broadband internet subscribers. At the present of December in 2003, about 73% of total households are internet subscribers. The country is now pursuing new internet highway with faster speed and broadband services for future intelligent internet. The viable research targets are the switching technologies, the access network and convergence network technologies. The optical burst switching will be discussed as the intermediate solution before the coming sophisticated optical packet switching technologies. Another important issue is how we accept diverse service types in future network. There are always dilemmas to choose "optical" or "electrical" for the network in both cost and technology views. The WDM PON-based FTTH and the broadband convergence network (BcN) plans in Korea will also be discussed.

  18. The Fifth Outbreak of Trichinosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ji-Young; Hong, Sung-Tae; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Min

    2011-01-01

    Trichinosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode, Trichinella spp., and had been reported several times in Korea. Recently, there was an additional outbreak, involving 5 patients, the findings from which are reported herein. On 30 November 2010, 8 persons ate sashimi of the meat of a wild boar. Then, 2-3 weeks later, they complained of myalgia and fever. Unfortunately, muscle biopsy was not performed, but ELISA was performed using their sera. Two people among 8 were positive for Trichinella on the 34th day post-infection (PI), and 3 patients who initially revealed negative ELISA were additionally proved to be positive for trichinosis on the 42nd day PI. Hence, the confirmed patients of trichinosis were 5 in total in the present outbreak. They were treated with albendazole and discharged uneventfully. This was the fifth outbreak of trichinosis in Korea. PMID:22355208

  19. A case of human thelaziasis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Sook; Im, Kyung Il; Byun, Young Ja; Kim, Sang Chul

    1987-06-01

    The 15th case of human thelaziasis is reported from Korea. The patient was a 15-year-old girl from Seoul. Both of the worms which were removed from her eye were female and were identified by the number of transverse cuticular striations (281, 172 and 162/mm in the oesophageal, middle and posterior portions, respectively), as Thelazia callipaeda. The patient owned a pet dog ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: The 15-year-old patient had herself removed a worm from one eye. Two worms were identified morphologically as Thelazia callipaeda. The source of infection was uncertain, but the patient was known to have close contact with a dog. The authors refer to 14 previously reported cases of thelaziasis in Korea. PMID:12886085

  20. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records, for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006, the authors calculated cumulative probabilities of divorce, by marriage cohort (N = 5,734,577) and educational attainment. The results indicated that the relationship between education and divorce was negative even in the earliest cohort and that this negative gradient has become more pronounced in more recent cohorts. Contrary to expectations, however, little evidence was found that the concentration of divorce at lower levels of education was exacerbated by the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. The authors discuss these findings in light of conventional emphases on the costs of divorce and highlight the importance of better understanding this distinctive east Asia pattern of divorce. PMID:23440624

  1. Sleep in Korea: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Jeong, D U

    1995-05-01

    Sleep is an ubiquitous phenomenon. It is a developmental product, being subjected to the vicissitudes of human behavior and culture. The author will attempt to elaborate on sleep, sleep disorders, and sleep medicine in Korea from various developmental perspectives (i.e. personal, national and scientific). Korea is a rapidly developing industrialized nation and is now experiencing immense cultural changes which force individuals to change their behavior and value systems. For example, shift working is becoming increasingly popular and early working hours are being adopted by more companies as a measure to win competitions in the international market. In the clinical setting it is observed very easily that patients develop and maintain disturbed sleep-wake rhythm and its consequences. More obstructive sleep apnea, presumably due to obesity, are observed and studied in sleep clinics. The nuclear family system, an inevitable outcome of industrialization, produces some profound difference in sleeping arrangement such as children's earlier separation from parental or grandparental sleeping environment. The question is how these and other industrialization-related changes may affect the incidence and the manifestation of sleep and sleep disorders. In the background there is emerging interest in healthy sleep and sleep disorders, exemplified by increasing coverage of the topics in the mass media and the publication business. Development of sleep medicine/research per se also involves a developmental perspective. Interests in sleep and sleep disorders began sporadically decades ago in Korea and are now actively being organized mainly by the Korean Association of Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology as a unified developing force. Understanding of sleep and of sleep disorders is not complete without in-depth understanding of culture, philosophy, and tradition from developmental perspectives. Traditional ideas and wisdom from the past are the unavoidable resources for further

  2. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  3. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  4. Development of Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwang Soon; Jun, Ki Cheon; Lee, Jong Chan; Kwon, Jae Il; Cho, Kyung Ho; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Jin Ah; Kim, Sang Ik; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Byung Ju

    2013-04-01

    Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) is a research project funded by the Minister of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) in Korea and the goal of this project is to develop an integrated operational oceanographic system that will provide nowcasts and forecasts of ocean information around Korean Peninsula to support marine activities for governmental agencies and to mitigate coastal disasters such as storm surge, oil spill, and search and rescue. Since August 2009, KIOST has been leading the project to develop KOOS, which consists of three parts, 1) observing systems, 2) numerical modeling with data management and skill assessment, and 3) practical application systems. In KOOS about 190 real-time coastal/ocean observing platforms such as tidal stations, buoys, off-shore research stations and satellites from various agencies, KIOST, KHOA (Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration), NFRDI (National Fisheries Research & Development Institute), and KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) have been used for input data as well as calibration and validation for numerical models. With observing networks, various atmospheric models and ocean models have been set-up and tested. KOOS enables us to forecast tides, waves, storm surges, currents as well as temperature and salinity for 72-hour time period in two time a day. The performance of numerical models is evaluated by the skill assessment system. For practical purposes, KOOS has various application systems such as storm surge, search and rescues, oil spill, and ports and channel prediction system. All ocean information in KOOS is to be presented via web-based GIS, which is an effective tool that is helpful to decision-makers.

  5. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  6. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  7. Modeling Flood Risk for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Y.; Li, S.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic flood events have caused significant losses for South Korea each year. It is very important to generate high resolution flood return period map for the government and insurance company to evaluate the flood risk. This research was initiated to achieve this goal. A 2000 year spatial distributed stochastical rainfall was generated by analyzing the historical rainfall of South Korea using principle component analysis. A rainfall-runoff model and a routing model were calibrated by driving the model with historical forcing and calibrated against gauge observations. The calibrated model was used to couple with the stochastical forcing to generate 2000 year discharge and runoff. The flood maps with different return periods were generated by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. The results of this research showed a reasonable flood map in South Korea, compared with the observed data. Further, this research could be used as an important reference for the government and insurance companies for risk management purpose.

  8. Validation of the neutron and gamma fields in the JSI TRIGA reactor using in-core fission and ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Kaiba, Tanja; Radulović, Vladimir; Jazbec, Anže; Rupnik, Sebastjan; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-02-01

    CEA developed fission chambers and ionization chambers were utilized at the JSI TRIGA reactor to measure neutron and gamma fields. The measured axial fission rate distributions in the reactor core are generally in good agreement with the calculated values using the Monte Carlo model of the reactor thus verifying both the computational model and the fission chambers. In future, multiple absolutely calibrated fission chambers could be used for more accurate online reactor thermal power monitoring. PMID:25479432

  9. 77 FR 39319 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department invites... for implementing the United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which entered...

  10. 77 FR 33181 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 4279 (January... Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 13559... Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 17410 (March 26, 2012)...

  11. School Expansion in North Korea and South Korea: Two Systems, Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyangkue

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in the public-policy objectives and financing of school expansion efforts in North and South Korea. Institutionalizing credentialism and reliance on financing private education dominates South Korean school expansion, while the financing of public schools and greater government control of education dominates North Korean…

  12. Activation of 12/23-RSS-Dependent RAG Cleavage by hSWI/SNF Complex in the Absence of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hansen; Ishii, Haruhiko; Pazin, Michael J.; Sen, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Maintenance of genomic integrity during antigen receptor gene rearrangements requires (1) regulated access of the V(D)J recombinase to specific loci and (2) generation of double-strand DNA breaks only after recognition of a pair of matched recombination signal sequences (RSSs). Here we recapitulate both key aspects of regulated recombinase accessibility in a cell-free system using plasmid substrates assembled into chromatin. We show that recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to both RSSs increases coupled cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. SWI/SNF functions by altering local chromatin structure in the absence of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription or histone modifications. These observations demonstrate a direct role for cis-sequence-regulated local chromatin remodeling in RAG1/2-dependent initiation of V(D)J recombination. PMID:18775324

  13. Disruption of Snf3/Rgt2 glucose sensors decreases lifespan and caloric restriction effectiveness through Mth1/Std1 by adjusting mitochondrial efficiency in yeast.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2015-01-30

    Down-regulation of intracellular nutrient signal pathways was proposed to be a primary mechanism of caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the link between lifespan and glucose sensors in the plasma membrane was poorly understood in yeast. Herein, a mutant that lacked glucose sensors (snf3Δrgt2Δ) had impaired glucose fermentation, showed decreased chronological lifespan (CLS), and reduced CLS extension by CR. The mutant also had reduced mitochondrial efficiency, as inferred by increased mitochondrial superoxide and decreased ATP levels. Mth1 and Std1, which are downstream effectors of the Snf3/Rgt2 pathway, were required for viability through mitochondrial function but not fermentative metabolism. PMID:25541485

  14. Varicella and Varicella Vaccination in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Hwa; Shin, Seon Hee; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Chang, Jin Keun; Choi, Kyong Min; Hur, Jae Kyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Jae Youn; Chung, Eun Hee; Lee, Soo Young; Park, Su Eun; Cha, Sungho; Kim, Kwang-Nam; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Shin Ah

    2014-01-01

    With continuing occurrence of varicella despite increasing vaccine coverage for the past 20 years, a case-based study, a case-control study, and an immunogenicity and safety study were conducted to address the impact of varicella vaccination in South Korea. Varicella patients under the age of 16 years were enrolled for the case-based study. For the case-control study, varicella patients between 12 months and 15 years of age were enrolled with one control matched for each patient. For the immunogenicity and safety study, otherwise healthy children from 12 to 24 months old were immunized with Suduvax (Green Cross, South Korea). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody was measured before and 6 weeks after immunization. In the case-based study, the median age of the patients was 4 years. Among 152 patients between 1 and 15 years of age, 139 children received varicella vaccine and all had breakthrough infections. Clinical courses were not ameliorated in vaccinated patients, but more vaccinated patients received outpatient rather than inpatient care. In the case-control study, the adjusted overall effectiveness of varicella vaccination was 54%. In the immunogenicity and safety study, the seroconversion rate and geometric mean titer for FAMA antibody were 76.67% and 5.31. Even with increasing varicella vaccine uptake, we illustrate no upward age shift in the peak incidence, a high proportion of breakthrough disease, almost no amelioration in disease presentation by vaccination, and insufficient immunogenicity of domestic varicella vaccine. There is need to improve the varicella vaccine used in South Korea. PMID:24671555

  15. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean. PMID:26430619

  16. Structural Modeling of GR Interactions with the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex and C/EBP.

    PubMed

    Muratcioglu, Serena; Presman, Diego M; Pooley, John R; Grøntved, Lars; Hager, Gordon L; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila

    2015-09-15

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a steroid-hormone-activated transcription factor that modulates gene expression. Transcriptional regulation by the GR requires dynamic receptor binding to specific target sites located across the genome. This binding remodels the chromatin structure to allow interaction with other transcription factors. Thus, chromatin remodeling is an essential component of GR-mediated transcriptional regulation, and understanding the interactions between these molecules at the structural level provides insights into the mechanisms of how GR and chromatin remodeling cooperate to regulate gene expression. This study suggests models for the assembly of the SWI/SNF-A (SWItch/Sucrose-NonFermentable) complex and its interaction with the GR. We used the PRISM algorithm (PRotein Interactions by Structural Matching) to predict the three-dimensional complex structures of the target proteins. The structural models indicate that BAF57 and/or BAF250 mediate the interaction between the GR and the SWI/SNF-A complex, corroborating experimental data. They further suggest that a BAF60a/BAF155 and/or BAF60a/BAF170 interaction is critical for association between the core and variant subunits. Further, we model the interaction between GR and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), since the GR can regulate gene expression indirectly by interacting with other transcription factors like C/EBPs. We observe that GR can bind to bZip domains of the C/EBPα homodimer as both a monomer and dimer of the DNA-binding domain. In silico mutagenesis of the predicted interface residues confirm the importance of these residues in binding. In vivo analysis of the computationally suggested mutations reveals that double mutations of the leucine residues (L317D+L335D) may disrupt the interaction between GR and C/EBPα. Determination of the complex structures of the GR is of fundamental relevance to understanding its interactions and functions, since the function of a protein or a

  17. Divergent Evolution of the Transcriptional Network Controlled by Snf1-Interacting Protein Sip4 in Budding Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Lemnian, Ioana; Gohr, André; Kasper, Lydia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Grosse, Ivo; Breunig, Karin D

    2015-01-01

    Cellular responses to starvation are of ancient origin since nutrient limitation has always been a common challenge to the stability of living systems. Hence, signaling molecules involved in sensing or transducing information about limiting metabolites are highly conserved, whereas transcription factors and the genes they regulate have diverged. In eukaryotes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The yeast AMPK ortholog SNF1 controls the transcriptional network that counteracts carbon starvation conditions by regulating a set of transcription factors. Among those Cat8 and Sip4 have overlapping DNA-binding specificity for so-called carbon source responsive elements and induce target genes upon SNF1 activation. To analyze the evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 controlled transcriptional network we have compared the response to carbon limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to that of Kluyveromyces lactis. In high glucose, S. cerevisiae displays tumor cell-like aerobic fermentation and repression of respiration (Crabtree-positive) while K. lactis has a respiratory-fermentative life-style, respiration being regulated by oxygen availability (Crabtree-negative), which is typical for many yeasts and for differentiated higher cells. We demonstrate divergent evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 network and present evidence that a role of Sip4 in controlling anabolic metabolism has been lost in the Saccharomyces lineage. We find that in K. lactis, but not in S. cerevisiae, the Sip4 protein plays an essential role in C2 carbon assimilation including induction of the glyoxylate cycle and the carnitine shuttle genes. Induction of KlSIP4 gene expression by KlCat8 is essential under these growth conditions and a primary function of KlCat8. Both KlCat8 and KlSip4 are involved in the regulation of lactose metabolism in K. lactis. In chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments we demonstrate binding of both, KlSip4 and KlCat8, to

  18. Divergent Evolution of the Transcriptional Network Controlled by Snf1-Interacting Protein Sip4 in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Lemnian, Ioana; Gohr, André; Kasper, Lydia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Grosse, Ivo; Breunig, Karin D.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular responses to starvation are of ancient origin since nutrient limitation has always been a common challenge to the stability of living systems. Hence, signaling molecules involved in sensing or transducing information about limiting metabolites are highly conserved, whereas transcription factors and the genes they regulate have diverged. In eukaryotes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The yeast AMPK ortholog SNF1 controls the transcriptional network that counteracts carbon starvation conditions by regulating a set of transcription factors. Among those Cat8 and Sip4 have overlapping DNA-binding specificity for so-called carbon source responsive elements and induce target genes upon SNF1 activation. To analyze the evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 controlled transcriptional network we have compared the response to carbon limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to that of Kluyveromyces lactis. In high glucose, S. cerevisiae displays tumor cell-like aerobic fermentation and repression of respiration (Crabtree-positive) while K. lactis has a respiratory-fermentative life-style, respiration being regulated by oxygen availability (Crabtree-negative), which is typical for many yeasts and for differentiated higher cells. We demonstrate divergent evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 network and present evidence that a role of Sip4 in controlling anabolic metabolism has been lost in the Saccharomyces lineage. We find that in K. lactis, but not in S. cerevisiae, the Sip4 protein plays an essential role in C2 carbon assimilation including induction of the glyoxylate cycle and the carnitine shuttle genes. Induction of KlSIP4 gene expression by KlCat8 is essential under these growth conditions and a primary function of KlCat8. Both KlCat8 and KlSip4 are involved in the regulation of lactose metabolism in K. lactis. In chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments we demonstrate binding of both, KlSip4 and KlCat8, to

  19. Improving production of malonyl coenzyme A-derived metabolites by abolishing Snf1-dependent regulation of Acc1.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuobo; Chen, Yun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) plays a central role in carbon metabolism and has been the site of action for the development of therapeutics or herbicides, as its product, malonyl-CoA, is a precursor for production of fatty acids and other compounds. Control of Acc1 activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs mainly at two levels, i.e., regulation of transcription and repression by Snf1 protein kinase at the protein level. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for improving the activity of ACCase in S. cerevisiae by abolishing posttranslational regulation of Acc1 via site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that introduction of two site mutations in Acc1, Ser659 and Ser1157, resulted in an enhanced activity of Acc1 and increased total fatty acid content. As Snf1 regulation of Acc1 is particularly active under glucose-limited conditions, we evaluated the effect of the two site mutations in chemostat cultures. Finally, we showed that our modifications of Acc1 could enhance the supply of malonyl-CoA and therefore successfully increase the production of two industrially important products derived from malonyl-CoA, fatty acid ethyl esters and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. IMPORTANCE ACCase is responsible for carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which is a crucial step in the control of fatty acid metabolism. ACCase opened the door for pharmaceutical treatments of obesity and diabetes as well as the development of new herbicides. ACCase is also recognized as a promising target for developing cell factories, as its malonyl-CoA product serves as a universal precursor for a variety of high-value compounds in white biotechnology. Yeast ACCase is a good model in understanding the enzyme's catalysis, regulation, and inhibition. The present study describes the importance of protein phosphorylation in regulation of yeast ACCase and identifies potential regulation sites. This study led to the generation of a more efficient ACCase, which

  20. The Effect of Pitch, Burnup, and Absorbers on a TRIGA Spent-Fuel Pool Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Marjan; Jeraj, Robert; Glumac, Bogdan

    2003-02-15

    It has been shown that supercriticality might occur for some postulated accident conditions at the TRIGA spent-fuel pool. However, the effect of burnup was not accounted for in previous studies. In this work, the combined effect of fuel burnup, pitch among fuel elements, and number of uniformly mixed absorber rods for a square arrangement on the spent-fuel pool k{sub eff} is investigated.The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with the ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. The WIMS-D code was used to model the isotopic composition of the standard TRIGA and FLIP fuel for 5, 10, 20 and 30% burnup level and 2- and 4-yr cooling time.The results show that out of the three studied effects, pitch from contact (3.75 cm) up to rack design pitch (8 cm), number of absorbers from zero to eight, and burnup up to 30%, the pitch has the greatest influence on the multiplication factor k{sub eff}. In the interval in which the pitch was changed, k{sub eff} decreased for up to {approx}0.4 for standard and {approx}0.3 for FLIP fuel. The number of absorber rods affects the multiplication factor much less. This effect is bigger for more compact arrangements, e.g., for contact of standard fuel elements with eight absorber rods among them, k{sub eff} values are smaller for {approx}0.2 ({approx}0.1 for FLIP) than for arrangements without absorber rods almost regardless of the burnup. The effect of burnup is the smallest. For standard fuel elements, it is {approx}0.1 for almost all pitches and numbers of absorbers. For FLIP fuel, it is smaller for a factor of 3, but increases with the burnup for compact arrangements. Cooling time of fuel has just a minor effect on the k{sub eff} of spent-fuel pool and can be neglected in spent-fuel pool design.