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Sample records for korean adult males

  1. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  2. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  3. Relative bioavailability of two 5-mg montelukast sodium chewable tablets: a single dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover comparison in healthy korean adult male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kim, H T; Song, Y-K; Lee, S D; Park, Y; Kim, C-K

    2012-03-01

    Montelukast sodium, cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 specific antagonist, has been marketed in Korea for the treatment of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a test and reference formulation of montelukast 5-mg chewable tablets in healthy Korean male volunteers to meet KFDA regulatory criteria for marketing of the new generic formulation. This study was designed as a single-dose, 2-treatment, and 2-period crossover trial with 32 healthy volunteers. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive the test (Dong-Kook Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) or reference (Singulair Chewable Tablet 5 mg®) formulation. The tablet was chewed 20 times, and then swallowed with 240 mL of water. Plasma concentrations of montelukast up to 24 h after the dose were determined using a validated UPLC-MS/MS method, and the bioequivalence between the 2 formulations was assessed by statistical analysis of mean ratios of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax. No period or sequence effects were detected. The AUC0-24 h was 1 835 ng·h/mL for the test formulation, and 1 930 ng·h/mL for the reference formulation. The respective values of AUC0-∞ were 1 917 and 2 015 ng·h/mL. The Cmax of the test and reference products (247 and 283 ng/mL, respectively) reached at 2.25 and 2.72 h, respectively. Then, they gradually decreased with the mean terminal t1/2 of 5.25 and 5.30 h for the test and reference products, respectively. The 90% CIs for the ratio of log-transformed AUC0-24 h and Cmax for the test and reference formulations were 0.92-0.99 and 0.83-0.91, respectively. No adverse events were reported in this study. This single dose study found that the test and reference products met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these fasting healthy Korean male volunteers. PMID:22407900

  4. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. Methods: All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Results: Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. Conclusions: The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking. PMID:26951917

  5. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity. PMID:26157264

  6. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  7. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  8. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  9. Specific absorbed fraction for Korean adult voxel phantom from internal photon source.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Park, S; Lee, J K

    2007-01-01

    Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) are crucial values for the calculation of radionuclide S-values and consequently for internal dose estimates. The formalism of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) has been utilised as a standard in the calculation of individual organ doses for biologically distributed radionuclides and for different types of radiation. Although those quantities are highly sensitive to individual anatomical difference, the SAF dataset calculated by Caucasian-based stylised phantoms have been applied to Korean population until now. This study was intended to calculate the SAFs by using realistic Korean voxel phantom and Monte Carlo transport technique for the first time and compare the results with those of the existing Caucasian-based data and the Korean stylised phantom published recently. The up-to-date realistic Korean voxel phantom, KTMAN-2, which was developed from computed tomography (CT) images of an average Korean adult male, was employed for Monte Carlo calculation using EGSnrc user-code, developed for the purpose of this study. The SAFs for 32 target organs and tissues from the photon source, uniformly deposited in a total of 37 source organs and tissues, were calculated from KTMAN-2. The results were compared with those for an adult phantom of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Korean adult stylised phantom. Two major reasons of discrepancy were analysed: (1) racial difference between the Korean and the Caucasian and (2) anatomical difference between stylised and voxel phantoms. When the source organ was identical to the target organ, difference in SAF caused by the difference in target-organ mass between the Korean and the Caucasian phantoms was mainly observed. When the source and target organs were not identical, significant difference in SAF was observed which was mainly attributed to the difference in inter-organ distance and organ shape between

  10. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  11. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. Results In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38–1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69–10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36–4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03–2.06), and low cotinine levels of <500 ng/mL (aOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.33–3.09), were also associated with discordance between SR and CV smoking status. Conclusion Omissions and false responses impede the accurate assessment of smoking status in health check-up participants. In order to improve accuracy, it is suggested that researcher pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates. PMID:27274388

  12. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  13. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  14. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  15. The Dynamic Range for Korean Standard Sentence Material: A Gender Comparison in a Male and a Female Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyeong-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify differences between the dynamic ranges (DRs) of male and female speakers using Korean standard sentence material. Consideration was especially given to effects within the predefined segmentalized frequency-bands. Materials and Methods We used Korean standard sentence lists for adults as stimuli. Each sentence was normalized to a root-mean-square of 65 dB sound pressure level. The sentences were then modified to ensure there were no pauses, and the modified sentences were passed through a filter bank in order to perform the frequency analysis. Finally, the DR was quantified using a histogram that showed the cumulative envelope distribution levels of the speech in each frequency band. Results In DRs that were averaged across all frequency bands, there were no significant differences between the male and the female speakers. However, when considering effects within the predefined frequency bands, there were significant differences in several frequency bands between the DRs of male speech and those of female speech. Conclusions This study shows that the DR of speech for the male speaker differed from the female speaker in nine frequency bands among 21 frequency bands. These observed differences suggest that a standardized DR of male speech in the band-audibility function of the speech intelligibility index may differ from that of female speech derived in the same way. Further studies are required to derive standardized DRs for Korean speakers. PMID:26413576

  16. Gender differences in factors influencing sexual satisfaction in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Jeon, Hae Ok

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the sex lives of Korean older adults (i.e., those over 60 years) and attempts to identify gender-related factors influencing sexual satisfaction. It used data from the 2008 Korean National Survey on Older Adults conducted by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Families. Of the 15,146 individuals who had taken part in the 2008 study, secondary analysis was conducted with data from 3360 persons who had spouses and were willing to respond to sex-related questions in a face-to-face interview. The mean age of male and female subjects was 67.34 and 66.86 years respectively. In the male subjects, sexual frequency, followed by marital satisfaction and cognitive function, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These three variables together accounted for 21% of the male subjects' sexual satisfaction. In the female subjects, marital satisfaction, followed by frequency of sexual activity, absence of depressive symptoms, age, and length of cohabitation with spouse, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These five variables together explained 11% of their sexual satisfaction. This study indicates that sexual frequency and physical factors have the most important effects on the sex lives of older men, while older women value psychosocial and relational factors more highly. Therefore, interventions aiming to improve sexual satisfaction in older adults should take gender differences into account. PMID:23153985

  17. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-02-15

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and

  18. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  19. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  20. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  1. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-IV Mental Disorders in South Korean Adults: The Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Chung, In-Won; Lee, Young Moon; Bae, Ahn; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Park, Jong-Ik; Son, Jungwoo; Chang, Sung Man; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in Korean adults. Methods Door to door household surveys were conducted with community residents aged 18-74 years from July 19, 2011, to November 16, 2011 (n=6,022, response rate 78.7%). The sample was drawn from 12 catchment areas using a multistage cluster method. Each subject was assessed using the Korean version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates were as follows: alcohol use disorders, 13.4% and 4.4%, respectively; nicotine use disorders, 7.2% and 4.0%, respectively; anxiety disorders, 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively; and mood disorders, 7.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The prevalence rates of all types of DSM-IV mental disorders were 27.6% and 16.0%, respectively. Being female; young; divorced, separated, or widowed; and in a low-income group were associated with mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for various demographic variables, whereas being male and young were associated with alcohol use disorders. Higher income was not correlated with alcohol use disorder as it had been in the 2001 survey. Conclusion The rate of depressive disorders has increased since 2001 (the first national survey), whereas that of anxiety disorders has been relatively stable. The prevalence of nicotine and alcohol use disorders has decreased, and the male-to-female ratio of those with this diagnosis has also decreased. PMID:25866515

  3. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  4. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  5. Magnetic resonance image-based cerebellar volumetry in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, I J; Cho, T H; Lee, N J; Uhm, C S; Kim, H; Suh, Y S

    1999-08-01

    The effects of age and gender on cerebellar size have not been established yet. To understand these effects, the area of cerebellar vermis and the volume of cerebellum were measured using serial magnetic resonance images of 124 Korean adults free of neurologic symptoms and signs. Cerebellar volume of male was significantly larger than that of female, although the size of vermis did not show significant gender difference. Correlation analysis revealed that cerebellar volume was not affected by aging. Regressional analysis demonstrated that female vermis had a tendency to shrink after age of 50, whereas male vermis and total cerebellar volume in both sexes were not altered with aging. The different response of vermis with aging and maintenance of cerebellum volume need to be more explored. PMID:10462116

  6. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults. PMID:26626599

  7. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted. PMID:26240489

  8. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  9. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Results Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Conclusion Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required. PMID:24472292

  10. The Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hearing Impairment in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae W.; Jeon, Ju H.; Ku, Cheol R.; Noh, Jung H.; Yoo, Hyung J.; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n = 33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6–21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6–9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19–39 years’ old) was 4.4% (3.5–5.5), in middle-age adults (40–64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8–22.5), and in older adults (≥65 years’ old), it was 69.7% (67.8–71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2 as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2, and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of

  11. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  12. Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional status in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Na, Youn Ju

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which is being used at the Samsung Medical Center. In total, 305 (190 males and 115 females) participants consented and completed the 3-day diet records and FFQ. Age, gender and energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0.317 (polyunsaturated fatty acid) to 0.748 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.550. The weighted kappa value ranged from 0.18 (vitamin A) to 0.57 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.36. More than 75% of the subjects were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles. The FFQ had reasonably good validity compared with that of another study. Therefore, our FFQ is considered a proper method to assess nutrient intake in healthy Korean adults. PMID:23198024

  13. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  14. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  15. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  16. Orthodontic treatment need in Asian adult males.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jen; Sandham, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    Orthodontic treatment in adults has gained social and professional acceptance in recent years. An assessment of orthodontic treatment need helps to identify individuals who will benefit from treatment and safeguard their interest. The purpose of this study was to assess the objective and subjective levels of orthodontic treatment need in a sample of orthodontically untreated adult Asian males. A sample of male army recruits (n = 339, age 17-22 years, Chinese = 258, Malay = 60, Indian = 21) with no history of orthodontic treatment or craniofacial anomalies participated in the study on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Impressions for study models were taken. Objective treatment need was assessed based on study model analysis using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Questionnaires were used to assess subjective treatment need based on subjective esthetic component (EC) ratings. Fifty percentage of the sample had a definite need for orthodontic treatment (dental health component [DHC] grades 4 and 5), whereas 29.2% had a moderate need for treatment (DHC grades 3). The occlusal trait most commonly identified was dental crossbite. Malay males had the highest percentage with a definite need for treatment for both dental health and esthetic reasons in comparison with Chinese and Indian males. However, there was no difference in the level of treatment need among the ethnic groups (P > .05). No correlation between objective and subjective EC scores was found (P > .05). A high level of investigator-identified treatment need was not supported by a similar level of subject awareness among the adult sample. PMID:15673139

  17. Does the maxillary anterior ratio in Korean adults follow the Golden Proportion?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of changes in the horizontal plane angle on the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth during the acquisition of frontal view photographs, derive these ratios for Korean adults on the basis of the data obtained, and analyze them using the Golden Proportion as a reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS In experiment I, 30 plaster casts were mounted on an articulator and positioned on the angle-measuring device with a center setting of 0°. The device was rotated to 10° in 1° increments in a counterclockwise direction. At each angle, photographs were obtained and analyzed. Experiment II was based on 60 patients who visited the Department of Prosthodontics at Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from February 2012 to February 2015. The patients were divided into three groups [Male (M), Female (F), Total (M + F)]. Frontal views were obtained for all groups and analyzed. RESULTS From 1° to 10°, the relative mesiodistal width ratios for the maxillary anterior teeth showed no significant differences from those at 0°. In all three groups, the relative width ratio of the maxillary central incisor was smaller than that specified in the Golden Proportion; the opposite was true for the canine. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth do not follow the Golden Proportion in Korean adults, and that a change in the horizontal plane angle from 1° to 10° during frontal photography does not affect these ratios. PMID:27141256

  18. Situated Learning and Identity Development in a Korean Older Adults' Computer Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Sek; Merriam, Sharan B.

    2010-01-01

    Situated learning theory understands learning to be a sociocultural activity, and individuals experience identity development as they participate in communities of practice. The purpose of this study was to understand how Korean older adults' computer learning in a classroom is a situated activity and how this learning influences older adults'…

  19. Time to First Cigarette and Hypertension in Korean Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Saerom; Jang, Miae; Noh, Hye-Mi; Oh, Hye-Young; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Morning blood pressure surge affects to cardiovascular disease risk. Short time to first cigarette (TTFC) after waking can enhance morning blood pressure surge, and accelerate atherosclerosis Methods We investigated that the relationship between TTFC and blood pressure. The study subjects included male current smokers (n=211) who had health check-up in Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital from July to September, 2014. We categorized the subjects into 2 groups according to TTFC; early TTFC (TTFC <30 minutes) and late TTFC (TTFC ≥30 minutes), and the subjects who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a high blood pressure (>140 mm Hg or 90 mm Hg) were defined as hypertensive group. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to investigate the association between TTFC and hypertensive group. Results Compared with late TTFC, early TTFC had higher odds (odds ratio [OR], 3.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-7.94) for hypertensive group. After adjusting confounding factors, early TTFC was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 1.84-10.70). Conclusion early TTFC after waking is associated with hypertension. It suggests delaying TTFC might help to control of blood pressure among the current smokers who are not ready to immediately quit smoking. PMID:26435812

  20. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    PubMed

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options. PMID:26197627

  1. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  2. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  3. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  4. Private religious practice, spiritual coping, social support, and health status among older Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems. PMID:25068608

  5. Coronary artery calcium scores and cardiovascular risk factors in 31,545 asymptomatic Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sung Mok; Sung, Jidong; Cho, Soo Jin; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the distribution of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) by age group and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and to evaluate the association between CV risk factors and CACS classification in asymptomatic adults. The study included 31,545 asymptomatic Koreans, over 20 years of age with no previous history of malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or stroke, who underwent CACS computed tomography at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center, between January 2005 and June 2013. Mean (±SD) age was 53.8 (±8.5) years overall, 56.1 (±8.3) in men, and 53.3 (±8.5) in women. They were classified into five groups based on their resting CACS: none (CAC = 0), minimal (0 < CAC ≤ 10), mild (10 < CAC ≤ 100), moderate (100 < CAC ≤ 400), and extensive (400 > CAC). Older age groups exhibited higher CACS values. The proportion of CACS classification in our study was 55.5 % with no CACS, 9.5 % with minimal CACS, 19.8 % with mild CACS, 10.8 % with moderate CACS, and 4.3 % with extensive CACS. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for CV risk factors to determine their association with CACS. When analyzed according to sex, in males, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, chronic kidney disease, and smoking status. While, in females, the adjusted OR for CACS increased with the presence of HT, DM, and obesity. CV risk factors appear to be significantly associated with CACS in the Korean population. PMID:27119164

  6. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health. PMID:26420187

  7. Television viewing and obesity in adult males.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, L A; Friedman, G M

    1989-01-01

    We estimated the extent to which time spent watching television is associated with obesity and super-obesity among 6,138 employed adult males. After adjustment for age, smoking status, length of work week, measured physical fitness, and reported weekly hours of exercise, people who viewed TV more than three hours/day were twice as likely to be obese as those who viewed less than 1 hour/day. Those who viewed for 1 to 2 hours daily had a relative risk of 1.60 (1.21, 2.11). Physical fitness consistently confounded the associations between TV viewing and obesity/super-obesity, but the other control variables did not do so. PMID:2929820

  8. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  9. Assessment of anterior-posterior jaw relationships in Korean adults using the nasion true vertical plane in cone-beam computed tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngju; Cho, Youngserk; Mah, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate a simple method for assessing anterior-posterior jaw relationships via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken in the natural head position (NHP) relative to the nasion true vertical plane (NTVP), and measure normative data in Korean adults with normal profiles. Methods Subjects were selected from patients presenting for third molar extraction and evaluated as having normal profiles by three examiners. The CBCT images of 80 subjects (39 males, 41 females) were taken in the NHP according to Solow and Tallgren's method. Linear measurements of the A-point, B-point, and Pog were calculated relative to the NTVP. Student's t-test was used to assess sexual differences in these measurements. Results The mean linear measurements of the A-point, B-point, and Pog relative to the NTVP were 0.18 mm (standard deviation [SD], 4.77 mm), −4.00 mm (SD, 6.62 mm), and −2.49 mm (SD, 7.14 mm) respectively in Korean males, and 1.48 mm (SD, 4.21 mm), −4.07 mm (SD, 6.70 mm) and −2.91 mm (SD, 7.25 mm) in Korean females respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between Korean males and females (p < 0.05). Conclusions Three-dimensional CBCT analysis using the NTVP is a simple and reliable method for assessing anterior-posterior skeletal relationships. PMID:27226962

  10. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  11. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  12. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract on busulfan-induced dysfunction of the male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lim, Kwang Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jang, Minhee; Park, Seong Kyu; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background Anticancer agents induce a variety of adverse effects when administered to cancer patients. Busulfan is a known antileukemia agent. When administered for treatment of leukemia in young patients, busulfan could cause damage to the male reproductive system as one of its adverse effects, resulting in sterility. Methods We investigated the effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on busulfan-induced damage and/or dysfunction of the male reproductive system. Results We found that administration of busulfan to mice: decreased testis weight; caused testicular histological damage; reduced the total number of sperm, sperm motility, serum testosterone concentration; and eventually, litter size. Preadministration of KRGE partially attenuated various busulfan-induced damages to the male reproductive system. These results indicate that KRGE has a protective effect against busulfan-induced damage to the male reproduction system. Conclusion The present study shows a possibility that KRGE could be applied as a useful agent to prevent or protect the male reproductive system from the adverse side effects induced by administration of anticancer agents such as busulfan. PMID:26199556

  13. Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P<.01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P<.01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression. PMID:19631109

  14. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  15. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  16. Reference Intervals for Plasma Amyloid β in Korean Adults Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Kim, Kyu Nam; Cho, Hye Min; Lee, Duck Joo; Cho, Doo Yeoun

    2016-11-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are important components of plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that a low plasma ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 may precede the development of the sporadic form of AD. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for plasma Aβ in Korean adults. A total of 370 apparently healthy individuals (181 males and 189 females aged 40-69 yr) without cognitive impairment were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were measured by using a human amyloid β assay kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories, Japan). Reference intervals were established according to the "CLSI guidelines for defining, establishing, and verifying reference intervals in the clinical laboratory". There was no need to partition the data with respect to gender or age group. The 95th percentile reference intervals for Aβ40 and Aβ42 were 127-331 pg/mL and 2.31-19.84 pg/mL, respectively. The reference interval for the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was 0.011-0.092. Plasma Aβ concentrations obtained in this study could be used as reference intervals for clinical purposes. PMID:27578514

  17. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  18. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  19. Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

  20. Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for

  1. The Experiences of Korean Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Photovoice Study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; An, Sangmin

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice was used to understand the impact of childhood cancer on Korean young adult survivors. Seven survivors of childhood cancer (currently aged 20-27 years), diagnosed before the age of 19 and with cancer treatment completed, participated in five sessions. The participants took photographs that captured their group's weekly topics and participated in discussions about their feelings and experiences. Fifty-six photo images with narratives on the survivors' experiences were produced on these four participant-selected themes: Relationships With Others, Stigma, Overcoming Difficulties, and The Future This study on Korean childhood cancer survivors sheds light on their perspectives about the impact of cancer. Using an innovative methodology that takes the participants' point of view, this study contributes to the literature on young adult cancer survivors' quality of life and their psychosocial adjustment. The results can inform educational programs and increase public awareness by providing survivors' schoolteachers and peers with knowledge about childhood cancer. PMID:26265716

  2. Identification of asthma clusters in two independent Korean adult asthma cohorts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Bum; Jang, An-Soo; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Park, Jong-Sook; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Jung-Won; Nam, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Young-Joo; Moon, Hee-Bom; Cho, You Sook; Park, Choon-Sik

    2013-06-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous airway disease with various clinical phenotypes. It is crucial to clearly identify clinical phenotypes to achieve better asthma management. We used cluster analysis to classify the clinical groups of 724 asthmatic patients from the Cohort for Reality and Evolution of Adult Asthma in Korea (COREA), and in 1843 subjects from another independent Korean asthma cohort of Soonchunhyang University Asthma Genome Research Centre (SCH) (Bucheon, Republic of Korea). Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed by Ward's method, followed by κ-means cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the COREA cohort indicated four asthma subtypes: 1) smoking asthma; 2) severe obstructive asthma; 3) early-onset atopic asthma; and 4) late-onset mild asthma. An independent cluster analysis of the SCH cohort also indicated four clusters that were similar to the COREA clusters. Our results indicate that adult Korean asthma patients can be classified into four distinct clusters. PMID:23060627

  3. Relationship between Work Hours and Smoking Behaviors in Korean Male Wage Workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study are 1) to measure the prevalence of smoking according to weekly work hours by using data from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), and 2) to explain the cause of high smoking prevalence among those with short or long work hours by relative explanatory fraction. Methods Data from a total of 2,044 male subjects who responded to the questionnaire in the 10th year (2007) and 11th year (2008) of the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study were used for analysis. Current smoking, smoking cessation, continuous smoking, start of smoking, weekly work hours, occupational characteristics, sociodemographic and work-related factors, and health behavior-related variables were analyzed. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to study the relationship between weekly work hours and smoking behaviors in terms of the prevalence ratio. Results The 2008 age-adjusted smoking prevalence was 64.9% in the short work hours group, 54.7% in the reference work hours group, and 60.6% in the long work hours group. The smoking prevalence of the short work hours group was 1.39 times higher than that of the reference work hours group (95% confidence interval of 1.17-1.65), and this was explained by demographic variables and occupational characteristics. The smoking prevalence of the long work hours group was 1.11 times higher than that of the reference work hours group when the age was standardized (95% confidence interval of 1.03-1.19). This was explained by demographic variables. No independent effects of short or long work hours were found when the variables were adjusted. Conclusion Any intervention program to decrease the smoking prevalence in the short work hours group must take into account employment type, job satisfaction, and work-related factors. PMID:24472534

  4. Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively. PMID:21829759

  5. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  6. Predictors of the Severity and Serious Outcomes of Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Hur, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heon; Choi, Gil-Soon; Lee, Soo-Keol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differences in definitions of the condition, relevant triggers, and the geographical locations of study centers, cause estimates of the prevalence of anaphylaxis to vary. Recent epidemiological data indicate that the incidence of anaphylaxis is rising. Methods To investigate the causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis in Korean adults, factors associated with the severity of the condition, and serious outcomes, a retrospective medical record review was performed on adult patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2007 and 2011 in 15 University Hospitals of South Korea. Results A total of 1,806 cases (52% male, age 16-86 years) were reported. Cutaneous symptoms (84.0%), combined with respiratory (53.9%) and/or cardiovascular (55.4%) symptoms, were the most frequent presentations. Using a recognized grading system, 1,776 cases could be classified as either mild, 340; moderate, 690; or severe, 746. Although eliciting factors varied significantly by age, gender, and regional and seasonal factors, drugs (46.5%; including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and radiocontrast media) were the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by foods (24.2%), insect stings (16.4%), exercise (5.9%), and unknown etiology (7.0%). All of age, multi-organ involvement, a history of allergic disease, and drug-induced anaphylaxis, were significant predictors of serious outcomes requiring hospital admission or prolongation of hospital stay. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed for 7.4% of reported cases. Conclusions The principal causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adults were drugs, food, and insect stings. Drug-associated anaphylaxis, a history of allergic disease, multi-organ involvement, and older age, were identified as predictors of serious outcomes. PMID:25553259

  7. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  8. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  9. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  10. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  11. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  12. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in Adults Aged 20–39 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hie; Kim, Seong Jae; Lee, Se Yong; Jang, Kwang Ho; Kim, In Soo; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Morningness-Eveningness (ME) can be defined by the difference in individual diurnal preference observed from general behavioral patterns including sleep habits. The Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) has been used for classifying ME types. We examined the reliability of a Korean version of the MEQ (Korean MEQ) and verified its validity by comparing responses on the Korean MEQ to objectively-recorded sleep-wake rhythms. After translating and back translating the MEQ from English into Korean, we examined the internal consistency of 19 items of the Korean MEQ in 91 subjects, and the test–retest reliability in 21 subjects who took the Korean MEQ twice, four weeks apart. The Korean MEQ was then administered to 1,022 young adult subjects. A subset of 46 morning, neither, and evening type subjects took part in a validation study in which their rest-activity timing was collected by actigraphy for 7 days. Cosinor analyses on these data were done to obtain the acrophase and amplitude of the sleep-wake rhythm. Cronbach's alpha of the total scores from the Korean MEQ was 0.77, and the test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.90 (p<0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between Korean MEQ score and reported sleep-wake timing among the entire cohort (p<0.0001). There was a significant difference in bedtime and wake time (on both work and free days), and in the mean sleep-wake rhythm acrophase, between ME types (p<0.01). In this study, the validity of the Korean MEQ was verified by illustrating the difference in acrophases of the sleep-wake rhythm between the ME types in young adults PMID:24467306

  14. Sexual Behaviors and AIDS Concerns among Young Adult Heterosexual Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Sherry C.; Vergare, Michael J.

    As the human immunodeficiency virus spreads beyond homosexuals and intravenous drug users into the heterosexual community, there is heightened interest in the sexual behavior of sexually active young adults. There is little information on young adult black males, who may be at increased risk, since blacks in this country are contracting Acquired…

  15. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: A Q methodology approach

    PubMed Central

    Kae Hwa, JO; Gyeong-Ju, AN; DOORENBOS, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. Methods The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents’ ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. Results The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented–self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented–self-recognition type, reflection-oriented–self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented–self-maintenance type. Conclusions The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. PMID:22583944

  16. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  17. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues. PMID:24066632

  18. Oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2008-10-01

    Oral health affects older adults and their quality of life. Oral care is reported to have a low priority in nursing care of older adults, and repeated assessments to detect oral health problems are seldom performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among level of oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) and to identify predictors of OHRQL in Korean older adults. The design was a descriptive, correlational study. The level of oral pain contributed most significantly to OHRQL, followed by nutrition and number of teeth. These three predictor variables explained 46.4% of the variance in OHRQL. Older adults could benefit from oral health care, such as routine screening for oral health and nutritional status. Nurses are at the forefront in providing such services, and it is recommended they integrate oral health care into their routine nursing care plans. PMID:18942537

  19. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans. PMID:26489826

  20. Bioequivalence study of two imatinib formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jung, J A; Kim, N; Yang, J-S; Kim, T-e; Kim, J-R; Song, G-S; Kim, H; Ko, J W; Huh, W

    2014-12-01

    Imatinib mesylate is effective for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. We aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 200-mg imatinib tablet compared to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in order to meet the regulatory requirements for marketing in Korea.An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 28 healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects were administered a 200-mg imatinib tablet and 2×100-mg imatinib tablets under a fasting state according to a randomly assigned order with a 2-week wash-out period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods.A total of 28 subjects were enrolled and 23 subjects completed the study. There were no serious adverse events during the study. 23 mild to moderate adverse events were reported (11 events with 200-mg imatinib vs. 12 events with 2×100-mg imatinib) and subjects recovered without sequelae. The Cmax value was 922.8±318.8 μg/L at 3.15 h for 200-mg imatinib tablet, and 986.3±266.0 μg/L at 2.91 h for the 2×100-mg imatinib tablet. The AUClast of 200-mg and 2×100-mg tablets were 13 084.3±39.1 and 14 131.7±3 826.2 h · μg/L, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) for Cmax and AUClast were 0.9121 (0.8188, 1.0161) and 0.9558 (0.8685, 1.0519), respectively.A newly developed 200-mg imatinib tablet was bioequivalent to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in healthy Korean subjects. A single-dose of either of the 2 formulations was generally well tolerated. PMID:24549963

  1. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adults using data from the 2002-2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  2. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  3. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  4. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  5. The Band-Importance Function for the Korean Standard Sentence Lists for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jin, In-Ki; Lee, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Dongwook; Sohn, Junil; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The band-importance function (BIF) refers to a value characterizing the relative importance of different frequencies to speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to derive the BIF for the Korean standard sentence lists for adults (KS-SL-A). Subjects and Methods In this study, sentences from the KS-SL-A were used as the speech material. Twenty-six normal-hearing Korean listeners participated and intelligibility scores in 8 filters with 3 signal-to-noise ratio conditions were obtained. Based on the intelligibility score percentages, the BIF for the KS-SL-A was derived by using an established protocol. Results Band-importance weights varied across frequency bands. The most important frequency region was around 316 Hz (20.0%), and the importance of the frequency bands below the center frequency (CF) of 1,778 Hz was 59.6%. Therefore, low frequencies below the CF of 1,778 Hz were more important than high frequencies above the CF of 1,778 Hz. Conclusions The BIF for KS-SL-A could be applied towards developing a hearing aid fitting formulae for Korean listeners. PMID:27626080

  6. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  7. Awareness and Completion of Advance Directives Among Korean American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Debra; Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Meng, Hongdao

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing concerns about racial and ethnic disparities in completion rates of advance directives (ADs) among community-dwelling older populations. While differences in AD completion rates in non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans have been reported, not much is known about the awareness and completion of ADs in other groups of ethnic minorities. Using a sample of community-dwelling Korean American older adults (n = 675) as a target, factors associated with their awareness and completion of ADs were explored. Guided by Andersen's behavioral health model, predisposing (age, sex, marital status, and education), need (chronic conditions and functional disability), and enabling variables (health insurance and acculturation) were included in the separate logistic regression models of AD awareness and AD completion. In both models, acculturation was found to be a significant predictor; those who had a higher level of acculturation were more likely to be aware of ADs and to have completed ADs. This study contributes to the knowledge about the role of acculturation in explaining AD awareness and completion among Korean American older adults and provides practice implications for possible AD educational interventions for this older adult minority population. PMID:25803787

  8. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the adult male breast

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sean D.; Rogers, Samuel; del Junco, Gerard W.; Sepulveda, Karla

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old male presented with a right breast mass, enlarging insidiously over a one-year period after trauma to the site. After the findings were attributed to glandular injury and hematoma, the patient eventually underwent mammographic and ultrasonographic evaluation that demonstrated masses in the breast and the axilla. A subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy of the breast mass yielded a diagnosis of fibromatosis. However, the imaging features were suggestive of malignancy. Surgical resection was performed and revealed dedifferentiated liposarcoma—a neoplasm with components of well- and poorly differentiated liposarcoma as well as nonlipomatous sarcoma. This tumor type is primarily described in the retroperitoneum and limbs and is especially rare in the breast. We report an unusual case of multifocal primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma involving the breast in a man. PMID:27186240

  9. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery. PMID:11314500

  10. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Nam, Min; Kim, Jong Woo; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2), key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2) were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46-0.95) and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37-0.89). Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46-0.94). These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males. PMID:27483248

  11. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Nam, Min; Kim, Jong Woo; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2), key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2) were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46–0.95) and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.89). Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94). These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males. PMID:27483248

  12. Characterization of Korean Male Breast Cancer Using an Online Nationwide Breast-Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Young; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Park, Hyung Seok; Lim, Seung Taek; Jung, Yongsik; Ko, Byung Kyun; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and the survival rate in male breast cancer (MBC) patients in Korea over a 31-year period. Additionally, we analyzed the overall survival (OS) rate of a group of MBC matched to females with breast cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 400 Korean patients who were treated for MBC from 1978 to 2009. Patient demographics and clinical information were routinely documented throughout the study period. Survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Each MBC patient was matched with 5 female breast cancer (FBC) patients based on 7 characteristics and we compared the OS rates between the 2 groups. For MBC cases, the median follow-up was 72 months and the 5-year OS rate was 85.9%. In univariate analyses, the prognostic factors influencing OS were age (more than 60 years, P <0.001), tumor size (>2 cm, P = 0.007), and having a negative progesterone receptor (PR) status (P = 0.042). Only the age (P = 0.028) and tumor size (P = 0.024) were significant prognostic factors for OS in multivariate analysis. After matching, we had 260 male patients matched to 1300 female patients for analysis. Compared with cases among females, the rate of mastectomy was higher among MBC cases and tumors, which were almost invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), were more likely to be located in the central part of the breast. For MBC cases, the percentage of adjuvant radiation therapy was low compared with female cases. The primary hormone therapy agent used was tamoxifen. The 5-year OS rates were similar in MBC compared with FBC (91.0% vs. 92.6%, P = 0.300). We found that only the age (more than 60 years) and tumor size were independent prognostic factors of survival in MBC. The prognosis for MBC is similar to that for FBC given similar stage and hormone-receptor status. PMID:27100414

  13. Anatomic autoandrophilia in an adult male.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2009-12-01

    Some men are sexually aroused by impersonating the individuals to whom they are sexually attracted, or by permanently changing their bodies to become facsimiles of such individuals. Blanchard (J Sex Marital Ther 17:235-251, 1991) suggested that these paraphilic sexual interests, along with fetishism, represented erotic target location errors, i.e., developmental errors in locating erotic targets in the environment. Because the desire to impersonate or become a facsimile of the kind of person to whom one is attracted can have significant implications for identity, Freund and Blanchard (Br J Psychiatry 162:558-563, 1993) coined the term erotic target identity inversion to describe this type of erotic target location error. The best-known examples of erotic target identity inversions occur in men who are sexually attracted to women and who are also sexually aroused by the idea of impersonating or becoming women; these paraphilic interests manifest as transvestic fetishism and as one type of male-to-female transsexualism. Analogous erotic target identity inversions have been described in men who are sexually attracted to children and to female amputees. In theory, erotic target identity inversions should also occur in men who are sexually attracted to men. There have been no unambiguous descriptions, however, of men who are sexually attracted to men and also sexually aroused by the idea of changing their bodies to become more sexually attractive men. This report describes such a man, whose paraphilic interest would appropriately be called anatomic autoandrophilia. The demonstration that anatomic autoandrophilia exists in men is consistent with the theory that erotic target location errors constitute an independent paraphilic dimension. PMID:19093196

  14. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  15. Predicting the Permanent Safe Donor Area for Hair Transplantation in Koreans with Male Pattern Baldness according to the Position of the Parietal Whorl

    PubMed Central

    Na, Young Cheon; Moh, Jae Seong; Lee, Seung Yong; You, Seung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The most crucial factor in hair transplantation for male pattern baldness (MPB) patients is the efficient utilization of the donor-recipient ratio. However, there is no known factor that scientifically predicts the rate of progression of alopecia or indicates a permanently safe donor area. Methods The study considered 1,008 Korean adult males with MPB; of these, it excluded 56 males with an absence of parietal whorls (PWs). The authors investigated the distance from the vertical bimeatal line (VM) to the PW, from the PW to the upper border of the helical rim (HR), and the distance from the PW to the occipital fringe (OF) in 952 subjects with a PW. Furthermore, we examined the distance from the PW to the OF considering the duration of alopecia and age in 322 subjects with vertex alopecia. Results The distance between the VM and PW varied from 1.5 to 11 cm, with an average distance of 6.25 cm. The PW-HR distance ranged from 3.4 to 17.5 cm, and the average distance was 7.79 cm. The PW-OF distance ranged from 0.5 to 5.5 cm, and the average distance was 2.37 cm. Conclusions For the PW, very large variations existed in the vertical direction. The position of the PW could predict the progression range of the total alopecia of the vertex. Alopecia mostly progresses within 6 cm of the PW toward the occipital side. PMID:24883280

  16. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  17. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  18. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  19. PERSONALITY AND SUCCESS PROFILES CHARACTERISTIC OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECK, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    MAJOR SUCCESS-FAILURE SYNDROMES WERE STUDIED FROM DATA OBTAINED IN A PREVIOUS STUDY (COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROJECT NO. 1533) ON 100 MENTALLY RETARDED, YOUNG MALE ADULTS. STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS HAD BEEN CONDUCTED WITH THE SUBJECTS, THEIR PARENTS, AND THEIR SUPERVISORS. FACTOR ANALYSIS HAD DEVELOPED 21 BASIC PREDICTORS OF SUCCESS AND 17 AFTER-TRAINING…

  20. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  1. Outpatient Treatment of Primary Anorexia Nervosa in Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziesat, Harold A., Jr.; Ferguson, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes three cases of adult-onset primary anorexia nervosa in males. For each case, the history and diagnostic patterns are considered, followed by a discussion of the course of outpatient treatment. The therapy was multimodal and included elements of behavioral contingency management, cognitive therapy, and dynamic psychotherapy. (JAC)

  2. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  3. Hybrid Computational Phantoms Representing the Reference Adult Male and Adult Female: Construction and Applications for Retrospective Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Jorge L.; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-year Korean volunteer and a 25-year U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images for the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of 8 anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from

  4. Hybrid computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and adult female: construction and applications for retrospective dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Jorge L; Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Goede, Timothy; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-03-01

    Currently, two classes of computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms are flexible, but the resulting anatomy is not as realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms called hybrid phantoms takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms-flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference anatomy and anthropometry are presented. These phantoms serve as the starting framework for creating patient or worker sculpted whole-body phantoms for retrospective dose reconstruction. Contours of major organs and tissues were converted or segmented from computed tomography images of a 36-y-old Korean volunteer and a 25-y-old U.S. female patient, respectively, with supplemental high-resolution CT images of the cranium. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed and imported into Rhinoceros™ for non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Commission on Radiation Protection, respectively. Finally, two hybrid adult male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ volumes matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. The hybrid phantoms were voxelized from the NURBS phantoms

  5. Using methodological triangulation for cultural verification of commitment to a plan for exercise scale among Korean adults with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shin, YunHee; Pender, Nola J; Yun, SangKyun

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to use methodological triangulation to increase the cultural appropriateness of the Planning for Exercise Scale (Pender, 1996), which measures commitment to a plan of action, and to psychometrically evaluate the revised scale in a selected population of 230 Korean adults experiencing chronic diseases. First, through a qualitative approach, the cultural properties of the concept were identified in order to revise Pender's Planning for Exercise Scale. The revised scale consisted of 20 items: 13 items emerged from the qualitative procedure and seven items were retained from the original scale. Through a quantitative approach, the revised scale was analyzed psychometrically. Results showed the scale had sufficient reliability and validity to warrant its use by researchers or practitioners evaluating the level of commitment to a plan for exercise among Korean adults. The revised instrument is appropriate for use in future intervention studies designed to improve the performance of exercise among Koreans who are chronically ill. PMID:12884419

  6. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= -9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= -2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= -6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

  7. Preventive Health Services Utilization Among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of preventive health services among Korean American adults. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 212 Korean Americans in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Guided by the Andersen's behavioral model, the authors examined whether predisposing (age, gender, marital status, household size, education), enabling (income, health insurance, English proficiency, citizenship, social network), and need (health status) factors are predictive of Korean Americans' preventive health services utilization. A binomial logistic regression showed that younger age, male, noncitizen, low income, no insurance, a larger family network, and better perceived health were associated with decreased odds of using preventive health services. PMID:27171558

  8. Lower Zinc Bioavailability May Be Related to Higher Risk of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort), which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES). A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women) aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. Results We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80th percentile value of cIMT (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009), and especially in elderly men (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021). We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. Conclusions Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk. PMID:24223217

  9. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Ae-Wha; Choi, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend < 0.0001). Meanwhile, daily consumption of both non-salted vegetable and fruit with and without kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (< 400 g/day) of non-salted vegetable and fruit without kimchi. CONCLUSIONS Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future. PMID:27087903

  10. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  11. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females. PMID:25812547

  12. Twentieth century surge of excess adult male mortality

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Finch, Caleb E.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Using historical data from 1,763 birth cohorts from 1800 to 1935 in 13 developed countries, we show that what is now seen as normal—a large excess of female life expectancy in adulthood—is a demographic phenomenon that emerged among people born in the late 1800s. We show that excess adult male mortality is clearly rooted in specific age groups, 50–70, and that the sex asymmetry emerged in cohorts born after 1880 when male:female mortality ratios increased by as much as 50% from a baseline of about 1.1. Heart disease is the main condition associated with increased excess male mortality for those born after 1900. We further show that smoking-attributable deaths account for about 30% of excess male mortality at ages 50–70 for cohorts born in 1900–1935. However, after accounting for smoking, substantial excess male mortality at ages 50–70 remained, particularly from cardiovascular disease. The greater male vulnerability to cardiovascular conditions emerged with the reduction in infectious mortality and changes in health-related behaviors. PMID:26150507

  13. Comparison of Surrogate Markers as Measures of Uncomplicated Insulin Resistance in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jong; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Bae; Lee, Jee Yon; Lee, Hye Sun; Hong, Jung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is known to increase the risk of various cardiometabolic diseases and in-sulin resistance (IR) has known to have central role in the development of MS. Many surrogate indices of IR have been proposed and the detection of MS might be a suitable model for assessing the accuracy of surrogate indices. The aims of our study are to invest the most appropriate index by assessment of the diagnostic capacity of IR among each surrogate index and identifying cut-off values for discriminating uncomplicated MS in Korean adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, assessing 294 Korean adults, 85 of whom were diagnosed with uncomplicated MS. The sensitivities and specificities of five surrogate IR indices were compared to discriminate MS from healthy subjects; these included fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, McAuley index, and Disse index. Correlations between each index value were assessed using Pearson's and Spearman's correlation methods. Results The McAuley index showed the highest area under the curve (0.85), specificity (86.12%), accuracy (82.31%), positive predictive value (68.13%), and negative predictive value (88.67%) to distinguish MS, with a cut-off point of 5.3 defined. Correlation coefficients of the five indices showed that the McAuley index had the strongest correlation with IR. Conclusion The McAuley index showed the best accuracy in the detection of MS as a surrogate marker of IR. To establish more effective and accurate standards of measuring IR, comprehensive and multi-scaled studies are required. PMID:27274391

  14. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won-Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. Methods The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous month. The question regarding sleep need was "How much sleep do you need to be at your best during the day?" Unmet sleep need was calculated as sleep need minus habitual sleep duration. Participants with a score of >10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered to have EDS. Results The overall prevalence of EDS was 11.9%. Approximately one-third of the participants (31.9%) reported not getting at least 7 hours of sleep. An unmet sleep need of >0 hours was present in 30.2% of the participants. An adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant excess risk of EDS in the groups with unmet sleep needs of ≥2 hours [odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27–2.54] and 0.01–2 hours (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02–1.98). However, habitual sleep duration was not significantly related to EDS. Conclusions EDS was found to be associated with unmet sleep need but not with habitual sleep duration when both factors were examined together. We suggest that individual unmet sleep need is more important than habitual sleep duration in terms of the relation to EDS. PMID:26833986

  15. Juvenile Hormone Is Required in Adult Males for Drosophila Courtship

    PubMed Central

    Wijesekera, Thilini P.; Saurabh, Sumit; Dauwalder, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Hormone (JH) has a prominent role in the regulation of insect development. Much less is known about its roles in adults, although functions in reproductive maturation have been described. In adult females, JH has been shown to regulate egg maturation and mating. To examine a role for JH in male reproductive behavior we created males with reduced levels of Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyl Transferase (JHAMT) and tested them for courtship. JHAMT regulates the last step of JH biosynthesis in the Corpora Allata (CA), the organ of JH synthesis. Males with reduced levels of JHAMT showed a reduction in courtship that could be rescued by application of Methoprene, a JH analog, shortly before the courtship assays were performed. In agreement with this, reducing JHAMT conditionally in mature flies led to courtship defects that were rescuable by Methoprene. The same result was also observed when the CA were conditionally ablated by the expression of a cellular toxin. Our findings demonstrate that JH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of male mating behavior. PMID:27003411

  16. The Association between Muscle Mass Deficits Estimated from Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Kye-Bong; Cho, Sul-Bit; Im, In Jae; Kim, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) is influenced by many factors. Despite the reported association between body components and BMD, most of these studies investigated the relationship between absolute muscle mass or fat mass and BMD in postmenopausal women or elderly subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between muscle mass deficits (MMD) estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and lumbar spinal BMD in Korean adults 20 to 49 years of age. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,765 men and women who visited a health promotion center for a routine checkup. The lumbar spinal BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition analysis was performed using BIA. Results The mean age of the subjects was 40.2±6.3 years. Ten thousand subjects (56.7%) were males and 126 subjects (7.1%) belonged to the low BMD (Z-score ≤-2.0). MMD had the strongest influence on BMD after adjusting for all covariates. The adjusted odds ratio of Group 3 (MDD >2.6 kg) for low BMD was 2.74 (95% CI, 1.46-5.15) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, height, and smoking. Conclusions MMD estimated by BIA showed a significant association with BMD and could be regarded as an independent risk factor for low BMD in adults 20 to 49 years of age. These findings support that interventions such as physical activity or lifestyle changes may simultaneously modify both muscle and bone health in this age group. PMID:27294081

  17. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (1-OHPG and 2-naphthol) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) biomarkers in urine among Korean adults and children.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho; Kang, Daehee

    2012-07-01

    Using the urinary biomarkers 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG), 2-naphthol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), we evaluated seasonal and regional variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress among Korean adults and children. In total, 322 children (175 male and 147 female) and 332 adults (47 male and 285 female) were recruited in two regions of Korea, one representing a metropolitan area (Seoul/Incheon) and the other an industrial (Pohang) area, from winter 2002 to spring 2003. The subjects voluntarily gathered their first morning urine void, which was immediately transported to our laboratory and stored at -20 °C. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, 2-naphthol by HPLC, and urinary MDA by HPLC with a UV detector. The median urinary 1-OHPG concentration tended to be higher in the industrial region than in the metropolitan region (0.92 vs. 0.77 ng/mL; p=0.03), and higher in winter than in spring (0.95 vs. 0.73 ng/mL; p<0.001). The median 2-naphthol concentration was also higher in the industrial region than in the metropolitan region (21.0 vs. 12.3 ng/mL; p<0.0001), but was higher in spring than in winter (19.7 vs. 10.3 ng/mL; p<0.0001). The median MDA concentration was significantly higher in winter than in spring (2.19 vs. 1.03 μmol/L; p<0.0001), whereas regional variation in MDA was observed only in female adults (p=0.02). In winter, the level of 1-OHPG was higher in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke than in unexposed children (0.94 vs. 0.86 ng/mL; p=0.02). Our results indicate that both region and season can significantly influence the levels of PAH exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers. PMID:22436105

  19. The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's α=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

  20. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  1. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  2. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  3. Dietary glucose regulates yeast consumption in adult Drosophila males

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Witzgall, Peter; Olsson, Marie; Becher, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The adjustment of feeding behavior in response to hunger and satiety contributes to homeostatic regulation in animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster feeds on yeasts growing on overripe fruit, providing nutrients required for adult survival, reproduction and larval growth. Here, we present data on how the nutritional value of food affects subsequent yeast consumption in Drosophila adult males. After a period of starvation, flies showed intensive yeast consumption. In comparison, flies stopped feeding after having access to a nutritive cornmeal diet. Interestingly, dietary glucose was equally efficient as the complex cornmeal diet. In contrast, flies fed with sucralose, a non-metabolizable sweetener, behaved as if they were starved. The adipokinetic hormone and insulin-like peptides regulate metabolic processes in insects. We did not find any effect of the adipokinetic hormone pathway on this modulation. Instead, the insulin pathway was involved in these changes. Flies lacking the insulin receptor (InR) did not respond to nutrient deprivation by increasing yeast consumption. Together these results show the importance of insulin in the regulation of yeast consumption in response to starvation in adult D. melanogaster males. PMID:25566097

  4. Prevalence of childhood physical abuse in adult male veteran alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, M R; Sobieraj, K; Hollyfield, R L

    1988-01-01

    Although past research has identified psychological and behavioral consequences for adults who were abused as children, few studies have examined the incidence and consequences of childhood physical abuse among adult alcoholics. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of a childhood history of physical abuse in adult male alcoholics and to determine what differences may exist in the psychological profile and patterns of alcohol abuse in abused and nonabused alcoholics. The study sample was comprised of 100 male alcoholic inpatients from the alcoholism treatment unit at a metropolitan Veterans Administration hospital. Subjects were administered a self-report devised by the authors to assess a history of childhood physical abuse, the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Findings indicated that approximately one-third of the alcoholics were physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than their nonabused counterparts, although they did not differ on the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. PMID:3260808

  5. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  6. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:27622178

  7. A study of the awareness of chronic liver diseases among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Dae Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Kim, Seok Hyun; Eun, Jong Ryul

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic liver disease is closely associated with lifestyle, and public enlightenment of the lifestyle factors is important in reducing prevalence of chronic liver disease. The KASL (Korean Association for the Study of the Liver) conducted a survey of basic information and epidemiological data regarding chronic liver diseases. Methods A survey of chronic liver disease involving a total of 2,794 respondents was conducted. The respondents included patients and their guardians, visitors for health check-ups, and online pollees who completed a questionnaire on the awareness of fatty liver or chronic liver disease. Results Of the entire cohort, 854 (39.7%) said they have had or still have fatty liver or an elevated transaminase level (>40 IU/L), but only 23.4% of the respondents had visited a hospital. It was found that 35% of healthy subjects and 45% of patients and their guardians misunderstood hepatitis B as the hereditary disesase. Furthermore, 26% of the subjects responded that patients with inactive hepatitis B do not require regular follow-up. While 17.9% answered that it is not too late to test for liver cancer when symptoms arise, 38.8% believed that liver transplant in liver cancer patients has a low success rate and is thus not recommended. Conclusions Despite the inundation of information and widespread media advertising, the awareness of chronic liver disease is unsatisfactory among Korean adults. Systematic nationwide studies are needed to obtain data and information regarding the prevalence of chronic liver disease and patterns of use of the health-care system. PMID:21757980

  8. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  9. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  10. Serum ferritin levels are associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Yoon; Kim, Min Kyung; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kim, Kyung Rae; Park, Jong Suk

    2016-08-01

    Although an association between serum ferritin and atherosclerosis has been suggested, limited epidemiologic data are available regarding the association between ferritin and arterial stiffness in healthy adults. A total of 2932 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles including ferritin were measured. The arterial stiffness was measured using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Serum ferritin levels were classified into quartiles and baPWV values gradually increased with each ferritin quartile. Multiple regression analysis showed that ferritin levels were independently correlated with baPWV. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, as compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios for high baPWV (>75(th) percentile) were 1.15 (0.84-1.56), 1.37 (0.97-1.73), and 1.46 (1.29-2.17) among men (p for trend < 0.05) and 1.24 (0.87-1.79), 1.53 (1.09-2.16), and 1.80 (1.25-2.82) among women (p for trend < 0.05), for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of ferritin, respectively. In conclusion, serum ferritin levels are independently associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults. PMID:26926288

  11. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea. PMID:25975449

  12. Hormone Disruption by PBDEs in Adult Male Sport Fish Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Turyk, Mary E.; Persky, Victoria W.; Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Chatterton, Robert; Anderson, Henry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), affect endocrine function. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are similar in structure to PCBs, has increased recently, but health effects have not been well studied. Objectives Our goal in this study was to determine whether PBDE body burdens are related to thyroid and steroid hormone levels, thyroid antibodies, and thyroid disease in a cohort of frequent and infrequent adult male sport fish consumers. Methods We tested serum from 405 adult males for PBDE congeners, PCB congeners, testosterone, sex-hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), SHBG-bound testosterone, thyroglobulin antibodies, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4-binding globulin (TBG). We collected data on demographics, fish consumption, medical diseases, and medication use. Results The median sum of PBDEs was 38 ng/g lipid. In 308 men without thyroid disease or diabetes, PBDEs were positively related to measures of T4 and reverse T3 and inversely related to total T3 and TSH. PBDEs were positively related to the percentage of T4 bound to albumin, and inversely related to the percentage of T4 bound to TBG. Associations of BDE congeners with hormones varied. BDE-47 was positively associated with testosterone levels. Participants with PBDEs over the 95th percentile were more likely to have thyroglobulin antibodies, although high PBDE exposure was not associated with thyroid disease. PBDE effects were independent of PCB exposure and sport fish consumption. Conclusions PBDE exposure, at levels comparable with those of the general U.S. population, was associated with increased thyroglobulin antibodies and increased T4 in adult males. PMID:19079713

  13. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. RESULTS Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. CONCLUSIONS As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention. PMID:25489407

  14. Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design and Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Caucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and online in the San Francisco Bay Area and San Diego from August to December 2013. Participants were asked to describe in their own words signs and/or symptoms of diabetes. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of lay symptom knowledge with gender after controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Overall, the average age of the sample populations was 44 (SD ±16.1) years, 36% were male, and 58% were married. Increased thirst/dry mouth following increased urinary frequency/color/odor and increased fatigue/lethargy/low energy were the most frequently reported signs and symptoms (19.8%, 15.4%, and 13.6%, respectively). After controlling for known confounding factors, women were 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.3, P = .004) times more likely than men to report at least 1 diabetes symptom. However, this gender difference in knowledge of diabetes signs and symptoms did not significantly differ across Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Korean Americans (P = .87). Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of improving public knowledge and awareness of signs and symptoms of diabetes, particularly in men. PMID:25227121

  15. Applicability of dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 to Asian adult males: Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2007-05-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported comprehensive dose conversion coefficients for adult population, which is exposed to external photon sources in the Publication 74. However, those quantities were calculated from so-called stylized (or mathematical) phantoms composed of simplified mathematical surface equations so that the discrepancy between the phantoms and real human anatomy has been investigated by several authors using Caucasian-based voxel phantoms. To address anatomical and racial limitations of the stylized phantoms, several Asian-based voxel phantoms have been developed by Korean and Japanese investigators, independently. In the current study, photon dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 were compared with those from a total of five Asian-based male voxel phantoms, whose body dimensions were almost identical. Those of representative radio-sensitive organs (testes, red bone marrow, colon, lungs, and stomach), and effective dose conversion coefficients were obtained for comparison. Even though organ doses for testes, colon and lungs, and effective doses from ICRP 74 agreed well with those from Asian voxel phantoms within 10%, absorbed doses for red bone marrow and stomach showed significant discrepancies up to 30% which was mainly attributed to difference of phantom description between stylized and voxel phantoms. This study showed that the ICRP 74 dosimetry data, which have been reported to be unrealistic compared to those from Caucasian-based voxel phantoms, are also not appropriate for Asian population. PMID:17337194

  16. Disability of Hearing Impairment Is Positively Associated With Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Hee; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Sohn, Tae Seo; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Kim, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jae-Im; Song, Jae Yen; Yeo, Chang Dong; Lee, Young Bok; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Hong, Mihee; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the nationwide, large-scaled Korean population. Methods. This study analyzed the data of 9,798 subjects of 19 years and older (4,387 males and 5,411 females). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured from first-voided spot urine samples. The air-conduction hearing threshold was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz and pure tone audiogram (PTA) average was calculated as the four-frequency average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Results. Urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in both genders, especially at 3 and 6 kHz in males and at 1, 3, 4, and 6 kHz in females. After adjusting, urine ACR also increased the risk of hearing loss in female, especially if urine ACR was 30 mg/g and more (odds ratio, 1.636–2.229. This study showed that the degree of hearing loss was significantly different according to categories of urine ACR in both genders. Hearing loss without disability was found less but that with bilateral hearing disability was found more as urine ACR increased. In generally, prevalence of hearing loss with disability was higher in males than females. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in Korean adults of both genders. This study suggests that clinicians should carefully monitor the hearing level for subjects with elevated urine ACR, even though high urine ACR within the normal range. PMID:27416740

  17. Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  18. Binge Drinking and Its Relation to Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Im, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background It is reported that heavy drinking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. But there have been few studies on the relationship between the intensity of drinking and metabolic syndrome when drinking the same amount of alcohol. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in Korean adult men. Methods From the database of the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007-2010, data of 8,305 adult men (≥19 years of age) was included in this analysis. Cross-sectional relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome was investigated adjusting for pure alcohol consumed per day. Results Adjusting for various confounders including pure alcohol consumed per day, the adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in those in higher frequency (more than 1/wk) binge drinking group was 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.03; P for trend = <0.001) compared to those in the non-binge drinking group. Through analysis of the relationship between pure alcohol consumed per day and metabolic syndrome, it was found that pure alcohol consumed per day had a positive relation to metabolic syndrome in the higher frequency binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.041). The relationship was inverse in the non-binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusion Our study found a positive relationship between frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in adult men. And the effect of drinking on metabolic syndrome may depend on the frequency of binge drinking. Further studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:25120888

  19. Dairy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Anseong and Ansan Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353

  20. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    PubMed Central

    Ukoha, Ukoha Ukoha; Udemezue, Onochie Okwudili; Oranusi, Chidi Kingsley; Asomugha, Azuoma Lasbrey; Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Nzeukwu, Lynda Chinenye

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of their faces were taken and traced out on tracing papers. On these, two vertical distances, nasion to subnasal and subnasale to menton, and four angles, nasofrontal (NF), nasofacial, nasomental (NM) and mentocervical, were measured. Results: The result showed that the Igbo Nigerian adult male had a middle face that was shorter than the lower one (41.76% vs.58.24%), a moderate glabella (NF=133.97°), a projected nose (NM=38.68°) and a less prominent chin (NM=125.87°). Conclusion: This study is very important in medical practice as it can be used to compare the pre- and post-operative results of plastic surgery and other related surgeries of the face. PMID:23661886

  1. Sedentary Behavior and Sleep Duration Are Associated with Both Stress Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    An, Keun Ok; Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress symptoms. Moreover, mental illness is linked with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. However, it is not clear whether sedentary time and sleep duration are associated with stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts independent of physical activity. Thus, our study aimed to identify if sedentary time and sleep duration were associated with both stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. The participants in present cross-sectional study were 4,674 general Korean adults (1,938 male; 2,736 female), aged ≥ 20 years. Prolonged sedentary time (≥ 420 min/day) was significantly associated with the increased risk of stress symptoms (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62) compared with sedentary time of < 240 min/day. The OR for stress symptoms was significant for individuals who had ≤ 5 h/day of sleep time (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.48-2.38) compared with sleep duration of ≥ 7 h/day. Moreover, prolonged sedentary time (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.42 in ≥ 420 min/day vs. < 240 min/day) and short sleep duration (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.17-2.62 in ≤ 5 h/day vs. ≥ 7 h/day) were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal thoughts after adjusting for confounding factors including physical activity. Thus, prolonged sedentary time and sleep deprivation are independently associated with both the risk of stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. From a public health perspective, reducing sedentary time and improvement of sleep deprivation may serve as an effective strategy for preventing mental illness. PMID:26596898

  2. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  3. Association between Sleep Duration and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Korean Adults: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Rong; Shin, Jin-Young; Gim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and IFG. Methods This cross-sectional study included 14,925 Korean adults (5,868 men and 9,057 women) ≥19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012. Blood glucose levels were measured after at least eight hours of fasting. Study subjects were categorized into three groups based on self-reported sleep duration (<7, 7–8, or >8 h/d). IFG was diagnosed according to recommendations American Diabetes Association guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates. Results In men, short sleep duration (<7 hours) was associated with increased risk of IFG (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.96) compared to adequate sleep duration (7–8 hours), whereas long sleep duration (>8 hours) was not associated with risk of IFG (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.18). In women, sleep duration was not associated with risk of IFG. Conclusion The association between sleep duration and IFG differed by sex; sleep deprivation, was associated with increased risk of IFG, especially in men. PMID:26885323

  4. Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Klevens, Joanne; Roca, Juanita; Restrepo, Ofelia; Martinez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. METHODS: A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. RESULTS: Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. CONCLUSIONS: The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. PMID:12048531

  5. Adult female hamsters avoid interspecific mating after exposure to heterospecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; McPhee, M. E.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    When females mate with a heterospecific male, they do not usually produce viable offspring. Thus, there is a selective pressure for females to avoid interspecific mating. In many species, females innately avoid heterospecific males; females can also imprint on their parents to avoid later sexual interactions with heterospecific males. However, it was previously unknown whether adult females can learn to discriminate against heterospecific males. We tested the hypothesis that adult females previously unable to avoid interspecific mating learn to avoid such mating after being exposed to heterospecific males. Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) females not previously exposed to Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) males can discriminate between odors of conspecific and heterospecific males, but they mate with either type of male. However, when we exposed adult females to both a conspecific male and a heterospecific male through wire-mesh barriers for 8 days, and then paired them sequentially with the two males, females were more receptive to conspecific males and more aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the heterospecific male first and the conspecific male second, no female was receptive and all were aggressive to heterospecific males. When females were paired with the conspecific male first, only 43% of females were then aggressive toward the heterospecific male. That is, interactions with conspecific males may decrease a female’s ability to properly avoid heterospecific males. Our study clearly shows for the first time that females can learn during adulthood to avoid interspecific mating just by being exposed to stimuli from heterospecific males. PMID:20676390

  6. Evaluation of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in a Sample of Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Yoo, Ji Eun

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the psychometric qualities and construct validity of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS; Ellison in J Psychol Theol 11:330-340, 1983) using a sample of 470 Korean adults. Two factor analyses, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, were conducted in order to test the validity of the SWBS. The results of the factor analyses supported the original two-dimensional structure of the SWBS-religious well-being (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) with method effects associated with negatively worded items. By controlling for method effects, the evaluation of the two-factor structure of SWBS is confirmed with clarity. Further, the differential pattern and magnitude of correlations between the SWB subscales and the religious and psychological variables suggested that two factors of the SWBS were valid for Protestant, Catholic, and religiously unaffiliated groups except Buddhists. The Protestant group scored higher in RWB compared to the Buddhist, Catholic, and unaffiliated groups. The Protestant group scored higher in EWB compared to the unaffiliated groups. Future studies may need to include more Buddhist samples to gain solid evidence for validity of the SWBS on a non-Western religious tradition. PMID:25735753

  7. Effect of Symptoms of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Korean Conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Bo-Seok; Lee, So-Jin; Bhang, Soo Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study is conducted to investigate the effect of symptoms of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 224 conscripts during 5 weeks of military basic training. Methods Total number of subject is 224 conscripts. We evaluated past and present symptoms of ADHD with Korean-Wender Utah rating scale (K-WURS) and Korean adult attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale (K-AADHDS) and stress and symptoms of PTSD with Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument-K (BEPSI-K), the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-K) on 1 week and 5 weeks later of basic military training. Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate risk factors of PTSD using SPSS program and Path analysis also was used to find relationship between past and present ADHD and PTSD simultaneously using AMOS program. Results Present symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.145, CI=1.054-1.245, p=0.001) and Past symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.049, CI=1.005-1.095, p=0.028) were significant risk factor of PTSD symptoms on 1st week of basic military training. The symptoms of PTSD on fist week was also significant risk factor of PTSD after 5weeks of basic military training (OR=1.073, CI=1.020-1.129, p=0.006). Using path analysis, we could found confirm these relations between past and present ADHD symptoms and symptoms of PTSD. Conclusion The result suggests that past and present symptoms of ADHD are the risk factor of symptoms of PTSD on first week. And the symptoms of PTSD on first week are also risk factor of PTSD symptoms on last weeks in Korean conscripts. The symptoms of ADHD might make an important role in vulnerability of the symptoms of PTSD in Korean conscripts. PMID:22707966

  8. Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ≤49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ≥80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ≥13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

  9. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  10. Osteoporosis, vitamin C intake, and physical activity in Korean adults aged 50 years and over

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate associations between vitamin C intake, physical activity, and osteoporosis among Korean adults aged 50 and over. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on bone mineral density measurement data from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The study sample comprised 3,047 subjects. The normal group was defined as T-score ≥ −1.0, and the osteoporosis group as T-score ≤ −2.5. The odds ratios for osteoporosis were assessed by logistic regression of each vitamin C intake quartile. [Results] Compared to the lowest quartile of vitamin C intake, the other quartiles showed a lower likelihood of osteoporosis after adjusting for age and gender. In the multi-variate model, the odds ratio for the likelihood of developing osteoporosis in the non-physical activity group significantly decreased to 0.66, 0.57, and 0.46 (p for trend = 0.0046). However, there was no significant decrease (0.98, 1.00, and 0.97) in the physical activity group. [Conclusion] Higher vitamin C intake levels were associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged over 50 with low levels of physical activity. However, no association was seen between vitamin C intake and osteoporosis risk in those with high physical activity levels. PMID:27134348

  11. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25508851

  12. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25486720

  13. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  14. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n = 5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p = 0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.30 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 ± 0.15 ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.02 ± 0.16 ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.60 ± 0.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.55 ± 0.28 ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.52 ± 0.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.49 ± 0.19 ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.16 ± 0.09 ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  15. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players’ jumping and balance ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective. PMID:27313344

  16. Nutritional status of Korean male patients with alcoholic and viral liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yukyung; Lee, Seokhwa; Lee, Minho; Lee, Ohyoung

    2003-01-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether malnutrition occurs in outpatients with liver cirrhosis, and to compare the nutritional status of patients with alcoholic and viral liver cirrhosis using a variety of objective measures. This study also aimed to provide useful information about nutritional education and nutritional therapies for medical teams and patients with liver cirrhosis. Sixty-six Korean men between the ages of 30 and 69 with liver cirrhosis (24 alcohol-related and 42 virus-related) were recruited from the Internal Medicine Centres, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. The results showed that patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) were significantly lower in socio-economic status than patients with viral liver cirrhosis (VLC) (P<0.05). The energy intakes (excluding alcohol-derived energy) were 1448kcal and 1769kcal in the ALC and the VLC groups, respectively (P<0.05). As well, vitamin C intake was found to be higher in the VLC group than the ALC group, yet still more than 125% of the RDA for both groups (P<0.05). Among nutritional indices, only the TSF thickness showed interaction with the aetiology and the severity of the cirrhosis (P<0.05). Thus, these findings indicate that outpatients with liver cirrhosis in this study, particularly those with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, consumed a lower energy intake than suggested, but may not have been in a status of malnutrition. Body fat is more affected than other nutritional parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:12810412

  17. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players' jumping and balance ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective. PMID:27313344

  18. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

  19. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  20. Physical Activity Level of Korean Adults with Chronic Diseases: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ho-Seong; An, Ah-Reum; Choi, Ho-Chun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Heon; Oh, Seung-Min; Seo, Young-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Proper physical activities are known to be helpful in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, the physical activity level of patients with chronic diseases is low. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical activity compliance of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2010-2012 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We included 13,873 individuals in the analysis. The level of physical activity compliance was measured by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results In the univariate analysis, the subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to comply with the physical activity guidelines less faithfully than their healthy counterparts. The proportion of subjects with hypertension who were insufficiently physically active was 65.4% among the men and 75.8% among the women. For diabetes, the proportions were 66.7% and 76.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the subjects with dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant difference in physical activity compliance was observed between the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts for both sexes. Conclusion The patients with hypertension or diabetes tended to have lower physical activity prevlaence than their healthy counterparts. However, for dyslipidemia, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Given the significance of physical activities in the management of chronic diseases, the physical activities of these patients need to be improved. PMID:26634091

  1. Different but Similar: Computer Use Patterns between Young Korean Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to identify and describe new trends and gender differences in the use of computers and the Internet in South Korea. In this mixed-method study, both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used. Results indicated that both males and females used computers generally for four purposes: social networking, personal…

  2. Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  3. The Impact of Cultural Background and Cross-Cultural Experience on Impressions of American and Korean Male Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Ying; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Studies whether people from different cultures form different trait impressions based on identical vocal qualities, and whether cross-cultural experience influences trait impressions. Results for 48 Korean undergraduates in Korea and 32 U.S. undergraduates and 32 Korean graduate students in Boston (Massachusetts) highlight theories of ecological…

  4. Associations of Low Environmental Exposure to Multiple Metals with Renal Tubular Impairment in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungryul; Lim, Ji-ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Kwon, Ho-jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Heon; Park, Jung-duck

    2016-01-01

    Recently several studies reported that the renal toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) may exist in even a low level exposure. In terms of the deterioration of tubular function, it affects the loss of divalent metals and leads to other complications, so renal tubular effect of heavy metals should be well managed. Considering the exposure to heavy metals in reality, it is hard to find the case that human is exposed to only one heavy metal. We designed a cross-sectional study using Korean Research Project on the Integrated Exposure Assessment (KRIEFS) data to investigate the renal effects of multiple metal exposure in general population. We used blood Pb and urinary Cd as exposure measures, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as renal tubular impairment outcome. We conducted linear regression to identify the association between each heavy metal and urinary NAG and β2-MG. And then, we conducted linear regression including the interaction term. Of 1953 adults in KRIEFS (2010~2011), the geometric mean of blood Pb and urinary Cd concentration was 2.21 μg/dL (geometric SD = 1.49 μg/dL) and 1.08 μg/g cr (geometric SD = 1.98 μg/g cr), respectively. In urinary Cd, the strength of the association was also high after adjusting (urinary NAG: β = 0.44, p < 0.001; urinary β2-MG: β = 0.13, p = 0.002). Finally, we identified the positive interactions for the two renal biomarkers. The interaction effect of the two heavy metals of β2-MG was greater than that of NAG. It is very important in public health perspective if the low level exposure to multiple heavy metals has an interaction effect on kidney. More epidemiological studies for the interaction and toxicological studies on the mechanism are needed. PMID:26977259

  5. Dietary quality differs by consumption of meals prepared at home vs. outside in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating out has been reported to have negative effects on nutritional status. However, eating out can include meals prepared at home and eaten outside. Conversely, meals eaten at home can be brought from outside, as take-out and home deliveries have become common in Korea. Thus, we tested whether or not meal preparation location influences daily diet quality. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009, 4,915 Korean adults (20-64 years) were classified into two groups: home-made meal group (HMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared at home (n = 4,146), and non-home-made meal group (NHMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared outside home (n = 769). Daily diet quality was determined by energy intake, nutrient intake, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and Diet Diversity Score (DDS). RESULTS Compared to the HMG, the NHMG was more likely to consist of men, single, employed, educated and of a higher economic status (all, P < 0.01). The NHMG showed higher energy intakes (1,776 vs. 2,116 kcal/day) with higher percentages of energy from protein (15 vs. 23%) and fat (14 vs. 16%) and lower intakes of dietary fiber, phosphorus, potassium, niacin, and vitamin C (all, P < 0.01) than the HMG, with some variations among age groups. The NHMG tended to consume foods prepared by frying and grilling and had more one-dish meals such as bibimbap, noodles, and dumplings but also showed higher dietary diversity. CONCLUSIONS It should be noted that home-made meals do not necessarily guarantee a healthy diet, and the effects of meal preparation location on nutritional status might vary depending on socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:27247726

  6. Association between urinary levels of bisphenol-A and estrogen metabolism in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jee; Lee, Dongho; Chung, Bong Chul; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Jeongae

    2014-02-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) possesses estrogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo as an endocrine disrupting chemical. Humans experience a long-term and cumulative exposure to BPA. BPA was detectable in 97.3% of 1904 urine specimens from Korean adults. We investigated urinary estrogen concentrations in subjects with low and high BPA concentrations and its possible association with estrogen metabolism. Urine samples were collected from a high BPA concentration group (BPA-H; n=100, 11.05 ± 20.47 μg/g creatinine) and a low BPA concentration group (BPA-L; n=100, 0.70 ± 0.22 μg/g creatinine) from Korea Biomonitoring Program of Hazardous Materials Survey 2009-2010. Urinary estrogens were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted, and then derivatized for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estrogen levels were higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group. Concentrations of estrone, 17β-estradiol, and their hydroxylated metabolites in both men and women were significantly higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group (p<0.04). Furthermore, in the BPA-H group, estrogen metabolism to 4-hydroxy-estrone and 4-hydroxy-17β-estradiol was more active than that to 2-hydroxy-estrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol. Although single measurement and/or single spot urine samples limit the measurement of long-term exposure to BPA, we found significant differences of estrogen metabolism in the BPA-H and the BPA-L groups. The increase of hydroxyestrogens, especially 4-hydroxyestrogens, can be an important factor resulting negative effects of prolonged exposure to BPA. PMID:23954212

  7. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  8. Influence of message error type on Korean adults' attitudes toward an individual who uses augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC. PMID:25716683

  9. GENERAL STRAIN THEORY, PERSISTENCE, AND DESISTANCE AMONG YOUNG ADULT MALES

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Despite the surge in scholarly activity investigating the criminal career, relatively less attention has been devoted to the issue of criminal desistance versus persistence (until recently). The present study contributed to our understanding of this process by exploring the suitability of General Strain Theory (GST) for predicting changes in criminal activity across time. Methods Data from a longitudinal study of males in South Florida are examined using robust regression analyses. Results The core GST relationship, that changes in strain should predict changes in criminal activity, was supported, even after controlling for important adult social roles such as marriage, labor force participation, and education. While no support for the proposition that changes in self-esteem and social support moderate the strain-criminal desistance association was evinced, evidence was found that angry disposition, a measure of negative emotionality, moderated the association between change in chronic stressors and change in criminal activity. Conclusions While exploratory in nature, these findings demonstrate the utility of employing GST principles in studies of criminal desistance. PMID:21499526

  10. Position of the mandibular foramen in adult male Tanzania mandibles.

    PubMed

    Russa, Afadhali D; Fabian, Flora M

    2014-01-01

    Failure of the inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia is common in various dental operations. Anatomical variations of the location of the inferior alveolar nerve as it enters the mandibular foramen have been implicated as a main cause of these anesthesia failures. The aim of this work was to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in relation to the occlusal plane at the level of mandibular first molar and second premolar--often used as landmarks during the blocking procedure--and to different landmarks on the ramus of the mandible. The study was performed using mandibles from adult black male Tanzanians aged 30-45 years. Measurements were accomplished using two-digit electronic Vernier calipers. The distances were determined from the center of the mandibular foramen to the different reference points. The mandibular foramen was above the occlusal plane at the M1 and PM2 reference points in all the mandibles studied. It was also located about 20 mm and 12 mm from the anterior and posterior borders of the ramus respectively. There was no significant difference between the left and right side in any of the measurements. These results indicate that during anesthetic or other clinical procedures, the clinician can precisely determine the position of neurovascular bundle of the inferior alveolar nerve above the occlusal plane. PMID:26749676

  11. Loud calls of adult male red howling monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).

    PubMed

    Schön Ybarra, M A

    1986-01-01

    Loud calls of adult male red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) inhabiting a deciduous and semideciduous open woodland site in Venezuela were recorded opportunistically and categorized by ear and sonographically as barks and roars. Five to six different bark syllables were identified as occurring singly or in sequences of doublets and triplets. In barks, spectral energy was concentrated in bands at 350-400 Hz, 900-1,100 Hz, 1,800-2,200 Hz and 3,000-3,500 Hz, but not all higher bands were present in each syllable. Roars appeared sonographically like prolonged barks composed of a pulsated preface, a long legato climax and a brief, fractionated and at times pulsated coda; each part varied internally to the ear and in acoustic structure. All loud calls were of the noisy type (nonharmonic energy over a broad frequency range). Acoustic characteristics of the calls are interpreted in terms of the subserving vocal tract anatomy. I compare loud calls of red howlers with those of mantled (A. palliata) and black (A. caraya) howlers. PMID:3609972

  12. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  13. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a healthy Korean male: the first case report in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Min; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu

    2015-03-01

    A 52-yr-old male was referred for progressive visual loss in the left eye. The decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.01. Fundus examination revealed diffuse retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, focal yellow-white, infiltrative subretinal lesion with fuzzy border and a live nematode within the retina. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) was diagnosed and the direct laser photocoagulation was performed to destroy the live nematode. During eight months after treatment, BCVA gradually improved to 0.2 along with the gradual restoration of outer retinal layers on SD-OCT. We report on the first case of DUSN in Korea. DUSN should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained unilateral visual loss in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:25729261

  14. The Child's Expectations of Differences in Adult Male and Female Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Beverly I.

    1984-01-01

    Two-year-olds and four-year-olds were placed with male and female adults in a play situation where the children were forced to control the choice of toys and mode of interaction. The four-year-olds elicited different types of play behaviors from male and female adults; the younger children did not. (Author/KH)

  15. Personality Profiles of Adult Males Sexually Molested by Their Maternal Caregivers: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roys, Deloris T.; Timms, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined two groups of adult males who had been sexually abused as children by female maternal caregivers: those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual abuse survivor work, and those in treatment at a clinic specializing in sexual offender work. These groups show greater psychological disruption than adult males who as children had not…

  16. Spousal Support in Diabetes Self-Management among Korean Immigrant Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer J.; Park, Jenny J.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean seniors and their spouses. We conducted two focus groups with diabetic participants and three with their spouses from the greater Los Angeles Korean community asking participants to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group was composed of 4–9 participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and treatment among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean seniors might have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  17. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity. PMID:19239175

  18. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  19. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  20. Effects of psychostimulants on social interaction in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, Romana; Mikulecká, Anna; Macúchová, Eva; Hrebíčková, Ivana; Ševčíková, Mária; Nohejlová, Kateryna; Pometlová, Marie

    2015-12-01

    Psychostimulants are known to have a huge impact on different forms of social behaviour. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of three different psychostimulants [amphetamine, cocaine and 3,4 methylenedimethoxyamphetamine (MDMA)] on social interaction (SI) in adult male rats. The SI test was performed in a familiar arena and under low-stress environmental conditions. Experimental animals received amphetamine (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg/kg), cocaine (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 mg/kg) or MDMA (2.5, 5.0, 10 mg/kg) and control animals received saline (1 ml/kg) 45 min before the SI test. Time spent in SI (individual patterns of social behaviour) and nonsocial activities (locomotion and rearing) were video recorded and then analysed offline, with the following results: (a) all doses of amphetamine decreased SI. Specifically, all doses of amphetamine decreased mutual sniffing, and the higher doses also decreased allo-grooming and following behaviours. (b) The higher doses of cocaine decreased SI, especially mutual sniffing, allo-grooming and climbing over. Cocaine at the dose of 5.0 mg/kg increased genital investigation compared with lower doses. (c) All doses of MDMA decreased mutual sniffing and climbing over; the two higher doses decreased allo-grooming behaviour, and only the highest dose decreased following. The two higher doses of amphetamine and all the doses of MDMA increased locomotion and rearing; cocaine did not affect locomotion, but increased rearing at higher doses. In conclusion, the results confirm the well-known finding that psychostimulants suppress SI, but also show novel differences in the effects of psychostimulants on specific patterns of SI. PMID:26061354

  1. Relationship between Secondhand Smoking with Depressive Symptom and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Non-Smoker Adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Wook; Shin, Jin-Young; Goo, Ae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that mental health is affected not only by smoking, but also by secondhand smoking. But the most researches have been conducted in North America and/or Europe. We examined whether this relationship remains evident within the South Korean population. Specifically, we investigated the effect of secondhand smoking on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Methods We analyzed data from 6,043 non-smoking adults who participated in the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compared the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in 3,006 participants who were exposed to secondhand smoking in the office or at home with 3,037 non-exposed participants. Results In unadjusted logistic regression analysis, secondhand smoking exposure group had more suicidal ideations than no secondhand smoking exposure (16.1% vs. 12.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.241–1.804), but risk of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between two groups (15.2% vs. 12.2%; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.997–1.460). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Among those exposed to secondhand smoking, the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.866–1.299) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.139–1.802) for suicidal ideation. Overall, secondhand smoking at home was significantly related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Among females, secondhand smoking exposure at home only (not in the office) was related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Conclusion Exposure to secondhand smoking, especially at home, may be associated with an increase in especially in female depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among adults in South Korea. PMID:27073608

  2. Modernity and Postmodernity Related Issues in Developing Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education in Korean Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    Korean society is in the midst of a conflict between modern and postmodern condition. The concept of modernity is rooted in the Enlightenment, which valued reason and proposed the rational and progressive construction and transformation of society and reality. As a result of a rational differentiation between culture and society, modern phenomena…

  3. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult ADHD symptoms in Korea: results of the Korean epidemiologic catchment area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Bae, Jae Nam; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Ahn, Joon Ho; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2011-04-30

    We examined the prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of adult attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Korean community using data from the National Epidemiological Survey of Psychiatric Disorders in Korea conducted in 2006. A total of 6081 subjects aged 18 to 59 years participated in this study. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener and Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. The frequencies of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorders, sleep disturbances, and suicidal tendency were compared in the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Odds ratios and significance levels were calculated. The 6 month prevalence of adult ADHD symptoms was 1.1%. Associations between ADHD symptoms and alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, mood disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, somatoform disorder, sleep disturbances, and suicidality were overwhelmingly positive and significant (P<0.05), after controlling for gender and age. Adult ADHD symptoms are highly associated with substance abuse, mood and anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, sleep disturbances and suicidality, suggesting that clinicians should carefully evaluate and treat such psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:20724004

  4. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  5. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea. PMID:26459613

  6. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  7. Arterial Compliance and Autonomic Functions in Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Yogesh; Gupta, Rani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is known to augment sympathetic activity and may lead to increased arterial stiffness. Several studies have reported association of increased sympathetic activity and arterial stiffness to cardiovascular risks among smokers. Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) of peripheral arteries, instead of aorta can be used as a non-invasive indicator of arterial stiffness. Aim To measure non-invasively, the autonomic functions and peripheral arterial stiffness in smokers, and to find out whether the aforementioned factors are modified by the level of physical activity in these smokers. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, HIMS, Dehradun, over a period of 12 months (2013-2014) on 100 adult males (20-40 years); 50 smokers and 50 non-smokers. The parameters analysed include relevant anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), sustained Hand Grip Test (HGT) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) domains. Data interpretation and analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Comparison of the above mentioned parameters amongst groups was done with unpaired t-test. The relationship of pack-years & physical activity with vascular functions was assessed by Pearson’s correlation. Interaction of various grades of smoking and physical activity with Cardiovascular System (CVS) parameters was assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results Smokers had higher values of PWV (5.7±0.5m/s) as compared to non-smokers (4.8±0.4m/s) (p<0.001). ΔDBP during HGT was lower (7±3.18mmHg) among smokers as compared to non-smokers (19.4±3.5mmHg) (p<0.001). Smoking (pack-years) was positively related to PWV (r= .03) but showed a weak negative relationship with change in Diastolic Blood Pressure (ΔDBP) (r= -0.084, p=0.56) showing that, more the frequency of smoking, the more was arterial stiffening and the lesser was the sympathetic response to the HGT. The smokers had significantly higher sympathetic activity; Low

  8. Depression among Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Ansan-Community-Based Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Young; Kim, So Young; Gil, Jong Won; Park, Min Hee; Park, Jong-Hyock; Kim, Yeonjung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There are an increasing number of studies being carried out on depression in patients with diabetes. Individuals with diabetes have been reported as having a higher prevalence of depression compared to those without diabetes. However, only a few studies involving Korean patients have been conducted. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of depression and to find various risk factors according to the degree of depression among Korean patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods An Ansan-community-based epidemiological study was conducted from 2005 to 2012. The total number of participants in this study was 3,540, from which patients with diabetes (n = 753) have been selected. The presence of depression was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory total score. Results The prevalence of depression was 28.8%. The mean age of participants was 55.5 ± 8.2 years. We divided the participants into three groups (without-depression, moderate-depression, and severe-depression groups) to examine the depression prevalence among Korean T2DM patients. The unemployed participants had 2.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–4.76], the low-income participants had 2.57 (95% CI 1.52–4.35), the participants using an oral diabetes medicine or insulin had 2.03 (95% CI 1.25–3.32), the participants who are currently smoking had 2.03 (95% CI 1.10–3.73), and those without regular exercise had 1.91 (95% CI 1.17–3.14) times higher odds of depression in the severe-depression group, compared with the without-depression group. Conclusion There was a significant association between depression prevalence and diabetes, and we found various risk factors according to the degree of depression in Korean patients with T2DM. PMID:26473089

  9. The Reentry Adult College Student: An Exploration of the Black Male Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser-Mims, Dionne; Palmer, Glenn A.; Harroff, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter shares findings from a qualitative study on reentry adult Black males' postsecondary education experiences and identifies strategies to help this population matriculate through college and graduate.

  10. GONADAL STEROIDS REGULATED THE EXPRESSION OF GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN THE ADULT MALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that gonadal steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone) can inhibit the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and it MRNA in the adult male rat brain. esticular hormones may influence the activity of astrocytes in the intact and lesion...

  11. Fast Eating Speed Increases the Risk of Endoscopic Erosive Gastritis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyung; Kim, E-Yeon; Han, Byoung-Duck; Cho, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast eating or overeating can induce gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis. However, the association between gastritis and speed of eating is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether eating speed is associated with increased risk of endoscopic erosive gastritis (EEG). Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 10,893 adults who underwent a general health checkup between 2007 and 2009. Two groups, EEG patients and EEG-free patients, were compared by using the t-test and the chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between eating speed and EEG. Results The group with EEG had a higher proportion of males, average age, body mass index, and percentages of current smokers and risky drinkers than those without EEG. After adjusting for anthropometric, social, and endoscopic parameters, the group with the highest eating speed (<5 min/meal) had 1.7 times higher risk for EEG than the group with the lowest eating speed (≥15 min/meal) (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.45). Conclusion High eating speed is an independent risk factor for EEG. Our results indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of eating speed in gastritis. PMID:26634096

  12. Transitional Urology for Male Adolescents: What Adult Urologists Should Know.

    PubMed

    Suson, Kristina D

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in transitional urology, or how to best prepare patients with major congenital urologic diseases, such as bladder exstrophy and neuropathic bladder, to manage their own health care with adult urologists. However, common pediatric urologic conditions may be encountered by the adult urologist with more regularity. This review focuses on three relatively common conditions which may be identified in childhood, the consequences from which a patient may seek help from an adult urologist: cryptorchidism, varicocele, and Klinefelter syndrome. PMID:27517862

  13. Personal views about aging among Korean American older adults: the role of physical health, social network, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2012-06-01

    Given the importance of a positive attitude towards one's own aging, we examined its predictors in a sample of 230 Korean American older adults (M (age) = 69.8 years, SD = 7.05). Personal views about aging, measured with a subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), were regressed on demographic variables, physical health-related factors, and psychosocial attributes (social network and acculturation). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that better physical health conditions (fewer chronic conditions, less functional disability, and better vision) were associated with more positive personal views about aging. Other significant contributors included larger social networks and higher levels of acculturation. Findings suggest that personal views about aging among immigrant elderly populations can be enhanced by promoting physical health, social connectedness, and acculturation. Ways to maintain and improve positive attitudes about personal aging are discussed in a cultural context. PMID:22581472

  14. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  15. A Comparison of the Abuse Experiences of Male and Female Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.; Simon, Arthur F.

    To determine whether the molestation experiences of boys and girls differ, this study analyzed data from 365 adults (40 male and 325 female) molested as children, and compared findings for males and females on the identity of the perpetrator, age at onset and end of molestation, duration of molestation, type of sexual acts, and whether the…

  16. Rett Syndrome Symptomatology of Institutionalized Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Larry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The study of 297 institutionalized adults with mental retardation found no symptom of Rett syndrome occurred more frequently in males than in females and no single cluster of symptoms appeared to differentiate males from females. Only females were found to meet the necessary criteria for diagnosis of Rett syndrome. (Author/DB)

  17. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  18. Interacting Factors Associated with Adult Male Drowning in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Croft, James L.; Button, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives i) to identify factors that contribute to the global trend of the higher incidence of male drowning relative to females, and; ii) to explore relationships between such factors from mortality data in New Zealand. Methods Drownings from 1983 to 2012 were examined for: Age, Ethnicity, Site, Activity, Buoyancy and Alcohol. Conditional frequency tables presented as mosaic plots were used to assess the interactions of these factors. Results Alcohol was involved in a high proportion of Accidental Immersion drownings (61%) and was highest for males aged 20-24 years. When alcohol was involved there were proportionally more incidences where a life jacket was Available But Not Worn and less incidences where a life jacket was Worn. Many 30-39 year old males drowned during underwater activities (e.g., snorkeling, diving). Older men (aged +55 years old) had a high incidence of drowning while boating. Different ethnicities were over-represented in different age groups (Asian men aged 25-29, and European men aged 65-74) and when involved in different activities. Conclusions Numerous interacting factors are responsible for male drownings. In New Zealand, drowning locations and activities differ by age and ethnicity which require targeted intervention strategies. PMID:26083689

  19. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Fox, Elliott C.; Larsen, Gregory D.; Batson, Christopher G.; Wagner, Benjamin A.; Maher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats’ strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. PMID:23597827

  20. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Babinski, Dara E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV (verbal aggression, violence) reported by young adult (18-25 year-old) males with childhood ADHD (n=125) to reports by demographically-similar males without ADHD histories (n=88). Results Males with childhood ADHD, especially those with conduct problems persisting from childhood, were more likely to be verbally aggressive and violent with romantic partners than males without histories of ADHD or conduct problems. Conclusion Research is needed to replicate these findings, to explore potential mechanisms, and to develop effective interventions for romantic relationship discord among young adults with ADHD histories, especially those with persistent conduct problems. PMID:22044962

  1. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  2. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  3. Association of smoking status, cumulative smoking, duration of smoking cessation, age of starting smoking, and depression in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many previous studies did not sufficiently control for several confounding factors that may affect the association between smoking and depression, such as socioeconomic status. We investigated the association between depression and smoking status, smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and age of starting smoking while controlling for socioeconomic factors. Methods This study was based on a community health survey performed in Jeollanam-do, South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 20,084 subjects (9,118 males and 10,966 females) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking characteristics, such as smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and age of starting smoking, was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Depression was defined using the Korean CES-D score. Results The odds ratios (ORs) of depression were 1.35 (0.92–1.98) for former smokers and 1.77 (1.27–2.48) for current-smokers among males, and 2.67 (1.38–5.16) for former smokers and 3.72 (2.11–6.54) for current-smokers among females, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Compared to light smoking, heavy smoking was significantly associated with depression in males [OR = 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42–11.14], but not in females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.73–2.09). No significant associations between depression and age of starting smoking and duration of smoking cessation were observed among former smokers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that smoking is strongly associated with depression, particularly among females. These findings suggest that depression prevention may need to be combined with smoking prevention and that different strategies may be needed for males and females. PMID:22938088

  4. [Importance of adult protein ingestion on the mating success of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann males (Diptera: Tephritidae)].

    PubMed

    Silva Neto, Alberto M da; Dias, Vanessa S; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the protein ingestion during the adult stage on the mating success of males of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann was evaluated in experiments of laboratory and field cage. In laboratory, the effects of protein ingestion during the first four or 12 days of the male adult life was assessed by the following parameters: mating success (capacity of being chosen by the female) and the number of males that give out pheromonal signals. Some experiments of mating success had been carried through with males in different ratios. In these tests, the number of males which had ingested protein (an unique male) was remained constant and the number of males fed without protein was gradually increased from 1:1 to 1:5. In the field cages, the mating success experiments were done using a 1:1 ratio. The results showed that the protein ingestion in the first four days of life did not influence any of the analyzed parameters. When the period of ingestion of protein was extended to 12 days, protein-fed males fed produced more pheromonal signals and had a higher mating success when at a 1:1 ratio in laboratory and field cage assays. In laboratory, females randomly chose males in any other tested ratio (1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5), indicating that the female may lose the perception to identify the male who ingested protein in the first 12 days. PMID:20498961

  5. Kin recognition and cannibalistic behaviours by adult male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Warren W.; Mirza, Reehan S.; Pyle, Greg G.

    2008-03-01

    Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.

  6. Association of alcohol consumption pattern with risk of hypertension in Korean adults based on the 2010-2012 KNHANES.

    PubMed

    Hong, S W; Linton, J A; Shim, J Y; Lee, H R; Kang, H T

    2016-08-01

    We examined the association between alcohol-drinking pattern and hypertension in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 15,052 participants (7054 men and 7998 women) who were included in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We categorized alcohol-drinking patterns into three groups based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score: low-risk (score: 0-7), intermediate-risk (score: 8-14), and high-risk (score: ≥15). Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or current use of anti-hypertensive medications. In the study population, 25.2% of men and 4.6% of women were high-risk drinkers. Hypertension prevalence was 30.8% in men and 20.6% in women. Of the total population, 13.8% of men and 13.6% of women were using anti-hypertensive drugs. Age-adjusted hypertension prevalence was 30.8, 40.9, and 45.3% in men, and 24.6, 27.0, and 32.3% in women in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk drinking group, respectively. Compared to the low-risk drinking group, the prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for hypertension was 1.664 (1.4331.933) and 2.070 (1.772-2.418) for men and 1.012 (0.774-1.323) and 1.650 (1.080-2.522) for women in the intermediate- and high-risk drinking group, respectively, after adjusting for age and other confounding factors. In conclusion, our study suggests high-risk drinking appears to be associated with a higher risk of hypertension in men and women. PMID:27565751

  7. The influence of waist circumference on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in apparently healthy Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Deok Yun; Choe, Young Gil; Shin, Dong Suk; Yoo, Su Hyeon; Yim, Seo Hyoung; Lee, Ji Yong; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Waist circumference (WC) is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and is related to insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between WC and IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods The volunteers included in this cross-sectional study comprised 9,159 adults (5,052 men, 4,107 women) who participated in a comprehensive health checkup program. IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) and was considered to be present when the HOMA-IR score was >2. NAFLD was evaluated by ultrasound examination. Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was defined as >40 IU/L in men and >35 IU/L in women. Logistic regression was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for NAFLD, IR, and ALT according to categorized levels of WC. Results NAFLD was found in 2,553 (27.9%) of the participants (82.6% men, 17.4% women), while IR and elevated ALT were found in 17.2% (68.1% men, 31.9% women) and 10% (83% men, 17% women), respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the prevalence of NAFLD, IR, and elevated ALT was significantly associated with increases in WC quartile: highest quartile for NAFLD in men, OR=15.539, 95% CI=12.687-19.033; highest quartile for NAFLD in women, OR=48.732, 95% CI=23.918-99.288 (P<0.001); and highest quartile for IR in men, OR=17.576, 95% CI=13.283-23.255; highest quartile for IR in women, OR=11.078, 95% CI=7.813-15.708 (P<0.001); highest quartile for elevated ALT in men, OR=7.952, 95% CI=6.046-10.459; and highest quartile for elevated ALT in women, OR=8.487, 95% CI=4.679-15.395 (P<0.001). Conclusions WC contributes to IR and NAFLD in apparently healthy Korean adults, and thus may be an important factor in the development of IR and NAFLD. PMID:23837138

  8. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  9. Craniofacial norms in white adult males. Final report 1 Oct 80-30 Sep 83

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients.

  10. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  11. Testosterone and Adult Male Bone: Actions Independent of 5α-Reductase and Aromatase.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2015-10-01

    Androgens and estrogens influence skeletal development and maintenance in males. However, the relative contributions of the circulating sex steroid hormones that originate from testicular/adrenal secretion versus those produced locally in bone via intracrine action require further elucidation. Our novel hypothesis is that testosterone exerts direct protective effects on the adult male skeleton independently of the actions of 5α-reductase or aromatase. PMID:26196865

  12. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  13. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  14. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a black adult male: case report.

    PubMed

    Kitonyi, G W; Wambugu, P M; Oburra, H O; Ireri, J M

    2008-08-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is characterised by telangiectasias, (small vascular malformations), in mucocutaneous tissues and arterial venous malformations, (AVMs), in various internal organs. Although HHT is relatively common in whites, the disorder has been reported to be rare in people of black African descent. Majority of HHT patients present with recurrent epistaxis, which in a significant proportion of patients is severe, warranting repeated blood transfusions and iron supplementation. Telangiectasias are most frequent on the tongue, hands, nose, lips and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). AVMs occur in internal organs, particularly the lungs, brain, and the liver. Early and correct diagnosis of HHT is crucial as patients derive benefit from certain specific treatment modalities. Besides, AVMs which occur in various organs pose serious complications that may lead to death and therefore require early detection. We report a 55 year old black African male with HHT who presented with severe recurrent epistaxis and haematochezia leading to severe anaemia requiring repeated blood transfusions. His son, daughter and a maternal uncle experience milder recurrent epistaxis. The management of this patient and a brief review of the clinical features and management of HHT is presented. Our aim is to raise awareness of the occurrence of HHT in Kenya, in order to enhance early diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:19115559

  15. Prevalence and Trends of Isolated Systolic Hypertension among Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Systolic and diastolic blood pressure may have different effects on cardiovascular disease, but limited data is available for hypertension subtypes in the Korean population. Thus, the prevalence, and absolute number of hypertension subtypes among Korean adults was estimated. Subjects and Methods The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2012 was used to estimate the prevalence and absolute number of each hypertension subtype among Korean adults aged ≥20 years. Hypertension was classified into four subtypes: treated hypertension (TH), isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH). Results In 2012, approximately 9.5 million adults were estimated to have hypertension, which consists of 5675671 TH (60.0%), 954253 ISH (10.1%), 1649486 IDH (17.4%), and 1175506 SDH (12.4%). Between 2010 and 2012, the proportion of IDH steadily decreased with age, but ISH increased especially in older ages (≥40). Between 1998 and 2012, TH markedly increased from 1.4 million to 5.7 million while the number of untreated hypertension remained relatively constant. During the same time, the number of hypertensive elderlies increased from 507000 to 2822000 along with rapid ageing of the Korean population. Despite of significant improvement in treatment rate, there are still around 583000 elderlies with untreated hypertension (423000 ISH; 42000 IDH; 118000 SDH) as of 2012. Conclusion Although the prevalence of hypertension has been constant over the last decades, absolute number of people with hypertension has been increasing. Along with the rapid population ageing, the number of elderly hypertension is increasing and the ISH is also becoming more prevalent. PMID:26617652

  16. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. PMID:26073677

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Modified Adult Attachment Scale for the Use of Medically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Byunggu; Rim, Hyo-Deog

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-M36) scale was developed for medically ill, older individuals in 2008 (Toronto, Canada, department of psychosocial oncology and palliative care, Princess Margaret Hospital). The scale has displayed satisfactory reliability and validity. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (K-ECR-M36) questionnaire in female patients with breast cancer. Methods A total of 199 post-operative breast cancer patients completed the K-ECR-M36 as well as other psychological measures including the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The reliability and validity of the K-ECR-M36 were evaluated. Explorative factor analysis was conducted to identify the factor structure of the K-ECR-M36. Results The K-ECR-M36 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.87) and reasonable test-retest reliability (r=0.752, p<0.001). The total as well as avoidance and anxiety subscales demonstrated construct validity with the RAAS, the HADS, and the WHOQOL-BREF. Factor analysis revealed four-factor structure which was originally proposed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998). Conclusion These findings support that the K-ECR-M36 has satisfactory reliability, validity and factor structure among patients with breast cancer. PMID:26508959

  18. Vocalizations during electroejaculation in anaesthetized adult and young pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) males.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, F; Damián, J P; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the vocalizations produced during electroejaculation under general anaesthesia in pampas deer males and to determine whether the characteristics of those vocalizations differ in adult and young pampas deer males. Electroejaculation was applied to 13 adults (AM) and 13 young (YM) males under general anaesthesia. Vocalizations were digitally recorded, and the number and duration of vocalizations, the latency in relation to each voltage, the total time vocalizing, and the structure of the fundamental frequency (F0) [initial frequency (F(start)), maximal frequency (F(max)), minimal frequency (F(min)) and final frequency (F(end))] were analysed. No male vocalized with 0 V; the number of animals that vocalized increased at 2 and 3 V and increased again at 4, 5 and 6 V (p < 0.05). The latency time from the beginning of each series (each voltage) decreased until 4 V (p < 0.01). The number of vocalizations/voltage increased from 4 V (p < 0.05). The length of each vocalization and the total time during which animals vocalized were greater in YM than AM (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). Similarly, the fundamental frequencies were higher in YM than AM (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we concluded that the vocalizations emitted during electroejaculation in pampas deer under general anaesthesia are related to the voltage applied during the process. Young males vocalize more time, probably due to a greater sensibility to the electric stimulation. The differences in the characteristics of the vocalizations between adult and young males may be related to the anatomic differences in the neck of adult or young males. PMID:25683788

  19. Sex-specific effects of social networks on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jiwon; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common chronic disease among older adults, and is associated with medical complications and mortality. This study aimed to examine the effects of social network characteristics on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older adults. Methods The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) interviewed 814 ≥ 60-year-old residents and their spouses from a rural township between December 2011 and March 2012 (response rate: 95%). We evaluated the data from 595 participants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of network characteristics on hypertension. Results We observed strong sex-specific network effects on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Among older women, network density was associated with hypertension awareness [odds ratio (OR): 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–5.37] and control (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.94–3.13). Among older men, large networks were associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58–0.96). Compared to older women, older men with coarse networks exhibited better hypertension awareness (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14–0.95) and control (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19–0.91). Network size interacted with density for hypertension control (P = 0.051), with controlled hypertension being associated with large and course networks. Conclusions A large network was associated with a lower risk for hypertension, and a coarse network was associated with hypertension awareness and control among older men. Older women with dense networks were most likely to exhibit hypertension awareness and control. PMID:27605938

  20. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend < 0.001), milk·dairy product (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.10-5.31, p for trend = 0.071) and beverage (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.35-7.48, p for trend = 0.002) intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high

  1. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  2. Future Life Goals of HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Male Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the future life goals reported by a sample of HIV-positive gay/bisexual male emerging adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 participants ages 17-24 at four geographically and demographically diverse adolescent HIV medicine programs to explore the content of participants' goals, perceived…

  3. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  4. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  5. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  6. Locus of Control, Field Dependence, and Stress Reactivity in Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweibinz, Janet S.

    This study examined the potential relationships between locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity in a sample of young adult males (N=40). Locus of control, field dependence, and stress reactivity were measured by the Rotter Locus of Control Scale, the Embedded Figures Test, and the Life Events Survey, respectively. State stress…

  7. Implementing Adlerian Sand Tray Therapy with Adult Male Substance Abuse Offenders: A Phenomenological Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monakes, Sarah; Garza, Yvonne; Wiesner, Van, III; Watts, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the perceptions of adult male substance offenders who experienced sand tray therapy as an adjunct to their cognitive behavioral rehabilitative treatment. Results indicate a positive experience for participants. Implications for counselors are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Item Parameter Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT[TM]) is an individually administered test of intelligence for individuals ranging in age from 11 to 85+ years. The item response theory-likelihood ratio procedure, based on the two-parameter logistic model, was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in the KAIT across males and…

  9. Self-Management of Aggression in an Adult Male with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Terry L.; Altman, Reuben

    1996-01-01

    A community-based social-learning program that combined behavior modification with cognitive intervention was used to help an adult male with a history of aggressive, antisocial behavior develop self-management skills. Results showed a significant decline in physical and nonphysical aggression, allowing the man to maintain competitive employment…

  10. The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

  11. PATTERN OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN ADULT, MALE RATS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO DIETARY CHLORPYRIFOS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  12. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  13. Queering the Adult Gaze: Young Male Hustlers and Their Alliances with Older Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raible, John

    2011-01-01

    Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…

  14. Factor Structure Invariance of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test across Male and Female Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immekus, Jason C.; Maller, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) and latent mean structures analysis (LMS) were used to test measurement invariance and latent mean differences on the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Scale[TM] (KAIT) across males and females in the standardization sample. MCFA found that the parameters of the KAIT two-factor model were…

  15. Effect of methoprene application, adult food and feeding duration on male melon fly starvation survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of methoprene and access to protein in adult diet has been shown to enhance mating success in male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their incorporation into operational area-wide programmes integrating the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). T...

  16. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF LOW ACUTE DOSES OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE IN ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected sc with cadmium (Cd, as cadmium chloride) in doses ranging from 1.6 to 152 micromol Cd/kg body weight (body wt). Fourteen days after dosing, animals were evaluated for reproductive damage. Evaluations for each animal included tests, se...

  17. ADHD and Reading Disability in Male Adults: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, S.; Lundberg, I.; Herkner, B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disability (RD) in male adults. Participants were 120 men, of whom 24 were classified as having ADHD. The basis for the diagnosis was two self-report scales validated by interviews and background data. An extensive battery was used to…

  18. A Handbook for a Small Halfway House for the Male Adolescent-Adult Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Russell W.; Melanphy, Robert F.

    Presented are guidelines on planning and establishing a small, residential halfway house for the male adolescent/adult retardate in which mental health and use of the halfway house to replace institutionalization of selected retardates are emphasized. The halfway house is explained to be planned on premises of community participation and program…

  19. Investigating Two-, Three-, and Four-Factor Structures of the Korean PCL-R in Serious Offenders.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Ji Seun; Lee, Soo Jung

    2016-05-01

    There is no published work on different factor structures of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for Korean offenders. The current study compared the two-, three-, and four-factor structures of the Korean version of the PCL-R. A total of 451 adult male serious offenders were included. The results suggested that both three- and four-factor models offered the best overall fit to the data. To gain better insight into the construct and predictive validities of the Korean version of the PCL-R, we recommend further analysis of the three- and four-factor models with recidivism and inmates' implicit aggression levels. PMID:25480778

  20. Personality and symptoms of psychological ill health among adult male offenders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gayle

    2011-05-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. Male offenders (N = 161) housed at two medium-high-risk institutions completed the Ten Item Personality Inventory and the Symptom Checklist Outpatient Rating Scale. Emotional stability emerged as the strongest individual predictor of psychological ill health and predicted each of the subscales measured (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism) and overall symptoms. Although agreeableness predicted depression and anger-hostility only, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience did not predict any aspect of psychological ill health investigated. The findings contribute to the current literature and provide further information about the relationship between personality and symptoms of psychological ill health in adult male offenders. PMID:20798143

  1. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  2. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae)

    PubMed Central

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  3. Description of the larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, with remarks on the adult male genital morphology (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Oxytelinae).

    PubMed

    Makranczy, György; Webster, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    The previously unknown larva of Mitosynum vockerothi Campbell, 1982, is described and illustrated. Adult male terminalia and genitalia are illustrated with line drawings. Adults of this species exhibit little difference in size or external morphology between males and females. PMID:27110170

  4. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:26470310

  5. Prenatal sex hormones, digit ratio, and face shape in adult males

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, S. M.; Parsons, T. E.; Raffensperger, Z. D.; Marazita, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several reports have demonstrated a relationship between second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial shape, suggesting that prenatal sex hormones play a role in the development of the craniofacial complex. Using 3D surface imaging and geometric morphometrics, we test the hypothesis that decreased digit ratio (indicative of increased prenatal androgen exposure) is associated with a more masculine facial phenotype. Methods 3D facial surface images and digit measures were collected on a sample of 151 adult males. Facial landmarks collected from the images were aligned by Procrustes superimposition and the resulting shape coordinates regressed on 2D:4D. Variations in facial shape related to 2D:4D were visualized with deformable surface warps. Results A significant statistical relationship was observed between facial shape variation and 2D:4D (p = 0.0084). Lower 2D:4D ratio in adult males was associated with increased facial width relative to height, increased mandibular prognathism, greater nasal projection, and increased upper and lower lip projection. Conclusions A statistical relationship between 2D:4D and facial shape in adult males was observed. Faces tended to look more masculine as 2D:4D decreased, suggesting a biologically plausible link between prenatal androgen exposure and the development of male facial characteristics. PMID:25257381

  6. Prenatal methamphetamine differentially alters myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury in male and female adult hearts.

    PubMed

    Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Seeley, Sarah L; Bui, Albert D; Sprague, Lisanne; D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2016-02-15

    Methamphetamine is one of the most common illicit drugs abused during pregnancy. The neurological effects of prenatal methamphetamine are well known. However, few studies have investigated the potential effects of prenatal methamphetamine on adult cardiovascular function. Previous work demonstrated that prenatal cocaine exposure increases sensitivity of the adult heart to ischemic injury. Methamphetamine and cocaine have different mechanisms of action, but both drugs exert their effects by increasing dopaminergic and adrenergic receptor stimulation. Thus the goal of this study was to determine whether prenatal methamphetamine also worsens ischemic injury in the adult heart. Pregnant rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline throughout pregnancy. When pups reached 8 wk of age, their hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion by means of a Langendorff isolated heart system. Prenatal methamphetamine had no significant effect on infarct size, preischemic contractile function, or postischemic recovery of contractile function in male hearts. However, methamphetamine-treated female hearts exhibited significantly larger infarcts and significantly elevated end-diastolic pressure during recovery from ischemia. Methamphetamine significantly reduced protein kinase Cε expression and Akt phosphorylation in female hearts but had no effect on these cardioprotective proteins in male hearts. These data indicate that prenatal methamphetamine differentially affects male and female sensitivity to myocardial ischemic injury and alters cardioprotective signaling proteins in the adult heart. PMID:26683901

  7. Depressive-like behavioral response of adult male rhesus monkeys during routine animal husbandry procedure.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael B; McCowan, Brenda; Jiang, Jing; Capitanio, John P

    2014-01-01

    Social isolation is a major risk factor for the development of depressive illness; yet, no practical nonhuman primate model is available for studying processes involved in this effect. In a first study, we noted that adult male rhesus monkeys housed individually indoors occasionally exhibited a hunched, depressive-like posture. Therefore, Study 2 investigated the occurrence of a hunched posture by adult males brought from outdoor social groups to indoor individual housing. We also scored two other behaviors-lying on the substrate and day time sleeping-that convey an impression of depression. During the first week of observation following individual housing, 18 of 26 adult males exhibited the hunched posture and 21 of 26 displayed at least one depressive-like behavior. Over 2 weeks, 23 of 26 males showed depressive-like behavior during a total of only 20 min observation. Further, the behavior during the first week was positively related to the level of initial response to a maternal separation procedure experienced in infancy. In Study 3, more than half of 23 adult males of a new sample displayed depressive-like behavior during 10 min of observation each of Weeks 7-14 of individual housing. The surprisingly high frequency of depressive-like behavior in Studies 2 and 3 may have been due to recording behavior via camera with no human in the room to elicit competing responses. These results suggest that a common animal husbandry procedure might provide a practical means for examining effects of social isolation on depression-related endpoints in a nonhuman primate. The findings also suggest that trait-like differences in emotional responsiveness during separation in infancy may predict differences in responsiveness during social isolation in adulthood. PMID:25249954

  8. Localized Resectable Genitourinary Sarcoma in Adult Korean Patients: Experiences at a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Yong; Moon, Kyung Chul; Cheong, Min Su; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of localized resectable genitourinary sarcomas in adults. Materials and Methods Between September, 1996 and November, 2008, 18 consecutive cases of adults (12 men and 6 women; median age 48.8 years) who were treated for primary genitourinary sarcomas were identified. The following variables were analyzed: patient age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, primary organ, tumor histology, size, necrosis, Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) grade, and surgical margin positivity. Recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival were the study end-points. Results The most common presenting symptom was a palpable mass (six cases, 33.3%), the most common site was the kidney (six cases, 33.3%), and the most common histological subtype was leiomyosarcoma (eight patients, 44.4%). Complete resection with negative surgical margins was achieved in 13 patients (72.2%). The median follow-up period was 49.9 months (range 6.4 to 147.6). The recurrence-free survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81.6%, 66.5%, and 66.5%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival only associated significantly with ASA score (p=0.018). The disease-specific survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 88.9%, 76.2%, and 67.7%, respectively. Disease-specific survival was associated significantly only with FNCLCC grade (p=0.042). Conclusion Although genitourinary sarcomas in adults are a rare group of tumors with a poor prognosis, some patients may have a favorable prognosis. Our findings suggest that FNCLCC grade is the most important prognostic factor for these patients. PMID:21786440

  9. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  10. Differentiation in boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain: a BNCT approach.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Samereh; Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin; Khojasteh, Nasrin Baghban

    2012-06-01

    Boron distribution in adult male and female rats' normal brain after boron carrier injection (0.005 g Boric Acid+0.005 g Borax+10 ml distilled water, pH: 7.4) was studied in this research. Coronal sections of control and trial animal tissue samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons. Using alpha autoradiography, significant differences in boron concentration were seen in forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain sections of male and female animal groups with the highest value, four hours after boron compound injection. PMID:22484141