Sample records for korean adults prevalence

  1. Pertussis Prevalence in Korean Adolescents and Adults with Persistent Cough.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Ju Sang

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of pertussis in Korean adolescents and adults with persistent cough. Study population was adolescents (aged 11-20 yr) and adults (? 21 yr old) who showed persistent cough of 1-8 weeks' duration. Pertussis was diagnosed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. A total of 310 subjects participated in this study, and 76 cases (24.5%) met the criteria for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. The majority of the pertussis cases (66/76) were confirmed by serology, while 3 cases (1.0%) were diagnosed with culture, and 10 cases (3.2%) were detected with PCR. Of the 76 subjects diagnosed with pertussis, 20/86 cases were adolescents and 56/224 cases were adults. Neither adolescents nor adults received adolescent-adult booster against pertussis within the previous 5 yr. Pertussis can be a primary cause of persistent cough in Korean adolescents and adults. PMID:26130965

  2. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend?=?0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend?=?0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of DSM-IV Mental Disorders in South Korean Adults: The Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Su Jeong; Park, Jee Eun; Chung, In-Won; Lee, Young Moon; Bae, Ahn; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Park, Jong-Ik; Son, Jungwoo; Chang, Sung Man; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of mental disorders in Korean adults. Methods Door to door household surveys were conducted with community residents aged 18-74 years from July 19, 2011, to November 16, 2011 (n=6,022, response rate 78.7%). The sample was drawn from 12 catchment areas using a multistage cluster method. Each subject was assessed using the Korean version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates were as follows: alcohol use disorders, 13.4% and 4.4%, respectively; nicotine use disorders, 7.2% and 4.0%, respectively; anxiety disorders, 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively; and mood disorders, 7.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The prevalence rates of all types of DSM-IV mental disorders were 27.6% and 16.0%, respectively. Being female; young; divorced, separated, or widowed; and in a low-income group were associated with mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for various demographic variables, whereas being male and young were associated with alcohol use disorders. Higher income was not correlated with alcohol use disorder as it had been in the 2001 survey. Conclusion The rate of depressive disorders has increased since 2001 (the first national survey), whereas that of anxiety disorders has been relatively stable. The prevalence of nicotine and alcohol use disorders has decreased, and the male-to-female ratio of those with this diagnosis has also decreased. PMID:25866515

  4. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms Related With Activities of Daily Living and Contributing Factors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyusik; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and factors related to daily activities in a representative Korean population. Methods This study was based on the questions about musculoskeletal symptoms in the Korean General Social Survey 2010. The questionnaire about musculoskeletal symptoms was adopted from Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency guide, and it includes general characteristics, characteristics of pain, work type, work intensity and a 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). We utilized the criteria of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to define the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms. Demographic, behavioral and socioeconomic factors were analyzed using logistic regression. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was 38.3%. The prevalence was higher in females, the elderly, those without health insurance, and those with a low income, low education, and occupations with a heavy workload. The prevalence by body part was highest in the back, shoulder, and knee, in that order. The physical component summary and mental component summary of the SF-12 decreased with increasing musculoskeletal symptoms. Conclusions Musculoskeletal symptoms are very common in the general population, and related to various socio-demographic factors. These results suggest that active prevention and management of musculoskeletal symptoms is needed at a national level. PMID:23407585

  5. Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults, 1998–2009: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Taik; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Hye-Ree; Park, Byoung-Jin; Linton, John A.; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity is increasing worldwide and becoming a major public health problem, some countries report a trend toward stabilization. We investigated prevalence trends in overweight/obesity and obesity among Korean adults during a 12-year period. Methods This study was based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I (1998), II (2001), III (2005), and IV (2007–2009). The ?2 and ANOVA tests were used to compare the prevalence and mean values for age and BMI, respectively. P-values for trends were determined by linear and logistic regression analyses, with KNHANES phase as the continuous variable. Results The prevalences of overweight/obesity in KNHANES I through IV were 50.8%, 57.4%, 62.5%, and 62.6%, respectively, among men (P for trend = 0.002, ? = 0.021) and 47.3%, 51.9%, 50.0%, and 48.9% among women (P for trend = 0.017, ? = ?0.015). The respective prevalences of obesity were 26.0%, 32.4%, 35.1%, and 36.3% among men (P for trend = 0.006, ? = 0.018) and 26.5%, 29.3%, 28.0%, and 27.6% among women (P for trend = 0.143, ? = ?0.008). During the same period, the respective prevalences of grade 2 obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2) were 1.7%, 2.8%, 3.6%, and 3.8% among men (P for trend = 0.075, ? = 0.005) and 3.0%, 3.5%, 3.4%, and 4.0% among women (P for trend = 0.398, ? = 0.003). Conclusions The prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity showed an upward trend among men during the 12-year period, whereas the prevalence of overweight/obesity slightly decreased among women from 2001. PMID:24531001

  6. Serum HBV Surface Antigen Positivity is Associated With Low Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ja Sung; Han, Ki Jun; Lee, Sangheun; Chun, Song Wook; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Man Kim, Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has clinical implications for chronic liver disease, but the relationship between chronic hepatitis B and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity is associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods Data were obtained from the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Participant sera were tested for HBsAg. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines for Koreans. Results Of the 5108 participants, 209 (4.1%) tested positive for HBsAg, and 1364 (26.7%) were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23.4% in HBsAg-positive men, 31.5% in HBsAg-negative men, 18.6% in HBsAg-positive women, and 23.7% in HBsAg-negative women. After adjusting for multiple factors, male participants who tested positive for serum HBsAg had an odds ratio of 0.612 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.375–0.998) for metabolic syndrome and an odds ratio of 0.631 (95% CI 0.404–0.986) for elevated triglycerides. Women who tested positive for serum HBsAg had an odds ratio of 0.343 (95% CI 0.170–0.693) for elevated triglycerides. Conclusions Positive results for serum HBsAg are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in men and with elevated triglycerides in men and women. This suggests that elevated triglycerides may contribute to the inverse association between HBsAg and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25283312

  7. The prevalence and factors associated with hearing impairment in the Korean adults: the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (observational study).

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae W; Jeon, Ju H; Ku, Cheol R; Noh, Jung H; Yoo, Hyung J; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-03-01

    There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n?=?33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6-21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6-9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19-39 years' old) was 4.4% (3.5-5.5), in middle-age adults (40-64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8-22.5), and in older adults (?65 years' old), it was 69.7% (67.8-71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60?mL/min/1.73m² as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73m², and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of developing hearing impairment. As such, these groups may benefit from hearing loss screening in addition to those groups typically considered to be of elevated risk including geriatrics, those of low socioeconomic status, and those with considerable occupational noise exposure. PMID:25761183

  8. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ?20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ?50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ?50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population. PMID:25408583

  9. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  10. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  11. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ? 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  12. Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Sang Hui; Baek, Ji Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Stefani, Katherine M.; Lee, Won Joon; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ?60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013). Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults. PMID:25652709

  13. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  14. Cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Juon, H S; Shin, Y; Nam, J J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to explore its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. As part of the Korean Institute for Health and Social Affairs' Adolescent Health Survey, 5,209 eighth graders and 4,677 eleventh graders from 70 junior and senior high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire during school hours in 1989. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45% (15.43% of boys and 1.28% of girls). Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Based on logistic regression analyses, perceived peer use was most strongly associated with smoking status (OR = 9.97 for boys; and 68.27 for girls). Academic stress, grade, and type of school were also associated with smoking status for both boys and girls. In addition, mother's smoking, birth order, and urbanity were associated with smoking status for boys. Implications of the results for prevention efforts to inhibit the onset of cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents are discussed. PMID:7484347

  15. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  16. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

  17. Perceived neighborhood characteristics and the health of adult Koreans.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngtae; Park, Gil-Sung; Echevarria-Cruz, Samuel

    2005-03-01

    This study examines the role of the perception of neighborhood quality with respect to its influence on adult health in Korea. Employing the Quality of Korean Life Survey 2001, we found that the extent to which respondents perceive their neighborhood quality selectively affects the health of adult Koreans. That is, how individuals are satisfied with overall neighborhood characteristics, with neighborhood safety and with relationships to neighbors is considerably and significantly associated with self-rated and emotional health status among Koreans, net of individual demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Although not statistically significant, the same direction of effect is found for daily activity limitation status, which may have been significant if a larger sample size were considered. This study also demonstrates that most individual demographic and socioeconomic risk factors are associated with health in a pattern consistent with that generally found in most Western societies, with the exception of the effect of education on psychological aspects of health. PMID:15626524

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

  19. Between Sundays: A Case Study of a Korean Immigrant Adult Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, Byoungchul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a Korean immigrant adult learning program, the Reading Facilitator Training program, at a Korean immigrant church in Los Angeles, CA, in 2008. The purpose of this research was to discover how Korean immigrant adults learn in a way that has meaning and brings about change and how the local church can function as a safe learning…

  20. Refractive errors in a rural Korean adult population: the Namil Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Y C; Kim, J M; Park, K H; Kim, C Y; Kim, T-W

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prevalence of refractive errors, including myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia, in rural adult Koreans. Methods We identified 2027 residents aged 40 years or older in Namil-myeon, a rural town in central South Korea. Of 1928 eligible residents, 1532 subjects (79.5%) participated. Each subject underwent screening examinations including autorefractometry, corneal curvature measurement, and best-corrected visual acuity. Results Data from 1215 phakic right eyes were analyzed. The prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent (SE) +0.5 D) was 41.8% (95% CI: 38.9?44.4%), of astigmatism (cylinder 1.0 D) was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.9?15.8%). Myopia prevalence decreased with age and tended to transition into hyperopia with age up to 60?69 years. In subjects older than this, the trend in SE refractive errors reversed with age. The prevalence of astigmatism and anisometropia increased consistently with age. The refractive status was not significantly different between males and females. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia in rural adult Koreans was similar to that of rural Chinese. The prevalence of high myopia was lower in this Korean sample than in other East Asian populations, and astigmatism was the most frequently occurring refractive error. PMID:24037232

  1. Disability of Older Koreans: Evidence on Prevalence and the Role of Education from Five Data Sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jibum Kim; Jinkook Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how educational attainment may affect the prevalence of disability among older Koreans, a population for whom the association between health and education has been little studied. It performs descriptive and logistic regression analysis on five nationally representative data sets, all collected between 2004 and 2006, regarding education and disability among Koreans at least 65 years of age.

  2. Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments. Materials and Methods: Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression equations were constructed. Results: It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety. Conclusions: The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults. PMID:24860222

  3. Disease burdens from environmental tobacco smoke in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we estimated the disease burdens attributable to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in Korean adults in 2010 and analyzed the trend of that from 2005 to 2010. We obtained information on the study population from the 2010 Cause of Death Statistic and estimated the ETS-attributable fraction using data from the Korean Community Health Survey and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The numbers of ETS-attributable deaths in female and male non-smokers were estimated to be 4.1 and 69.6?% of the numbers of deaths attributable to current smoke, respectively. The deaths attributable to ETS were larger in female than in male non-smokers (710 vs. 420). The ETS-attributable deaths increased slightly in 2005-2008 but decreased in 2009-2010. The number of potential years of life lost from ETS was 9077.24?years in 2010. If there were no exposure to ETS in adult non-smokers, we would expect to see 1130 fewer deaths (9.9?% of the deaths from current smoke). The results suggest that ETS poses considerable disease burdens for non-smokers, especially women, in Korea. PMID:25155457

  4. The prevalence of obesity and the level of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides in Korean preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yuni; You, Yeji; Go, Kyeong Ah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; You, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Seungmin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the degree of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides for Children (KDAGC). In a cross-sectional study based on a child care center-based survey in Seoul, Korea, we collected parental-reported questionnaires (n = 2,038) on children's weight and height, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the quality of dietary and activity behaviors based on the 2009 KDAGC Adherence Index (KDAGCAI) which was developed as a composite measure of adherence to the KDAGC. Overweight and obesity were determined according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentile from the 2007 Korean national growth chart. Associations were assessed with generalized linear models and polytomous logistic regression models. Approximately 17.6% of Korean preschool children were classified as overweight or obese. Obese preschoolers had lower adherence to the KDAGCAI compared to those with lean/normal weight. Preschoolers with a high quality of dietary and activity behaviors had a 51% decreased odds ratio (OR) of being obese (highest vs. lowest tertile of KDAGCAI-score, 95% CI 0.31, 0.78; P = 0.001); the associations were more pronounced among those who were older (P = 0.048) and lived in lower income households (P = 0.014). A greater frequency of vegetable consumption, but not fruit, was associated with a borderline significant reduction in the prevalence of obesity. Our findings support the association between obesity prevention and high compliance with the Korean national dietary and activity guideline among preschool children. PMID:23766882

  5. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  6. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Cervical Human Papillomavirus DNA in Korean Women: A Multicenter Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Ran Hong; In Sun Kim; Dong Won Kim; Mi Jin Kim; Ae Ree Kim; Young Ok Kim; Hye Sun Kim; Seo Hee Rha; Gyeong Sin Park; Yong Wook Park; Ho Sung Park; Kwang Sun Suh; Jin Hee Sohn; Mi Kyung Shin; Hoon Kyu Oh; Ki Jung Yun; Hye Kyoung Yoon; Shi Nae Lee; Ah Won Lee; Hyo Jin Lee; Hyun Yee Cho; Chan Choi; Woon Won Jung

    2009-01-01

    Background : DNA prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) varies geographically. We investigated HPV prevalence and type distribution in Korean women using the MyHPV DNA chip testing. Methods : A total of 2,368 women from five regions of the coun- try underwent Pap smear examination and MyHPV chip testing. Results : Overall HPV posi- tivity was 15.8% and

  7. Prevalence of Disc Degeneration in Asymptomatic Korean Subjects. Part 1 : Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Lim, Soo Mee

    2013-01-01

    Objective Asymptomatic patients show high degeneration prevalence at lumbar disc in previous literatures. Unfortunately, there are few Korean data, so the authors attempted to analyze the prevalence of disc degeneration in highly selective asymptomatic Korean subjects using MRI. Methods We performed 3 T MRI sagittal scans from T12 to S1 on 102 asymptomatic subjects (50 men and 52 women) who visited our hospital between the ages of 14 and 82 years (mean age 46.3 years). All images were read independently by three observers (two neurosurgeons and one neuroradiologist) who were not given any information about the subjects. We classified grading for lumbar disc herniation (HN), annular fissure (AF), and nucleus degeneration (ND), using disc degeneration classification. Results The prevalence of HN, AF, and ND were 81.4%, 76.1%, and 75.8% respectively. Almost all levels showed an age-related proportional tendency with some exceptions. Conclusion In asymptomatic Korean subjects, the abnormal findings showed high prevalence of AF, ND, and extrusion. Especially in young ages, the authors found that bulging, protrusion, and AF showed high prevalence at L4/5 and L5/S1. And ND showed high prevalence at L5/S1. So, all lumbar disc degenerations are not pathologic, especially in children and adolescents. PMID:23440899

  8. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Korean Police Personnel.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hak Young; Cho, Jae Hwan; Seok, Jong Min; Cho, Taek Sang; Jeon, Woo Jin; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. For police officers in special working environments, the importance of basic data is emphasized for human resources (HR) management and the prevention of industrial hazards from an industrial health care perspective. This study was conducted on police officers who visited the national police hospital and who underwent x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders. The results revealed that examinations for the lower extremities and spine were most frequently conducted using x-ray, CT, and MRI. In particular, knee and lumbar examinations were most frequently conducted among all lower extremity and spine examinations, respectively. PMID:24965328

  9. Prevalence of depression in adults with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Iannone, M; Pennick, L; Tom, A; Cui, H; Gilbert, M; Weihs, K; Stopeck, A T

    2012-11-01

    Multiple factors place adults with haemophilia at risk for depression. Health outcomes can be compromised in depressed patients secondary to increased risk taking behaviour and poor compliance with treatment recommendations. To assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with depression in adult patients with haemophilia treated at a haemophilia treatment centre. Adults with haemophilia were screened for depression during their annual clinic visit using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), a validated tool for depression screening in adults. Depression was defined as a PHQ-9 score ? 5. Risk factors associated with depression were collected by chart review and correlated with depression scores. A total of 41 adult patients consented to the study and 37% met criteria for depression. Fifty-three per cent of patients with depression reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression (PHQ-9 score >10). Seventy-six per cent of patients with depression reported suffering functional impairment due to their depressive symptoms. Lack of social support and unemployment were significantly associated with higher PHQ-9 scores (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01 respectively). Adult patients with haemophilia have a high prevalence of depression. The addition of depression screening to the comprehensive care of adults with haemophilia may result in improved overall health outcomes and treatment adherence. PMID:22642565

  10. Prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in Korean college students according to the K-MDQ

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seung Oh; Kim, Moon Doo; Lee, Jung Goo; Seo, Jeong-Suk; Won, Seung-Hee; Woo, Young Sup; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Won; Kim, Se Joo; Min, Kyung Joon; Jon, Duk-In; Shin, Young Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD) in the general Korean population. Methods A sample of college students (n = 1026) was stratified to reflect geographical differences accurately in Korean college students. The Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) was administered and an epidemiological survey carried out between November 2006 and February 2007. BSD was defined as a score of at least seven K-MDQ symptoms that co-occurred and resulted in minimal or more functional impairment. Results The prevalence of BSD was 18.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.2–21.0) in total, being 19.8% (95% CI 16.3–23.2) in men and 17.5% (95% CI 14.2–20.8) in women. The prevalence of BSD was more common in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (P = 0.008, chi-square test). Univariate and multivariate regression models showed that rural residence was a significant factor associated with BSD. There were significant relationships between BSD and gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Conclusion The prevalence of BSD found in the present study is higher than that reported by other epidemiological studies in Korea and in international studies. PMID:23836973

  11. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Data Brief Number 131, October 2013 Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2011–2012 On This ... Nutrition Examination Survey What was the prevalence of obesity among adults in 2011–2012? More than one- ...

  12. National estimates of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels in the Korean general adult population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nam-Soo Kim; Byung-Kook Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  To assess the extent of exposure to lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean general adult population using a representative\\u000a sample.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied blood concentrations of three heavy metals in a representative sample of 1,997 Koreans as part of the Third Korean\\u000a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) performed in 2005.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The geometric means of the blood lead,

  13. Improvements in the Metabolic Syndrome and Stages of Change for Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Hyekyeong; Cho, Han-Ik

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a 6-month lifestyle modification program on the improvement in metabolic syndrome (MetS) status and in stages of change for lifestyle behaviors associated with MetS among Korean older adults. Methods A lifestyle modification program was developed based on the transtheoretical model. The program consisted of health counseling, education classes, a self-management handbook, newsletters and a health diary. Older adults aged ?60 (n = 480) with MetS were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) or the comparison group (CG). The IG received a comprehensive 6-month lifestyle modification intervention, while the CG received minimal information on MetS and lifestyle modification. Health examination and selfadministered survey were conducted before and after the intervention to determine the effectiveness of the program. Results After the intervention, the prevalence of MetS decreased to 38.1% in the IG and 52.4% in the CG (p = 0.046). The IG improved abdominal obesity (p = 0.016), blood pressure (p = 0.030), and triglyceride (p = 0.005) more than the CG did. The IG demonstrated significant improvements in the behavioral stages for portion control (p = 0.021), balanced diet (p < 0.001) and adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (p = 0.012). The IG reduced the prevalence of abdominal obesity (OR = 2.34) and improved MetS status (OR = 1.79) better than the CG. The IG were more likely to advance from preaction stages at baseline to action stage at post-intervention for portion control (OR = 3.29) and adequate intake of fruits and vegetables (OR = 2.06). Conclusion Lifestyle modification can improve the MetS status and behavioral stages in older adults. PMID:24159496

  14. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min; Joung, Hyojee

    2010-04-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake. PMID:20461202

  15. Still life with less: North Korean young adult defectors in South Korea show continued poor nutrition and physique

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seul Ki; Park, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    North Korean defectors who settle in South Korea have experienced severe food shortage and transition of food environment which could affect their health status. However, little is known about their anthropometric measurements and dietary intake after settlement in South Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare anthropometric measurements and dietary intake between North Korean young adults who defected to South Korea and those of South Koreans. We hypothesized that North Korean young adults' physiques and dietary intake would be poorer than that of South Koreans. We compared anthropometric measurements and dietary intake from 3-day food records in a cross-sectional study of 103 North Korean young adult defectors, aged 12 to 24 and 309 South Korean subjects. North Korean subjects were significantly shorter (4.9 to 10.8 cm) and lighter (6.0 to 12.5 kg) than the control group. Body mass index were significantly different between North and South Korean groups only in men. North Korean young adult defectors had lower mean daily intakes of energy and most nutrients and food groups compared to the control group, while North Korean subjects had higher nutrient density diet than that of South Koreans. The proportion of subjects who had dietary intakes of nutrients of less than the Estimated Average Requirement was higher in North Korean subjects than in controls except for in the cases of vitamin A and vitamin C. In conclusion, we recommend providing nutrition support programs for North Korean young adult defectors to secure adequate nutrient intake. PMID:20461202

  16. Prevalence and sociodemographic trends of weight misperception in Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid physical and emotional growth occurs during youth. Adolescence is one of the most important periods for adapting to body change and establishing an ideal body image. Body change is an important and sensitive concern for adolescents, and the values and self-conception established at this time affect various aspects of the entire life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and trends of weight misperception among adolescents in Korea. Methods We analyzed raw data from the 2011 Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey-VII (KYRBWS-VII), in which 73,474 adolescents from the middle-school first grade to the high-school third grade (aged 12–18) participated. For the multivariate logistic regression model, the dependent variable was existence of misperception (yes/no) and independent variables were sociodemographic factors. Results We found that the prevalence of weight misperception was 49.3% (overestimation, 23.7%; underestimation, 25.6%). Among male students, 65.0% underestimated their weight, whereas 62.2% of female students overestimated their weight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that gender (OR?=?1.254; 95% CI?=?1.214–1.294; p?

  17. The Prevalence of Lumbar Spine Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Its Association with Low Back Pain in Selected Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jaekun; Chang, Hojin

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was to evaluate the association of lumbar spine facet joint osteoarthritis (LSFJOA) identified by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with age and low back pain (LBP) in an adult community-based population in Korea. Methods A sample of 472 participants (age range, 20 to 84 years) who underwent MDCT imaging for abdominal or urological lesions, not for chief complaints of LBP, were included in this study. LSFJOA based on MDCT findings was characterized using four grades of osteoarthritis of the facet joints. The prevalence of LSFJOA according to age group (below 40 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and above 70 years), gender, and spinal level was analyzed using chi-square tests and the association between LBP and LSFJOA adjusting for age, gender, and spine level was analyzed using multiple binary logistic regression test. Results Eighty-three study subjects (17.58%) had LSFJOA (grade ? 2). The prevalence of LSFJOA was not associated with gender (p = 0.092). The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age (p = 0.015). The highest prevalence of LSFJOA was observed at L4-5 in men (p = 0.001) and at L5-S1 in women (p = 0.003), and at L5-S1 in the overall population (p = 0.000). LSFJOA was not associated with LBP in men (p = 0.093) but was associated with LBP in women (p = 0.003), especially at L3-4 (p = 0.018) and L5-S1 (p = 0.026). Conclusions The prevalence of LSFJOA based on the computed tomography imaging was 17.58% in the adult community Korean population. The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age, and the highest prevalence was noted at L5-S1. LSFJOA was not associated with LBP at any spinal level and age except at L3-4 and L5-S1 in women. PMID:25436061

  18. Sarcopenia Is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Chon, Suk; Hwang, You-Cheol; Jeong, In-Kyung; Oh, Seungjoon; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Ahn, Hong-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. Method This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. Results 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075–2.909, P?=?0.025). Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications. PMID:23533671

  19. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Hearing Loss and Hearing Aid Use in Korean Elders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid usage rates among Korean elders by comparing the differences between those with and without hearing loss, and between those who used and did not use hearing aids. Methods: This study was based on data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012). The study sample consisted of 5,447 Koreans aged ?60 years who received a hearing assessment. Hearing loss was measured using a pure tone audiometry test and classified according to the World Health Organization’s criteria. Hearing aid use was assessed by self-report. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between hearing loss, hearing aid use, and related variables. Results: Hearing loss was found in 16.8% of the elders and only 15.9% of them used a hearing aid. Male (95% CI: 1.27–2.15), tinnitus (95% CI: 1.58–2.32), dizziness (95% CI: 1.05–1.73), and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.32–2.38) were the variables most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment. Tinnitus (95% CI: 1.34–4.13) and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.01–5.02) were strongly associated with hearing aid use after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: More than half of South Korean elders aged ?60 and older have hearing loss but the rate of hearing aid use is very low. An aural public health program should address modifiable risk factors, such as tinnitus and noise exposure, and non-modifiable risk factors associated with hearing loss in the elderly. PMID:25905073

  20. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  1. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination-Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The "MFDF" dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the "WNC" dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  2. Gender differences in three dimensional gait analysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Cho; J. M. Park; O. Y. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The research hypothesis was that healthy adults would walk differently according to their gender when walked barefoot at their comfortable speed. The aim of this study was to prove the hypothesis in healthy Korean adults.Design. Between-gender statistical comparisons of the gait analysis data including spatiotemporal, three-dimensional joint kinematic and kinetic data.Background. There have been few attempts to identify the

  3. Learning Disability Prevalence and Adult Education Program Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…

  4. Reference ranges for induced sputum eosinophil counts in Korean adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Hur, Gyu-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Bum; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Hae-Sim; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced sputum analyses are widely utilized to evaluate airway inflammation in asthmatics. However, the values have not been examined in Korean adults. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine reference ranges for induced sputum eosinophils and their influencing factors in Korean adults. Methods A total of 208 healthy nonasthmatic adults were recruited. Sputum induction and processing followed the international standard protocols. Results Adequate sputum samples were successfully collected from 81 subjects (38.9%). The upper 90 percentile for sputum eosinophil was calculated as 3.5%. The median value of eosinophil count percentage was significantly higher in subjects with atopy than those without atopy (median, 1.6%; range, 0-11.0% vs. median, 0%; range 0-3.6%, p=0.030). However, no significant correlations were found with age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, blood eosinophil, or fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. Conclusion Current study was the first attempt to determine the reference ranges of induced sputum eosinophils in Korean adults. The cutoff value for sputum eosinophilia was 3.5%, and was significantly associated with atopy. PMID:25097850

  5. One portion size of foods frequently consumed by Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Hyun, Wha-Jin; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Park, Hong-Ju; Kim, Se-Na

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to define a one portion size of food items frequently consumed for convenient use by Koreans in food selection, diet planning, and nutritional evaluation. We analyzed using the original data on 5,436 persons (60.87%) aged 20 ~ 64 years among 8,930 persons to whom NHANES 2005 and selected food items consumed by the intake frequency of 30 or higher among the 500 most frequently consumed food items. A total of 374 varieties of food items of regular use were selected. And the portion size of food items was set on the basis of the median (50th percentile) of the portion size for a single intake by a single person was analyzed. In cereals, the portion size of well polished rice was 80 g. In meats, the portion size of Korean beef cattle was 25 g. Among vegetable items, the portion size of Baechukimchi was 40 g. The portion size of the food items of regular use set in this study will be conveniently and effectively used by general consumers in selecting food items for a nutritionally balanced diet. In addition, these will be used as the basic data in setting the serving size in meal planning. PMID:20198213

  6. Prevalence of premature ejaculation in young and middle-aged men in Korea: a multicenter internet-based survey from the Korean Andrological Society

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Jong Kwan; Park, Kwangsung; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Sae-Woong; Yang, Dae Yul; Moon, Du Geon; Min, Kweon-Sik; Moon, Ki-Hak; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Hyun, Jae Seog; Park, Nam Cheol

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and perception of premature ejaculation (PE) in young and middle-aged Korean men. The study was conducted using an Internet-assisted questionnaire. A total of 2 037 Korean male adults, aged 20 years or older, were randomly sampled based on age and residency. The questionnaire developed by the PE Study Group of the Korean Andrological Society includes four categories (overall sexual function, symptoms, distress and treatment) with a total of 16 questions. For each question, symptoms were evaluated by a scale ranging from 0 to 10. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time was '5–10 min' in 38.6%, followed by 'longer than 10 min' in 29.9%, '2–5 min' in 23.6%, '1–2 min' in 5.4% and 'shorter than 1 min' in 2.5%. In our series, 27.5% of respondents reported having PE. Control over ejaculation within a recent 3-month period was 6.2 points on average. Respondent complaints of PE-related stress averaged 7.1 points and stress-related complaints from sexual partners averaged 7.1 points. The effect of PE on sexual life was 6.8 points. Of the respondents determined as having PE, 42.6% responded that they were inclined to receive treatment. Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of PE diagnosed by the respondent on his own was approximately 27.5% in young and middle-aged men in Korea. PE-related stress had a significant effect on the stress, sexual activity and quality of life of the respondent and his sexual partner. PMID:20676115

  7. Vitamin D Status and Its Association with the SCORAD Score and Serum LL-37 Level in Korean Adults and Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tae Seok; Kim, Min Ho; Chae, Jeong Don; Lee, June Hyun Kyung; Son, Sook-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D insufficiency could be associated with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To examine vitamin D status and the relations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, SCORAD score, serum LL-37 level, and body mass index (BMI) in Korean AD patients, and to explore whether these associations differ between adults and children. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, serum LL-37, and clinical features were analyzed in a total of 72 Korean patients with AD (39 adults and 33 children) and 140 healthy control subjects (70 adults and 70 children). Results Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly reduced in children with AD (15.06±4.64 ng/ml) compared with normal children in the control group (16.25±6.60 ng/ml) (p=0.036). Significant inverse correlations were found between BMI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (r=-0.315, p=0.007) and between the SCORAD score and serum LL-37 level (r=-0.3, p=0.011) in the total AD patients. Conclusion The results showed that serum vitamin D levels were lower in children with AD than in healthy children; however, the same relation was not observed between adults with AD and healthy adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not significantly correlated with AD severity or serum LL-37 levels in our study population. PMID:25673925

  8. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population. PMID:25863477

  9. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  10. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  11. Nursing assistants' communication styles in Korean American older adults with dementia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Dianna Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Ruiz, Maria Elena; Salem, Benissa; Jeffers-Skrine, Kia; Salem, Nancy

    2015-03-01

    As ethnic diversity increases in the United States with the anticipated increase in dementia, it is critical to understand the implications of dementia and culturally appropriate communication for ethnic minority older adults with dementia. Utilizing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, this article describes the relationship between nursing assistants' communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia, focused on Korean American older adults with dementia residing in nursing homes. The discussion includes reviewing currently available studies, nursing implications, and suggestions for future studies. PMID:25139299

  12. Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future. PMID:24954336

  13. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  14. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Workers by Occupational Group: Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased rapidly in South Korea over the past 10 years. However, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in workers grouped according to the specific type of work is not well understood in Korea. In this study, we assessed the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and evaluated the risk of the metabolic syndrome among occupational groups. Methods From the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010), 3,303 employed participants were included in this study. The unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalences of the metabolic syndrome were estimated and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted using the presence of the metabolic syndrome as a dependent variable, and adjusting for age, education level, household income, drinking behavior, smoking status, physical activity, work hours, and work scheduling pattern. Results Among male workers, non-manual workers had the greatest age-adjusted prevalence (26.4%, 95% CI: 22.3-30.5%) among the occupational groups. In a logistic regression analysis, male manual workers had a significantly lower odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome relative to non-manual workers (0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.85). Conclusion Our study demonstrated differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and identified the greatest risk for the metabolic syndrome in male non-manual workers. PMID:24472422

  15. Psychosocial, Physical, and Autonomic Correlates of Depression in Korean Adults: Results from a County-Based Depression Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Won; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Shin, Jin Ho; Choi, Bo Yul; Nam, Jung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial and neurophysiological correlates of depression in a large county-based cohort of Korean adults. Methods We recruited 2355 adults from a rural county-based health promotion program. The following psychometric scales were used: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to evaluate stress, and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was used to determine perceived social support. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess neurophysiological properties. The psychosocial and neurophysiological variables of adults with depression (CES-D score ?25) and without depression (CES-D score <25) were statistically compared. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with depression. Results We estimated that 17.7% of the subjects had depression, which was associated with old age, being female, being single, less religious affiliation, high education, low body mass index (BMI), low levels of aerobic exercise, low social support, and a low HRV triangular index. The explanatory factors of depression included high education, less religious affiliation, low levels of current aerobic exercise, low BMI, and low social support. Conclusion Given the relatively high prevalence of overall depression, subsyndromal depression should also be regarded as an important issue in screening. The independent factors associated with depression suggest that practical psychosocial intervention, including brief psychotherapy, aerobic exercise, and other self-help methods should be considered. In addition, the HRV results suggest that further depression screening accompanied by neurophysiological features would require fine methodological modifications with proactive efforts to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:25395971

  16. Use of Senior Center and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Shik; Harada, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Masashi; Lee, Eun-A; Park, Jin-Kee

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the use of senior center and health-related quality of life in Korean older adults. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted to two types of older adults who lived in Busan, Korea: 154 older adults who used a senior center and 137 older adults who did not use a senior center. The Korean version of short-form 36-item health survey was administered to assess the health-related quality of life. Demographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire. These were gender, age, family status, marital status, education, monthly income, present illness, body mass index and physical activity. Results The 8-domain scales of physical function and role-physical were significantly higher in the users of the senior center compared with the non-users (F=4.87, p=0.027 and F=7.02, p=0.009, respectively). The 8-domain scales of vitality was also significantly higher in the users of the senior center compared with the non-users (F=7.48, p=0.007). Conclusions The present study showed that the users of the senior center have higher physical function, role-physical and vitality compared with the non-users. These findings suggest that although the results are unable to specify causal relationships using the senior center may lead to some improvement in health-related quality of life. PMID:21894063

  17. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, NSC 202, Gainesville, Florida 32606 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang, Sungdong, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and stylized ORNL phantom. The armless KTMAN-1 can be applied to dosimetry for computed tomography or lateral x-ray examination, while the whole body KTMAN-2 can be used for radiation protection dosimetry.

  18. Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

  19. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States. PMID:20671139

  20. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  1. The Prevalence of Obesity in Ethnic Admixture Adults

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the prevalence of obesity in ethnic admixture adults varies systematically from the average of the prevalence estimates for the ethnic groups with whom they share a common ethnicity. Methods and Procedures The sample included 215,000 adults who reported one or more ethnicities, height, weight, and other characteristics through a mailed survey. Results The highest age-adjusted prevalence of overweight (BMI ? 25) was in Hawaiian/Latino men (88%; n = 41) and black/Latina women (74.5%; n = 79), and highest obesity (BMI ? 30) rates were in Hawaiian/Latino men (53.7%; n = 41) and Hawaiian women (39.2%, n = 1,247). The prevalence estimates for most admixed groups were similar to or higher than the average of the prevalences for the ethnic groups with whom they shared common ethnicities. For instance, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in five ethnic admixtures—Asian/white, Hawaiian/white, Hawaiian/Asian, Latina/white, and Hawaiian/Asian/white ethnic admixtures—was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than the average of the prevalence estimates for their component ethnic groups. Discussion The identification of individuals who have a high-risk ethnic admixture is important not only to the personal health and well-being of such individuals, but could also be important to future efforts in order to control the epidemic of obesity in the United States. PMID:18356848

  2. Psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults: a modified replication study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have shown interest in the development of psychological essentialism among children; that is, a belief that certain psychological characteristics (such as personality) are relatively stable and unchanging. Although previous studies have shown that children are essentialistic about human traits, and the coherence among various essentialism dimensions increases with age, moderating cultural factors in the development of essentialism, especially among Asian children, have received little attention. Using the methodologies of Gelman, Heyman, and Legare (2007), levels of psychological essentialism among Korean children and adults were measured, and compared with the original US data. Results demonstrated cross-cultural similarity in the development of coherence in essentialistic thought, and difference in the level of essentialism among adult participants. The present findings imply that different cultural values between Asians and Westerners can play a role in the developmental trajectory of psychological essentialism. PMID:22823141

  3. Detoxification of chlorella supplement on heterocyclic amines in Korean young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Inyeong; Tran, Minhphuong; Evans-Nguyen, Theresa; Stickle, Dawn; Kim, Soyeon; Han, Jaegab; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been established as carcinogenic chemicals in Western diet. This study was performed to estimate HCA exposure levels in Korean daily life and to assess the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to detoxify carcinogenic HCAs in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with chlorella supplement (N=6, all females, age: 27.17±7.73yr) for 2 weeks. We analyzed HCAs in hydrolyzed urine specimens using LC/TOF-MS. As results, urinary levels of MeIQx, PhIP, and IQx-8-COOH were 323.36±220.11ng/L, 351.59±254.93ng/L, and 130.85±83.22ng/L, respectively. Effects of chlorella to reduce urinary MeIQx were marginally significant (before, 430±226.86pg/mL vs. after, 174.45±101.65pg/mL: 0.05Korean young adults are not lower than those in the Western world. In addition, the effects of chlorella's to detoxify HCAs likely occur by interfering e with absorption or metabolism. PMID:25590673

  4. Prevalence of asthma in adults in Busselton, Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Peat; M. Haby; J. Spijker; G. Berry; A. J. Woolcock

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate whether the prevalence of asthma in adults increased over a nine year interval. DESIGN--Serial cross sectional studies of the population with a protocol that included both subjective and objective measurements. SETTING--Busselton, Western Australia. SUBJECTS--A random sample of 553 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1981, and of 1028 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Respiratory symptoms measured

  5. Unexpectedly low prevalence rates of IBS among adult Israeli Jews.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D; Shvartzman, P; Friger, M; Fich, A

    2005-04-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are common functional gastrointestinal disorders. The prevalence of IBS using Rome II criteria is generally lower than with previous criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and other FBDs in the adult Israeli Jewish population, which has not been surveyed to date. A telephone survey was conducted on a representative sample of the study population provided by the Israel Ministry of the Interior. IBS and other FBDs were diagnosed by Rome II criteria. The study population was 981 individuals and the overall response rate was 54%. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. In all, 2.9% had IBS (females: 3.7%, males: 1.8%, P = 0.08). The rate increased to 4.1% when the Rome II diagnostic criteria were amended to include some chronic alternators who are not picked up by the original scoring system. Approximately 26% of the respondents had a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (females: 32.1%, males: 17.7%, P < 0.0001). Prevalence rates for IBS among Israeli Jewish adults are lower than rates reported from most countries, despite the high level of stress resulting from Israel's geopolitical circumstances. Possible reasons for this low prevalence are discussed. PMID:15787941

  6. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Youngmee; CHO, Won-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking. Methods A total of 7,839 males, aged 19–65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success. Results The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. Conclusion A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population. PMID:26060715

  7. The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: background and study methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kummeling; E. N. C. Mills; M. Clausen; R. Dubakiene; C. Farnãndez Pérez; M. Fernández-Rivas; A. C. Knulst; M. L. Kowalski; J. Lidholm; T.-M. Le; C. Metzler; T. Mustakov; T. Popov; J. Potts; R. van Ree; A. Sakellariou; B. Töndury; K. Tzannis; P. Burney

    2009-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological surveys in children and adults of the EU-funded multidisciplinary Integrated Project EuroPrevall, launched in June 2005, were designed to estimate the currently unknown prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy across Europe. We describe the protocol for the epidemiological surveys in children and adults. This protocol provides specific instructions

  8. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Cancer Survivors in a Nationwide Survey of the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with a poor cancer prognosis, but data regarding actual vitamin D levels in cancer survivors are limited. This study investigated the vitamin D levels and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls, and identified the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 915 cancer survivors and 29,694 controls without a history of cancer were selected. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured; vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels less than 20 ng/mL. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors. Results Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 62.7% of cancer survivors and 67.1% of controls. Among cancer survivors, vitamin D deficiency was most prevalent among 19–44 year olds (76.2%) and among managers, professionals, and related workers (79.3%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger cancer survivors and those who work indoors were predisposed to vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among both cancer survivors and controls in Korea. The regular evaluation and management of vitamin D levels is needed for both bone health and general health in cancer survivors. PMID:26047013

  9. High prevalence of low bone mass and associated factors in Korean HIV-positive male patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Park, Wan Beom; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Bang, Ji Hwan; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-don; Kim, Nam Joong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low bone mass is prevalent in HIV-positive patients. However, compared to Western countries, less is known about HIV-associated osteopenia in Asian populations. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey in Seoul National University Hospital from December 2011 to May 2012. We measured bone mineral density using central dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, with consent, in male HIV-positive patients, aged 40 years and older. Diagnosis of low bone mass was made using International Society for Clinical Densitometry Z-score criteria in the 40–49 years age group and World Health Organization T-score criteria in the >50-year age group. The data were compared with those of a community-based cohort in Korea. Results Eighty-four HIV-positive male patients were included in this study. Median age was 49 (interquartile range [IQR], 45–56) years, and median body mass index (BMI) was 22.6 (IQR, 20.9–24.4). Viral suppression was achieved in 75 (89.3%) patients and median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 71 (IQR, 36–120) months. The overall prevalence of low bone mass was 16.7% in the 40–49 years age group and 54.8% in the>50 years age group. Our cohort had significantly lower bone mass at the femur neck and total hip than HIV-negative Koreans in the 40–49 years age group. Low bone mass was significantly associated with low BMI, and a high level of serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, but was not associated with antiretroviral regimen or duration of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Low bone mass is prevalent in Korean HIV-positive males undergoing antiretroviral therapy, and may be associated with increased bone resorption. PMID:24433984

  10. Impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of vasospastic angina in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Nam; Shin, Dong Il; Jung, Mi-Hyang; Choi, Ik Jun; Seo, Suk Min; Her, Sung Ho; Kim, Pum-Joon; Moon, Keon-Woong; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Baek, Sang Hong; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Cystatin-C, a marker of mild renal dysfunction, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases including vasospastic angina (VSA). We aimed to investigate the impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of VSA in Korean patients.A total of 549 patients in the VA-KOREA (Vasospastic Angina in KOREA) registry who underwent ergonovine provocation tests were consecutively enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin-C were assessed before angiography.The patients were classified into two groups: the VSA group (n = 149, 27.1%) and the non-VSA group (n = 400). Although eGFR and Cr levels were similar between the two groups, the VSA group had a significantly higher level of cystatin-C (P < 0.05). A high level of cystatin-C (second tertile, hazard ratio 1.432; 95% confidence interval [1.1491.805]; P = 0.026, third tertile, 1.947 [1.132-2.719]; P = 0.003) and current smoking (2.710 [1.415-4.098]; P < 0.001) were independently associated with the prevalence of VSA. Furthermore, the highest level of cystatin-C (> 0.96 ng/mL) had a significant impact on the incidence of multivessel spasm (2.608 [1.061-4.596]; P = 0.037).A high level of cystatin-C was independently associated with the prevalence of VSA and with a high-risk type of VSA in Korean patients, suggesting that proactive investigation of VSA should be considered for patients with mild renal dysfunction indicated by elevated cystatin-C. PMID:25742943

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Kim; H. S. Lee; H. J. Park; W. Y. Kim

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to identify risk factors related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Korean elderly population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 404 Korean elderly subjects (118 male, 286 female), aged 60 years or older between 2000 and 2003. The subjects were divided into MetS and control groups based on Adult

  12. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  13. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  14. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Korean Women: The First Trimester and the Winter Season as Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted. PMID:25970148

  15. Dairy product intake is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il; Oh, Sang Woo

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353

  16. Dairy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Anseong and Ansan Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty among Peruvian older adults.

    PubMed

    Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Parodi, José F; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval "Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara") were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: (1) unintentional weight-loss, (2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), (3) self-reported exhaustion, and (4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-m walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

  18. Prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness and associated factors in the adult population of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SoonJae Joo; Inkyung Baik; Hyeryeon Yi; Kihwan Jung; Jehyeong Kim; Chol Shin

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveInformation on the prevalence and correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is limited for Asians. We determined the prevalence of EDS and its associated factors in the adult population of Korea.

  19. Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma with lymphopenia in a Korean.

    PubMed

    Jeon, H J; Lee, M J; Jeong, Y K; Lee, D M; Oh, Y K; Kim, C W

    2000-04-01

    We experienced a case of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) in a 48-year-old Korean female, who has never been abroad since birth and no history of blood transfusion. The patient had hypercalcemia and multiple lymphadenopathy. Histopathologic study of left cervical lymph node (LN) and bone marrow (BM) revealed that infiltrates of malignant lymphoid cells were composed of small, medium and large cells with pleomorphic nuclei. Smears of peripheral blood (PB) showed lymphopenia (16%) with the appearance of a few atypical lymphoid cells (less than 2%), but not the typical clover leaf cells seen in ATLL. Immunophenotypic study of LN and BM revealed T cell phenotype. PB showed increased CD4+ T cell (T(H), CD3/CD4+, 57%) and decreased CD8+ T cell counts (T(S), CD3/CD8+, 6.7%). The sera of the patient and her family were reactive for HTLV-I antibody. The specific sequences of pol, env, and tax of HTLV-I DNA were detected in the lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using polymerase chain reaction. Ultrastructural examination of PBMC confirmed numerous type c virus particles in extracellular space. This case was an acute type of ATLL without overt leukemic features in PB. Despite chemotherapy and intensive conservative treatment, she died 3 months after admission. PMID:10803704

  20. Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ?49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ?80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ?13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

  1. Urinary concentrations of trichlorophenols in the Korean adult population: results of the National Human Biomonitoring Survey 2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kisok; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Jin Heon

    2014-02-01

    Trichlorophenols such as 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2, 4,5-TCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) are organochlorine compounds to which the general public can be exposed via contaminated food, water, and air. This study assessed exposure to 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP in Koreans age 18-69 years based on the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey conducted in 2009. Using data from 1,865 representative Koreans, we found that the geometric mean urinary concentrations of 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP were 83.4 pg/mL [95 % confidence interval (CI)=78.6-88.6] and 0.39 ng/mL (95 % CI=0.35-0.42), respectively. The creatinine-adjusted geometric mean 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4, 6-TCP levels were 78.8 ng/g creatinine (95 % CI=73.8-84.1) and 0.36 ?g/g creatinine (95 % CI=0.33-0.40), respectively. Of the Korean adult population, about 67.5 and 87.5 % had respective urine 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP concentrations >0.05 ng/mL (the limit of detection, LOD). Urine 2,4,5-TCP concentrations were significantly associated with age and place of residence, whereas urine 2,4,6-TCP concentrations were higher in rural residents. These findings suggest that most Koreans had detectable levels of 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP in their urine and that the body burden of 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,6-TCP varied according to demographic and geographic factors. PMID:24078273

  2. Clinical features and outcomes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis pathologic variants in Korean adult patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that clinical characteristics and outcomes differ depending on pathologic variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, these are not well defined in Asian populations. Methods This retrospective study evaluated clinical features and outcomes of pathologic FSGS variants in 111 adult patients between January 2004 and December 2012. Primary outcome was the composite of doubling of baseline serum creatinine concentrations (D-SCr) or onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcome included complete (CR) or partial remission (PR). Results There were 70 (63.1%), 20 (18.0%), 17 (15.3%), 3 (2.7%), and 1 (0.9%) patients with not-otherwise specified (NOS), tip, perihilar, cellular, and collapsing variants, respectively. At presentation, nephrotic-range proteinuria occurred more commonly in tip lesion than in other variants. The overall 5-year renal survival rate was 76.8%. During a median follow-up of 34.5 months, only 1 (5.0%) patient with a tip lesion reached the composite end point compared to 2 (11.8%) and 12 (17.1%) patients in perihilar and NOS variants, but this difference was not statistically significant in an adjusted Cox model. However, tip lesion was associated with a significantly increased probability of achieving CR (P?=?0.044). Conclusion Similar to other populations, Korean adult patients with FSGS have distinct clinical features with the exception of a rare frequency of cellular and collapsing variants. Although pathologic variants were not associated with overall outcome, the tip variant exhibited favorable outcome in terms of achieving remission. Further studies are required to delineate long-term outcome and response to treatment of the pathologic variants. PMID:24666814

  3. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  4. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Craig A.; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jill; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Jackson, Alison; Finlayson, Janet; Mantry, Dipali

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem…

  5. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Woolcock; J K Peat; C M Salome; K Yan; S D Anderson; R E Schoeffel; G McCowage; T Killalea

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult populations is not known. To document its prevalence and distribution and to determine the factors associated with it, a random sample of the adult population of Busselton, Western Australia, was studied. Spirometric function, bronchial responsiveness to histamine, and atopic responses to skin prick tests were measured. Respiratory symptoms were determined by questionnaire. Data

  6. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derrick M Silove; Claire L Marnane; Renate Wagner; Vijaya L Manicavasagar; Susan Rees

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. METHODS: Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured

  7. The Relations between Document Familiarity, Frequency, and Prevalence and Document Literacy Performance among Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Snowden, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of document prevalence and familiarity as predictors of adult document literacy performance. Three indexes--quantifying document prevalence, document familiarity, and the frequency of document use--were constructed using survey responses from an adult community sample and documents collected from government agencies…

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooseog; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Kim, Do-Soon; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and a commonly encountered pathogen in humans and animals. The wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus) is considered a good indicator when monitoring environmental contamination by T. gondii. We surveyed the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in wild boars from South Korea. Blood samples were collected from 426 wild boars captured in eight provinces of South Korea during the hunting seasons in 2008-12. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in samples from 152 of boars, indicating an overall antibody prevalence of 36% (95% confidence interval=31-40%). PMID:25014905

  9. Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis and Contributing Factors to Current Arthritic Pain in South Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. Materials and Methods The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Results Age (p=0.005), female gender (p<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and osteoporosis (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for osteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (p<0.001), and unfavorable subjective health status (p<0.001) were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain among subjects with osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Conclusion Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain. PMID:25510755

  10. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  11. Influence of message error type on Korean adults' attitudes toward an individual who uses augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC. PMID:25716683

  12. The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina de ZwaanBarbara; Barbara Gruß; Astrid Müller; Holmer Graap; Alexandra Martin; Heide Glaesmer; Anja Hilbert; Alexandra Philipsen

    Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the\\u000a present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population\\u000a aged 18–64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate

  13. Prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis in adults and neonates.

    PubMed

    McAnena, L; Knowles, S J; Curry, A; Cassidy, L

    2015-07-01

    PurposeTo report the prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC) presenting to a tertiary referral maternity hospital (NMH) and a tertiary referral ophthalmic hospital (RVEEH) from 2011 to 2013 and describe the demographics, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ocular infections.MethodsDemographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected from patients with laboratory confirmed GC.ResultsThere were 27?556 live births at NMH during the study period, and no case of neonatal GC was identified. Fourteen cases of GC were identified at RVEEH in this period, representing a prevalence of 0.19 cases per 1000 eye emergency attendees. Antibiotic susceptibility data were available on nine cases, of which, all were ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin sensitive. 64.3% of patients were male, with a mean age of 18 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days. All patients presented with unilateral conjunctival injection and purulent discharge. Eight cases had visual impairment at presentation and their mean visual acuity was 6/15. Corneal involvement was present in 25% of patients. Uveitis was not detected. On receipt of positive culture and/or PCR results, treatment was altered in two thirds of patients. All patients were referred for full STI screening and all patients showed a full clinical recovery 1 week posttreatment.ConclusionWe observed that GC presented in young adults with a male predominance and was rare in neonates. In cases of unilateral purulent conjunctivitis, there should be a high clinical suspicion of GC, early swab for PCR and culture, and knowledge of current CDC-recommended antibiotic guidelines. PMID:25907207

  14. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28 years. Former smokers were more likely to have smoked fewer cigarettes per day and to have smoked for significantly less time than current smokers. DISCUSSION: Given the fact that free education is provided at all levels by the government, anti-tobacco education and awareness should be included as an integral part of the curriculum in schools and colleges. PMID:11143190

  15. REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS FOR ADULT PREVALENCE STUDY Preliminary Document Submission Deadline

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS FOR ADULT PREVALENCE STUDY Preliminary Document Submission Deadline: 4:00 p of Florida among adults, ages 18 years and older. Due to the need to request advance budgetary approval-risk, problem and pathological gambling in the State of Florida among the adult population, 18 years of age

  16. Three distinct clustering patterns in metabolic syndrome abnormalities are differentially associated with dietary factors in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee Young; Song, Won O; Park, Minseon; Song, YoonJu

    2014-05-01

    Dietary factors are not consistently associated with metabolic syndrome abnormalities. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that distinct clustering patterns exist in metabolic syndrome abnormalities and that those patterns are differentially associated with dietary factors. To test this hypothesis, we examined distinct clustering patterns of metabolic syndrome abnormalities and their association with dietary factors in Korean adults. A total of 141 subjects were recruited through the Family Medicine Division of the General Hospital in Seoul. Subjects who had complete data on waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid indicators, and no medication usage were included in this study. Dietary intake data were obtained by multiple 24-hour recalls (2-4 days) through on-site or telephone interviews. To identify clustering patterns of metabolic syndrome abnormalities, factor analysis was used for waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three distinct clustering patterns were identified: (1) high blood pressure, (2) dyslipidemia, and (3) high blood glucose. The high blood pressure pattern was significantly associated with higher alcohol intake and lower carbohydrate intake. The dyslipidemia pattern was significantly associated with a diet of high glycemic index and glycemic load. The high blood glucose pattern was associated with lower carbohydrate intake. Metabolic syndrome abnormalities had 3 distinct clustering patterns independently associated with dietary factors. Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load were strongly linked with the dyslipidemia pattern, and high alcohol intake was linked with the high blood pressure pattern in Korean adults. PMID:24916551

  17. Prevalence of clonorchiasis in patients with gastrointestinal disease: A Korean nationwide multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Gak; Han, Jimin; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Cho, Kyu Hyun; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Jae Seon; Kim, Jin Bong; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyo; Kim, Jae Woo; Ryu, Ji Kon; Moon, Young-Soo; Moon, Jong Ho; Park, Sung Jae; Park, Chan Guk; Bang, Sung-Jo; Yang, Chang Heon; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Yoo, Byung Moo; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Dong Ki; Lee, Byung Seok; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Woo Jin; Cho, Chang Min; Joo, Young-Eun; Cheon, Gab Jin; Choi, Young Woo; Chung, Jae Bok; Yoon, Yong Bum

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and the relation of the infection to hepatobiliary diseases in 26 hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Consecutive patients who had been admitted to the Division of Gastroenterology with gastrointestinal symptoms were enrolled from March to April 2005. Of those who had been diagnosed with clonorchiasis, epidemiology and correlation between infection and hepatobiliary diseases were surveyed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 3080 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, 396 (12.9%) had clonorchiasis and 1140 patients (37.2%) had a history of eating raw freshwater fish. Of those with a history of raw freshwater fish ingestion, 238 (20.9%) patients had clonorchiasis. Cholangiocarcinoma was more prevalent in C. sinensis-infected patients than non-infected patients [34/396 (8.6%) vs 145/2684 (5.4%), P = 0.015]. Cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis showed statistically significant positive cross-relation (P = 0.008). Choledocholithiasis, cholecystolithiasis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and biliary pancreatitis did not correlate with clonorchiasis. CONCLUSION: Infection rate of clonorchiasis was still high in patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Korea, and has not decreased very much during the last two decades. Cholangiocarcinoma was related to clonorchiasis, which suggested an etiological role for the parasite. PMID:19115472

  18. Impact of health education on the prevalence of enterobiasis in Korean preschool students.

    PubMed

    Kang, In-Soon; Kim, Dong-Hee; An, Hye-Gyung; Son, Hyun-Mi; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Kim, Bo Young; Yu, Hak Sun

    2012-04-01

    Health education has been shown to be effective in slowing the spread of the disease, infectious disease in particular. To evaluate the impact of health education on the prevalence and pattern of new infection of enterobiasis, children from 6 kindergartens in Ulsan city, South Korea, were recruited after undergoing a screening for enterobiasis, and then divided into three groups, including group medication (GM), education (Edu), and control group. All children in GM group received medical treatment with 500 mg albendazole twice, with 15 days interval. In the Edu group, only children diagnosed positive for Enterobius vermicularis eggs received medical treatment with 500 mg albendazole twice, with 15 days interval and all parents in the group received brochures providing information about enterobiasis. In the control group, only children diagnosed positive for E. vermicularis eggs received medical treatment with 500 mg albendazole twice, with 15 days interval, and no information about enterobiasis was provided to parents. Two post-treatment examinations were performed at three and six months after treatment. The infection rate in the GM group was dramatically decreased at 3 months, and this rate was almost the same as at 6 months after treatment. Infection rate of children in the Edu group was shown to drop from 9.9% to 3.0% at 3 months, and to 2.7% at 6 months after treatment; however, the infection rate in the control group continued to be higher than in the other two groups at both 3 and 6 months, with smaller change at 3 months compared to the other two groups. In addition, both new infection and re-infection cases in the Edu group were fewer, compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, although GM is the best method for eradication of enterobiasis, providing health information about enterobiasis to parents could reduce the prevalence, as well as the rate of new infection or re-infection with E. vermicularis in their children. PMID:22172595

  19. Association of Habitual Snoring with Glucose and Insulin Metabolism in Nonobese Korean Adult Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chol Shin; JinYoung Kim; JeHyeong Kim; SangYeub Lee; JaeJeong Shim; KyungHo Kang; SeHwa Yoo; NamHan Cho; KuChan Kimm; SoonJae Joo

    2004-01-01

    Habitual snoring is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and metabolic abnormalities such as impaired glucose homeostasis. Many studies were performed in obese Western popu- lations. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of habitual snoring with glucose and insulin metabolism in nonobese Korean men who were free of diabetes and hypertension. A total of 2,719 men

  20. Gender-specific influence of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache: the results from the Korean headache survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender. Methods We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based sample of Koreans aged 19–69 years. Education level, district size, and household income were evaluated as socioeconomic variables. Results Among 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-4.6%] and 29.1% (95% CI 25.7-32.5%) in women and 3.2% (95% CI 1.9-4.6%) and 32.5% (95% CI 29.1-35.9%) in men, respectively. In women, multiple regression analysis found that living in rural areas was related to higher prevalence of migraine [odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% CI 1.85-11.02] and lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.58) and college-level education was related to lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.74). In men, multiple regression analysis failed to reveal significant influences of any socioeconomic variable on the prevalence of migraine or tension-type headache. Conclusions The influence of socioeconomic status on migraine and tension-type headache differs by gender, with women being more susceptible to socioeconomic influence. PMID:24093215

  1. Prevalence of chronic benign pain disorder among adults: a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER F. M. VERHAAK; JAN J. KERSSENS; Joost Dekker; MARJOLIJN J. SORBI; JOZIEN M. BENSING

    1998-01-01

    In this review epidemiological studies concerning chronic benign pain among adults are discussed. To this end, studies focusing on chronic pain, reporting prevalences at a population or primary health care level, including subjects aged between 18 and 75 years have been collected and analyzed. Focus of analysis was on research methods, definitions of chronic benign pain used, and reported prevalences.

  2. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

  3. Anxiety Disorders 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Anxiety Disorders Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 22 of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General an anxiety disorder over their lifetime · Race: Non-Hispanic blacks are 20% less likely, and Hispanics are 30

  4. Compulsions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Prevalence, Phenomenology, and Comorbidity with Stereotypy and Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of compulsions in 210 adults with severe/profound mental retardation was studied. Prevalences were as follows: stereotypy (60.9 percent), self-injury (46.6 percent), and compulsion (40 percent). The occurrence of compulsions was positively associated with the occurrence of stereotypy, self-injury, and stereotypy plus self-injury.…

  5. Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,…

  6. Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

  7. A placebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing Influenza-like illness in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts Background Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI) remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG) in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. Methods/Design We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subjects 30-70 years of age will be recruited from the general populations. The subjects will be instructed to take 9 capsules per day of either the KRG extract or a placebo for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure is to assess the frequency of ILI onset in participated subjects. Secondary variable measures will be included severity and duration of ILI symptoms. The ILI symptoms will be scored by subjects using a 4-point scale. Discussion This study is a randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the KRG extract compared to placebo and will be provided valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of the KRG extract on reduction of ILI incidence including flu and upper respiratory tract infections. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if KRG extract can be shown to be an effective reduction strategy in ILI incidence. Trial Registration NCT01478009. PMID:22314101

  8. Validation of the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey screening questionnaire for use in epidemiologic studies for adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung; Lee, So-Hee; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sun-Sin; Lee, Jong-Myung; Min, Kyung-Up

    2015-01-01

    Background Standardized questionnaire is one of key instruments for general population surveys. Objective The present study aimed to develop and validate the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire for adult asthma surveys. Methods The ECRHS screening questionnaire was translated into Korean language according to the international criteria. Study participants were prospectively recruited from six referral hospitals and one health check-up center. Comprehensibility of the translation was tested in a pilot study of 10 patients. The reliability was evaluated by internal consistency and test-retest repeatability. Validity was assess with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. Results A total of 100 adult asthma patients and 134 volunteers were recruited. Reliability was examined for 10 items in 100 asthmatics; Cronbach ? coefficients were 0.84, and test-retest repeatability was good (Cohen ? coefficient, 0.71-1.00). Validity was assessed for 8 items in 234 participants; in particular, 'recent wheeze' showed a high sensitivity (0.89) for physician-diagnosed asthma. 'Recent asthma attack' and 'current asthma medication' showed high specificity (0.96-0.98). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the Korean version of the ECRHS screening questionnaire was comprehensible, reliable and valid. We suggest the questionnaire to be utilized in further epidemiological studies for asthma in Korean adult populations. PMID:25653917

  9. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  10. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

  11. Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ?19 years who had attempted weight control during the past 1 year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Smoking status was assessed using both self-report questionnaires and assays of urinary cotinine, and weight control methods were investigated using self-report questionnaires. Results The smoking rate based on the measurement of urinary cotinine was 12.4% ± 0.8% among Korean women. Cotinine-verified smokers were more likely to attempt fasting (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 4.67), taking prescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence intervals, 1.47 to 3.82), and taking nonprescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence intervals, 1.71 to 6.98), and were less likely to attempt eating less food or modifying dietary patterns (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51 to 0.99) compared to non-smokers. Conclusion Korean adult women's smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of using weight control methods with potentially harmful effects, such as fasting and taking diet-pills, and a low likelihood of choosing weight control methods, including dietary modification, that require constant effort for a prolonged time. PMID:25802688

  12. Prevalence and Related Factors for High-Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Large Korean Population: Results of a Questionnaire-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyunghun; Seo, Jong-Geun; Seo, Sung-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A population-based door-to-door study of cross-sectional methods for assessing the prevalence and factors related to a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was conducted using the Korean version of the Berlin Questionnaire (K-BQ). Methods Pooled data collected from Community Health Surveys by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Of 8,140 respondents from the population, 7,955 were finally included in this study. Results Of the 7,955 included subjects, 15.7% of the men and 9.8% of the women were at high risk of OSA. Significant differences were found in the following factors between the subjects with a high risk of OSA: gender, age, marital status, educational level, occupation, and presence of smoking, harmful alcohol use, and chronic diseases. Male sex, harmful alcohol use, and the presence of chronic diseases were identified as factors independently associated with a high risk of OSA. Conclusions This is the first study to confirm the usefulness of the K-BQ to study the prevalence of OSA in the Korean general population. The findings demonstrate that harmful alcohol use and chronic diseases are very common characteristics among those with a high risk of OSA. PMID:24465262

  13. Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea. PMID:25671075

  14. Prevalence of Diabetes Treatment Effect Modifiers: the External Validity of Trials to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Carlos O.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Leff, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potential treatment effect modifiers (TEMs) are specific diseases or conditions with a well-described mechanism for treatment effect modification. The prevalence of TEMs in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of pre-specified potential TEMs; (2) demonstrate the potential impact of TEMs in the older adult population using a simulated trial; (3) identify TEM combinations associated with number of hospitalizations to test construct validity. Methods Data are from the nationally-representative United States National Health and Examination Survey, 1999–2004: 8,646 Civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 45–64 or 65+ years, including 1,443 with DM. TEMs were anemia, congestive heart failure, liver inflammation, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dizziness, frequent mental distress, mobility difficulty, and visual impairment. A trial was simulated to examine prevalence of potential TEM impact. The cross-sectional association between TEM patterns and number of hospitalizations was estimated to assess construct validity. Results The prevalence of TEMs was substantial such that 19.0% (95%CI: 14.8–23.2) of middle-aged adults and 38.0% (95% CI: 33.4–42.5) of older adults had any two. A simulated trial with modest levels of interaction suggested the prevalence of TEMs could nullify treatment benefit in 3.9–27.2% of older adults with DM. Compared to having DM alone, hospitalization rate was increased by several combinations of TEMs with substantial prevalence. Conclusions We provide national benchmarks that can be used to evaluate TEM prevalence reported by clinical trials of DM, and correspondingly their external validity to older adults. PMID:23238312

  15. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in U.S. older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161

  16. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Gabonese Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias P. Dal-Bianco; Kai B. Köster; Ulrich D. Kombila; Jürgen F. J. Kun; Martin P. Grobusch; Ghyslain Mombo Ngoma; Pierre B. Matsiegui; Christian Supan; Carmen L. Ospina Salazar; Michel A. Missinou; Saadou Issifou; Bertrand Lell; Peter Kremsner

    Abstract. Plasmodium falciparum, the most common malarial parasite in sub-Saharan Africa, accounts for a high number of deaths in children less than five years of age. In malaria-endemic countries with stable transmission, semi- immunity is usually acquired after childhood. For adults, severe malaria is rare. Infected adults have either uncompli- cated malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia. During a period of one

  17. The Gender-Dependent Association between Obesity and Age-Related Cataracts in Middle-Aged Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Sae-Young; Park, Young-Hoon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kang-Sook; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of central and abdominal obesity with the prevalence of cataracts in a middle-aged Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on the data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009, in which 4,914 subjects were examined. Ophthalmological examinations were performed to determine the presence of a nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular cataract. Both general obesity (a body mass index ?25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (a waist circumference ?90 cm for men and ?80 cm for women) were significantly associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.69; and aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85, respectively], while abdominal obesity was significantly inversely associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged men (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–1.01; and aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.89, respectively). We report a difference in the association between obesity and the prevalence of cataracts based on gender. PMID:25974257

  18. Mental health service use in a nationwide sample of Korean adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Jin Cho; Jun Young Lee; Jin Pyo Hong; Hochang B. Lee; Maeng Je Cho; Bong Jin Hahm

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  An understanding of the factors leading to the use of mental health services is important in improving access to mental health-care.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to assess the use of mental health services, determinants of use and barriers to use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were derived from a representative sample of the general population, aged 18–64 years. The Korean version of the

  19. Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over

    MedlinePLUS

    ... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

  20. Free Adult Internet Web Sites: How Prevalent Are Degrading Acts?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy Gorman; Elizabeth Monk-Turner; Jennifer N. Fish

    2010-01-01

    Russell (Dangerous relationships: Pornography, misogyny, and rape, 1988) argued that essential features of pornography were\\u000a the inclusion of more female than male nakedness and the portrayal of men in dominant roles. Utilizing a sample of 45 Internet\\u000a adult web sites, a content analysis was conducted to see if free and easily available Internet adult videos may generally\\u000a be described as

  1. Prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Dashdemberel, Sarangerel; Logii, Narantsetseg; Nakae, Kimihiro; Chigusa, Yuichi; Ohhira, Shuji; Ito, Clyde; Sagara, Hironori; Makino, Sohei

    2014-01-01

    Background Mongolia is changing lifestyle, unhealthy habits, increase of air pollution, increasing life expectancy have led to an up rise of chronic respiratory diseases. Over 10 years ago, the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Mongolia were in the lower range reported from previous studies. Objective The main aim of the survey is to know the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population of Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia and their risk factors. Methods Total of approximately 1,200 adults aged 20 years and over were planned to be randomly selected. The questionnaire was developed on the basis of WHO Protocol for Assessment of Prevalence of Major Respiratory Diseases and modified by local risk factors assessment and by other international survey approach including Global Initiative for Asthma and European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Results Prevalence of current wheezer in all age group was 15.7% (95% CI: 14.7-16.8). Age and sex segregated distribution of current wheezer were defined among male and female and prevalence was 14.5% (95% CI: 13.3-16.2) in male and female 16.6% (95% CI: 15.2-18.3) respectively. Prevalence of diagnosed asthma among adults was 4.7% (95% CI: 4.3-5.6) in all age group, 3% (95% CI: 2.4-3.7) in male and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8-7.9) in female. Prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 14.6% in all age group. 28.4% out of subjects with allergic rhinitis has current asthma, while 11.6% of subjects without allergic rhinitis has asthma (p < 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence of asthma increased for one decade in Ulaanbaatar. Prevalence of diagnosed asthma is approximately 5% and current wheezer is approximately 15% in adults of population, which is close to other Asia and European countries. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma. PMID:24527407

  2. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Filipino adults based on the National Nutrition and Health Survey 2008

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Shirley L.; Alava, Hilda Diana A.; Castor, Mary Anne R.; De Leon, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been no documented data on the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among Filipino adults. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis among adults in the Philippines. Methods Using a multi-staged cluster sampling methodology, this study evaluated 7,202 adults from 3,744 households, 79 provinces and 17 regions. A pre-validated written questionnaire for allergic rhinitis based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies of Childhood was used as the survey instrument. Results The response rate obtained from the interview was 94.1%. The overall prevalence of nose symptoms in the past 12 months was 20% while prevalence of nose symptoms at any time in the past was 23.8%. The proportion among both sexes was similar. The prevalence was highest among the respondents 40-49 years old. The overall prevalence of nose and eye symptoms for the past twelve months was 14.0%. The prevalence of respondents who reported presence of nose problems for the past twelve months was similar across the 12 months of the year with highest rates noted in the months of June and May. Respondents from the rural area (22.1%) reported a higher prevalence of nose symptoms for the past twelve months compared to respondents from urban area (18%). There was no significant difference in prevalence of nose symptoms among residents living in coastal and/or inland areas. Conclusion The overall prevalence of allergic rhinitis in the Philippines based on the 2008 National Nutrition and Health Survey is 20.0%. PMID:22701863

  3. Prevalence of Depression and Dementia among Adults with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Martens, Patricia Joan; Burchill, Charles A.; Dik, Natalia; Naghipur, Saba

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To estimate and compare the prevalence of dementia and depression among adults with and without developmental disabilities (DDs). Methods. We linked data from several provincial administrative databases to identify persons with DDs. We matched cases with DD with persons without DD as to sex, age, and place of residence. We estimated the prevalence of dementia and depression and compared the two groups using the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) technique. Results. The estimated prevalence of depression and dementia among younger adults (20–54) and older adults (50+) with DD was significantly higher than the estimated rates for the matched non-DD group (Depression: younger adults: RR = 2.96 (95% CI?2.59–3.39); older adults: RR = 2.65 (95% CI?1.84–3.81)), (Dementia: younger adults: RR = 4.01 (95% CI?2.72–5.92); older adults: RR = 4.80 (95% CI?2.48–9.31)). Conclusion. Significant disparities exist in mental health between persons with and without DDs. PMID:22295184

  4. Chronic Low Back Pain in Young Korean Urban Males: The Life-Time Prevalence and Its Impact on Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Doh, Jae-Won; Bae, Hack-Gun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed the life-time prevalence (LTP) of chronic low back pain (LBP) in young Korean males. We also evaluated the relationship between lumbar spinal lesions and their health related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Methods A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted in Korean males (aged 19-year-old) who underwent physical examinations for the conscript. We examined 3331 examinees in November 2014. We included 2411 subjects, who accepted to participate this study without any comorbidities. We interviewed using simple binary questions for their LBP experience and chronicity. HRQOL was assessed by Short-Form Health-Survey-36 (SF-36) in chronic LBP and healthy control groups. Radiological assessment was performed in chronic LBP group to determine whether there were any pathological causes of their symptoms. Results The LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%. Most (71.7%) of them didn't have any lumbar spinal lesions (i.e., non-specific chronic LBP). The SF-36 subscale and summary scores were significantly lower in subjects with chronic LBP. Between specific and non-specific chronic LBP group, all physical and mental subscale scores were significantly lower in specific chronic LBP group, except mental health (MH) subscale score. In MH subscale and mental component summary score, statistical significant differences didn't appear between two groups (p=0.154, 0.126). Conclusion In Korean males 19 years of age, the LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%, and more than two-thirds were non-specific chronic LBP. Chronic LBP had a significant impact on HRQOL. The presence of lumbar spinal pathoanatomical lesions affected mainly on the physical aspect of HRQOL. It influenced little on the mental health. PMID:25628807

  5. Prevalence of Atopy and Pollinosis in the Adult Population of Switzerland (SAPALDIA Study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Wüthrich; C. Schindler; P. Leuenberger; U. Ackermann-Liebrich

    1995-01-01

    The Swiss SAPALDIA study is a large multicenter cross-sectional study initiated in 1991 to evaluate the relationship between environment and respiratory symptoms and diseases in adults, and included subjects from eight areas in Switzerland with distinctive environmental characteristics. We present here prevalence data for atopy, pollinosis and atopic asthma obtained from a random sample of 8,357 adults (18–60 years) assessed

  6. Prevalence of anxiety disorders among adults seeking speech therapy for stuttering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Iverach; Sue O’Brian; Mark Jones; Susan Block; Michelle Lincoln; Elisabeth Harrison; Sally Hewat; Ross G. Menzies; Ann Packman; Mark Onslow

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the prevalence of anxiety disorders among adults seeking speech therapy for stuttering. Employing a matched case–control design, participants included 92 adults seeking treatment for stuttering, and 920 age- and gender-matched controls from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios for Diagnostic and Statistical

  7. Prevalence of GERD symptoms in a representative Israeli adult population.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Ami D; Halpern, Zamir; Shvartzman, Pesach; Friger, Michael; Freud, Tami; Neville, Anat; Fich, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in the general population is lower in Asian than Western countries. Data are lacking for countries in the Middle East. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms among Israeli Jews. A questionnaire including 8 specific questions for GERD symptoms was administered by telephone interview to a representative sample of the population. One thousand two hundred twenty-one of 1839 individuals were successfully contacted and 981 had valid, complete data. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. Over the previous year 34.8% of the respondents reported suffering any GERD symptom. Of these 11.6% reported retrosternal burning, 11.7% retrosternal pain, 19.0% an acid taste in the mouth, and 17.5% reflux of gastric content. In all, 6.5%, 5.2%, 10.4%, and 7.9%, respectively, suffered these symptoms at least once a week, and 2.0%, 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively, defined their symptoms as frequent and severe. Male sex (P=0.01) and a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (P<0.0001) contributed significantly to the severity of upper GI reflux-like symptoms. In conclusion, GERD symptoms are common among Israeli Jews. The symptoms are generally of mild-to-moderate severity and are significantly associated with lower functional GI disorders. PMID:17450026

  8. Nutritional Issues of Korean Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cha-Nam Shin; Helen Lach

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in a Rural Chinese Adult Population: The Handan Eye Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LiPing Jiang; YuanBo Liang; Bo Qiu; FengHua Wang; XinRong Duan; XiaoHui Yang; Wen Huang; NingLi Wang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in a rural adult population in Northern China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. A total of 5,105 subjects aged ?30 years were included in this analysis.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Postsecondary Residential Status among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristy A.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Roux, Anne M.; Wagner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of three living arrangements (with a parent or guardian, independently or with a roommate, or in a supervised setting) among a nationally representative sample of postsecondary young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. We assessed living arrangements since leaving high school. Compared with…

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

  12. Prevalence of oral pain and barriers to use of emergency oral care facilities among adult Tanzanians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Namakuka Kikwilu; Joyce Rose Masalu; Febronia Kokulengya Kahabuka; Ahadieli Raphael Senkoro

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral pain has been the major cause of the attendances in the dental clinics in Tanzania. Some patients postpone seeing the dentist for as long as two to five days. This study determines the prevalence of oral pain and barriers to use of emergency oral care in Tanzania. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected from 1,759 adult respondents aged 18

  13. Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…

  14. A prevalence study of suicide ideation among older adults in Hong Kong SAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. F. Yip; Iris Chi; Helen Chiu; Kwan Chi Wai; Yeates Conwell; Eric Caine

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The objective of this paper is to ascertain estimates of the prevalence, and associated risk factors for, suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method The study was conducted as part of the General Household Survey (GHS), using face to face interviews of ethnic Chinese people aged 60 or above living in the community. Elders living

  15. Endoscopic Nodular Gastritis in Dyspeptic Adults: Prevalence and Association with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saleh A. Al-Enezi; Saqer A. Alsurayei; Nasser Yehia A. Aly; Ali E. Ismail; Waleed A. Ismail; Nabeel Al-Brahim; Ahmad El-Dousari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and histological features of endoscopic nodular gastritis (NG) in adult dyspeptic patients and its relation to Helicobacter pylori infection. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective endoscopic report review of 2,142 patients identified 67 patients with NG during the period from 1 September 2006 to 31 August 2007. A subset of 32 NG patients (group 1) who

  16. E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2014-07-01

    Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ?18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ?18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors. PMID:24680203

  17. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2014-12-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  18. Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Stephen JW; Douglas, Ian; Rawlins, Michael D; Wexler, Nancy S; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The prevalence of Huntington's disease (HD) in the UK is uncertain. Recently, it has been suggested that the prevalence may be substantially greater than previously reported. This study was undertaken to estimate the overall UK prevalence in adults diagnosed with HD, using data from primary care. Methods The electronic medical records of patients aged 21?years or more, with recorded diagnoses of HD, were retrieved from the UK's General Practice Research Database. Prevalence was estimated from the number of persons with recorded diagnoses of HD, on 1 July each year, between 1990 and 2010. This number was divided by the total number of persons registered with participating general practices on that same date. These data were also used to estimate both age specific prevalence and prevalence in various regions of the UK. Results A total of 1136 patients diagnosed with HD, aged 21?years or more, were identified from the database. The estimated prevalence (expressed per 100?000 population) rose from 5.4 (95% CI 3.8 to 7.5) in 1990 to 12.3 (95% CI 11.2 to 13.5) in 2010. Although an increased prevalence was observed within every age group, the most dramatic was in older patients. Age specific prevalence was highest in the 51–60?year age range (15.8 95% CI 9.0 to 22.3). The prevalence of adult HD was lowest in the London region (5.4 (95% CI 3.0 to 8.9)) and highest in the North East of England (18.3 (95% CI 8.6 to 34.6)) and Scotland (16.1 (95% CI 10.8 to 22.9)). Conclusions The prevalence of diagnosed HD is clearly substantially higher in the UK than suggested from previous studies. By extrapolation to the UK as a whole, it is estimated that there are more than 5700 people, aged 21?years or more, with HD. There has also been a surprising doubling of the HD population between 1990 and 2010. Many factors may have caused this increase, including more accurate diagnoses, better and more available therapies and an improved life expectancy, even with HD. There also appears to be a greater willingness to register a diagnosis of HD in patients’ electronic medical records. Such a high prevalence of HD requires more ingenuity and responsiveness in its care. How to appropriately care for, and respond to, so many individuals and families coping with the exigencies of HD demands our greatest resolve and imagination. PMID:23482661

  19. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  20. Association between Low-level Mercury Exposure and Neurobehavioral Functions in Korean Adults Living in a Coastal City

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hong, Young-Seoub; You, Chang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between low-level mercury exposure and neurobehavioral functions in adults living in coastal regions of Korea. Methods We selected 172 adults aged 20-65 years living in a city in the coastal region of Korea. A sociodemographic survey was conducted, mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were measured, and the associations according to computerized neurobehavioral tests were determined using univariate analysis. After adjustment for associated variables, a multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. Results The geometric mean mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were 5.41 µg/L (range, 0.00-15.84 µg/L), 1.17 µg/g-creatinine (range, 0.00-32.86 µg/g-creatinine), and 1.37 mg/kg (range, 0.42-6.56 mg/kg), respectively. Variables that were associated with simple reaction time according to the neurobehavioral test results were age and urine mercury level. Variables associated with choice reaction time were the recent use of Korean traditional medicine and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the right-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, smoking behavior, education level, monthly household income, and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the left-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, education level, and urine mercury level. After adjustment for associated variables, there was no significant association between urine mercury level and simple reaction time (?=25.96; p=0.47), choice reaction time (?=50.37; p=0.32), or the number of left-hand finger taps (?=-1.54; p=0.21). However, urine mercury level was significantly associated with the number of right-hand finger taps (?=-3.86; p=0.01). Conclusions We found no evidence that low-level mercury exposure in adults is associated with deficits in neurobehavioral functions. A longer follow-up study is required to confirm this conclusion. PMID:24303351

  1. Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Mallen; George Peat; Elaine Thomas; Peter Croft

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. METHODS: All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Prescription Drug Misuse among Socially Active Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse represents an emerging global drug trend. Data indicate that young adults are misusing prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is critical, particularly for those engaged in social scenes known to accommodate drug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of lifetime and recent prescription drug misuse among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results In a diverse sample of 1,207 young adults, 44.1% reported lifetime prescription drug misuse, and 20.3% reported misuse during the past three months. Stimulants were the most common class of drug respondents misused within the past six months (16.7%), followed by pain killers (16.5%) and sedatives (14.5%). While no gender or sexual orientation differences in misuse prevalence existed, Black youth reported the lowest prevalence of misuse. In multivariate analyses, increased age was associated with lower odds of recent misuse, females report lower odds of recent use, and Black, Asian, and Latino individuals had lower odds of recent misuse than Whites. These odds varied by prescription drug type. Negative binomial regression analyses indicate that, among prescription drug misusers, women misuse prescription drugs less frequently. Younger individuals more frequently misuse stimulants and older individuals more frequently misuse sedatives. Racial variation existed with frequency of use across classes. Conclusions This study illustrates the need for health promotion efforts targeting prescription drug misuse among young adults who are highly socially active. Future research should focus on motivations for and factors associated with prescription drug misuse within youth cultures. Further research may provide a fuller sense of how to reduce the impact of prescription drug misuse for nations whose prescription drug problem lags behind that of the U.S. PMID:23036649

  3. The High Prevalence of Symptomatic Degenerative Lumbar Osteoarthritis in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45 years. Lumbar osteoarthritis is epidemic in Beijing and will become a more severe problem in aging society. Different populations have different features that require targeted interventions. Level of Evidence: 2 PMID:24825154

  4. Prevalence and correlates of childhood sexual abuse in adults consulting for sexual problems.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Nicolas; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Goulet, Michel; Bergeron, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in individuals consulting for sexual therapy and to explore the association between a history of childhood sexual abuse and psychological and couple functioning. A sample of 218 adults receiving sex therapy completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptomatology, as well as dyadic adjustment. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was high in women (56%) and men (37%), and clients with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report psychological and relationship problems. Findings should aware clinicians of the need to assess sexual trauma and related outcomes. PMID:24127985

  5. The Risk of Metabolic Syndrome According to the White Blood Cell Count in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kim, Chul-Hee; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo; Kang, Sung-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Considerable amount of interest has been focused on the positive relationship between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and future risk for developing MS. Therefore, we investigated whether the baseline plasma levels of WBC count could be associated with future risk for MS in apparently healthy Korean. Materials and Methods A total of 1135 subjects (781 men and 354 women with a mean age of 49 years), who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in both 2002 and 2005 were enrolled. The presence of MS was defined using the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III using BMI instead of waist circumference. Results The baseline levels of WBC count were significantly higher among incident MS cases than among subjects without MS. The relative risks of incident MS were 1.4, 3.2 and 2.7 for WBC quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared with the first quartile (p-value for trend <0.001). These positive associations persisted after adjustment for baseline body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; adjusted relative risk of incident MS for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups vs. the lowest quartile were 1.2, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively (p-value for trend =0.011). Conclusion This retrospective cohort study suggests that an elevated WBC count could be associated with incident MS, suggesting that baseline inflammation mirrored by WBC level can impact future MS development. PMID:23549805

  6. Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24183140

  7. Changes in the prevalence of asthma in adults since 1966: the Busselton health study.

    PubMed

    James, A L; Knuiman, M W; Divitini, M L; Hui, J; Hunter, M; Palmer, L J; Maier, G; Musk, A W

    2010-02-01

    Asthma prevalence has increased worldwide; although less so in developed countries recently. This study assessed changes in the prevalence of asthma and related symptoms in the Busselton community since 1966. Cross-sectional respiratory health surveys of Busselton adults were conducted in 1966, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2005-2007. Logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence rates of asthma, respiratory symptoms, smoking, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and atopy and to make comparisons in 2005-2007 and previous survey years. Asthma was defined as ever having doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA). The prevalence of DDA was around 6% from 1966 to 1975, 8% in 1981 and rose to 19% in 2005-2007. From 1981 to 2005-2007, smoking prevalence declined and obesity and atopy increased but changes in these variables explained only a small part of the increase in DDA. Wheeze and cough/phlegm increased but AHR, breathlessness and doctor-diagnosed bronchitis remained relatively stable over the same period. These observations indicate that the increase in DDA is partly explained by increased symptoms and atopy. The lack of changes in AHR and doctor-diagnosed bronchitis suggests that factors such as diagnostic transfer and increased awareness of asthma have also contributed to the rise in prevalence of DDA. PMID:19643935

  8. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  9. The prevalence of a history of child sexual abuse among adults visiting family practitioners in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Schein; Aya Biderman; Mario Baras; Larry Bennett; Bishara Bisharat; Jeff Borkan; Yaacov Fogelman; Lois Gordon; Dov Steinmetz; Eli Kitai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a random sample of adult patients presenting for routine health care to family practice clinics in Israel.Method: One thousand and five randomly selected patients aged 18 to 55, attending 48 clinics, participated in this questionnaire study.Results: Twenty-five percent indicated that they had been sexually abused as

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Distress Among Working Adults in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Lemma, Seblewengel; Deyassa, Negussie; Bahretibeb, Yonas; Tesfaye, Markos; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of mental distress and its correlates among working Ethiopian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 2,180 individuals (1,316 men and 864 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of participants. Mental distress was assessed using the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ). Logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: The prevalence of mental distress in the study sample was 17.7% (25.9% in women and 12.4% in men). Younger participants (age ?24 years) had the highest prevalence of mental distress (35.5% in women and 16.7% in men). The odds of mental distress was 2.47-fold higher among women as compared with men (OR=2.47, 95% CI 1.97-3.09). Participants reporting excellent health status had a 50% reduced odds of mental distress (OR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.38-0.59); and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a slight increased odds of mental distress (OR=1.26; 95%CI: 1.00-1.67). Conclusion: A high prevalence of mental distress was observed among working adults in Ethiopia. Our findings suggest that the workforce institutions should provide targeted prevention and intervention programs to improve the mental health state of their employees. National mental health policy that clearly outlines and addresses mental distress among working adults is also warranted. PMID:23166564

  11. Prevalence of Foot and Ankle Conditions in a Multiethnic Community Sample of Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Dunn; C. L. Link; D. T. Felson; M. G. Crincoli; J. J. Keysor; J. B. McKinlay

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of foot and ankle disorders was determined in a community-based, multiethnic (non-Hispanic White, African American, and Puerto Rican) random sample of 784 community-dwelling adults aged 65 or more years in 2001-2002 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Overall, the five most common conditions were toenail disorders (74.9%), lesser toe deformities (60.0%), corns and calluses (58.2%), bunions (37.1%), and signs of fungal

  12. Prevalence estimates of cognitive impairment in medical model adult day health care programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Teresi; D. Holmes; M. J. Koren; E. Dichter; M. Ramirez; S. Fairchild

    1998-01-01

    Despite an increasing emphasis on adult day health care (ADHC) programs as alternatives to institutional care for persons\\u000a with dementia, little research based on direct assessment of clients' cognitive status has been conducted in such settings.\\u000a The goal of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment among ADHC clients using commonly used screening\\u000a measures. Age-adjusted and non-age-adjusted

  13. Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants.

    PubMed

    González-López, José Rafael; Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de Los Ángeles; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report) in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%). For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices. PMID:22991115

  14. Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Natalia; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial. PMID:24586672

  15. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a North Indian District

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sethi, Sunil; Thakur, Jarnail S.; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Meera; Behera, Digambar; Jindal, Surinder K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent population prevalence estimates of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are not available for several areas in India. We conducted a field-based population survey at a north Indian district to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB. Methods A stratified cluster sampling design was used to conduct the survey in both urban and rural areas within the district. All adults aged more than 15 years, in 18 rural and 12 urban clusters of 3000 subjects each, were interviewed using a symptom card. Two sputum samples were collected from all persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB, or history of antitubercular treatment, for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and mycobacterial culture. Those having at least one sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were categorized as having PTB. Prevalence was estimated after adjusting for cluster sampling and incomplete data (through individual level analysis with robust standard error). Results Of 91,030 eligible adult participants (47,714 men and 43,316 women), 85,770 (94.2%) completed the symptom cards. Of them, 2,898 persons were considered eligible for sputum examination and 2,839 (98.0%) provided at least one sample. Overall, 21 persons had bacteriologically positive PTB, and cluster level prevalence was estimated at 24.5 per 100,000 population (95% CI 12.8–36.2). Individual level analysis with robust standard error yielded a prevalence estimate of 24.1 per 100,000 populations (95% CI 12.8–35.4). Conclusion The observed prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB in this district is lower than empiric national estimates, probably as a result of successful implementation of tuberculosis control measures in the area. PMID:25695761

  16. Prevalence and correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults from a French community sample.

    PubMed

    Caci, Hervé M; Morin, Alexandre J S; Tran, Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Validated tools are lacking in languages such as French to diagnose attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The Adult ADHD Symptoms Self-Report (ASRS) was filled out by 1171 parents of 900 school-aged youths in the context of the Children and Parents With ADHD and Related Disorders study. Prevalence estimates based on three scoring methods are compared (6-item screener, all 18 items, or the screener followed by the 12 remaining items). On the basis of the recommended and more conservative scoring method, the overall prevalence of ADHD symptoms is estimated to be 2.99%, without significant group differences between sexes or between younger and older adults. Potential correlates of ADHD symptoms were also examined in their relatives (children, brothers/sisters, uncles/aunts, and parents) as follows: birth order, level of education, body mass index categories, enuresis, suicide attempts, depression, and learning disabilities. Adults can be screened for ADHD symptoms using the ASRS; negative long-term outcomes should be assessed in patients' relatives too. PMID:24647218

  17. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors in Older Adult Public Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ju Young; Sims, Regina C.; Bradley, Diane L.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Harrison, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to identify the prevalence of and risk factors associated with depressive symptoms among older adult residents of a public housing apartment. Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 8. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors of sociodemographic information, cardiovascular health history, and history of depression. Fifty-eight of 171 residents responded, and 31% of residents met the CES-D 8 criterion for depression (total score >7). Sequential multiple regression models identified age, loss of loved ones in the past year, and financial worries as significant predictors of CES-D 8 scores. These study results have implications for future studies of depressive symptoms in older adults, suggesting that grief and financial assistance programs may help reduce risks associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults living in public housing. PMID:25036530

  18. Global asthma prevalence in adults: findings from the cross-sectional world health survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma is a major cause of disability, health resource utilization and poor quality of life world-wide. We set out to generate estimates of the global burden of asthma in adults, which may inform the development of strategies to address this common disease. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS) was developed and implemented by the World Health Organization in 2002-2003. A total of 178,215 individuals from 70 countries aged 18 to 45 years responded to questions related to asthma and related symptoms. The prevalence of asthma was based on responses to questions relating to self-reported doctor diagnosed asthma, clinical/treated asthma, and wheezing in the last 12 months. Results The global prevalence rates of doctor diagnosed asthma, clinical/treated asthma and wheezing in adults were 4.3%, 4.5%, and 8.6% respectively, and varied by as much as 21-fold amongst the 70 countries. Australia reported the highest rate of doctor diagnosed, clinical/treated asthma, and wheezing (21.0%, 21.5%, and 27.4%). Amongst those with clinical/treated asthma, almost 24% were current smokers, half reported wheezing, and 20% had never been treated for asthma. Conclusions This study provides a global estimate of the burden of asthma in adults, and suggests that asthma continues to be a major public health concern worldwide. The high prevalence of smoking remains a major barrier to combating the global burden of asthma. While the highest prevalence rates were observed in resource-rich countries, resource-poor nations were also significantly affected, posing a barrier to development as it stretches further the demands of non-communicable diseases. PMID:22429515

  19. Relationships of both Heavy and Binge Alcohol Drinking with Unhealthy Habits in Korean Adults Based on the KNHANES IV Data

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Ha-Na; SONG, Sang-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background We conducted this cross-sectional study to examine the relationships between problematic alcohol drinking, unhealthy habits and socio-demographic factors based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Methods We analyzed a total of 13,488 participants based on the data collected from the KNHANES IV performed between 2007 and 2009. Results The frequency of binge and heavy drinking was significantly higher in men and the married participants with intermediate income. The frequency of binge drinking was higher in younger adults and individuals with at least high school graduates. After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds of current smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.35-5.03), abdominal obesity (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48), stress (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.261.68), and depressed mood (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) were greater in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The odds of current smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 4.95, 95% CI 4.25-5.77 for frequent binge drinking), obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.85 for frequent binge drinking), and abdominal obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.36-1.77 for frequent binge drinking) were increased with the increased frequency of the binge drinking. Conclusions Our results would be of help for screening a specific subgroup of individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol drinking by establishing effective population-based strategies to reduce the problematic drinking.

  20. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    PubMed Central

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  1. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adults and youths with bipolar disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence and social and demographic correlates of child sexual abuse among people with bipolar disorder, the findings of all the pertinent studies were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. Five databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Twenty studies, meeting minimum quality standards and including 3407 adults and youths with bipolar disorder across 10 countries and 3 continents, were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 24% (23% without outliers); however, such prevalence rate might be underestimated, because many studies restricted definitions to the most severe forms of abuse. Child sexual abuse was a common experience for both males and females, while it was more frequent for adults than for youths. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with bipolar disorder reported higher rates of child sexual abuse; compared to populations with other mental disorders, participants with bipolar disorder reported similar or lower rates of such abuse. Individuals with bipolar disorder are at risk of having a history of child sexual abuse, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared to people with other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23563080

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex. Results The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa?=?0.52 and 0.64, respectively), whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa?=?0.83). The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively). The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS. Conclusions MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS. PMID:24614618

  3. The prevalence and epidemiology of genetic renal disease amongst adults with chronic kidney disease in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an established and growing number of Mendelian genetic causes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, though estimates of prevalence have been speculative. The CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD) registry enables partial clarification of this through the study of adults with CKD receiving nephrology care throughout Queensland, Australia. Methods Data from the first 2,935 patients consented to the CKD.QLD registry across five sites was analysed, with a comparison between those with and without Genetic Renal Disease (GRD). Prevalence of GRD amongst those with diagnosed CKD, the general population, and commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) was calculated using the CKD.QLD registry, national census data and extracted Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation (ANZDATA) registry report data respectively. Results Patients with GRD constituted 9.8% of this Australian adult CKD cohort (287/2935). This was lower than in local incident RRT cohorts (2006–2011: 9.8% vs 11.3%, x2?=?0.014). Cases of adult CKD GRD were more likely to be female (54.0% vs 45.6%; x2?=?0.007), younger (mean 52.6 yrs vs 69.3 yrs, p?adult CKD population in specialty renal practice is similar to past estimations. GRD is a significant cause for CKD and for RRT commencement, presenting opportunities for ongoing longitudinal study, directed therapeutics and clinical service redesign. PMID:24980890

  4. Prevalence of amblyopia and associated refractive errors in an adult population in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Weih, L M; Fu, C L; Dimitrov, P; Taylor, H R; McCarty, C A

    2000-12-01

    The study aimed to describe the prevalence of amblyopia and associated refractive errors among an adult Australian population. The Visual Impairment Project (VIP) is a population-based study of age-related eye disease in the state of Victoria, Australia. Data were collected through standardised interviews and orthoptic and ophthalmic dilated examinations. Amblyopia was defined as best-corrected visual acuity of 6/9 or worse in the absence of any pathological cause. The participants were 3,265 urban residents and 1,456 rural residents of the VIP ranging in age from 40-92 years (mean = 59 years; 53% female). The prevalence of unilateral amblyopia was 3.06% (95% C.I. 2.59, 3.53). Amblyopia was not found to be statistically different by age group (p=0.096), gender (p=0.675), or place of birth (p=0.14). Anisometropia was statistically more common (p<0.001) in amblyopic cases (51.1%) compared to the normal population (9.7%), and 54% of amblyopic eyes had visual acuity of worse than 6/12. Amblyopia is a significant cause of unilateral reduced visual acuity in a population aged 40 years and older. Anisometropia was more prevalent and the degree of anisometropia was greater in the amblyopic group compared with the normal population. Oblique astigmatism was more prevalent in the amblyopic group compared with the normal population. PMID:11262672

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Falls among Older Adults in Ecuador: An Analysis of the SABE I Survey

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls. PMID:23476643

  6. Compulsions in adults with mental retardation: prevalence, phenomenology, and comorbidity with stereotypy and self-injury.

    PubMed

    Bodfish, J W; Crawford, T W; Powell, S B; Parker, D E; Golden, R N; Lewis, M H

    1995-09-01

    A variety of conceptual similarities between compulsions seen in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and stereotypy and self-injury seen in individuals with mental retardation led us to investigate the prevalence, phenomenology, and comorbidity of compulsions in adults with severe or profound mental retardation. We developed simple assessment screening instruments for stereotypy and self-injury and used Gedye's Compulsive Behavior Checklist and found acceptable levels of reliability, stability, and validity for each instrument. Prevalences were as follows: stereotypy: 60.9%; self-injury: 46.6%; and compulsion: 40%. The occurrence of compulsions was significantly positively associated with the occurrence of stereotypy, self-injury, and stereotypy plus self-injury. PMID:8527113

  7. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity amongst the community dwelling rural older adults in northern India

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, S.C.; Srivastava, Garima; Tripathi, Rakesh Kumar; Pandey, N.M.; Agarwal, G.G.; Pandey, Smita; Tiwari, Samyak

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: The population of elderly is growing globally and so are the physical illnesses and psychiatric morbidity. This study was planned to assess the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric morbidity amongst rural older adults in Lucknow, north India. Methods: A survey was conducted in subjects aged 60 yr and above to identify the cases of psychiatric morbidity in rural population from randomly selected two revenue blocks of Lucknow district, Uttar Pradesh, India. All subjects were screened through Hindi Mental Status Examination (HMSE) and Survey Psychiatric Assessment Schedule (SPAS) to identify for the suspected cases of cognitive and the psychiatric disorders, respectively. The subjects screened positive on HMSE and SPAS were assessed in detail on Cambridge Mental Disorder of the Elderly Examination-Revised (CAMDEX-R) and Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), to diagnose cognitive disorders and psychiatric disorders (other than the cognitive), respectively on the basis of International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) diagnostic guidelines. Results: The overall prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in rural older adults was found to be 23.7 per cent (95% CI=21.89-25.53). Mood (affective) disorders were the commonest (7.6%, 95% CI=6.51-8.80), followed by mild cognitive impairment (4.6%, 95% CI=3.72-5.53), mental and behavioural disorders due to substance use (4.0%, 95% CI=3.17-4.87) and dementia (2.8%) [Alzheimer's disease (2.4%, 95% CI=1.81-3.16) and vascular (0.4%, 95% CI=0.16-0.73)]. Interpretation & conclusions: Overall prevalence of psychiatric morbidity amongst rural elderly in this study was found to be less in comparison to those reported in earlier studies from India. However, prevalence pattern of different disorders was found to be similar. Therefore, it appears that a stringent methodology, refined case criteria for diagnosis and assessment by trained professionals restrict false diagnosis. PMID:24434257

  8. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus among Adults in South-West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Taherkhani, Reza; Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge regarding prevalence of HEV in general population can be an indicator of the public health and hygiene. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of HEV among adults in South-West of Iran. Methods. Blood samples were taken from 510 participants, 206 (40.4%) males and 304 (59.6%) females from February to July 2014. Detection of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out by ELISA test. Results. The overall anti-HEV IgG and IgM prevalence rates were 46.1% and 1.4%, respectively. Anti-HEV IgG and IgM seropositivity were not statistically associated with gender and race/ethnicity. Meanwhile, there were significant differences between the age groups regarding HEV IgG and IgM seropositivity. HEV IgG seroprevalence increased with age from 14.3% in subjects aged 18–30 years to 71.4% in persons over 71 years old, and considerably individuals aged 61 to 70 years had the highest HEV prevalence (90.9%). Also, 5.7% in the age group 18–30 years and 2.2% in the age group 31–40 years were positive for anti-HEV IgM antibodies and the highest rate was observed in subjects aged 18–30 years. Conclusion. In conclusion, high HEV IgG seroprevalence of 46.1% was observed among adults in South-West of Iran. PMID:26199756

  9. Prevalence of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis among Adults in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pefura-Yone, Eric Walter; Kengne, André Pascal; Balkissou, Adamou Dodo; Boulleys-Nana, Julie Raïcha; Efe-de-Melingui, Nelly Rachel; Ndjeutcheu-Moualeu, Patricia Ingrid; Mbele-Onana, Charles Lebon; Kenmegne-Noumsi, Elvira Christelle; Kolontchang-Yomi, Barbara Linda; Theubo-Kamgang, Boris Judicaël; Ebouki, Emilienne Régine; Djuikam-Kamga, Chrystelle Karen; Magne-Fotso, Christiane Gaelle; Amougou, Francine; Mboumtou, Liliane; Ngo-Yonga, Martine; Petchou-Talla, Elsie Linda; Afane-Ze, Emmanuel; Kuaban, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Population-based estimates of asthma and allergic rhinitis in sub-Saharan African adults are lacking. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of asthma and allergic rhinitis in urban adult Cameroonians. Methods A community-based survey was conducted from December 2013 to April 2014 among adults aged 19 years and above (N = 2,304, 57.3% women), selected through multilevel stratified random sampling across all districts of Yaounde (Capital city). Internationally validated questionnaires were used to investigate the presence of allergic diseases. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the determinants of allergic conditions. Results Prevalence rates were 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1-3.4) for asthma-ever, 6.9% (5.9-7.9) for lifetime wheezing, 2.9% (92.2-3.6) for current wheezing and 11.4% (10.1-12.7) for self-reported lifetime allergic rhinitis; while 240 (10.4%) participants reported current symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and 125 (5.4%) had allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. The prevalence of current asthma medication use and self-reported asthma attack was 0.8 (0.4-1.2) and 1 (0.6-1.4) respectively. Multivariable adjusted determinants of current wheezing were signs of atopic eczema [2.91 (1.09-7.74)] and signs of allergic rhinitis [3.24 (1.83-5.71)]. Age group 31-40 years [0.27(0.09-0.78), p = 0.016] was an independent protective factor for wheezing. Determinants of current rhinitis symptoms were active smoking [2.20 (1.37-3.54), p<0.001], signs of atopic eczema [2.84 (1.48-5.46)] and current wheezing [3.02 (1.70-5.39)]. Conclusion Prevalence rates for asthma and allergic rhinitis among adults in this population were at the lower tails of those reported in other regions of the world. Beside the classical interrelation between allergic diseases found in this study, active smoking was an independent determinant of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Nationwide surveys are needed to investigate regional variations. PMID:25853516

  10. Prevalence of adult domestic violence among women seeking routine care in a Native American health care facility.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, D G; Fairchild, M W; Stoner, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with, adult domestic violence within a Native American community. METHODS: Adult women in the community were surveyed. RESULTS: Of 371 eligible women, 341 (92%) were surveyed. Among respondents, 179 reported a history of at least 1 episode of domestic violence. Fifty-six (16.4%) reported violence within the previous 12 months. Age under 40 years and living in a household receiving governmental financial assistance were independently associated with 1-year prevalence of adult domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adult domestic violence is prevalent within this Native American community. Additional research is required to characterize further the relationship between domestic violence and socioeconomic status. PMID:9772854

  11. Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies. PMID:22839762

  12. Icon Design for Korean Mental Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOOHO JUNG; ROHAE MYUNG

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cultural characteristics exert a strong influence on icon preference and recognition. Nevertheless, no study has been done to investigate the Korean cultural context in icon design. This study selected the most preferred icon among newly designed cultural icons based on Korean mental schemas for this study and two prevalent word processing software icons (one from

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for asthma in off-reserve Aboriginal children and adults in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2012-01-01

    Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation. PMID:23248805

  14. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia. PMID:25524952

  15. The prevalence of peripheral and central hearing impairment and its relation to cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Nicola; Coppola, Francesco; Casulli, Mara; Barulli, Maria Rosa; Barulli, Orietta; Panza, Francesco; Lanza, Francesco; Tortelli, Rosanna; Capozzo, Rosa; Leo, Antonio; Tursi, Marianna; Grasso, Alessandra; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sobbà, C; Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and dementia are two highly prevalent conditions in the adult population. Recent studies have suggested that hearing loss is independently associated with poorer cognitive functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ARHL and cognitive impairment in a large sample of subjects older than 65 years and to correlate hearing function with cognitive function. A total of 488 subjects older than 65 years (mean age 72.8 years) participating in the Great Age Study underwent a complete audiological, neurological and neuropsychological evaluation as part of a multidisciplinary assessment. The prevalence of a hearing loss greater than 25 dB HL was 64.1%, of Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) was 14.3 and 25.3% of the subjects reported a hearing handicap as reported on the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis corrected for gender, age and education duration showed that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was significantly associated with hearing impairment (CAPD and hearing threshold; odds ratio 1.6, p = 0.05) and that Alzheimer's disease (AD) was significantly associated with CAPD (odds ratio 4.2, p = 0.05). Given that up to 80% of patients affected by MCI convert to AD, adding auditory tests to a screening cognitive battery might have value in the early diagnosis of cognitive decline. PMID:25733360

  16. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Han, Xiaoyan; Qi, Zhi; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination. Results The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI?28 kg/m2) was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as “fat” (OR?=?3.78 in men, OR?=?2.91 in women). Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise. Conclusion Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic. PMID:25225884

  18. Intimate Partner Violence Among Hong Kong Young Adults: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p < .05) and those who had a university degree or were unemployed were more likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (OR = 8.48, p < .01 and OR = 8.14, p < .05 respectively). Female youths who had a full-time job were less likely to experience the lifetime violence (OR = 0.15, p < .05) and those who were ever pregnant with current partner were more likely to experience both lifetime intimate partner violence (OR = 5.00, p < .05) and past-year violence (OR = 5.63, p < .05). Both female and male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670

  19. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Phosphate Tablets and Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Bowel Cleansing in Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Seo, Sang-Wook; Kang, Joon-Koo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Lee, Dong-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bowel cleansing is generally regarded as time-consuming and unpleasant among patients. Patients commonly state that bowel preparation provokes more discomfort than the actual colonoscopic examination. The purpose of this study was to compare two regimens of sodium phosphate (NaP) tablets versus polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel preparation in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods This was a single center, prospective, open-label, investigator-blinded, randomized, controlled-pilot study. A total of 62 healthy Korean subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (NaP vs. PEG). Efficacy, safety, and patient-related outcomes, as well as procedural parameters, were evaluated. Results Although there were no significant differences in total Ottawa bowel quality score, fluid scores and the rate of adequate bowel preparation were significantly better in the NaP group than the PEG group. Additionally, the NaP group showed better results regarding patient tolerance, satisfaction, preference, and rate of adverse events than the PEG group. Significant fluctuations in specific serum electrolytes were common and of a greater magnitude in the NaP group than the PEG group. However, these abnormalities were transient and did not result in serious complications and side effects. Conclusion In this study, NaP tablets were shown to be an effective, well-tolerated, and acceptable regimen for bowel preparation. Also, our study suggests that NaP tablets may be safe and can be used as a bowel cleansing agent in healthy adults undergoing elective colonoscopy. Further multicenter, large scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25323890

  20. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. RESULTS Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. CONCLUSIONS As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention. PMID:25489407

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Metropolitan City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanaraj, Baskaran; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Vedachalam, Chandrasekaran; Sundaram, Vijayaraj; Shanmugam, Shivakumar; Sekar, Gomathi; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area. Methods A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify significant risk factors. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping was performed on isolated M. tuberculosis strains. Mapping of PTB cases was done using geographic positioning systems. Results Of 59,957 eligible people, 55,617 were screened by X-ray and /or TB symptoms and the prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated to be 228 (95% CI 189–265), 259 (95% CI 217–299) and 349 (95% CI 330–428) per 100,000 population, respectively. Prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was highest amongst men aged 55–64 years. Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of both culture and bacteriologically positive PTB disease was significantly associated with: age >35 years, past history of TB treatment, BMI <18.5 Kgs/m2, solid cooking fuel, and being a male currently consuming alcohol. The most frequent spoligotype family was East African Indian. Spatial distribution showed that a high proportion of patients were clustered in the densely populated north eastern part of the city. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that TB is a major public health problem in this urban area of south India, and support the use of intensified case finding in high risk groups. Undernutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors for TB disease. PMID:25905900

  2. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (? 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  3. Estimating the prevalence of problem gambling among older adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Hong, Song-Iee; Ng, King-Lam

    2013-12-15

    This study examined the prevalence rates of problem gambling among older adults in Singapore. A stratified sampling method was used to select the nationally representative sample of 3010 older adults aged 55 years and above. The survey participants were of varying ethnicities living in the community, including Chinese, Malay, and Indian (and others). A structured questionnaire, including the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, gambling attitudes and behaviors, and demographic information was administered face-to-face at participants' homes, using one of the four language versions preferred by the participants. Among those who had gambled lifetime, 69.7% (or weighted population = 39.2%) gambled in the past 12 months and 2.2% (or weighted population = .9%) met the problem gambling criteria. Individuals with problem gambling were likely to have started gambling at an younger age and to have gambled in activities characterized by continuity and no set money limits. Future research should examine changes in gambling behaviors of older adults over time in non-Western societies. PMID:23850433

  4. Prevalence of comorbid substance use disorder during long-term central stimulant treatment in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjørn; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Vaaler, Arne; Nordahl, Hans M

    2013-03-01

    Central stimulant (CS) therapy is a cornerstone in treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Substance use disorder (SUD) is a common comorbid disorder of ADHD and might complicate the treatment. Our main objectives were to investigate the prevalence of SUD during CS treatment, and identify variables associated with SUD during the treatment. The collection of data was based on a naturalistic, retrospective approach using the medical records of a cohort of all adult ADHD patients (N = 117) starting treatment with CS in a specific catchment area in the period 1997 to May 2005. A logistic regression model was applied to identify possible predictors of SUD during CS treatment. The study showed no onset of SUD during the CS treatment in the group of patients without comorbid SUD at baseline (mean CS treatment length 41.1 months). In the group of patients with comorbid SUD at baseline, 58.5 % had one or more relapses of SUD during treatment (mean CS treatment length 27.9 months). Younger age and comorbid antisocial personality disorder were associated with relapse. In a logistic regression analysis, cannabis abstinence for more than 12 months was a negative predictor for relapse of SUD. CS treatment does not precipitate onset of SUD in adults without previous SUD. PMID:23104523

  5. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults From Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings From NHANES (2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and physical activity correlates of obesity across rural and urban residence are examined. Methods Analysis of body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity from 7,325 urban and 1,490 rural adults in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Findings The obesity prevalence was 39.6% (SE = 1.5) among rural adults compared to 33.4% (SE = 1.1) among urban adults (P = .006). Prevalence of obesity remained significantly higher among rural compared to urban adults controlling for demographic, diet, and physical activity variables (odds ratio = 1.18, P = .03). Race/ethnicity and percent kcal from fat were significant correlates of obesity among both rural and urban adults. Being married was associated with obesity only among rural residents, whereas older age, less education, and being inactive was associated with obesity only among urban residents. Conclusions Obesity is markedly higher among adults from rural versus urban areas of the United States, with estimates that are much higher than the rates suggested by studies with self-reported data. Obesity deserves greater attention in rural America. PMID:23083085

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of At-Risk Drinking Among Older Adults: The Project SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alison A.; Xu, Haiyong; Ang, Alfonso; Tallen, Louise; Mirkin, Michelle; Ettner, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND At-risk drinking, excessive or potentially harmful alcohol use in combination with select comorbidities or medication use, affects about 10% of elderly adults and is associated with higher mortality. Yet, our knowledge is incomplete regarding the prevalence of different categories of at-risk drinking and their associations with patient demographics. OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence and correlates of different categories of at-risk drinking among older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. SUBJECTS Current drinkers ages 60 and older accessing primary care clinics around Santa Barbara, California (n?=?3,308). MEASUREMENTS At-risk drinkers were identified using the Comorbidity Alcohol Risk Evaluation Tool (CARET). At-risk alcohol use was categorized as alcohol use in the setting of 1) high-risk comorbidities or 2) high-risk medication use, and 3) excessive alcohol use alone. Adjusted associations of participant characteristics with at-risk drinking in each of the three at-risk categories and with at-risk drinking of any kind were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS Over one-third of our sample (34.7%) was at risk. Among at-risk individuals, 61.9% had alcohol use in the context of high-risk comorbidities, 61.0% had high-risk medication use, and 64.3% had high-risk alcohol behaviors. The adjusted odds of at-risk drinking of any kind were decreased and significant for women (odds ratio, OR?=?0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.48; p-value?adults over age 80 (OR?=?0.55; CI: 0.43-0.72; p?adults in this large sample of primary care patients, and male Caucasians, those ages 60-64, and those with lower levels of education were most likely to have high-risk alcohol use of any type. Our findings could help physicians identify older patients at increased risk for problems from alcohol consumption. PMID:20396975

  7. Prevalence of snoring and sleep breathing-related disorders in Chinese, Malay and Indian adults in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Ng; A. Seow; W. C. Tan

    1998-01-01

    aa Various studies (1-3) have reported community preval- ences of habitual snoring in adults to be about 11-15%. About 30-50% of adult habitual snorers (2) are estimated to have the sleep apnoea\\/hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS), which is estimated to occur in 2-4% of the general pop- ulation (3-5). Habitual snoring has been shown to be inde- pendently associated with the development

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O’Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed. PMID:21535096

  9. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among Panamanian Adults. 1982–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Morris; Lee, Marcos; Jan, Carmen; Fontes, Flavia; Motta, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background In Central America, there has been a marked increase in obesity in the last 30 years. Over this time frame, in Panama, there have been lifestyle changes associated with economic development and urbanization that may have facilitated increases in body weight. The aim of the study is to describe the change in the prevalence of obesity in the country since 1982 and to analyze the association of obesity with gender, place of residence and socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed three nationally representative cross-sectional studies and one sub-national study of Panamanian adults that evaluated anthropometric and socioeconomic variables; ENPA-1982 (n?=?11 611), ENV-II 2003 (n?=?14 737), ENV-III 2008 (n?=?15 484), PREFREC-2010 (n ?=?3 590). We also evaluated one nationally representative study that evaluated people’s perception of their body weight, ENSCAVI-2007 (n?=?25 748). Results In 1982, the prevalence in males of a body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2 was 3.8% (3.3 – 4.2) and in females 7.6% (6.9 – 8.2). In 2003, the prevalence in males increased to 14.4% (13.6 – 15.2) and in females to 21.8% (20.8 – 22.7). In 2008, the prevalence in males was 16.9% (16.0 – 17.7) and in females it was 23.8% (22.8 – 24.7). Nevertheless, in 2007, the national perception of being obese was only 4% among males and 6.7% among females. The highest prevalence of obesity was noted in urban areas. Female gender and higher income were found to be positively associated with obesity. Income level was positively associated with abdominal obesity in men but not in women. Conclusions There has been a marked increase of obesity in Panama in the last 3 decades. Initiatives to control this problem will have to take into consideration the observed gender difference and the lifestyle changes that have contributed to the rise of this problem. PMID:24621825

  10. Delirium in an adult acute hospital population: predictors, prevalence and detection

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Daniel James; O'Regan, Niamh Annmarie; Caoimh, Ronán Ó; Clare, Josie; O'Connor, Marie; Leonard, Maeve; McFarland, John; Tighe, Sheila; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Trzepacz, Paula T; Meagher, David; Timmons, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, delirium prevalence and incidence in acute hospitals has been estimated from pooled findings of studies performed in distinct patient populations. Objective To determine delirium prevalence across an acute care facility. Design A point prevalence study. Setting A large tertiary care, teaching hospital. Patients 311 general hospital adult inpatients were assessed over a single day. Of those, 280 had full data collected within the study's time frame (90%). Measurements Initial screening for inattention was performed using the spatial span forwards and months backwards tests by junior medical staff, followed by two independent formal delirium assessments: first the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) by trained geriatric medicine consultants and registrars, and, subsequently, the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98) by experienced psychiatrists. The diagnosis of delirium was ultimately made using DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria. Results Using DSM-IV criteria, 55 of 280 patients (19.6%) had delirium versus 17.6% using the CAM. Using the DRS-R98 total score for independent diagnosis, 20.7% had full delirium, and 8.6% had subsyndromal delirium. Prevalence was higher in older patients (4.7% if <50 years and 34.8% if >80 years) and particularly in those with prior dementia (OR=15.33, p<0.001), even when adjusted for potential confounders. Although 50.9% of delirious patients had pre-existing dementia, it was poorly documented in the medical notes. Delirium symptoms detected by medical notes, nurse interview and patient reports did not overlap much, with inattention noted by professional staff, and acute change and sleep-wake disturbance noted by patients. Conclusions Our point prevalence study confirms that delirium occurs in about 1/5 of general hospital inpatients and particularly in those with prior cognitive impairment. Recognition strategies may need to be tailored to the symptoms most noticed by the detector (patient, nurse or primary physician) if formal assessments are not available. PMID:23299110

  11. Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

  12. Prevalence of sapovirus infection among infant and adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Sara; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Bozorgi, Sajad Majidizadeh; Zali, Narges; Jadali, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in patient with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. Background Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting both children and adult individuals. There isn't enough data about prevalence and genotypes of sapovirus infection in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Patients and methods A total of 42 fecal samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis from May to July 2009. RT nested- PCR was performed for screening. To genotype the sapovirus isolates, some positive samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by sequencing of fragments of viral capsid gene region. Results Sapovirus was detected in 5 of 42 stool specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis. Sapovirus detected in this study was clustered into only one distinct genogroup I/2. Sapovirus GI/2 was predominant. Conclusion Our results show that among the studied viruses responsible for this disease, sapovirus was a major viral isolate virus. PMID:24834197

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ?60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  14. Falls among Adult Patients Hospitalized in the United States: Prevalence and Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bouldin, Erin D.; Andresen, Elena M.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Simon, Michael; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Shorr, Ronald I.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide normative data on fall prevalence in US hospitals by unit type and to determine the 27-month secular trend in falls prior to the implementation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) rule which does not reimburse hospitals for care related to injury resulting from hospital falls. Methods We used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) collected between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2008 to estimate prevalence and secular trends of falls occurring in adult medical, medical-surgical and surgical nursing units. More than 88 million patient days (pd) of observation were contributed from 6,100 medical, surgical, and medical-surgical nursing units in 1,263 hospitals across the United States. Results A total of 315,817 falls occurred (rate=3.56 falls/1,000 pd) during the study period, of which 82,332 (26.1%) resulted in an injury (rate=0.93/1,000 pd). Both total fall and injurious fall rates were highest in medical units (fall rate=4.03/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=1.08/1,000 pd) and lowest in surgery units (fall rate=2.76/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=0.67/1,000 pd). Falls (0.4% decrease/quarter, p<0.0001) and injurious falls (1% decrease per quarter, p<0.0001) both decreased over the 27-month study. Conclusions In this large sample, fall and injurious fall prevalence varied by nursing unit type in US hospitals. Over the 27 month study, there was a small, but statistically significant, decrease in falls (p<0.0001) and injurious falls (p<0.0001). PMID:23143749

  15. Prevalence of Self-Reported Stroke and Disability in the French Adult Population: A Transversal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named “the Disability Health survey” was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%–1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without. PMID:25521057

  16. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Ji; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results about the association of sleep duration and hypertension. Given the potential relationship between sleep quality and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality on hypertension prevalence in adult Chinese males. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of 4144 male subjects. Sleep duration were measured by self-reported average sleep time during the past month. Sleep quality was evaluated using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure level ?140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment. The association between hypertension prevalence, sleep duration, and sleep quality was analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics. Results Sleep duration shorter than 8 hours was found to be associated with increased hypertension, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03–1.52) for 7 hours, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14–1.73) for 6 hours, and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.81–3.11) for <6 hours. Using very good sleep quality as the reference, good, poor, and very poor sleep quality were associated with hypertension, with odds ratios of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.01–1.42), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.32–2.11), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.67–3.21), respectively. More importantly, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to hypertension indicated an additive interaction. Conclusions There is an additive interaction of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration on hypertension prevalence. More comprehensive measurement of sleep should be performed in future studies. PMID:25912096

  17. Prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Verbraak, F; Schreinemachers, M; Tiller, A; van Deventer, S J H; de Smet, M D

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.?METHODS—In 179 consecutive patients (96 with Crohn's disease, 55 with ulcerative colitis, and 28 with inflammatory bowel disease of undetermined nature) without previous or concurrent ocular complaints, quantitative flare measurements were obtained with the Kowa FC laser flare to detect the presence of subclinical uveitis.?RESULTS—The mean flare value was 3.9 (SD 1.1) ph/ms in patients younger than 30 years of age, rising to 5.8 (2.5) ph/ms in those over 60 years of age. No measurement performed in this patient population fell outside the mean observed value plus or minus SD of the normal controls within the same age category.?CONCLUSION—In an adult population of 179 consecutive patients with inflammatory bowel disease the presence of a form of subclinical uveitis, as described by Hofley et al in a group of juvenile patients, is highly unlikely.?? PMID:11159490

  18. Prevalence and factor association of premature ejaculation among adult Asian males with lower urinary tract symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Silangcruz, Jan Michael A.; Chua, Michael E.; Morales, Marcelino L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) among adult Asian males presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and characterize its association with other clinical factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary medical center to determine the prevalence of PE among adult male participants with LUTS during the Annual National Prostate Health Awareness Day. Basic demographic data of the participants were collected. All participants were assessed for the presence and severity of LUTS using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and for the presence of PE using the PE diagnostic tool. Digital rectal examination was performed by urologists to obtain prostate size. LUTS was further categorized into severity, storage symptoms (frequency, urgency, and nocturia), and voiding symptoms (weak stream, intermittency, straining, and incomplete emptying) to determine their association with PE. Data were analyzed by comparing the participants with PE (PE diagnostic tool score ?11) versus those without PE, using the independent t test for continuous data, Mann–Whitney U test for ordinal data, and Chi-square test for nominal data. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results A total of 101 male participants with a mean ± standard deviation age of 60.75 ± 10.32 years were included. Among the participants, 33% had moderate LUTS, and 7% severe LUTS. The most common LUTS was nocturia (33%). The overall prevalence of PE was 27%. There was no significant difference among participants with PE versus those without PE in terms of age, marital status, prostate size, or total IPSS score. However, significant difference between groups was noted on the level of education (Mann–Whitney U, z = ?1.993, P = 0.046) where high educational status was noted among participants with PE. Likewise, participants with PE were noted to have more prominent weak stream (Mann–Whitney U, z = ?2.126, P = 0.033). Conclusions Among the participants consulted with LUTS, 27% have concomitant PE. Educational status seems to have an impact in the self-reporting of PE, which may be due to a higher awareness of participants with higher educational attainment. A significant association between PE and weak stream that was not related to prostate size suggests a neuropathologic association.

  19. Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

  20. PREVALENCE OF PERSISTENT COUGH AND PHLEGM IN YOUNG ADULTS IN RELATION TO LONG-TERM AMBIENT SULFUR OXIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In early 1976, a survey of persistent cough and plegm (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 micrograms per cubic meter. Corresponding m...

  1. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  2. Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

  3. A Standardized Assessment of Thyroid Nodules in Children Confirms Higher Cancer Prevalence Than in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjuli; Ly, Samantha; Castroneves, Luciana A.; Frates, Mary C.; Benson, Carol B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Wassner, Ari J.; Smith, Jessica R.; Marqusee, Ellen; Alexander, Erik K.; Barletta, Justine; Doubilet, Peter M.; Peters, Hope E.; Webb, Susan; Modi, Biren P.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Kozakewich, Harry; Cibas, Edmund S.; Moore, Francis D.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Larsen, P. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Context: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, but due to its rare occurrence in the pediatric population, the cancer risk of childhood thyroid nodules is incompletely defined, and optimal management of children with suspected nodules is debated. Objective: The aim was to study the presenting features and cancer risk of sporadic childhood thyroid nodules using a standardized clinical assessment and management plan. Design and Setting: Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital collaborated to create a multidisciplinary pediatric thyroid nodule clinic and implement a standardized assessment plan. Upon referral for a suspected nodule, serum TSH was measured and hypothyrotropinemic patients underwent 123I scintigraphy. All others underwent thyroid ultrasonography, and if this confirmed nodule(s) ? 1 cm, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and compared to a control population of 2582 adults evaluated by identical methods. Patients and Results: Of 300 consecutive children referred for the initial evaluation of suspected thyroid nodules from 1997 to 2011, 17 were diagnosed with autonomous nodules by scintigraphy. Neck ultrasonography performed in the remainder revealed that biopsy was unnecessary in over half, either by documenting only sub-centimeter nodules or showing that no nodule was present. A total of 125 children met criteria for thyroid biopsy, which was performed without complication. Their rate of cancer was 22%, significantly higher than the adult rate of 14% (P = .02). Conclusions: Neck ultrasonography and biopsy were key to the evaluation of children with suspected thyroid nodules. Although the relative cancer prevalence of sonographically confirmed nodules ? 1 cm is higher in pediatric patients than adults, most children referred for suspected nodules have benign conditions, and efforts to avoid unnecessary surgery in this majority are warranted. PMID:23737541

  4. Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 +

    E-print Network

    Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 7.1 8.1 7.2 7.6 8.6 8.7 10.2 8.2 7.8 8.5 9.0 8.0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Percent IL U.S. Adult current asthma prevalence was highest among adults aged 18-24 years throughout the U.S. Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Sex, BRFSS

  5. Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Associated With Lower Trabecular BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fracture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Shet, Keerthi; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Bone marrow fat (BMF) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA) are negatively correlated. However, little is known about the association of BMF with fracture or with separate trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between vertebral BMF, BMD by quantitative computed tomography, and fracture in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measures included vertebral BMF (L1–L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quantitative computed tomography and DXA scans of the hip and spine, and DXA vertebral fracture assessments. Previous clinical fracture was determined from medical records. Results: In 257 participants without recent bone-active medication use, mean age was 79 (SD 3.1) years. Mean BMF was 53.5% ± 8.1% in men and 55.0% ± 8.4% in women. Those with prevalent vertebral fracture (21 men, 32 women) had higher mean BMF in models adjusted for BMD. In separate models by sex, the difference was statistically significant only in men (57.3% vs 52.8%, P = 0.02). BMF was associated with lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the spine (?10.5% difference for each 1 SD increase in BMF, P < 0.01), total hip, and femoral neck, but not with cortical vBMD, in women. In men, BMF was marginally associated with trabecular spine vBMD (?6.1%, P = 0.05). Total hip and spine areal BMD (aBMD) were negatively correlated with BMF in women only. Conclusion: Higher marrow fat correlated with lower trabecular, but not cortical, BMD in older women but not men. Higher marrow fat was associated with prevalent vertebral fracture in men, even after adjustment for BMD. PMID:23553860

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with scleral hyaline plaque: clinical study of older adults in southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Soraya; Damasceno, Nadyr; Damasceno, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prevalence of scleral hyaline plaque among older adults in the city of Niterói in southeastern Brazil. A second goal was to assess the correlation between scleral hyaline plaque and several age-related diseases, including eye diseases and systemic diseases. Methods The study sample comprised 667 participants who were followed for 15 months. The study had a prospective, longitudinal, observational design that established inclusion and exclusion criteria. The following variables were selected for correlation with scleral hyaline plaque: sex, age, age range, iris color, ethnicity, presence of cataract, moderate to high myopia, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, degenerative arthritis, and osteoporosis. These correlations were assessed by means of the ?2 test and Student’s t-test. Multivariate analysis was performed to exclude factors that were potentially associated with aging exclusively but that did not have a direct relationship with hyaline plaque. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, significance, and confidence intervals. Results Scleral hyaline plaques were found in 177 patients (17.54%). There was a statistically significant association between the presence of hyaline plaques and sex (female), age range (?70 years old), ethnicity (Caucasian), cataract, moderate to high myopia, systemic arterial hypertension, degenerative arthritis, and osteoporosis (P<0.05). On multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, only female sex, age range (?70 years), moderate to high myopia, and degenerative arthritis exhibited significant correlation. Conclusion The prevalence of scleral hyaline plaque in the present study was higher than in previous reports in the medical literature. Several age-related diseases exhibited a correlation with scleral hyaline plaque. The most significant factors associated with scleral hyaline plaque were advanced age, female sex, moderate to high myopia, and degenerative arthritis.

  7. Prevalence of asthma control among adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Paggiaro, P; Plaza, V; Bolge, S C; Kannan, H; Sohier, B; Adamek, L

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this article were to estimate the prevalence of asthma control and describe the characteristics of at least well-controlled (ALWC) versus not well-controlled (NWC) asthmatics. Data were obtained from the European National Health and Wellness Survey, an internet-based, cross-sectional study of 37,476 adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Analysis was limited to 2,337 respondents who self-reported a physician diagnosis. Based on the Asthma Control Test (ACT), respondents were grouped as ALWC (ACT ?20) and NWC (ACT ?19). The prevalence of diagnosed asthma across five countries was estimated to be 5.8% (14 million extrapolated for the European Union population). Of these, 50.4% (7.1 million) were NWC. Compared with ALWC, NWC were older (15.8 versus 15.0%; p<0.001), less likely to be college educated (28.7 versus 36.3%; p<0.001) and more likely to be obese (30.0 versus 22.7%; p<0.001), experience depression (28.0 versus 18.7%; p<0.001) and smoke (34.7 versus 25.0%; p<0.001). The NWC had more occasions of contact with healthcare providers and were more likely to use controller and rescue medications, but with less adherence. A substantial portion of asthmatics are NWC. However, the proportion of NWC asthmatics found in this study was less than in previously reported. Patients and physicians need to be educated on the importance of asthma control and adherence to treatments. PMID:20956130

  8. Prevalence of influenza A antibodies in yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) eggs and adults in southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Abdessalem; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Chokri, Mohamed Ali; Arnal, Audrey; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Boulinier, Thierry; Selmi, Slaheddine

    2011-12-01

    Investigating the prevalence of anti-influenza A viruses (AIV) antibodies in wild birds can provide important information for the understanding of bird exposure to AIV, as well as for prevention purposes. We investigated AIV exposure in nature by measuring the prevalence of anti-AIV antibodies in the nests and adults of an abundant and anthropophilic waterbird species common around the Mediterranean sea, the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Sampling took place in two colonies located in the gulf of Gabès in southern Tunisia: Sfax and Djerba. Antibodies were detected in the two sites, with higher prevalence in adults, eggs, and nests at Sfax than Djerba. Across both colonies, clutches that were laid later in the season, and, thus, more likely by younger parents, showed lower prevalence. Using patch occupancy modeling applied to egg clutches, we found that it is unnecessary to sample all the eggs in a given nest; nest status (antibody positive or negative) can be reliably estimated from a single egg. Differences in the density of birds, notably Larids, between the two sites may explain the observed differences in prevalence. The higher concentration of Larids in the Sfax colony could favor the transmission of AIV to yellow-legged gulls. This study highlights the importance of further developing ecological-based approaches to the factors determining the circulation of infectious agents in species such as the yellow-legged gull, which exist at the interface between diverse biological communities and human activities. PMID:21919723

  9. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009

    PubMed Central

    Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9?kg/m2) and II (BMI ?30?kg/m2) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6?kg/m2 in men and 22.8?kg/m2 in women in 1991 to 23.3?kg/m2 and 24.4?kg/m2 in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0?kg/m2, P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991–2009. PMID:24757561

  10. Prevalence and trends of obesity and association with socioeconomic status in Thai adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009.

    PubMed

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and II (BMI ?30 kg/m(2)) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6 kg/m(2) in men and 22.8 kg/m(2) in women in 1991 to 23.3 kg/m(2) and 24.4 kg/m(2) in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991-2009. PMID:24757561

  11. Prevalence of viral hepatitis in Croatian adult population undergoing routine check-up, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Vilibi?-Cavlek, Tatjana; Kucinar, Jasmina; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Kai?, Bernard; Lazari?-Stefanovi?, Lorena; Kolari?, Branko

    2014-03-01

    Seroprevalence data on viral hepatitis in the general population vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses in the general Croatian adult population undergoing routine check-ups. The seroprevalence of anti-HAV, anti-HBc and anti-HCV was 40.5%, 7.0% and 0.9%, respectively. HBsAg was found in 0.7% and anti-HBs antibodies in 24.4% of participants. Gender was not associated with HAV, HBV or HCV seropositivity. HAV and HBV seropositivity increased progressively with age (HAV from 11.7% to 90.4%, p < 0.001; HBV from 1.7% to 15.8%, p < 0.001). Participants from rural areas showed a significantly higher HBV seroprevalence rate than those from urban areas (10.7% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.007). Results of univariate and multiple logistic regression showed that older age was a significant predictor for both HAV and HBV seropositivity while rural place of residence was a significant predictor for HBV seropositivity. PMID:24844103

  12. The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Tang, Suqin; Yu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Xie, Qiuyuan; Wang, Jianping

    2014-10-30

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients. PMID:24924526

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity prevalence in South Africa: a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus after leisure noise exposure in young adults.

    PubMed

    Degeest, Sofie; Corthals, Paul; Vinck, Bart; Keppler, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus among students after exposure to leisure noise. In addition, the effects of tinnitus on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in participants suffering from chronic tinnitus were evaluated. The study consisted of two parts. First, a questionnaire regarding leisure noise exposure and tinnitus was completed. Second, the hearing status of the subjects suffering from chronic tinnitus was evaluated and compared with a matched control group (CG). Furthermore, the psychoacoustical characteristics of their tinnitus in the chronic tinnitus group (TG) were established. The questionnaire was answered by 151 respondents. Seven persons suffering from chronic tinnitus were examined further in the second part of the study. Transient tinnitus was observed in 73.5% of the respondents after leisure noise exposure and 6.6% experienced chronic tinnitus. Transient and chronic tinnitus had similar characteristics, as established by the questionnaire. The amplitude of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions was reduced and the amount of efferent suppression was smaller in the TG as compared with the CG. Tinnitus induced by leisure noise is observed frequently in young adults. The characteristics of tinnitus cannot predict whether it will have a transient or rather a chronic nature. In subjects suffering from tinnitus, subclinical damage that cannot be detected by audiometry can be demonstrated by measuring OAEs. These findings underpin the importance of educating youth about the risks of noise exposure during leisure activities. PMID:24583677

  15. Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code ?10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure. PMID:24840377

  16. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. Methods In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ?18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. Results The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ?1, ?2, and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ?2 and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become a major disease burden among Tibetans. PMID:26047133

  17. Changing Patterns of Bacterial Strains in Adults and Children With Otitis Media in Korean Tertiary Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Seok; Kim, Myung Gu; Hong, Seok Min; Na, Se Young; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Otitis media (OM) is an infectious disease that affects all age brackets. Aural discharge is a typical symptom, occurring in all subtypes of OM. We have compared the identity and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from aural discharges of adults and children with various types of OM, including acute OM (AOM), OM with effusion (OME), chronic OM (COM), and cholesteatomatous OM (CSOM). Methods The study involved 2,833 patients who visited five tertiary hospitals between January 2001 and December 2010 and were diagnosed with AOM, OME, COM, or CSOM. The patients were divided into a pediatric group and an adult group, and the distribution of cultured bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity were compared in the two groups. Results Bacterial detection rates were higher in adults than in children with OME and COM (P=0.000 each). The majority of the bacteria cultured from patients with AOM and OME bacteria were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics (P=0.002) and had higher antibiotic sensitivity (P=0.001) than were bacteria cultured from adults. The majority of bacteria culture from patients with COM and CSOM were MSSA and pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher in adults than in children, and more strains of bacteria isolated from adults were sensitive to the antibiotics septrin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Conclusion Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics and had higher antibiotic sensitivity than did bacteria cultured from adults. PMID:24917902

  18. Prevalence and clustering of metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults in Shanghai, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Xu; Yiqing Song; Nai-Chieh You; Zuo-Feng Zhang; Sander Greenland; Earl S Ford; Lin He; Simin Liu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is becoming an epidemic in China. To evaluate the prevalence, clustering of metabolic risk factors and their impact on type 2 diabetes, we conducted a population-based study in Shanghai, China's largest metropolitan area. METHODS: From 2006 to 2007, 2,113 type 2 diabetes cases and 2,458 comparable controls of adults aged 40 to 79 years were enrolled.

  19. Prevalence of obesity in adolescent and young adult patients with and without schizophrenia and in relationship to antipsychotic medication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank M. Theisen; André Linden; Frank Geller; Helmut Schäfer; Matthias Martin; Helmut Remschmidt; Johannes Hebebrand

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in inpatients of a German psychiatric rehabilitation center for adolescents and young adults (mean age 19.5 years) is assessed and set into relationship to diagnosis and medication regimen. In a cross-sectional naturalistic study body weights and heights of 151 inpatients, 109 of whom presented with ICD-10 schizophrenia spectrum disorders, were measured for the calculation of body

  20. Prevalence of epilepsy and health status of adults with epilepsy in Georgia and Tennessee: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemarie Kobau; Colleen A. DiIorio; Patricia H. Price; David J. Thurman; Linda M. Martin; David L. Ridings; Thomas R. Henrye

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral risk factors associated with comorbidity in people with epilepsy are largely unknown. We studied a population-based sample of 8057 adults through the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, in Georgia and Tennessee, ascertaining a lifetime epilepsy prevalence of 2.1% in this population. This structured interview revealed that those with epilepsy had significantly worse self-reported fair or poor health status

  1. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

  2. Prevalence and co-use of marijuana among young adult cigarette smokers: An anonymous online national survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is elevated prevalence of marijuana use among young adults who use tobacco, but little is known about the extent of co-use generated from surveys conducted online. The purpose of the present study was to examine past-month marijuana use and the co-use of marijuana and tobacco in a convenience sample of young adult smokers with national US coverage. Methods Young adults age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30?days were recruited online between 4/1/09 and 12/31/10 to participate in an online survey on tobacco use. We examined past 30?day marijuana use, frequency of marijuana use, and proportion of days co-using tobacco and marijuana by demographic characteristics and daily smoking status. Results Of 3512 eligible and valid survey responses, 1808 (51.5%) smokers completed the survey. More than half (53%, n?=?960) of the sample reported past-month marijuana use and reported a median use of 18 out of the past 30?days (interquartile range [IR]?=?4, 30). Co-use of tobacco and marijuana occurred on nearly half (median?=?45.5%; IR?=?13.1, 90.3) of the days on which either substance was used and was more frequent among Caucasians, respondents living in the Northeast or in rural areas, in nonstudents versus students, and in daily versus nondaily smokers. Residence in a state with legalized medical marijuana was unrelated to co-use or even the prevalence of marijuana use in this sample. Age and household income also were unrelated to co-use of tobacco and marijuana. Conclusion These results indicate a higher prevalence of marijuana use and co-use of tobacco in young adult smokers than is reported in nationally representative surveys. Cessation treatments for young adult smokers should consider broadening intervention targets to include marijuana. PMID:23186143

  3. Estimating the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use among Black and White Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas over Time (1992–2002): Estimation Methods and Prevalence Trends

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Gostnell, Karla; Flom, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    No adequate data exist on patterns of injection drug use (IDU) prevalence over time within racial/ethnic groups in U.S. geographic areas. The absence of such prevalence data limits our understanding of the causes and consequences of IDU and hampers planning efforts for IDU-related interventions. Here, we (1) describe a method of estimating IDU prevalence among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adult residents of 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually over an 11-year period (1992–2002); (2) validate the resulting prevalence estimates; and (3) document temporal trends in these prevalence estimates. IDU prevalence estimates for Black adults were calculated in several steps: we (1) created estimates of the proportion of injectors who were Black in each MSA and year by analyzing databases documenting injectors’ encounters with the healthcare system; (2) multiplied the resulting proportions by previously calculated estimates of the total number of injectors in each MSA and year (Brady et al., 2008); (3) divided the result by the number of Black adults living in each MSA each year; and (4) validated the resulting estimates by correlating them cross-sectionally with theoretically related constructs (Black- and White-specific prevalences of drug-related mortality and of mortality from hepatitis C). We used parallel methods to estimate and validate White IDU prevalence. We analyzed trends in the resulting racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence estimates using measures of central tendency and hierarchical linear models (HLM). Black IDU prevalence declined from a median of 279 injectors per 10,000 adults in 1992 to 156 injectors per 10,000 adults in 2002. IDU prevalence for White adults remained relatively flat over time (median values ranged between 86 and 97 injectors per 10,000 adults). HLM analyses described similar trends and suggest that declines in Black IDU prevalence decelerated over time. Both sets of IDU estimates correlated cross-sectionally adequately with validators, suggesting that they have acceptable convergent validity (range for Black IDU prevalence validation: 0.27 < r < 0.61; range for White IDU prevalence: 0.38 < r < 0.80). These data give insight, for the first time, into IDU prevalence trends among Black adults and White adults in large U.S. MSAs. The decline seen here for Black adults may partially explain recent reductions in newly reported cases of IDU-related HIV evident in surveillance data on this population. Declining Black IDU prevalence may have been produced by (1) high AIDS-related mortality rates among Black injectors in the 1990s, rates lowered by the advent of HAART; (2) reduced IDU incidence among Black drug users; and/or (3) MSA-level social processes (e.g., diminishing residential segregation). The stability of IDU prevalence among White adults between 1992 and 2002 may be a function of lower AIDS-related mortality rates in this population; relative stability (and perhaps increases in some MSAs) in initiating IDU among White drug users; and social processes. Future research should investigate the extent to which these racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence trends (1) explain, and are explained by, recent trends in IDU-related health outcomes, and (2) are determined by MSA-level social processes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9304-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18709555

  4. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

  5. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Fasting Glucose, Associated with Risk Factors in Rural Kazakh Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia; He, Fei; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yizhong; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Liu, Jiaming; Guo, Heng; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Rulin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a Kazakh population aged ?18 years living in the YiLi District of Xinjiang, China and to evaluate the associated risk factors of diabetes. Methods: Randomly selected adults, living for at least 6 months in the YiLi District in Xinjiang had their clinical characteristics and standard blood chemistries measured. DM and IFG were defined according to WHO 1999 criteria. The adjusted odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the association of diabetes risk factors in multivariate logistic regression models. Results: A total of 3919 subjects were randomly selected. The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of DM and IFG were 5.9% and 10.0%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IFG increased with age and BMI. Prevalence of 7.4%, 12.2% in males and 4.9%, 8.6% in females for DM and IFG. Compared by sex, prevalence of DM and IFG was higher in males. Prevalence of 3.4%, 8.1% in normal, 6.7%, 11.9% in overweight and 12.0%, 13.0% in obesity for diabetes and IFG. In the multivariable logistic models, male sex, older age, unmarried, overweight, obesity, hypertension, triglycerides and smoking were all significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Conclusions: The prevalence of DM and IFG among minorities was lower than the overall national level both in men and women (9.7% in total, 10.6% in males, 8.8% in females), and also lower than among the Han ethnicity (9.26%) which predominates in China today. PMID:25584422

  6. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adults aged 50 years and older in Gwangju, Korea: the Dong-gu Study.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Rim; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Shin, Min-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. Recently, new evidence has revealed that vitamin D affects chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in an urban Korean population. This study included 8,976 participants (3,587 men and 5,389 women) aged 50 yr and older. Serum 25(OH)D level was measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] was 59.7% and 86.5% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased significantly with age in men, but not in women and it decreased from April to July, more prominently in men than in women. These results suggest that sun exposure, intake of vitamin D supplement, and regular physical activities is recommended in an urban Koreans, especially in women. PMID:24431921

  7. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Gwangju, Korea: the Dong-gu Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hye-Rim; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. Recently, new evidence has revealed that vitamin D affects chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in an urban Korean population. This study included 8,976 participants (3,587 men and 5,389 women) aged 50 yr and older. Serum 25(OH)D level was measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] was 59.7% and 86.5% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased significantly with age in men, but not in women and it decreased from April to July, more prominently in men than in women. These results suggest that sun exposure, intake of vitamin D supplement, and regular physical activities is recommended in an urban Koreans, especially in women. PMID:24431921

  8. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (?18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n?=?271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] ?=?1.08 [0.98?1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98?1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n?=?153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  9. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with…

  10. Effects of number and gender of offspring on quality of life among older adults: evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlations between number and gender of offspring and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults. Setting We used data from the 2006–2012 data sets of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants There were 10?242, 8680, 7907 and 7480 participants in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Interventions Number and gender of offspring. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured participants’ QoL and HRQoL using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korea Labour Institute and which is similar to the EQ-VAS, a European measure. Results We estimated the HRQoL and QoL of individuals with offspring. Estimates for the HRQoL and QoL of parents with no offspring were ?7.762 and ?9.384, respectively (both p<0.0001) versus parents with two offspring. For parents with five or more offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were ?1.529 and 0.885, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.017, respectively) compared with parents with two offspring. For fathers with no offspring compared with fathers with two offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were ?6.143 and ?7.492, respectively (both p<0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that number of offspring is associated with both HRQoL and QoL. Those with no offspring showed the lowest HRQoL and QoL. Although having five or more children had positive associations with QoL, it had negative associations with HRQoL. Public health services for those with poor quality of life should provide effective support programmes and services based on these findings. PMID:26063566

  11. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in Korean adolescents and adults using fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test.

    PubMed

    Han, S B; Kang, K R; Huh, D H; Lee, H C; Kim, J H; Kang, J H; Ma, S H

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in 2012-2013 to determine the seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in adolescents and adults living in Korea, where varicella vaccination has been recommended universally at age 12-15 months since 2005. Residual serum samples were collected from 1196 healthy adults and adolescents aged ?10 years between November 2012 and March 2013. The fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to determine the seroprevalence of VZV. The seroprevalences of VZV were compared between six age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ?60 years. The seroprevalence of VZV in the entire study cohort was 99·1% according to the FAMA test and 93·1% as determined by ELISA. The seroprevalences of the six age groups were as follows: 96·0%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, by the FAMA test, and 83·3%, 93·0%, 93·0%, 97·5%, 94·5%, and 97·5%, respectively, by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P < 0·001); moreover, the seroprevalence in subjects aged 10-19 years was significantly lower than in other age groups (P < 0·001), as measured by both the FAMA test and ELISA. Thus, strategies to increase protective immunity against VZV in teenagers are necessary. PMID:25234331

  12. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  13. A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k?=?23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k?=?16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k?=?8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  14. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  15. Prevalence, perpetrators, and characteristics of witnessing parental violence and adult dating Violence in Latina, East Asian, South Asian, and Middle Eastern women.

    PubMed

    Maker, Azmaira H; deRoon-Cassini, Terri A

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes and compares the prevalence, perpetrators, and characteristics of witnessing parental violence during childhood and experiencing adult relationship violence in 251 college-educated South Asian/Middle Eastern (n = 93), East Asian (n = 72), and Latina (n = 86) women residing in the United States. Results showed that more than 50% of each ethnic group witnessed parental and adult relationship violence. For all three groups, adult psychological violence was more prevalent than physical violence, which, in turn, was more prevalent than injury violence. Significant differences were found for paternal and maternal psychological, physical, and injury violence witnessed within ethnic groups. High prevalence rates and significant differences emerged for psychological, physical, and injury violence experienced as a victim and enacted as a perpetrator within ethnic groups. The implications of college-educated, higher socioeconomic status (SES) women of color being at risk for witnessing and experiencing family violence are discussed. PMID:18064974

  16. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Methods: Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Results: Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75.5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77.3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76.7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Conclusions: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand. PMID:25146935

  17. Prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders causing unfitness for military service among young adult men: An epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Ekinci, ?afak; Kocak, Necmettin; Aydin, Ibrahim; Koca, Kenan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Ersen, Omer; Kilic, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiologic study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders causing unfitness to Turkish Military Service. Methods: This study has been carried out by examining the medical reports of 1.777.500 people who applied to the Turkish Armed Forces for military service between 2009-2011. Age and geographic region of individuals were compiled and organized in groups. Musculoskeletal disorders were classified mainly as fracture sequel, spine disorders, absence of phalanges, extremity amputation, aggressive or multiple benign tumors of bones and pes planus. Results: Unfitness to military service caused by musculoskeletal disorders was found to be 6.53‰ in 2009, 7.10‰ in 2010 and 7.28‰ in 2011. The prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases has increased by years. The prevalence of fracture squeal by years was found to be 2.83‰ in 2009, 3.10‰ in 2010 and 3.03‰ in 2011. In this study, the most common musculoskeletal disorders were: limitation of joint mobility (0.89‰), degeneration of joint surface (0.69‰), lower and upper limb discrepancies (0.60‰), posterior fusion surgery (0.59‰) and the absence of the phalanges in hand (0.51‰). We found an increase in both the prevalence of posterior fusion surgery and the absence of the phalanges in study group. Conclusion: These results has given information about severe musculoskeletal disorders among young adult male in Turkey. New studies including young adult female will add important information to our knowledge about musculuskelatal problems in our community. PMID:25878612

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome among Chinese Adults in a Rural Community of Shanghai in China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Yu, Peimin; Wu, Dongyan; Hong, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Aims The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in an adult Chinese population living in a rural community. We also aimed to determine the predictive diagnostic value of the 4-item screening questionnaire for RLS in this population. Methods This study was designed as a 2-phase survey. In phase 1 we performed a face-to-face interview of eligible individuals living in a rural community in Shanghai using a 4-item screening questionnaire. In phase 2, sleep specialists performed a phone interview of the individuals who screened positive to diagnosis RLS. Results Forty-one RLS cases were confirmed among 2941 eligible individuals 18 years of age or older in the study community. The prevalence of RLS was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-1.9%), with a significantly higher rate observed in females (1.9% [95%CI =1.3-2.7%]) than that in males (0.9% [95%CI =0.5-1.5%], p=0.019). The prevalence rate increased significantly with age, from 0.2% (95% CI =0.08-0.6%) in those 18-39 years old to 4.1% (95% CI =2.1-7.9%) in those ?70 years old (p<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gastritis, anemia and hypertension were risk factors for RLS. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4-item screening questionnaire used in this study were 63.4% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion RLS prevalence is relatively low among Chinese adults living in rural Shanghai. Furthermore, population-based studies with a larger sample size and a longitudinal follow-up may help to determine the risk factors of RLS and potential interventions for RLS. PMID:25803876

  19. Association between Self-Reported Global Sleep Status and Prevalence of Hypertension in Chinese Adults: Data from the Kailuan Community

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Ding, Rongjing; Tang, Qin; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Assessment of sleep only by sleep duration is not sufficient. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the potential association of self-reported global sleep status, which contained both qualitative and quantitative aspects, with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 5461 subjects (4076 of them were male) were enrolled in the current study and were divided into two groups with the age of 45 years as the cut-off value. Sleep status of all subjects was assessed using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ?140/90 mmHg in the current study. Results: After adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics, the results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep status, which was defined as the additive measurement of sleep duration and sleep quality, was associated with hypertension prevalence in males of both age groups (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.15, p < 0.05; OR = 1.12, 95% CI, 1.08–1.15, p < 0.05) and in females aged ?45years (OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.02–1.18, p < 0.05). As one component of PSQI, short sleep duration was associated with hypertension prevalence only in Chinese male subjects, but this association disappeared after the further adjustment of the other components of PSQI that measured the qualitative aspect of sleep. Conclusion: Association between sleep status and hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults varied by age and sex. Sleep should be measured qualitatively and quantitatively when investigating its association with hypertension. PMID:25575370

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescents and young adults in Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominik Racho?; Leszek Pokrywka; Krystyna Suchecka-Racho?

    2006-01-01

    Summary.\\u000a Objective  To estimate the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescent and young adults in Poland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  3 687 men (48.2%) and women (51.8%), median age 23 (interquartile range 19–20 years) participated in a survey via a ”pop-up\\u000a window-which appeared on two popular Polish internet portals during one month. Questions concerning their body image, exercise\\u000a behaviour, education level and use

  1. Correlation between the prevalence of herniation pits and the alpha angle of the hip: computed tomography evaluation in healthy Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herniation pits (HPs) commonly develop over time at the femoral head–neck junction in adults, but their cause is still under debate. The purpose of study reported here was to investigate the correlation between the prevalence of HPs of the femoral neck and the alpha angle of the hips of healthy Chinese adults, by using computed tomography (CT). Methods Six hundred and seventy Chinese adults (representing 1145 hips) who had no known diseases affecting the proximal femur and had no symptoms of femoroacetabular impingement underwent a 64-slice CT scan for medical purposes that included the hip in the scan range. Their CT data were analyzed for the prevalence of HPs in the femoral necks and for hip alpha angles. Results The overall prevalence of femoral-neck HPs was 12.5% (143 of 1145 hips). The prevalence in the left versus right femoral necks was 12.1% (69 of 569 hips) versus 12.8% (74 of 576 hips). There was no statistically significant difference between the two sides (?2 = 0.136; p = 0.712). The prevalence of HPs was greater in men than in women (15.9% vs 7.7%; p < 0.01) and greater in adults older than 30 years than in adults younger than 30 years (?2= 14.547; p < 0.01). The alpha angles were greater in the 143 proximal femora with HPs than in the 1002 without pits (39.95° ± 6.01° vs 37.97° ± 5.14°; p < 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of HPs of the femoral neck in healthy adults was 12.5%, and the prevalence was greater in men than in women. There is a correlation between the prevalence of HPs and the contour of the femoral head–neck junction. The formation of pits may be attributed to the combination of degeneration and morphologic variances in the femoral head–neck junction. PMID:24106774

  2. Relationship between the intensity of physical activity and depressive symptoms among Korean adults: analysis of Korea Health Panel data

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Lee, Sang Ah; Choi, Hyo Jin; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Min Hee; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the intensity of physical activity and symptoms of depression. [Subjects and Methods] We analyzed the influence of different intensities of physical activity on depressive symptoms using the data of 12,350 adults over the age of 20?years who had completed the 2011 Korea Health Panel. After controlling for confounding variables, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between the intensity of physical activity and depressive symptoms. [Results] The results showed that vigorous physical activity had a significant effect on depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms was 1.487 (95% CI 1.137, 1.943) OR higher among people who did not participate in regular activity than it was among those who took part in regular intense physical activity. [Conclusion] It appears that physical activity affects depressive symptoms, a result which is in agreement with previous studies. However, we also showed a difference in influence according to activity intensity. Thus, the intensity of physical activity should be considered when developing physical activity programs for improving depressive symptoms. PMID:25995596

  3. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3.8–35.3% and 9.8% respectively. TSP was significantly associated with: concurrent musculoskeletal pain; growth and physical; lifestyle and social; backpack; postural; psychological; and environmental factors. Risk factors identified for TSP in adolescents included age (being older) and poorer mental health. Conclusion TSP is a common condition in the general population. While there is some evidence for biopsychosocial associations it is limited and further prospectively designed research is required to inform prevention and management strategies. PMID:19563667

  4. Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Shay, Christina M.; Ning, Hongyan; Allen, Norrina B.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals define a new concept, “cardiovascular (CV) health”; however, current prevalence estimates of the status of CV health in U.S. adults according to age, sex and race/ethnicity have not been published. Methods and Results We included 14,515 adults (?20 years) from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants were stratified by young (20-39 years), middle (40-64 years), and older ages (65+ years). CV health behaviors (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking) and CV health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking) were defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Less than 1% of adults exhibited ideal CV health for all 7 metrics. For CV health behaviors, non-smoking was most prevalent (range:60.2-90.4%) while ideal Healthy Diet Score was least prevalent (range:0.2-2.6%) across groups. Prevalence of ideal BMI (range:36.5-45.3%) and ideal physical activity levels (range:50.2-58.8%) were higher in young adults compared to middle or older ages. Ideal total cholesterol (range:23.7-36.2%), blood pressure (range:11.9-16.3%) and fasting blood glucose (range:31.2-42.9%) were lower in older adults compared with young and middle age adults.Prevalence of poor CV health factors was lowest in young age but higher at middle and older ages. Prevalence estimates by age and sex were consistent across race/ethnic groups. Conclusions These prevalence estimates of CV health represent a starting point from which effectiveness of efforts to promote CV health and prevent CV disease can be monitored and compared in U.S. adult populations. PMID:22095826

  5. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  6. The Prevalence and Severity of Physical Mobility Limitations in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Shaun; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The population of older adults with intellectual disabilities is growing, creating new challenges for individuals, families and service providers. Although there has been increased research into the ageing process for adults with intellectual disabilities, there is little focused research investigating physical mobility. Materials and…

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.6–2.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.8–2.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.73–2.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36–2.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12–1.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

  8. Accounting for Korean-Speaking Students. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago City Colleges, IL. Truman Coll. UF-Truman Coll., Chicago, IL.

    Intended for limited-English speaking, Korean-speaking adult students, this manual contains a 12-chapter course in accounting. It is written in Korean with key terms/concepts and limited amounts of other information (such as proper names and occupation-related vocabulary) in English. Examples are provided in English only. Information provided in…

  9. Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xianjia; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Su, Ta-Chen; Wang, Jinghua

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. Method The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35–74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. Result The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35–44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05). The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold). Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action. PMID:25544990

  10. Standardized Prevalence Ratios for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Adult Japanese Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ohsawa, Masaki; Kato, Karen; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Tanno, Kozo; Fujishima, Yosuke; Konda, Ryuichiro; Okayama, Akira; Abe, Koichi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Kawamura, Kazuko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujioka, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    Background Many studies have estimated the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody among hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, the prevalence of HCV core antigen—which indicates the presence of chronic HCV infection—is not known. Methods Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen among HD patients (n = 1214) were calculated on the basis of data from the general population (n = 22 472) living in the same area. Results The prevalences of anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen were 12.5% and 7.8%, respectively, in male hemodialysis patients, and 8.5% and 4.1% in female hemodialysis patients. The SPRs (95% confidence interval) for anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen were 8.39 (6.72–10.1) and 12.9 (9.66–16.1), respectively, in males, and 5.42 (3.67–7.17) and 8.77 (4.72–12.8) in females. Conclusions The prevalences of chronic HCV infection among male and female HD patients were 13-fold and 9-fold, respectively, those of the population-based controls. Further studies should therefore be conducted to determine the extent of chronic HCV infection among HD patients in other populations and to determine whether chronic HCV infection contributes to increased mortality in HD patients. PMID:19881229

  11. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively). Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160) and severe VI (VA ?20/200) had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63) group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye. Conclusions The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  12. Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction

    E-print Network

    Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2009-09-01

    A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 hours) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed...

  13. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease and Characterization of its Extent and Severity in an Adult Population – An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Kalpak Prafulla; Pitale, Unnati Mahesh; Shetty, Sujan; HC, Shashikiran; Satpute, Pranali Shirish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in an adult population and to further characterize the extent and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 700 randomly selected individuals reporting to out patient department of dental college and hospital. Demographic details and lifestyle characteristics of the all the subjects were recorded and a thorough oral examination was performed. In order to evaluate the periodontal status of subjects, five indices (CAL, PD, OHI, PI and GI) were assessed and subjects having at least one site with clinical attachment loss (CAL) ?3mm were diagnosed as having periodontitis. Further, to analyse the extent of disease, subjects having periodontitis were divided into two groups as having at least one site with CAL ?5mm and having at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Results: Results showed that there was a high prevalence of periodontitis amongst population with almost 72% of the individuals having at least one site with CAL ?3mm. A trend was noted in which periodontal status worsened as the age increased. Analysing the extent and severity of disease amongst the population, results revealed that almost 41% of population had at least one site with CAL ?5mm whereas almost 21% of individuals had at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Conclusion: Present study provides with evidence of high prevalence of periodontal disease amongst the population. Importantly, this study also unveils the lack of awareness for dental health amidst the population. PMID:25654019

  14. Prevalence and Perceived Preventability of Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events – A Population-Based Survey of 7099 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and often preventable among inpatients, but self-reported ADEs have not been investigated in a representative sample of the general public. The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-month prevalence of self-reported ADEs among the adult general public, and the perceived preventability of 2 ADE categories: adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a postal survey was sent in October 2010 to a random sample of 13 931 Swedish residents aged ?18 years. Self-reported ADEs experienced during the past month included ADRs, STEs, drug dependence, drug intoxications and morbidity due to drug-related untreated indication. ADEs could be associated with prescription, non-prescription or herbal drugs. The respondents estimated whether ADRs and STEs could have been prevented. ADE prevalences in age groups (18–44, 45–64, or ?65 years) were compared. Results Of 7099 respondents (response rate 51.0%), ADEs were reported by 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 18.5–20.3%), and the prevalence did not differ by age group (p>0.05). The prevalences of self-reported ADRs, STEs, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indications were 7.8% (7.2–8.4%), 7.6% (7.0–8.2%) and 8.1% (7.5–8.7%), respectively. The prevalence of self-reported drug dependence was 2.2% (1.9–2.6%), and drug intoxications 0.2% (0.1–0.3%). The respondents considered 19.2% (14.8–23.6%) of ADRs and STEs preventable. Although reported drugs varied between ADE categories, most ADEs were attributable to commonly dispensed drugs. Drugs reported for all and preventable events were similar. Conclusions One-fifth of the adult general public across age groups reported ADEs during the past month, indicating a need for prevention strategies beyond hospitalised patients. For this, the underlying causes of ADEs should increasingly be investigated. The high burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from widely used drugs across care settings supports redesigning a safer healthcare system to adequately tackle the problem. PMID:24023828

  15. Hate Crime Victimization Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual AdultsPrevalence, Psychological Correlates, and Methodological Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY M. HEREK; J. ROY GILLIS; JEANINE C. COGAN; ERIC K. GLUNT

    1997-01-01

    Although violence based on sexual orientation is now widely recognized as a serious problem in the United States, social science data concerning the prevalence and consequences of such crimes are limited. In the present study, questionnaire data about victimization experiences were collected from 147 lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (74 females, 73 males) in the Sacramento, CA area. In addition,

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with different gastrointestinal parasites in Tanta City district.

    PubMed

    Sabah, Ahmed Ali; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb; Saleh, Naglaa Mostafa Kamel

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with different gastrointestinal symptoms. Two hundred and six patients were collected from outpatient clinic of medical department from March to June 2014. The age was ranged between 15 years old up to 60 years old. 76 males with mean age (33.2 ± 13.5) and 130 females with mean age (32.8 ± 14.9). All patients were submitted to full clinical examination and stool examination was performed to detect Helicobacter pylori antigen and other intestinal parasites. After getting a full history, the patient was asked specifically for history of taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, presence of heart burn, epigastric pain, flatulence, nausea or vomiting passing black stool hematemesis and presence of other diseases. The results showed that 69.4% of the patients were positive for Helicobacter pylori antigen (143/206). The prevalence among males and females was the same (69.7%-69.2%). The prevalence among different age groups was not significant but; some-how high among age group of 15 up to 25 years old (70%). 72 patients out of 140 were associated with Co-infection with Entamaeba histolytica mainly or Giardia lamblia (51.4%). Epigastric pain and heart burn were representing about 90% of symptoms in patients with positive Helicobacter pylori antigen. Consequently, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is high in and around Tanta City in the Nile Delta (about 70%). PMID:26012224

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Pica among Adults with Intellectual Disability in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Melody; Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Increased knowledge of complex behaviors such as pica is needed to improve the support and services in the community for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Though the prevalence of pica has been documented extensively in institutionalized settings, few studies have explored its etiology. The aim of this study is to explore the…

  18. Prevalence and Recognition of Depressive Symptoms Among Homebound Older Adults with Urinary Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Engberg; Susan Sereika; Elizabeth Weber; Richard Engberg; B. Joan McDowell; Charles F. Reynolds

    2001-01-01

    Within a group of homebound elders with urinary incontinence, the objectives of this study were to (1) examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, (2) examine the extent to which depression had previously been recognized by health care providers, (3) describe the type and intensity of antidepressant treatment prescribed for subjects, and (4) identify the demographic and functional characteristics associated with

  19. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basant K Puri; Iqbal Singh

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willeke H. van Zelst; Edwin de Beurs; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Richard van Dyck

    2003-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has scarcely been researched in the elderly. There is no population-based information on prevalence and risk factors in older persons. Patients with PTSD are often not recognized or incorrectly diagnosed. As the disorder has great implications for the quality of life, a correct diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Increased knowledge on vulnerability factors for PTSD

  1. Prevalence and treatment of pain in adults admitted to Italian hospitals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Visentin; Elisabetta Zanolin; Leonardo Trentin; Samantha Sartori; Roberto de Marco

    2005-01-01

    Background: Very few studies have been conducted on the presence and control of pain in Italian hospitals.Aims: The present study estimates pain prevalence and therapy in Italian hospitalised patients.Methods: In the autumn of 2000, a survey was taken on 4523 inpatients throughout Italy. All eligible patients were given a questionnaire with two Numerical Rating Scales (NRS) concerning their pain intensity

  2. Evidence for population level declines in adult HIV prevalence in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Cheluget; G Baltazar; P Orege; M Ibrahim; L H Marum; J Stover

    2006-01-01

    The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in Kenya has been tracked through annual sentinel surveillance in antenatal clinics since 1990. The system started with 13 sites and now has over 35. Behaviours have been measured through national Demographic and Health Surveys in 1993, 1998, and 2003. The surveillance data indicate that prevalence has declined substantially starting in 1998 in five of the original

  3. Metabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Prevalence in Young Adults at 3 Land-Grant Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Dent, Amanda; Carey, Gale B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study examines metabolic syndrome (MetS) among college students at 3 geographically distinct US campuses. Participants: Undergraduates ("N" = 360; 68% women), 18 to 24 years of age, were recruited at each public university in January and February 2011. MetS prevalence was evaluated in 83% ("n" = 299)…

  4. Prevalence and correlates of adult overweight in the Muslim world: analysis of 46 countries.

    PubMed

    Kahan, D

    2015-04-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index???25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations?>50% Muslim; N?=?46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide environments that are conducive to negative energy balance. PMID:25755091

  5. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women: Similarities and Differences from Other Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects defects in insulin secretion in response to the metabolic demands of pregnancy. While GDM is increasingly common worldwide due in large part to the obesity epidemic, its frequency is relatively low in Korean women. In this report, the prevalence and risk factors for GDM, perinatal outcomes, and postpartum course are compared in non-Korean and Korean women. While Koreans and non-Koreans with GDM share pathophysiology and complications, there may be differences in the role of obesity and thus the effectiveness of interventions targeting obesity in GDM women. Further investigations of the effectiveness of weight loss interventions and pharmacotherapy specifically among Korean women are needed. Dietary and other lifestyle data from Korean populations could inform prevention and treatment strategies in other countries which suffer from significantly higher prevalences of GDM. PMID:24627822

  6. Content Analysis of Diet Advertisements: A Cross-National Comparison of Korean and U.S. Women's Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minjeong Kim; Sharron J. Lennon

    2006-01-01

    Content analysis of diet advertisements was performed to examine how diet advertisements portray the Western ideal of feminine beauty and promote dieting in Korean women's magazines in comparison with U.S. women's magazines. Results showed that the Western cultural ideal of feminine beauty and dieting were prevalent in Korean women's magazines. Diet advertisements in Korean magazines appear to promote more passive

  7. Prevalence of binge eating disorder, obesity, and depression in a biracial cohort of young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delia E. Smith; Marsha D. Marcus; Cora E. Lewis; Marian Fitzgibbon; Pamela Schreiner

    1998-01-01

    This article examined the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED), obesity, and depressive symptomatology in a biracial,\\u000a population-based cohort of men and women participating in a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk factor development.\\u000a The Revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns was used to establish BED status among the 3,948 (55% women, 48% Black)\\u000a participants (age 28–40 years). Body mass

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for developing oral allergy syndrome in adult patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Ivi?evi?, Nada; Roje, Željka; Kljaji?, Zlatko; Boji?, Lovro; Kardum, Goran; Omero, Lada; Ra?i?, Goran

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and the possible risk factors for its development. This cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care offices in the Split-Dalmatia County during the period from March 1 to September 30, 2012. Data sources were medical history with confirmation of SAR (positive skin-prick test to seasonal inhalant allergens: grass, tree and weed pollens), anthropometric patient data (age, sex, weight and height), and a questionnaire in which patients evaluated their nasal and ocular symptoms, comorbidities and lifestyle. The ?2-test, Pearson ?2-test, Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used on statistical analysis. The prevalence of OAS was 45.7%. The risk factors for OAS development were diabetes (p < 0.001), severity of nasal symptoms (p < 0.05) and severity of ocular symptoms (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the prevalence of OAS in the Split-Dalmatia County is very high. The risks factors for OAS in patients with SAR are diabetes and severity of nasal and ocular symptoms. PMID:26058239

  9. Obesity prevalence in Norwegian adults assessed by body mass index, waist circumference and fat mass percentage.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, I G H; Kolle, E; Hansen, B H; Anderssen, S A; Torstveit, M K

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity presents serious public health challenges worldwide and is most commonly estimated by the categorization of body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was (i) to describe the sensitivity of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and fat mass percentage in the classification of overweight and obesity and (ii) to describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity using different measurement methods in a national sample of Norwegians. A total of 904 Norwegians (20-85 years) were randomly enrolled. Body weight, height, WC and skinfold thickness were measured; BMI and fat mass percentage (FP(skf) ) were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity varied from 77.0% to 86.9% and from 60.6% to 82.3%, respectively. Area under the curve was 0.837 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.801-0.872) for the ability of BMI to predict obesity by FP(skf) and 0.811 (95% CI: 0.770-0.852) for WC. A total of 12.7% (male: 12.1%, female: 13.4%) were obese based on BMI classifications, 29.1% (male: 36.5%, female: 20.0%) of the sample were obese based on FP(skf) and 24.3% of men and 37.8% of women were abdominally obese by WC. The agreement between selected measuring methods was fair to good, although the variation in obesity prevalence rates between the different assessments methods varied markedly. PMID:26153357

  10. Low prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nele Wellinghausen; Eberhard Straube; Heike Freidank; Heike von Baum; Reinhard Marre; Andreas Essig

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Chlamydia pneumoniae was determined in a prospective study of 546 adult patients with CAP included in the German CAP Competence Network (CAPNETZ) project. Three different PCR protocols for detection of C. pneumoniae in respiratory specimens were compared by a multicenter, inter-laboratory comparison involving three laboratories. A case was defined as a patient

  11. Prevalence of Physical Inactivity and Recommended Physical Activity in Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Adults with mental retardation (76 men, 74 women) reported their leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Men and women in community settings were similarly inactive, with 47% to 51% participating in little to no LTPA. Forty-two% to 47% reported participating in moderate to vigorous LTPA five or more times per week. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. Prevalence and Impact of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Southern Chinese Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Z. M. Wat; J. Y. Y. Leung; S. Tam; A. W. C. Kung

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Vitamin D is a vital element for bone health but the problem of vitamin D deficiency is underestimated in Hong Kong. Methods: Serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were evaluated in 382 community dwelling Chinese adults >50 years for their relation with bone mineral density (BMD) and risks of osteoporotic fractures and falls. Results: The mean age of

  13. Older adults and smoking: Characteristics, nicotine dependence and prevalence of DSM-IV 12-month disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Sachs-Ericsson; Nicole Collins; Brad Schmidt; Mike Zvolensky

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There are few studies investigating the characteristics of older smokers. Research on younger adults has determined that (1) the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) diagnosis of nicotine dependence (ND) excludes a sizable portion of the smoking population, and (2) younger smokers have high rates of comorbid DSM disorders. In this study, we sought to replicate these results in an

  14. The Associations between Serum Zinc Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin-A; Song, Sang-Wook; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Ha-Na

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing rapidly worldwide. The functions of zinc may have a potential association with metabolic syndrome, but such associations have not been investigated extensively. Therefore, we examined the relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors among South Korean adults ?20 years of age. The analysis used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted from January to December 2010. A total of 1,926 participants were analyzed in this study. Serum zinc levels in men were negatively associated with elevated fasting glucose (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.93) and positively associated with elevated triglycerides (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01–2.13). A difference in serum zinc levels was detected in women, depending on the number of metabolic syndrome components (p?=?0.002). Furthermore, serum zinc levels showed a decreasing trend with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components in women with metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that serum zinc levels might be associated with metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors. Further gender-specific studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dietary or supplemental zinc intake on metabolic syndrome. PMID:25153887

  15. Prevalence and Prognosis of Unrecognized Myocardial Infarction Determined by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schelbert, Erik B.; Cao, Jie J.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Kellman, Peter; Aletras, Anthony H.; Dyke, Christopher K.; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    Context Unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is prognostically important but electrocardiography (ECG), the main epidemiology tool for detection, is insensitive to MI. Objective Determine prevalence and mortality risk for unrecognized MI (UMI) detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) or ECG. Design ICELAND MI is a cohort substudy of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (enrollment January 2004–January 2007) using ECG or CMR to detect UMI. Setting Community dwelling participants in Iceland over age 67. Participants 936 participants (ages 67–93 years) including 670 who were randomly selected and 266 with diabetes. Main Outcome Measures MI prevalence and mortality through September 1, 2011. Results reported with 95% confidence limits and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Results Of 936 participants, 91 had recognized MI (RMI; 9.7% CI 8–12%), and 157 had UMI by CMR (17%; CI 14–19%) which was more prevalent than the 46 UMI by ECG (5%; CI 4–6%, p<0.001). Diabetic participants had more UMI by CMR than UMI by ECG (n=72; 21%; CI 17–26% vs. n=15; 4%; CI 2–7%, p<0.001). UMI by CMR was associated with atherosclerosis risk factors, coronary calcium, coronary revascularization, and peripheral vascular disease. Over a median of 6.4 years, 33% (CI 23–43%) of individuals with RMI died (30 of 91) and 28% (CI 21–35%) with UMI died (44 of 157), both higher rates than the 17% (CI 15–20%) with no MI that died (119 of 688). UMI by CMR improved risk stratification for mortality over RMI (NRI: 0.34; CI 0.16–0.53). Adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, and RMI, UMI by CMR remained associated with mortality (HR 1.45 CI 1.02–2.06, absolute risk increase (ARI) 8%) and significantly improved risk stratification for mortality, NRI 0.16 (CI 0.01–0.31)) but UMI by ECG did not (HR 0.88, CI 0.45–1.73 ARI ?2%; NRI: ?0.05; CI ?0.17–0.05). Compared to those with RMI, participants with UMI by CMR used cardiac medications such as statins less often (36%; CI, 28–43% or 56/157 vs.73%; CI 63–82% or 66/91; p<0.001). Conclusions In a community-based cohort, the prevalence of UMI by CMR was higher than the prevalence of recognized MI or UMI by ECG, and was associated with increased mortality risk. PMID:22948699

  16. Prevalence of Spirometrically-defined Restrictive Ventilatory Defect in Korea: The Fourth-2, 3, and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Hwang, Yong Il; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Ki Uk; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Yoon, Ho Il; Sheen, Sueng Su; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Heung Bum; Lim, Sung Chul; Jung, Sung Soo; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Yuna; Chun, Chaemin; Yoo, Kwang Ha

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect and to determine the risk factors in subjects with spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect. We used the population-based, fourth-2, 3 (2008, 2009) and fifth (2010-2012) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to analyze 15,073 subjects, aged ?40 yr who underwent spirometry. Chest radiographs were also analyzed to identify restrictive lung disease. Spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect (FEV1/FVC?70% and FVC<80% of mean predicted value) was detected in 11.3% (n= 1,709) of subjects aged ?40 yr. The prevalence increased to 12.3% on using the lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria. Approximately 99.4% of subjects were classified as mild restrictive. Among these, 11.3% had inactive tuberculosis (TB) lesion, 2.2% cardiac disease, 2.0% previous operation scar or radiation injury and/or mediastinal disease, and 7.4% other pulmonary disease suggestive of restrictive lung diseases on chest radiograph. Evidence of previous TB history was independently associated with restrictive ventilatory defect (odds ratios [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.18) after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, area for residence and body mass index. The prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect among the nationwide population in Korea was 11.3% with fixed ratio criterion and 12.3% with LLN criterion. Most cases were of the mild restrictive category and previous TB history is the independent risk factor for restrictive ventilatory defect. PMID:26028924

  17. Case-Control Study of the Effectiveness of the 2010-2011 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for Prevention of Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Virus Infection in the Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Suk; Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu bin; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Park, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Soo; Kim, Woo Joo

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in a South Korean population. A retrospective case-control study was conducted among patients who visited selected hospitals from September 2010 to May 2011. A total of 483 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients were included in the analysis as case subjects. For each case patient, two types of control patients were chosen at a ratio of 1:1:1, and 966 control subjects were selected. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was defined as 100 × (1 ? odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus nonvaccinated persons). The VE of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine was 49.5% to 45.8% for both influenza A and B viruses and 50.8% to 47.2% for influenza A virus, according to the control type. The age-specific adjusted VE was 50.8% to 46.5% among subjects aged 19 to 49 years and 58.7% to 63.3% among those aged 50 to 64 years, according to the control type. Statistically significant VE was not found among those aged ?65 years or against influenza B virus. The 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine was effective for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, especially for influenza A virus, in a South Korean population. Evidence of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in older adults or against influenza B virus was not found. PMID:23576674

  18. Survey of the prevalence of immunization non-compliance due to needle fears in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Taddio, Anna; Ipp, Moshe; Thivakaran, Suganthan; Jamal, Ali; Parikh, Chaitya; Smart, Sarah; Sovran, Julia; Stephens, Derek; Katz, Joel

    2012-07-01

    Needle fears are a documented barrier to immunization in children and adults. There is a paucity of data, however, regarding the prevalence of needle fears and their impact on immunization compliance. In this cross-sectional survey, a convenience sample of parents (n=883) and children (n=1024) attending a public museum in Toronto, Canada answered questions about needle fears and non-compliance with immunization due to needle fear. Altogether, 24% of parents and 63% of children reported a fear of needles. Needle fear was the primary reason for immunization non-compliance for 7% and 8% of parents and children, respectively. Interventions aimed at improving education about, and access to, analgesic interventions during immunization injections performed in childhood are recommended in order to prevent the development of needle fears and vaccine non-compliance. PMID:22617633

  19. Prevalence of unsuspected thyroid nodules in adults on contrast enhanced 16- and 64-MDCT of the chest

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sameer; Johnson, Pamela T; Horton, Karen M; Lai, Hong; Zaheer, Atif; Tsai, Saline; Fishman, Elliot K

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of unsuspected thyroid nodules on contrast enhanced 16- and 64-modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) of the chest, in a population of adult outpatients imaged for indications other than thyroid disease. METHODS: This retrospective study involved review of intravascular contrast-enhanced MDCT scans of the chest from 3077 consecutive adult outpatients, to identify unsuspected thyroid nodules. Exclusion criteria included history of thyroid cancer, known thyroid nodules or thyroid disease and risk factors for thyroid cancer, as evidenced by their medical records. One of 9 radiologists recorded number of nodules, location and bidirectional measurement of largest nodule, as well as amount of thyroid visualized on the chest computed tomography (CT). Presence of nodule was correlated with age, gender, race and percentage of thyroid imaged. RESULTS: A total of 2510 (2510/3077 or 81.6%) study subjects were included in the data analysis; among them, one or more nodules were identified in 629 subjects (629/2510 or 25.1%), with 242 (242/629 or 38.5%) having multiple nodules. Patients with nodule(s) were significantly older than those without (64 ± 13 years vs 58 ± 14 years, P < 0.0001), and female gender was associated with presence of nodule(s) (373/1222 or 30.5% vs 256/1288 or 19.9%, P < 0.0001). Women were also more likely having multiple nodules (167/373 or 44.8%) compared to men (75/256 or 29.3%, P < 0.0001). The majority of nodules (427/629 or 67.9%) were less than 1 cm. CONCLUSION: This retrospective review revealed a prevalence of 25.1% for unsuspected thyroid nodules on contrast-enhanced chest CT. PMID:22900132

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Problematic Internet Experiences and Computer-Using Time: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study in Korean School Children

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence. Methods A two-year, prospective school survey was performed with 1,173 children aged 13 at baseline. Data collected included demographic factors, bullying experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, psychopathology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and school performance. These factors were investigated in relation to problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time at age 15. Results The prevalence of online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, academic-purpose computer overuse, and game-purpose computer overuse was 31.6%, 19.2%, 8.5%, and 21.8%, respectively, at age 15. Having older siblings, more weekly pocket money, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and passive coping strategy were associated with reported online sexual harassment. Male gender, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were associated with reported cyber-bullying victimisation. Female gender was associated with academic-purpose computer overuse, while male gender, lower academic level, increased height, and having older siblings were associated with game-purpose computer-overuse. Conclusion Different environmental and psychological factors predicted different aspects of problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time. This knowledge is important for framing public health interventions to educate adolescents about, and prevent, internet-derived problems. PMID:24605120

  1. Prevalence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among cocaine abusers seeking treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Rudnick Levin; Suzette M Evans; Herbert D Kleber

    1998-01-01

    In this study, 281 cocaine abusers seeking treatment were assessed for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Structured assessments included the SCID for DSM-IV, a SCID-like module for ADHD, and a pattern of drug use questionnaire. The sample consisted of 82% men, 67% African-Americans, 19% Hispanics, and 14% Caucasians identified at several treatment sites. Average age was 33.7±.4 years. Twelve percent

  2. Prevalence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders: associated factors in a population sample of young adults in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Molina, Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez; Spessato, Bárbara; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo; Silva, Ricardo; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos

    2014-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate factors associated with the presence of comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders in young adults aged 18 to 24 years, from Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study with a probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders in the sample (n = 1,561) was of 26.8% of which 9.7% had comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The prevalence of comorbidities on mood and anxiety disorders is almost three times higher among women than men (p < 0.001). Lower education levels, socioeconomic status (p < 0.001) and a history of divorced parents (p < 0.050) was associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. The main conclusion is that social factors are highly associated with comorbidities between mood and anxiety disorders. Prevention strategies on mental health should focus particularly on women in vulnerable social conditions. PMID:25493994

  3. Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan

    PubMed Central

    An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. Methods: 1,551 adults ? 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathered as the control group who have not exposed to any earthquake. The numbers of subjects who were first identified with diabetes or had normal FBG but with diabetic history were added for the calculation of diabetes prevalence. Statistic-analysis was applied on the baseline data, and incidences of IFG as well as diabetes among all groups. Results: Statistic comparisons indicate there is no significant difference on average fasting glucose levels between the control group and the exposure group. However, the prevalence of IFG and diabetes among the exposure group displays significant variance with the control group. The prevalence of diabetes among exposure groups is significantly higher than the control group. Women are more likely to have diabetes after experiencing earthquake stresses compared to men. The earthquake stress was linked to higher diabetes incidence as an independent factor. Conclusions: The earthquake stress has long-term impacts on diabetes incidence as an independent risk factor. Emerging and long-term managements regarding the care of IFG and diabetes in populations exposed to earthquake stress should be concerned. PMID:25550966

  4. Prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in Latin America, India and China: cross-cultural study

    PubMed Central

    Prina, A. Matthew; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Brayne, Carol; Prince, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Anxiety is a common mental disorder among older people who live in the Western world, yet little is known about its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Aims We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in low- and middle-income countries with diverse cultures. Method Cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 or over (n = 15 021) in 11 catchment sites in 7 countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru) were carried out as part of the 10/66 collaboration. Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT) diagnostic algorithm. Results The age- and gender-standardised prevalence of anxiety varied greatly across sites, ranging from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0–0.3) in rural China to 9.6% (95% CI 6.2–13.1) in urban Peru. Urban centres had higher estimates of anxiety than their rural counterparts with adjusted (age, gender and site) odds ratios of 2.9 (95% CI 1.7–5.3). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and comorbid physical illnesses were all associated with a GMS/AGECAT diagnosis of anxiety, and so was disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II). Conclusions Anxiety is common in Latin America. Estimates from this region are similar to the ones from high-income European countries found in the literature. As demographic change will occur more rapidly in these countries, further research exploring the mental health of older people in developing areas is vital, with the inclusion of other specific anxiety disorders, along with evidence for strategies for supporting those with these disorders. PMID:22016438

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome in adults over 35 years in Shiraz, southern Iran: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Khademolhosseini, Farnaz; Mehrabani, Davood; Nejabat, Marzieh; Beheshti, Mahmood; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Mirahmadizadeh, Alireza; Salehi, Moosa; Zare, Najaf; Saberi-Firoozi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and describe the associated factors including demographic, life style and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz city, southern Iran. METHODS: From April to September 2004, 1978 subjects aged > 35 years old completed a validated and reliable questionnaire on IBS. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of IBS was 10.9%, higher in females, in 35-44 years old age group and among subjects eating fast food (14.1%) but was lower in those taking more fruits and vegetables (10.5%). The occurrence of anxiety, nightmare and restlessness was also significantly higher in subjects with IBS. It had an association with psychological distress and recurrent headaches but not with drinking tea/coffee, smoking or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: In our area, IBS was correlated with gender, age, psychological distress, recurrent headaches and consumption of fast foods that necessitate health planning programs by health policy makers. PMID:22091232

  6. Prevalence of Root Dilaceration in Adult Patients Referred to Shiraz Dental School (2005-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Nabavizadeh, MR; Sedigh Shamsi, M; Moazami, F; Abbaszadegan, A

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Dilaceration is defined as a sudden change in the axial inclination of root or between the crown and the root of a tooth. There is no previous study evaluating its prevalence in south of Iran. Purpose: This study evaluates the prevalence of root dilaceration on the basis of its location in dental arch in a sample of dental patients referring to Shiraz dental school, Iran. Materials and Method: This retrospective study was performed using full mouth periapical radiographs of 250 patients who were referred to Shiraz dental school. Buccal and lingual dilaceration was determined by its known” bull’s eye” appearance in the radiographs or if the deviation was in the mesial or distal directions; the angle of 90 degree or greater between the deviation and the axis of root was the inclusion criteria. Results: Root dilaceration was detected in 0.3% of teeth and 7.2% of patients. It was distributed equally between the maxilla and mandible. Mandibular second molar was the most frequent dilacerated tooth (1.6%) followed by maxillary first molar (1.3%) and mandibular first molar (0.6%). The alveolar nerve was the most common anatomic structure near dilacerated teeth. Conclusion: According to this study, root dilaceration is an uncommon developmental anomaly which occurs mostly in the posterior teeth. PMID:24724139

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Korean porcine sapeloviruses.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyu-Yeol; Kim, Deok-Song; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Kwon, Hyoung-Jun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Ryu, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine sapeloviruses (PSVs) in Korea, a total of 100 diarrhea fecal samples from pigs were analyzed by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays with primer pairs specific for the VP1 gene. Overall, 34 % of the diarrhea samples tested positive for PSV, and a high proportion of infections occurred along with a variety of other enteric viruses and bacteria. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 genes revealed pronounced genetic diversities between PSVs from Korean and elsewhere. Our results indicate that PSV infections are very common in Korean pigs with diarrhea. The infecting strains are genetically diverse. PMID:24232913

  8. The Prevalence of Problem Gambling Among U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    A random telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2,274 U.S. residents aged 14–21. The prevalence of problem gambling, as measured by the SOGS-RA, was 2.1%. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the respondents had gambled in the past year, and 11% had gambled more often than twice per week. Males had much higher gambling involvement than females, and gambling involvement increased among older respondents. Blacks were less likely than average to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to do so frequently. Low SES respondents were less likely to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to be problem gamblers. Life transitions that are associated with assuming adult roles (employment, living independently of parents, non-student status) are also associated with greater gambling involvement. The rates of problem and pathological gambling were lower than those in an adult survey conducted earlier, when measured with the same questionnaire. PMID:18097737

  9. Gender Dysphoria – Prevalence and Co-Morbidities in an Irish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Ciaran; O’Donovan, Claire; Callaghan, Grainne; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; O’Shea, Donal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed “gender dysphoria” in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy (HT) between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment during the study period. Results: The prevalence of GD in the Irish population was 1:10,154 male-to-female (MTF) and 1:27,668 female-to-male (FTM), similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were MTF and 59 were FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort, respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6?years (MTF) and 32.2?years (FTM). 22 of the patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on HT, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%). Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health, and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals is essential. PMID:24982651

  10. Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences Among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates From a National Probability Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Herek

    2008-01-01

    Using survey responses from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this paper reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Such experiences are conceptualized in terms of enacted stigma (criminal victimization, harassment, and discrimination based on sexual orientation) and felt stigma (perceptions that sexual minorities

  11. A General Practice-Based Prevalence Study of Epilepsy among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and of Its Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Behaviour Disturbance and Carer Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, T.; Weston, N.; Baxter, H.; Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the elevated occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is well recognized, the nature of seizures and their association with psychopathology and carer strain are less clearly understood. The aims were to determine the prevalence and features of epilepsy in a community-based population of adults with…

  12. Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.

    2009-01-01

    Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or…

  13. High Prevalence of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors, Impaired Spermatogenesis, and Leydig Cell Failure in Adolescent and Adult Males with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NIKE M. M. L. STIKKELBROECK; BARTO J. OTTEN; ARIFA PASIC; GERRIT J. JAGER

    In male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, testic- ular tumors, or so-called adrenal rest tumors, have been de- scribed, but their presence in well controlled patients is thought to be rare. In this study, the prevalence of testicular tumors in 17 adolescent and adult male patients with congen- ital adrenal hyperplasia (age, 16 - 40 yr) was investigated. In 16

  14. Higher Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls Belonging to Different Indian Tribes with Varied Socio-Sexual Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. ?-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813

  15. Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O’Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

  16. Older adults in prime-time television dramas in Taiwan: prevalence, portrayal, and communication interaction.

    PubMed

    Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

    2009-12-01

    A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 h) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed that older characters, regardless of sex, appeared less frequently and in less prominent roles than other adult characters, but not in comparison to adolescents and children. The older characters who did appear, however, were predominantly portrayed as cognitively sound and physically healthy. The thematic analysis provided a different picture, showing that older characters talked about age explicitly, strategically linking it to death and despondence, to influence younger characters. Communication behavior themes identified included supporting, superiority, and controlling for older characters, and reverence/respect for younger characters. Findings are compared to those from similar studies of U.S. media and discussed from a Cultivation Theory perspective in terms of their reinforcement of Chinese age stereotypes and the traditional values of filial piety and age hierarchy in the context of globalization and culture change. PMID:19757005

  17. Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa †

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E.; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J.; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E.; Kowal, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. PMID:25361046

  18. The prevalence of anatomical variations that can cause inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block in Koreans: a study using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Joo, J; Kim, J; Lee, J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the anatomical abnormalities that can induce inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block. The anatomy of the lumbo-sacral area was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. In 2462 of the 2669 patients imaged, the dural sac terminal was located between the upper half of the 1st sacral vertebra and the lower half of the 2nd sacral vertebra. In 22 cases (0.8%), the dural sac terminal and the spinal canal were located at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra, and these were cases of simple anatomical variations. As regards pathologic conditions, there was one case of sacral meningocoele and 46 cases of sacral perineural cyst. In 21 cases (0.8%) out of the 46 perineural cyst cases, the cyst could be found at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra level. Inadvertent dural puncture may happen when performing caudal block in patients with such abnormal anatomy. PMID:19922508

  19. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution determined by the cyclic-catcher melting temperature analysis in Korean medical checkup population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Jee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Paik, Soon-Young

    2013-10-01

    Although cytology screening has reduced the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer significantly, its usefulness is limited to samples from the site of the lesion, resulting in its low sensitivity and unsuitability for use in medical checkups. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection using genotype distribution and to analyze the correlation of the HPV DNA test results with cytological results. We also evaluated the benefits of quantitative information obtained from cyclic-catcher melting temperature analysis (CMTA) in screening for cervical cancer. We performed cyclic-CMTA using Anyplex™ II HPV28 Detection in combination with cervical cytology for 2,181 subjects. The following HPV positivity types were detected using cyclic-CMTA and HPV positivity was found to increase together with the severity of the cytology results: (1) For 419 HPV positive specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 18.1% of normal specimens, 78.3% of ASCUS, and all of LSIL and HSIL; (2) high-risk HPV DNAs were detected in 63.3% of normal (N=547), 65.9% of ASCUS (N=41), 76.9% of LSIL (N=13), and 88.9% of HSIL (N=9) among total detected HPV DNA regardless multiple detection; (3) multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 4.8% of normal specimens (N=2,146), 52.2% of ASCUS (N=23), 57.1% of LSIL (N=7), and 40.0% of HSIL (N=5). In addition, a high level of viral DNA was observed using cyclic-CMTA in all specimens beyond the LSIL stage according to cytology, while only 6% of specimens with normal cytology showed a correlation with viral quantitation by cyclic-CMTA. The combination of HPV genotyping with a quantitative assay and cytology will allow for a more accurate diagnosis of cervical cancer. PMID:24037659

  20. Antibody screening tests variably overestimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected adults in Ghana.

    PubMed

    King, S; Adjei-Asante, K; Appiah, L; Adinku, D; Beloukas, A; Atkins, M; Sarfo, S F; Chadwick, D; Phillips, R O; Geretti, A M

    2015-05-01

    HIV coinfection with HCV has been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa, and the reliability of available seroprevalence estimates remains uncertain. The study aim was to determine HCV RNA prevalence in HIV-infected subjects receiving care in Kumasi, Ghana, and relate the findings to HCV antibody detection. From a population of 1520 HIV-infected adults, all HBsAg-positive subjects (n = 236) and a random subset of HBsAg-negative subject (n = 172) were screened for HCV RNA using pooled plasma; positive samples were genotyped by core and NS5B sequencing. HCV antibodies were detected by three commercial screening assays and confirmed by the line immunoassay. HCV RNA was detected in 4/408 subjects (1.0%, 95% confidence interval 0.0-1.9%), comprising 3/236 (1.3%; 0.0-2.8%) HBsAg-positive and 1/172 (0.6%; 0.0-1.8%) HBsAg-negative subjects. HCV RNA-positive subjects showed reactivity in all three antibody screening assays. Among HCV RNA-negative subjects, 5/67 (7.5%), 5/67 (7.5%) and 19/67 (28.4%) showed antibody reactivity by each screening assay, respectively, including two (3.0%) with reactivity by all three assays. Only one sample (1.5%) had confirmed antibody reactivity by line immunoassay indicating past HCV infection. HCV-positive subjects (three males, two females) were aged 30-46 years, by questionnaire-based interview reported surgical procedures and blood transfusion as risk factors for infection. HCV genotypes were 2 (subtypes 2j, 2l, 2k/unassigned) and 1 (subtype unassigned). Without further testing, HCV antibody screening assays variably overestimated HCV prevalence among HIV-infected subjects in Ghana. These findings inform the interpretation of previous seroprevalence estimates based upon screening assays alone. PMID:25394987

  1. Association of Leisure-Time Physical Activity to Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in Relation to Smoking among Adult Nevadans

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Masaru; Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L.; Chino, Michelle; Alpert, Patricia T.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cigarette smoking and physical activity have significant impacts on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity. Meanwhile, it is of interest to understand whether physical activity protects against CVD for smokers in a similar manner as it does for non-smokers. The present study examined how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with the prevalence of CVD in relation to smoking status among adult Nevadans, using data from the 2010 Nevada Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Of the 3,913 survey respondents, 8.5% self-reported that they had ever been diagnosed with CVD. People with a history of CVD were significantly less likely to engage in LTPA than those with no history of CVD (p < 0.05). After adjusting for common sociodemographic variables, it was revealed that people with CVD were twice more likely to not engage in LTPA than their counterparts independent of smoking status. Without taking LTPA into account, the odds of having CVD for current and former smokers was 1.87–2.25 times higher than the odds for non-smokers. Interestingly, however, if LTPA was accounted for, there was no significant difference in the odds of having CVD between current and non-smokers. These results indicate that LTPA is inversely associated with the prevalence of CVD independent of smoking status, and that regular physical activity may protect against CVD for smokers as well as for non-smokers. Physical activity, along with smoking cessation, should be promoted to better prevent and control CVD among smokers. PMID:26010914

  2. Prevalence and correlates of complicated grief in adults who have undergone a coronary artery bypass graft

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Shear, M. Katherine; Gesi, Camilla; Kahler, Julie; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Mazumdar, Sati; He, Fanyin; Rollman, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Complicated Grief (CG) is a recently described mental health condition that follows bereavement. CG is often comorbid with depression and may also be associated with poor health outcomes. However, CG has not been studied in depressed medically ill populations. This study examined the prevalence, correlates, and impact of CG in depressed post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients. Methods A 5-item CG screen was administered to 302 depressed post-CABG patients participating in a comparative effectiveness intervention trial at 7 Pittsburgh-area hospitals from March 2004 to September 2007. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered collaborative care intervention for depression or their primary care physicians’ usual care. Measures examined depression, physical and mental health-related quality of life, and physical functioning over 8 months. Results Compared to CG screen-negative patients, CG screen-positive patients were younger, more likely to: be female, non-White, have lost a partner or child, and to have used tobacco or antidepressants. At baseline, they had significantly higher depression and lower mental health scores. At 8 months, screen-positives had poorer physical functioning and marginally higher depression scores. Limitations The study lacked a definitive measure of CG. Moreover, the CG-positive group was relatively small, reducing the power to detect differences between groups or control for the possible influence of other variables on identified results. Conclusions CG in depressed post-CABG patients is associated with negative health and mental health outcomes. These results underscore the importance of identifying and treating CG in depressed medically ill populations. PMID:22209126

  3. Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Hoa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. Results A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. Conclusion The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health. PMID:24380060

  4. Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s?1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s?1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ? 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ? 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165

  5. A review of population-based prevalence studies of physical activity in adults in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%), with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%). For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%), for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance. PMID:22251660

  6. Prevalence of the Equol-Producer Phenotype and Its Relationship with Dietary Isoflavone and Serum Lipids in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Qin, Liqiang; Liu, Aiping; Uchiyama, Shigeto; Ueno, Tomomi; Li, Xuetuo; Wang, Peiyu

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes have beneficial effects on a range of health outcomes. We investigated the prevalence of equol producers and the relationship of equol phenotype with habitual isoflavone consumption and serum lipid concentrations in 200 Chinese adults in Beijing. Methods After the baseline survey and dietary records, 200 healthy adults in Beijing were challenged with a soy-isoflavone supplement for 3 days; 24-hour urine samples were collected before and after the challenge. Isoflavones and their metabolites in urine were measured to determine equol phenotype. Serum lipids, uric acid, and other biochemical markers were also measured. Results Only 26.8% of the participants excreted equol when on a regular diet, as compared with 60.4% after the challenge. After the challenge, urinary isoflavonoid excretion increased in all participants, while equol excretion increased only in equol producers. Isoflavone intake was correlated with urinary isoflavone (range r = 0.49–0.58, P < 0.01). As compared with nonproducers, equol producers were less likely to consume cereals (P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids and isoflavone intake. Serum lipids were not significantly affected by equol phenotype. Conclusions Urinary equol excretion was detected in about 25% of participants under their usual dietary conditions. Their potential to produce equol was increased after the challenge. Urinary isoflavone levels may serve as a useful biomarker for isoflavone intake in populations. We observed an association between equol phenotype and cereal intake. Our findings also suggest that dietary isoflavone intake has no significant effect on serum lipids in healthy participants, regardless of equol phenotype. PMID:20671375

  7. Urine-based testing for Chlamydia trachomatis among young adults in a population-based survey in Croatia: Feasibility and prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the feasibility of collecting urine samples for testing on genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a population-based survey, and prevalence of this infection among young people aged 18-25 in Croatia. In Croatia, as in the other countries of Eastern Europe, there is a lack of data on prevalence of C trachomatis in the general population, including young adults. Methods We sampled participants using a nationally representative, multi-stage stratified probability sample of young men and women. Detection of C trachomatis DNA in urine samples was performed by using a real-time PCR assay COBAS® TaqMan® CT Test, v2.0. Results Overall, 1005 young adults participated in the behavioural part of the survey, and 27.9% men and 37.5% women who were sexually experienced agreed to provide urine samples for testing on C trachomatis. Using multivariate analysis, women were significantly more likely to provide urine samples than men (aOR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14-2.06) as were those who reported no condom use at last intercourse (aOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.44-2.62). Prevalence of C trachomatis infection among those who were sexually experienced was 7.3% in men and 5.3% in women. Conclusions Population-based surveys that use probabilistic sampling are a feasible way to obtain population estimates of C trachomatis prevalence among young adults in Croatia, but it is challenging to obtain an adequate response rate. The prevalence of C trachomatis among young adults in Croatia found in this study was higher than that found in other European countries with similar survey response rates. PMID:21489313

  8. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

  9. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  10. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID)

    PubMed Central

    Mithal, Ambrish; Majhi, Debashish; Shunmugavelu, M.; Talwarkar, Pradeep G.; Vasnawala, Hardik; Raza, Ammar S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs), as per American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065) of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632) patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and total cholesterol in the study were 60.48% (N = 3236), 57.54% (N = 3107), and 92.24% (N = 4981) respectively. Among those with overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), target LDL-C level of < 70 mg/dL was achieved in 22.87% (70 out of 306) patients. The LDL-C levels of 49.03% (N = 1768) patients who were on statin therapy were within target levels, while 53.46% (N = 634) patients who were on statin and their combinations with other LLDs had their LDL-C levels within the stipulated range. Conclusions: This study has reveled that dyslipidemia control in Indian T2DM patients is very poor with almost half of them not reaching their LDL -C goal. Dyslipidemia being one of the main risk factors for CVD in T2DM patients there is a need to treat dyslipidemia aggressively to reduce risk of future CV events. PMID:25285280

  11. Prevalence of adults with brain arteriovenous malformations: a community based study in Scotland using capture-recapture analysis 

    E-print Network

    Al-Shahi, Rustam; Fang, J S Y; Lewis, S C; Warlow, Charles P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a population based study of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) prevalence. Methods: Multiple, overlapping sources of case ascertainment were used to establish the point prevalence of brain AVMs ...

  12. The Trend of Body Donation for Education Based on Korean Social and Religious Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or…

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Korean Conflict and World War II Combat Veterans Seeking Outpatient Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward W. McCranie; Leon A. Hyer

    2000-01-01

    Given important differences in the Korean conflict and World War II, samples of treatment-seeking combat veterans from these wars (30 Korea, 83 World War II) were compared on the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With age, ethnicity, and combat exposure taken into account, the Korean veterans reported significantly more severe symptoms on both interview and self-report PTSD

  14. Prevalence of Mental Disorders, Psychological Distress, and Mental Health Services Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Sullivan, J. Greer; Mays, Vickie M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent estimates of mental health morbidity among adults reporting same-gender sexual partners suggest that lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals may experience excess risk for some mental disorders as compared with heterosexual individuals. However, sexual orientation has not been measured directly. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 2,917 midlife adults, the authors examined possible sexual orientation-related differences in morbidity, distress, and mental health services use. Results indicate that gay–bisexual men evidenced higher prevalence of depression, panic attacks, and psychological distress than heterosexual men. Lesbian–bisexual women showed greater prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder than heterosexual women. Services use was more frequent among those of minority sexual orientation. Findings support the existence of sexual orientation differences in patterns of morbidity and treatment use. PMID:12602425

  15. The prevalence of pain and pain interference in a general population of older adults: cross-sectional findings from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Thomas; George Peat; Lindsey Harris; Ross Wilkie; Peter R Croft

    2004-01-01

    Although pain is experienced at all ages, there is uncertainty about the pattern of its occurrence in older people. We have investigated the prevalence of three aspects of self-reported pain—occurrence of any recent pain, number and location of pain sites, and interference with daily life—to determine their association with age in older people. A cross-sectional postal survey of all adults

  16. PREVALENCE AND THE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BINGE DRINKING, ALCOHOL ABUSE, AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF CHINESE ADULTS IN HONG KONG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN H. KIM; SING LEE; J ULIE CHOW; J OSEPH LAU; ADLEY TSANG; JACQUELINE CHOI; SIAN M. GRIFFITHS

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. Method: An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3%

  17. Intergenerational Relationships among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    1997-01-01

    Using data gathered from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans and their elderly parents (N=628), this research finds that such financial and structural factors as an adult child's income and his/her parent's need for assistance significantly influenced the frequency of an adult child's support for his/her parents. (Author/MKA)

  18. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in US Hispanic/Latino Adults: Results From the NHANES 2007–2010 and HCHS/SOL Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kuniholm, Mark H.; Jung, Molly; Everhart, James E.; Cotler, Scott; Heiss, Gerardo; McQuillan, Geraldine; Kim, Ryung S.; Strickler, Howard D.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Youngblood, Marston; Kaplan, Robert C.; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody has been reported in Mexican Americans, but its prevalence in other US Hispanic/Latino groups is unknown. We studied 2 populations of US Hispanic/Latino adults; 3210 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 and 11 964 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Age-standardized prevalence of HCV antibody was similar in NHANES 2007–2010 (1.5%) and HCHS/SOL (2.0%) but differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background in HCHS/SOL (eg, 11.6% in Puerto Rican men vs 0.4% in South American men). These findings suggest that the HCV epidemic among US Hispanics/Latinos is heterogeneous. PMID:24423693

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in US Hispanic/Latino adults: results from the NHANES 2007-2010 and HCHS/SOL studies.

    PubMed

    Kuniholm, Mark H; Jung, Molly; Everhart, James E; Cotler, Scott; Heiss, Gerardo; McQuillan, Geraldine; Kim, Ryung S; Strickler, Howard D; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Youngblood, Marston; Kaplan, Robert C; Ho, Gloria Y F

    2014-05-15

    Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody has been reported in Mexican Americans, but its prevalence in other US Hispanic/Latino groups is unknown. We studied 2 populations of US Hispanic/Latino adults; 3210 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 and 11 964 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Age-standardized prevalence of HCV antibody was similar in NHANES 2007-2010 (1.5%) and HCHS/SOL (2.0%) but differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background in HCHS/SOL (eg, 11.6% in Puerto Rican men vs 0.4% in South American men). These findings suggest that the HCV epidemic among US Hispanics/Latinos is heterogeneous. PMID:24423693

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for stroke in an adult population in a rural community in the Niger Delta, south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, Arthur C; Tobin-West, Charles; Babatunde, Seye

    2014-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing an epidemiologic transition with stroke contributing to the disease burden. However, community-based stroke prevalence studies are sparse. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stroke in a rural population in the Niger Delta region in south-south Nigeria and to describe known risk factors for stroke among them. A door-to-door stroke prevalence study was conducted in 2008 among randomly selected adults of 18 years or older in rural Kegbara-Dere community in Rivers State, south-south Nigeria. We administered a modified screening tool by the World Health Organization, a stroke-specific questionnaire, and conducted a physical/neurological examination (on persons screening positive) in 3 stages of assessments. The crude prevalence of stroke was 8.51/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.9-16.1) representing 9 of 1057 participants. The age-adjusted prevalence was 12.3/1000 using the US Population 2000. Men had higher unadjusted prevalence than women (12.9/1000 versus 5.1/1000) but were not at more risk (unadjusted relative risk = .99; 95% CI = .98-1.00). Stroke prevalence increased with age (Mantel-Haenszel ?(2) P = .00). Hypertension (blood pressure ?140/90 mm Hg) was present in all stroke cases and diabetes mellitus (fasting blood sugar >126 mg/dL) in 1 person, but none had hypercholesterolemia, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)), or a history of alcohol intake or smoking. Stroke prevalence was found to be high, commoner among men and the elderly population, and likely to be predisposed by hypertension, in rural south-south Nigeria. The need to conduct follow-up studies on the burden and outcomes of stroke among this study population is acknowledged. PMID:23721622

  1. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  2. Prevalence, risk factors, and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carried by adults over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S T; Nunes, S; Paulo, A C S; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Sá-Leão, R

    2015-03-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the community in Portugal is not completely understood. To evaluate S. aureus and MRSA carriage among the elderly, we conducted a large cross-sectional study between April 2010 and December 2012. A total of 3,361 adults over 60 years of age were screened for S. aureus nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal carriage. MRSA were characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Risk factors for MRSA carriage were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage among the elderly was 20.1 % and 1.8 %, respectively. The risk of being an MRSA carrier was higher among the elderly living in retirement homes [odds ratio (OR)?=?2.90, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.48-5.48] and those that had been hospitalized in the previous year (OR?=?2.64, 95 % CI: 1.47-4.58). Among the 62 MRSA isolates, 64.5 % were multidrug-resistant and none carried PVL. Most MRSA (82.3 %) were related to three hospital-associated (HA-MRSA) clones disseminated in Portugal: ST105-II (New York/Japan clone; 43.5 %), ST5-IVc (Pediatric clone; 19.4 %), and ST22-IVh (EMRSA-15 clone; 19.4 %). The New York/Japan and Pediatric clones were significantly associated with carriers living in retirement homes, while the EMRSA-15 clone was associated with carriers that had been hospitalized. We conclude that the elderly population in Portugal is essentially free of MRSA. Given the current European societal challenges for a healthy active aging, these results are of importance to healthcare professionals and public authorities to decide on strategies to promote health in this age group. PMID:25359581

  3. "You Don't Need to Be Mean. We're Friends, Right?": Young Korean-American Children's Conflicts and References to Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2014-01-01

    In the eyes of adults, conflicts between children are often treated as problematic social interactions that should be prevented. This study describes how young Korean-American children's conflict negotiation was a central part of their peer culture at a Korean heritage language school in the United States. Eleven young Korean-American…

  4. Prevalence trends in respiratory symptoms and asthma in relation to smoking - two cross-sectional studies ten years apart among adults in northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is considered to be the single most important preventable risk factor for respiratory symptoms. Estimating prevalence of respiratory symptoms is important since they most often precede a diagnosis of an obstructive airway disease, which places a major burden on the society. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence trends of respiratory symptoms and asthma among Swedish adults, in relation to smoking habits. A further aim was to estimate the proportion of respiratory symptom and asthma prevalence attributable to smoking. Methods Data from two large-scale cross-sectional surveys among adults performed in northern Sweden in 1996 and 2006 were analysed. Identical methods and the same questionnaire were used in both surveys. The association between smoking, respiratory symptoms and asthma was analysed with multiple logistic regression analyses. Changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma from 1996 to 2006 were expressed as odds ratios. Additionally, the population attributable risks of smoking were estimated. Results The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006. Longstanding cough decreased from 12.4 to 10.1%, sputum production from 19.0 to 15.0%, chronic productive cough from 7.3 to 6.2%, and recurrent wheeze from 13.4 to 12.0%. Any wheeze and asthmatic wheeze remained unchanged. This parallels to a decrease in smoking from 27.4 to 19.1%. In contrast, physician-diagnosed asthma increased from 9.4 to 11.6%. The patterns were similar after correction for confounders. All respiratory symptoms were highly associated with smoking, and the proportion of respiratory symptoms in the population attributed to smoking (PAR) ranged from 9.8 to 25.5%. In 2006, PAR of smoking was highest for recurrent wheeze (20.6%). Conclusions In conclusion, we found that respiratory symptoms, in particular symptoms common in bronchitis, decreased among adults in northern Sweden, parallel to a decrease in smoking from 1996 to 2006. In contrast, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma increased during the same time-period. Up to one fourth of the respiratory symptom prevalence in the population was attributable to smoking. PMID:24383710

  5. Prevalence of Hypertension Amongst Adult Patients Attending Out Patient Department of Urban Health Training Centre, Department of Community Medicine, Era’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Syed Esam; Prakash, Daya; Srivastava, J.P.; Zaidi, Z.H.; Bhardwaj, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is the most common disorder which is encountered in outdoor patients. The existing data suggests that there is an increase in the prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in India. The prevalence of hypertension will increase even further, unless broad and effective preventive measures are implemented. The main objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of hypertension amongst the adult outdoor patients of an urban health centre of Lucknow district. Materials and Methods: This observational, Out Patients Department based study involved a survey on 306 male and 1203 female respondents who were aged 18 years, who attended the Urban Health Training Centre of the Department of Community Medicine, Era’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, India. A structured, pretested schedule was used to collect the data with regards to the demographic characteristics and the blood pressure pattern. The Chi- square test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be 44.46%. The proportion of hypertension showed an increasing trend with age. The mean systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure patterns were found to be higher, with an increase in age. Conclusion: Hypertension was found to be highly prevalent among the outdoor patients of an urban health centre of Lucknow. An early detection of hypertension can be facilitated by periodically screening people regularly. PMID:23730639

  6. Recent HIV Testing Prevalence, Determinants and Disparities among U.S. Older Adult Respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Godette, Dionne C.; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Gaines, Tommi L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during healthcare visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50-64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among U.S. adults in the three categories of older adulthood (50-54 years, 55-59 years, 60-64 years) for which routine HIV testing is recommended. METHOD This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from U.S. older adult respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated prevalence (proportions) of HIV testing by age category and race/ethnicity. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling and need factors associated with recent HIV testing within and across age category, by race/ethnicity and controlling for covariates. RESULTS HIV testing prevalence was low (<5%), varied by race/ethnicity, and decreased with age. Within and across age categories, the odds of testing were highest among blacks (OR=3.47, 95% CI=2.82-4.25), and higher among Latinos (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.50-2.84) and the oldest (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.11-5.55) and youngest (OR=2.98, 95% CI=1.49-5.95) categories of American Indians/Alaska Natives than among whites. Those reporting a recent doctor visit (OR=2.32, 95% CI=1.92-2.74) or HIV risk behaviors (OR=3.50, 95% CI=2.67-4.59) had higher odds of HIV testing. CONCLUSION Regardless of risk, the oldest older adults, whites and older women may forego HIV testing. Doctor visits may facilitate HIV testing. Additional research is needed to understand why eligible older adults seen by providers may not be screened for HIV infection. PMID:24759729

  7. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in a rural community in South India: Results from the kidney disease screening (KIDS) project

    PubMed Central

    Anupama, Y. J.; Uma, G.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears to be increasing in India. A few studies have studied the prevalence of CKD in urban populations, but there is a paucity of such studies in the rural populations. This project was undertaken to study the prevalence of CKD among adults in a rural population near Shimoga, Karnataka and to study the risk factor profile. Door-to-door screening of 2091 people aged 18 and above was carried out. Demographic and anthropometric data were obtained, urine was analyzed for protein by dipstick and serum creatinine was measured in all participants. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) using the 4-variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected to the body surface area (CG-BSA). The total number of subjects studied was 2091. Mean age was 39.88 ± 15.87 years. 45.57% were males. The prevalence of proteinuria was 2.8%. CKD was seen in 131 (6.3%) subjects when GFR was estimated by MDRD equation. The prevalence of CKD was 16.54% by the CG-BSA method. There was a statistically significant relationship of CKD with gender, advancing age, abdominal obesity, smoking, presence of diabetes and hypertension. The prevalence of CKD is higher compared to the previous studies from rural India and is comparable to that in the studies from the urban Indian populations. The wide difference between the CKD prevalence between MDRD and CG-BSA equations suggests the need for a better measure of kidney function applicable to Indian population. PMID:25097333

  8. Prevalence of Complex Activity Limitations among Racial/Ethnic Groups and Hispanic Subgroups of Adults: United States, ....

    MedlinePLUS

    ... complex activity limitations differ by race/ethnicity and sex among adults? Among Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and ... complex activity limitations differ by Hispanic subgroup and sex among adults? Among Mexican (7.3%) and Central ...

  9. The population prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot osteoarthritis in community-dwelling older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Thomas, Martin J; Marshall, Michelle; Rathod, Trishna; Myers, Helen; Menz, Hylton B; Thomas, Elaine; Peat, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the population prevalence of symptomatic radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) affecting the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), 1st and 2nd cuneometatarsal joints (CMJs), navicular first cuneiform joint (NCJ) and talonavicular joint (TNJ) in community-dwelling older adults. Methods 9334 adults aged ?50?years registered with four general practices were mailed a health survey. Responders reporting foot pain within the last 12?months were invited to undergo weight-bearing dorso-plantar and lateral radiographs of both feet. OA at the 1st MTPJ, 1st and 2nd CMJs, NCJ and TNJ was graded using a validated atlas. Population prevalence estimates for symptomatic radiographic foot OA overall and for each joint were calculated using multiple imputation and weighted logistic regression modelling to account for missing data and non-response. Results 5109 health surveys were received (adjusted response 56%). Radiographs were obtained on 557 participants. Overall population prevalence of symptomatic radiographic OA was 16.7% (95% CI 15.3% to 18.0%), 1st MTPJ 7.8% (6.7% to 8.9%), 1st CMJ 3.9% (2.9% to 4.9%), 2nd CMJ 6.8% (5.7% to 7.8%), NCJ 5.2% (4.0% to 6.4%) and TNJ 5.8% (4.8% to 6.9%). With the exception of the 1st CMJ, prevalence was greater in females than males, increased with age and was higher in lower socioeconomic classes. Three-quarters of those with symptomatic radiographic OA reported disabling foot symptoms. Conclusions While cautious interpretation due to non-response is warranted, our study suggests that symptomatic radiographic foot OA affects one in six older adults and the majority report associated disability. Clinicians should consider OA as a possible cause of chronic foot pain in older people. PMID:24255544

  10. A pilot study to evaluate the effect of Taeumjowi-tang on obesity in Korean adults: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity, which is described as excessive or abnormal body fat, increases the risk of diet-related diseases. In Korea and around the world, the prevalence of obesity has grown annually from 1998 to 2008. This growth has continued despite various therapeutic efforts. The discovery of new and alternative treatments for obesity should be considered an important priority. Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001), a traditional Korean medicinal extract consisting of eight herbs, is a widely used herbal remedy for obesity in Korea. However, the efficacy and safety of TJ001 have not been fully investigated in a clinical trial. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate obesity-related parameters and to assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001. Methods Our study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial of Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001). For this study, we will recruit obese Korean patients of both sexes, ages 18 to 65 years, from four university hospitals. A total of 104 subjects will be recruited. The participants will receive either 7 g of TJ001 or a placebo three times daily for 12 weeks. The primary end point will be the rate of subjects who lose at least 5% of their baseline body weight. The secondary end points will be changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, lipid profiles, body fat composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose concentration, C-reactive protein and questionnaires related to the quality of life. The outcomes will be measured every 4 weeks. The study period will be 12 weeks and will include a total of five visits with each subject (at screening and at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks). Conclusions The results of our study will inform various estimates of TJ001 and will serve as the basis for a larger-scale trial. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001 as an alternative herbal remedy for obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87153759 PMID:22483238

  11. Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gyou; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label reading, analysis of covariance was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the association between adherence to dietary reference intake and nutrition label reading. Results Nutrition label reading was significantly high among women, youth, and those with high education and high household income. Nutrition label reading was associated with higher intake of calcium and vitamin C in men and the lower intake of calorie, carbohydrates and higher energy ratio of protein in women. Additionally, male nutrition label readers were associated with adherence to dietary reference intake of fiber (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.26) and calcium (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.54). In women, there were no significant differences in the adherence to the dietary reference intake in fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, and calcium according to the nutrition label reading. Conclusion In men, nutrition label reading was associated with healthier intake of several micronutrients, although this was not observed in women. Consideration for clearly reporting vulnerable micronutrients in nutrition labels is necessary. PMID:25120890

  12. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  13. Phonological awareness of English by Chinese and Korean bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyunjoo; Schmidt, Anna; Cheng, Tse-Hsuan

    2002-05-01

    This study examined non-native speakers phonological awareness of spoken English. Chinese speaking adults, Korean speaking adults, and English speaking adults were tested. The L2 speakers had been in the US for less than 6 months. Chinese and Korean allow no consonant clusters and have limited numbers of consonants allowable in syllable final position, whereas English allows a variety of clusters and various consonants in syllable final position. Subjects participated in eight phonological awareness tasks (4 replacement tasks and 4 deletion tasks) based on English phonology. In addition, digit span was measured. Preliminary analysis indicates that Chinese and Korean speaker errors appear to reflect L1 influences (such as orthography, phonotactic constraints, and phonology). All three groups of speakers showed more difficulty with manipulation of rime than onset, especially with postvocalic nasals. Results will be discussed in terms of syllable structure, L1 influence, and association with short term memory.

  14. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. RESULTS There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m2), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be increased for Korean elderly health body composition. PMID:24741404

  15. Time trend analysis of the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has rapidly increased in the Taiwanese population with the increasing prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and high-calorie dietary intake. This study aims to determine the annual trends of the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007. Methods A population-based study of all residents aged 20 years and over (12,191,076 in 2000 and 18,772,180 in 2007) enrolled in the National Health Insurance (NHI) program, the database of which was used to identify patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The annual prevalence and incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes were estimated using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes based on age, gender, insurance premium, and urbanization degree. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of risk factors, as well as to examine the trend in the annual prevalence or incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes from 2000 to 2007. Results The crude annual prevalence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes increased significantly from 5.79% in 2000 to 8.30% in 2007. The increase was highest in 2007, among men, individuals aged ? 80 years, and individuals residing in aging society areas [OR (95% CI): 1.416 (1.412–1.420), 1.033 (1.032–1.034), 31.810 (31.690–31.931), and 1.090 (1.085–1.094), respectively]. The crude incidence fluctuated throughout the study period, ranging from 7.72 per 1,000 in 2006 to 8.98 per 1,000 in 2000. The decrease was highest in 2006, among individuals with an insurance premium ? median value [0.933 (0.925–0.942) and 0.810 (0.805–0.815), respectively]. The greatest increase was among men, individuals aged 60 to 79 years, and individuals residing in aging society areas [1.150 (1.145–1.155), 15.452 (15.329–15.576), and 1.127 (1.113–1.142), respectively]. Conclusion This study demonstrated the substantial increase in annual prevalence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007. The incidence fluctuated between 2000 and 2007. PMID:23570503

  16. Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

  17. Trend in Obesity Prevalence in European Adult Cohort Populations during Follow-up since 1996 and Their Predictions to 2015

    PubMed Central

    von Ruesten, Anne; Steffen, Annika; Floegel, Anna; van der A, Daphne L.; Masala, Giovanna; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Palli, Domenico; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Boeing, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate trends in obesity prevalence in recent years and to predict the obesity prevalence in 2015 in European populations. Methods Data of 97 942 participants from seven cohorts involved in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study participating in the Diogenes project (named as “Diogenes cohort” in the following) with weight measurements at baseline and follow-up were used to predict future obesity prevalence with logistic linear and non-linear (leveling off) regression models. In addition, linear and leveling off models were fitted to the EPIC-Potsdam dataset with five weight measures during the observation period to find out which of these two models might provide the more realistic prediction. Results During a mean follow-up period of 6 years, the obesity prevalence in the Diogenes cohort increased from 13% to 17%. The linear prediction model predicted an overall obesity prevalence of about 30% in 2015, whereas the leveling off model predicted a prevalence of about 20%. In the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, the shape of obesity trend favors a leveling off model among men (R2?=?0.98), and a linear model among women (R2?=?0.99). Conclusion Our data show an increase in obesity prevalence since the 1990ies, and predictions by 2015 suggests a sizeable further increase in European populations. However, the estimates from the leveling off model were considerably lower. PMID:22102897

  18. [Prevalence of sensitisation to aeraoallergens and food allergens: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Haftenberger, M; Laußmann, D; Ellert, U; Kalcklösch, M; Langen, U; Schlaud, M; Schmitz, R; Thamm, M

    2013-05-01

    In view of the increasing prevalence of allergies, up-to-date data on the prevalence of allergic sensitisation are of major interest. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (2008-2011) blood samples from a population-based sample of 7,025 participants aged 18 to 79 years were analysed for specific IgE antibodies against 50 common single allergens and screened for common aeroallergens (SX1) and grass pollen (GX1). In all, 48.6?% of the participants were sensitised to at least one allergen. Overall, men were more frequently sensitised to at least one allergen than women were. Sensitisations to at least one allergen were more common among younger than older participants and among participants with a higher socio-economic status. In all, 33.6?% of the participants were sensitised to common aeroallergens, 25.5??% to food allergens and 22.6?% to wasp or bee venoms. Compared with the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), the prevalence of sensitisation to common aeroallergens increased from 29.8 to 33.6?%.This increase was statistically significant only in women. The results of DEGS1 still showed a high prevalence of allergic sensitisation. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703487

  19. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About CDC.gov . Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence Maps Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and territories ... 9% in Puerto Rico. + Prevalence* of Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ...

  20. Prevalence and overlap of childhood and adult physical, sexual, and emotional abuse: a descriptive analysis of results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Gretchen R; Lutfey, Karen E; Litman, Heather J; Link, Carol L; Hall, Susan A; McKinlay, John B

    2013-01-01

    Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender, assess variation in abuse by sociodemographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevalence of abuse ranges from 15% to 27%; women report more adulthood emotional abuse and lifetime sexual abuse than men; reports of abuse can vary by race/ethnicity and poverty status, particularly in women; there is overlap between types of abuse; and a history of childhood abuse is associated with a greater risk of abuse as an adult. PMID:23862305

  1. Prevalence and Overlap of Childhood and Adult Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse: A Descriptive Analysis of Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Gretchen R.; Lutfey, Karen E.; Litman, Heather J.; Link, Carol L.; Hall, Susan A.; McKinlay, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender; assess variation in abuse by socio-demographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevalence of abuse ranges from 15% to 27%; women report more adulthood emotional abuse and lifetime sexual abuse than men; reports of abuse can vary by race/ethnicity and poverty status, particularly in women; there is overlap between types of abuse; and a history of childhood abuse is associated with a greater risk of abuse as an adult. PMID:23862305

  2. School Bullying and Suicidal Risk in Korean Middle School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Shin Kim; Yun-Joo Koh; Bennett Leventhal

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective. Being a victim or a perpetra- tor of school bullying, the most common type of school violence, has been frequently associated with a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional, and social problems. In a Korean middle school community sample, this study specifically investigated the prevalence of suicidal ide- ations and behaviors in victims, perpetrators, and victim- perpetrators of school

  3. Breast and cervical cancer screening among Korean American elderly women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee-Soon Juon; You Jeoung Seo; Miyong T Kim

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of breast and cervical cancer screening tests among Korean American elderly women. This study examined the effects of individual socio-demographic background, acculturation level (e.g., proportion of life spent in the US, spoken English proficiency), health status and access to health care on uptake of mammography and Pap smear

  4. The Treated Prevalence of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System: Results from the Integration of Longitudinal Data on Shelter and Mental Health Services Utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis P Culhane; June M Averyt; Trevor R Hadley

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=28,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children had

  5. Estimates of current and future incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the U.S. adult population.

    PubMed

    Colilla, Susan; Crow, Ann; Petkun, William; Singer, Daniel E; Simon, Teresa; Liu, Xianchen

    2013-10-15

    Estimates and projections of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the United States have been highly inconsistent across published studies. Although it is generally acknowledged that AF incidence and prevalence are increasing due to growing numbers of older people in the U.S. population, estimates of the rate of expected growth have varied widely. Reasons for these variations include differences in study design, covered time period, birth cohort, and temporal effects, as well as improvements in AF diagnosis due to increased use of diagnostic tools and health care awareness. The objective of this study was to estimate and project the incidence and prevalence of diagnosed AF in the United States out to 2030. A large health insurance claims database for the years 2001 to 2008, representing a geographically diverse 5% of the U.S. population, was used in this study. The trend and growth rate in AF incidence and prevalence was projected by a dynamic age-period cohort simulation progression model that included all diagnosed AF cases in future prevalence projections regardless of follow-up treatment, as well as those cases expected to be chronic in nature. Results from the model showed that AF incidence will double, from 1.2 million cases in 2010 to 2.6 million cases in 2030. Given this increase in incidence, AF prevalence is projected to increase from 5.2 million in 2010 to 12.1 million cases in 2030. The effect of uncertainty in model parameters was explored in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Variability in future trends in AF incidence and recurrence rates has the greatest impact on the projected estimates of chronic AF prevalence. It can be concluded that both incidence and prevalence of AF are likely to rise from 2010 to 2030, but there exists a wide range of uncertainty around the magnitude of future trends. PMID:23831166

  6. Race\\/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Celentano; Frangiscos Sifakis; John Hylton; Lucia V. Torian; Vincent Guillin; Beryl A. Koblin

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection is disproportionately higher in both racial\\/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM)\\u000a and in men under the age of 25, where the leading exposure category is homosexual contact. Less is known, however, about patterns\\u000a of HIV prevalence in young racial\\/ethnic minority MSM. We analyzed data from the Young men’s Survey (YMS), an anonymous,

  7. ON FARM RISK: PREVALENCE OF ZOONOTIC GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN ADULT DAIRY COWS IN SEVEN EASTERN STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if adult dairy cattle can harbor zoonotic species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and thus serve as potential sources of water or food contamination. Fecal samples were collected from 541 adult dairy cows (>24 months of age), on two farms in each of...

  8. Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis A among adult drug users: the significance of incarceration and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Latimer, William W; Moleko, Anne-Gloria; Melnikov, Alexander; Mitchell, Mary; Severtson, S G; von Thomsen, Sarah; Graham, Camelia; Alama, Deanna; Floyd, Leah

    2007-10-10

    This report examines associations between hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection prevalence and a history of incarceration in jail or a correctional facility among a population of drug users in Baltimore stratified by African American and white racial/ethnic status. The study sample consisted of 509 non-injection and injection drug users recruited from inner-city neighborhoods of the Baltimore metropolitan region. The baseline prevalence of HAV infection was 36.9% (N=188). One-fourth (25.5%) of the sample reported no lifetime history of incarceration, 44.6% reported incarceration in a local jail in their lifetime, and 29.9% reported incarceration in a correctional facility in their lifetime. In the multivariate logistic analysis, HAV infection prevalence was higher for whites (44.3%) [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.3, 95% CI=1.5-3.5] when compared to African Americans (30.5%) adjusting for gender, age, and education. In the analysis stratified by race/ethnicity, as anticipated, jail incarceration and correctional facility incarceration were each independently associated with elevated HAV prevalence among white drug users. African American drug users with a high school diploma had significantly lower HAV infection prevalence when compared to African American drug users who did not graduate from high school. Heightened HAV prevalence among white drug users compared to African American drug users is noteworthy given the opposite association of HAV infection prevalence and these two racial/ethnic groups in the general population. Since millions of incarcerated drug users in the US return to society each year, the results suggest that incorporating systematic HAV screening, prevention, and treatment programs within correctional systems represents a vital yet underutilized strategy to reduce HAV transmission in society as a whole. PMID:17766016

  9. Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxias: A Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary ataxia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive ataxia combined with/without peripheral neuropathy, extrapyramidal symptoms, pyramidal symptoms, seizure, and multiple systematic involvements. More than 35 autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have been designated as spinocerebellar ataxia, and there are 55 recessive ataxias that have not been named systematically. Conducting genetic sequencing to confirm a diagnosis is difficult due to the large amount of subtypes with phenotypic overlap. The prevalence of hereditary ataxia can vary among countries, and estimations of prevalence and subtype frequencies are necessary for planning a diagnostic strategy in a specific population. This review covers the various hereditary ataxias reported in the Korean population with a focus on the prevalence and subtype frequencies as the clinical characteristics of the various subtypes.

  10. The Prevalence of Melasma and Its Association with Quality of Life among Adult Male Migrant Latino Workers

    PubMed Central

    Pichardo, Rita; Vallejos, Quirina; Feldman, Steven R.; Schulz, Mark R.; Verma, Amit; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common condition of Latina women that detracts from their quality of life. The prevalence and impact of melasma in Latino men is not well characterized. Purpose We assess the prevalence of melasma and its association with quality of life among Latino men from Mexico and Central America working in the U.S. Methods The prevalence of melasma was assessed in three studies of Latino men; by direct examination in a study of 25 Latino poultry workers, by direct examination in a study of 54 Latino farmworkers, and by examination of store-and-forward teledermatology images in a study of 300 Latino farmworkers. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed with a Spanish version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Results The prevalence of melasma was 36.0%, 7.4%, and 14.0% in the three studies. Prevalence of melasma was greatest among those aged 31 years and older, who were from Guatemala, and who spoke an indigenous language. Presence of melasma was associated with higher DLQI scores, indicating worse life quality, in the poultry worker population. Conclusions Melasma is a common condition in Latino men associated with poor quality of life in some affected individuals. Clinicians should be aware that melasma may be a concern for their male Latino patients. Research on the association of skin conditions with quality of life among minority men is needed. PMID:19126046

  11. Dietary patterns are associated with body mass index in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Ae; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-08-01

    Changes in dietary habits may be associated with the increased prevalence of obesity in South Korea. Therefore, we aimed to identify major dietary patterns and to evaluate the association between these patterns and body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) in a Korean population. Typical dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in a cross-sectional study of 1,118 subjects aged 30 to 70 years who underwent health screening examinations. Dietary patterns were derived from 39 predefined food groups using factor analysis. A body mass index >27.5 was used as an indicator of obesity. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between obesity and dietary patterns. Three dietary patterns (vegetable-seafood, meat-fat, and snack) were identified and seem to be closely associated with lifestyle factors, including physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the meat-fat dietary pattern was positively associated with obesity (odds ratio for high tertile vs low tertile intake=2.78 [95% confidence interval: 1.43 to 5.42]; P for trend=0.008), whereas the vegetable-seafood and snack dietary patterns showed no association with obesity. Results suggest that diets high in meat, oil, and sugar may be associated with obesity status in Korean adults. PMID:21802564

  12. Prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies and its association with the quality of root canal procedures and coronal restorations in an adult urban Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Archana, Durvasulu; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Gutmann, James L.; Savadamoorthi, Kamatchi Subramani; Kumar, Angambakkam Rajasekaran Pradeep; Narayanan, L. Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies (PR) from an urban adult Indian population and to investigate the quality of root canal procedures and coronal restorations and their association with prevalence of PR in root-filled teeth. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: A total of 1,340 subjects (18+ years of age) who reported for non-emergency dental care to 5 different dental care centers had their panoramic radiographs taken during the period from January to December 2013. The periradicular status of 30,098 teeth in these radiographs was evaluated using the Periapical Index Score (PAI). The assessment of the technical quality of the procedure was evaluated based on the criteria of root canal filling length and quality of coronal restoration. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed statistically by chi-squared test and odds ratio. Results: PR was found in 65% of subjects (n = 865) and 5.8% (n = 1,759) of the 30,098 teeth evaluated (4.30% untreated teeth and 1.53% were root-filled teeth). In all, 4.1% of the teeth (n = 1,234) had some filling material in the root canal(s) and the prevalence of PR in these root-filled teeth was 37.4%, while the remaining 62.6% of root canal-filled teeth showed no evidence of PR. PR occurred significantly more often in teeth where root canal filling was filled more than 2 mm short of radiographic apex or when root filling extruded through the apex. Conclusions: The prevalence of PR in teeth with untreated root canals in India is 4.30%, which is more than twice the weighted world average, while the prevalence of root-filled teeth (4.1%) is lower than the world average (9.6%). The prevalence of PR in root-filled teeth in India is comparable to that in other populations. Inadequate root canal treatment and poor quality of coronal restoration were associated with increased prevalence of PR. PMID:25657524

  13. Long-term exposure of adults to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased airway obstruction and higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Jammres, Y.; Delpierre, S.; Burnet, H. [Univ. de la Mediterranee, Marseilles (France); Delvolgo, M.J.; Humbert-Tena, C. [Hopital Nord et, Marseilles (France). Lab. des Explorations Fonctionnelles

    1998-11-01

    The authors studied the association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the severity of obstructive pulmonary disease and prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to {beta}2 agonists in two groups of adult patients who were of similar ages and who had similar smoking habits. The subjects lived in downtown districts or in the outer suburbs of Marseilles, the neighborhood that contained air samplers. The regions were similar with respect to sulfur dioxide levels, but levels of nitric oxides and particulate matter were higher in the downtown area than the suburbs. The authors assessed airway obstruction, as determined by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, mean forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of vital capacity, and an elevated value of central airway resistance. The authors tested the changes in these variables induced by inhalation of a {beta}2 agonist. Baseline lung function was altered more significantly in both male and female patients who lived in downtown Marseilles than in those who resided in the suburbs, and the differences persisted regardless of the season during which the study occurred. Prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity and symptoms of asthma were higher in the downtown than suburban male subjects. The results of this study suggest that an association exists between actual environmental exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory effects in sensitive adults represented by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.

  14. Adult Psychotic Symptoms, Their Associated Risk Factors and Changes in Prevalence in Men and Women Over a Decade in a Poor Rural District of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Ongeri, Linnet; Ogutu, Bernards; Sifuna, Peter; Kingora, James; Kiima, David; Ongecha, Michael; Omollo, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    There have been no repeat surveys of psychotic symptoms in Kenya or indeed subSaharan Africa. A mental health epidemiological survey was therefore conducted in a demographic surveillance site of a Kenyan household population in 2013 to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms would be similar to that found in an earlier sample drawn from the same sample frame in 2004, using the same overall methodology and instruments. This 2013 study found that the prevalence of one or more psychotic symptoms was 13.9% with one or more symptoms and 3.8% with two or more symptoms, while the 2004 study had found that the prevalence of single psychotic symptoms in rural Kenya was 8% of the adult population, but only 0.6% had two symptoms and none had three or more psychotic symptoms. This change was accounted for by a striking increase in psychotic symptoms in women (17.8% in 2013 compared with 6.9% in 2004, p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant change in men (10.6% in 2013 compared with 9.4% in 2004, p = 0.582). Potential reasons for this increase in rate of psychotic symptoms in women are explored. PMID:25996885

  15. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

  16. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria infections in post-weaned and adult cattle on three Maryland farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Fayer; J. M Trout; T. K Graczyk; E. J Lewis

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria, in healthy, asymptomatic, post-weaned and mature cattle was investigated on three Maryland farms. One farm, a dairy research facility, had 150 multiparous Holstein milking cows; 24 were examined and Cryptosporidium andersoni was detected in three (12.5%) but neither Giardia nor Eimeria was detected. The second farm, a commercial dairy, had 57 multiparous Holstein

  17. Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity in Taiwanese adults: Results of four national surveys, 2000–2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Wen Ku; Kenneth R. Fox; Jim McKenna; Tai-Lin Peng

    2006-01-01

    Objectives.Literature on the prevalence of physical activity in Asian countries is limited, despite evidence of increasing rates of sedentary-related disease such as obesity and diabetes. It is important to establish nationally representative data in countries such as Taiwan to set up levels and patterns of activity and to inform health policy.

  18. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including 'cooking, washing up'. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  19. The Relationship between Direct-Care Staff's Competence in Social Interaction and Behavioral Symptoms in Korean-American Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hae Sook

    2012-01-01

    communication with KA older adults with dementia in US nursingnursing assistant, ethnicity, ethnic minority older adults, Korean-American, social interaction, dementia-competent care, culturally-competent care, communication

  20. Smoking Trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: Exemplifying a Common Error in Age Parameterization

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001–2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Koreans and Korean Americans, with these patterns also differing between men and women. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use. PMID:22901135

  1. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies on alcohol consumption carried out in Sri Lanka are limited to single/few provinces in the island. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among a larger sample of adults in Sri Lanka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven of all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged ?18 years was selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling. Data of 4532 participants were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data analysis included chi-squared test, multiple logistic regression analysis and Spearman correlation using Stata/SE 10.0 (StataCorp LP., Texas, USA) software package. Results Males were 40%; mean age was 46.1 years (±15.1). The overall, urban and rural prevalence (95% CI) of current drinking was 23.7% (21.7 – 25.7), 29.5% (25.7 – 33.3) and 22.2% (19.8 – 24.7) respectively (p?=?0.001). Current (M: 48.1%, F: 1.2%, p?prevalence of drinking in males (58.9%) and females (2.2%) was in the 30 – 39 and <20 year age groups respectively. Lowest prevalence in men (24.6%) and women (0%) was in the >70 years age-group. Hazardous drinking was seen in 5.2% of men and 0.02% of women. Male sex, urban living and current smoking correlated with both current and hazardous drinking. Lower level of education, and age >70 years positively correlated with hazardous drinking. Conclusions Alcohol is predominantly a problem in Sri Lankan males. In males, both current and hazardous drinking positively correlated with urban living, white collar occupation, Burgher ethnicity and current smoking. Hazardous drinking positively correlated with lower level of education and older age. The data shown here are useful in planning interventions simultaneously targeting alcohol and tobacco. PMID:24938494

  2. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ?18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, restricting tobacco advertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance for smokers to quit, as well as continuing and implementing mass media campaigns that contain graphic anti-smoking ads, such as the Tips from Former Smokers (TIPS) campaign. PMID:25996096

  3. Long-Term Follow-Up of Celiac Adults on Gluten-Free Diet: Prevalence and Correlates of Intestinal Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Ciacci; Massimo Cirillo; Raimondo Cavallaro; Gabriele Mazzacca

    2002-01-01

    Background and Aims: Celiac disease is the most common severe food intolerance in the Western world and is due to gluten ingestion in genetically susceptible children and adults. Intestinal biopsy is the golden standard for evaluation of mucosal damage associated with celiac disease. Gluten-free diet is the key treatment for celiac disease. Data on the long-term control of celiac disease

  4. Psychiatric disorders in adult children of problem drinkers: prevalence, ® rst onset and comparison with other risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PIM CUIJPERS; YVONNE LANGENDOEN; ROB V. BIJL

    Aims. (1) To con® rm the increased risk of psychiatric disorders in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs); (2) to test if the age of onset of the disorders differs for ACOAs versus non-ACOAs; (3) to estimate the weight of being an ACOA compared to other risk factors including childhood traumas, other parental problem behaviours and current risk factors . Design,

  5. Comparison of FcR?-Deficient and CD57+ Natural Killer Cells Between Cord Blood and Adult Blood in the Cytomegalovirus-Endemic Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hee Jo; Kim, Da-Woon; Phan, Minh-Trang Thi; Kim, Ju-Sun; Yang, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Jeong Il; Lee, Je-Jung; Shin, Myung-Geun; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Kim, Sang-Ki; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background FcR?-deficient natural killer (NK) cells (g-NK cells) have been associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. However, the frequency of g-NK cells in a CMV-endemic area (i.e., Korea) has not yet been studied. We examined the frequency of g-NK cells and expression of CD57 on NK cells in cord blood (CB) and adult blood (AB). Methods Of the 24 AB samples collected, 95.8% (23/24) were CMV IgG+/IgM-, while 100% of the 13 healthy CB samples were CMV IgG+/IgM-. We performed whole-blood flow cytometry assays to analyze intracellular FcR? and CD3? expression of CD3-/CD56dim NK cells from 13 CB and 24 AB samples, and surface CD57 expression on CD3-/CD56dim/CD16+ NK cells from 13 CB and 19 AB samples. Results All CMV seropositive AB samples contained g-NK cells (23/23), and the median proportion of g-NK cells in the CD3-/CD56dim NK cell pool was 35.0% (range: 11-77%). CD57+ NK cells in the CD3-/CD56dim/CD16+ NK cell population were detected in all 19 AB samples tested, but not in any CB samples. Conclusions Our data suggest that g-NK cells and CD57+ NK cells are present at a very high frequency in CMV-seropositive AB, but rare in CMV-naïve CB. PMID:26131414

  6. Korean Peninsula Maritime Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk Kyoon Kim

    2010-01-01

    In the unique situation of the Korean Peninsula, which is still technically in a state of war, maritime issues are increasingly becoming critical in the relations between South Korea and North Korea. While cooperation in maritime affairs has helped to ease tensions and paved a way to reconciliatory efforts, maritime disputes adjacent to the Northern Limit Lines in the West

  7. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas J.; Hills, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Results: Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults. PMID:24727356

  8. Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Motor Vehicle Safety Safety with Car Seats and Booster Seats ... Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Traumatic Brain Injury Brain Scan ? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF ...

  9. The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Second-Language Experience on Segments and Prosody: A Cross-Sectional Study of Korean Bilinguals' English and Korean Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Grace Eunhae

    2011-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated segmental and prosodic aspects of first- (L1) and second-language (L2) speech production. Forty Korean-speaking adults and children varying in L2 experience (6 months-inexperienced vs. 6 years-experienced) as well as twenty age-matched native English speaking adults and children participated. Experienced…

  10. Detection and determination of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Gebeyehu, Eyerusalem Bizuneh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Seo, Min-Goo; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae Ku; Kim, Ha-Young; Kwak, Dongmi

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic protozoan pathogen that causes serious illness in immunocompromised humans and infection in animals worldwide. The current study was conducted for detection of T. gondii infection and determination of the seroprevalence of the pathogen in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). Analysis of a total of 610 sera samples collected from 60 herds between 2009 and 2011 were performed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Among the animals tested, 5.1% (31/610) showed seropositivity for anti-T. gondii antibodies, and 38.3% (23/60) of the herds were seropositive. The prevalence rates between young (<1 year) and adult (?1 and ?3 years) goats were 7.0% and 4.1%, respectively, without statistical significance (p>0.05). Likewise, the prevalence rates observed during cold season (October-March) and warm season (April-September) were 2.9% and 5.5%, respectively, without statistical significance. Seroprevalence rates observed in the northern, central, and southern regions were 7.9%, 3.8%, and 4.2%, respectively. In conclusion, we report for the first time on the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). The results of this study also indicate that there is a nationwide distribution of T. gondii infection among goats. Therefore, the implementation of integrated control strategies as well as measures for prevention and control of T. gondii infection within goats is recommended. PMID:24745853

  11. Nutrient- and non-nutrient-based natural health product (NHP) use in adults with mood disorders: prevalence, characteristics and potential for exposure to adverse events

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To address knowledge gaps regarding natural health product (NHP) usage in mental health populations, we examined their use in adults with mood disorders, and explored the potential for adverse events. Methods Food and NHP intake was obtained from 97 adults with mood disorders. NHP data was used to compare prevalence with population norms (British Columbia Nutrition Survey; BCNS). Bivariate and regression analyses examined factors associated with NHP use. Assessment of potential adverse effects of NHP use was based on comparing nutrient intakes from food plus supplements with the Dietary Reference Intakes and by reviewing databases for reported adverse health effects. Results Two-thirds (66%; 95% CI 56 to 75) were taking at least one NHP; 58% (95% CI 47 to 68) were taking NHPs in combination with psychiatric medications. The proportion of each type of NHP used was generally higher than the BCNS (range of p’s?prevalent use of NHPs in this population suggests that health care providers need to be knowledgeable about their characteristics. The efficacy and safety of NHPs in relation to mental health warrants further investigation. PMID:23570306

  12. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al Omari, Mousa; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Khader, Yousef; Dauod, Ali Shakir; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (?10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease. PMID:25092972

  13. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adult male cigarettes smokers: a community-based study in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, Mousa; Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Khader, Yousef; Dauod, Ali Shakir; Bergus, George

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of COPD among cigarette smokers in the Middle East is not well studied. A prospective descriptive study was performed in the north of Jordan. Male cigarette smokers (? 10 pack-year) aged 35 years and older were recruited from the community. They completed a questionnaire and a postbronchodilator spirometry. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria (postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second <70%) was used to define COPD. A total of 512 subjects completed the study protocol. According to the GOLD criteria, 42 subjects (8.2%) had COPD. Of those, 27 subjects (64.3%) had symptomatic COPD. Using the GOLD criteria, eight subjects (19%) with COPD had mild disease, 24 (57.1%) had moderate disease, eight (19%) had severe disease, and two (4.8%) had very severe disease. Only 10.6% were aware of COPD as a smoking-related respiratory illness, and 6.4% had received counseling about risk for COPD by a physician. Chronic bronchitis (cough for 3 months in 2 consecutive years) was reported by 15% of the subjects, wheezes by 44.1%, and dyspnea by 65.2%. Subjects with COPD reported having more chronic bronchitis 18/42 (42.9%) and wheezing 28/42 (66.7%) than subjects without COPD. The prevalence of COPD increased with increased number of pack-years smoked. In conclusion, COPD prevalence among cigarette-smoking men in Jordan is lower than in the developed world. COPD was largely underdiagnosed, despite the majority of participants being symptomatic and having moderate to severe disease. PMID:25092972

  14. Insomnia: prevalence and its impact on excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological well-being in the adult Taiwanese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Chiu Kao; Chun-Jen Huang; Mei-Yeh Wang; Pei-Shan Tsai

    2008-01-01

    Objectives  This study examined the national age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS),\\u000a the associations of insomnia symptoms with daytime consequences, and the impact of insomnia on EDS and psychological well-being.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data of 36,743 men and women aged 18 years and above from the 2005 Survey of Social Development Trends—Health Security in\\u000a Taiwan were analyzed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Over 25%

  15. Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life: a prevalence study among Danish conscripts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. Methods We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP). We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Results Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18–25 years, 1000 (5.5%) had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.33). There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59–1.33) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.05), respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR?=?1.01 (95% CI: 0.78–1.34)]. Conclusions Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early adulthood. Hospitalisation for OM did not seem to influence the prevalence of GSCE when level of BPP was taken into account. PMID:23320411

  16. Old Age at Diagnosis Is Associated With Favorable Outcomes in Korean Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Yu Jin; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Kyeong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Despite the rising incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Asian populations, data regarding clinical characteristics of patients in Asia based on age at diagnosis are relatively sparse. The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics based on the age at diagnosis according to the Montreal Classification in Korean IBD patients. Methods We recruited consecutive patients with IBD at two tertiary hospitals and retrospectively reviewed their medical information. Patients were divided into three groups according to their age at diagnosis: youth (<17 years), young adult (17-40 years), and middle-old (>40 years). The main clinical characteristics for comparison were the achievement of a remission state at the last follow-up visit, cumulative rate of surgery, and cumulative use of immunomodulators and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) blockers during the follow-up period. Results In total, 346 IBD patients were included (Crohn's disease [CD] 146 and ulcerative colitis 200; 36 youth, 202 young adult, and 113 middle-old). The middle-old group with CD was characterized by a predominance of uncomplicated behavior (P=0.013) and a lower frequency of perianal disease (P=0.009). The middle-old group was associated more with a less aggressive disease course than the younger group, as shown by more frequent remission (P=0.004), being less likely to undergo surgery (P<0.001), and lower cumulative use of immunomodulators and TNF? blockers (P<0.001). Conclusions Age at diagnosis according to the Montreal Classification is an important prognostic factor for Korean IBD patients. PMID:25691844

  17. Low Prevalence of Pneumococcal Carriage and High Serotype and Genotype Diversity among Adults over 60 Years of Age Living in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Santos Paulo, Ana Cristina; Valadares, Idalina; Martins, Sara; Breia, Fátima; Brito-Avô, António; Morais, Ana; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease is frequent at the extremes of age. While several studies have looked at colonization among young children, much less is known among the elderly. We aimed to evaluate pneumococcal carriage among elderly adults living in Portugal. Between April 2010 and December 2012, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs of adults over 60 years of age, living in an urban area (n?=?1,945) or in a rural area (n?=?1,416), were obtained. Pneumococci were isolated by culture-based standard procedures, identified by optochin susceptibility, bile solubility and PCR screening for lytA and cpsA, and characterized by antibiotype, serotype, and MLST. Associations between pneumococcal carriage, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. The global prevalence of carriage was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8–2.8). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking, being at a retirement home, and living in a rural area increased the odds of being a pneumococcal carrier by 4.4-fold (95% CI: 1.9–9.2), 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.1–3.6) and 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.2–3.5), respectively. Among the 77 pneumococcal isolates, 26 serotypes and 40 STs were identified. The most prevalent serotypes were (in decreasing order) 19A, 6C, 22F, 23A, 35F, 11A, and 23B, which accounted, in total, for 60.0% of the isolates. Most isolates (93.5%) had STs previously described in the MLST database. Resistance to macrolides, non-susceptibility to penicillin and multidrug resistance were found in 19.5%, 11.7%, and 15.6% of the isolates, respectively. We conclude that the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in the elderly, in Portugal, as determined by culture-based methods, is low. Serotype and genotype diversity is high. Living in a rural area, in a retirement home, and being a smoker increased the risk of pneumococcal carriage. This study contributes to the establishment of a baseline that may be used to monitor how novel pneumococcal vaccines impact on colonization among the elderly. PMID:24604030

  18. Korean American Digital Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created and maintained by the Korean Heritage Library (KHL) at the University of Southern California, this archive brings together a wide collection of digitized materials related to the Korean-American experience in a single searchable interface. The database indexes over 11,000 pages of documents, more than 1,300 photos, and some oral history recordings from five collections, which are described on the homepage. While the archive offers numerous options for searching (word or phrase, name, title, subject, etc.), a browse function would be a very helpful addition. Initial returns include a brief description and the option to mark records for printing. Full records contain a thumbnail image (or link to the audio), title, rights owner, distribution restrictions, and a contact email address, among other details.

  19. Giardia intestinalis and other zoonotic parasites: prevalence in adult dogs from the southern part of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Macotela, Martha; Peralta-Abarca, Gustavo E; Martínez-Gordillo, Mario N

    2005-07-15

    The protozoan Giardia intestinalis is a mammalian-infecting parasite. It produces diarrhoea and malabsorption in its hosts. There is growing evidence that dogs could be reservoirs and play an important role in transmission. In Mexico, there are few data on the frequency of G. intestinalis. Therefore, we studied the small intestine of stray dogs, euthanazed at the "Culhuacan" Control Canine Centre, towards the end of 1997 and during the summer of 1998. We microscopically analysed intestinal contents and mucus samples taken every 3cm. During the cold season (winter), parasites were not found in 38/100 dogs, in contrast to 8/100 through the warm season. We found that 42/100 in winter and 51/100 in summer harboured G. intestinalis. To our knowledge, these G. intestinalis frequencies are the highest found in adult dogs worldwide. The results showed a rise in Ancylostoma spp. from 23/100 to 67/100 during the cold and warm seasons. Toxocara canis frequencies varied between 12/100 and 18/100, respectively. The data suggest that the probability of infection is higher during the hottest months compared to the coldest months of the year. Both puppies and adult dogs are highly infected. Dogs are reservoirs for zoonotic parasites; for this reason, it is imperative for humans to avoid fecal contamination in streets, public gardens and parks. PMID:15927399

  20. Bad Dream Frequency in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Prevalence, Correlates, and Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

  1. Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

  2. Spatial vulnerability of fine particulate matter relative to the geographic disparities of adult's diabetes prevalence in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hassanat; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Potentially larger regional effects of climate change have been revealed on the elevation of fine particulate matter (? 2.5 µg in diameter; PM2.5) in the U.S. In addition, recent research supports a link between diabetes and PM2.5 in both laboratory and epidemiology studies. However, research investigating the potential relationship of the spatial vulnerability of diabetes to concomitant PM2.5 levels is still sparse, and the level of diabetes geographic disparities attributed to PM2.5 levels has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to determine whether long-term exposure to PM2.5 is spatially associated with diabetes prevalence after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of county residents. This study utilizes the following data sources from 2004-2010: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the American Community Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency. We also conducted spatial comparisons with low, median-low, median-high, and high levels of PM2.5 concentrations. When PM2.5 concentrations increased 1 µg/m3, the increase in the relative risk percentage for diabetes ranged from -5.47% (95% credible interval = -6.14, -4.77) to 2.34% (95% CI = 2.01, 2.70), where 1,323 of 3,109 counties (42.55%) displayed diabetes vulnerability with significantly positive relative risk percentages. These vulnerable counties are more likely located in the Southeast, Central, and South Regions of the U.S. A similar spatial vulnerability pattern for concentrations of low PM2.5 levels was also present in these same three regions. A clear cluster of vulnerable counties at median-high PM2.5 level was found in Michigan. This study identifies the spatial vulnerability of diabetes prevalence associated with PM2.5, and thereby provides the evidence needed to prompt and establish enhanced surveillance that can monitor diabetes vulnerability in areas with low PM2.5 pollution.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Elevated Blood Pressure, Overweight, and Dyslipidemia in Adolescent and Young Adults in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Christine P.; Wu, Lee S.F.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Khatry, Subarna K.; West, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic disease begins early in life, yet population data are sparse on potential causal factors in children and young adults in South Asia. Methods We assessed risk factors for chronic disease in two population cohorts, aged 9–23 years, in rural Nepal. Assessed variables included short height (less than ?2 z), high body mass index (BMI) (z>0.42), waist circumference (WC) >90?cm (male) or 80?cm (female) or age-adjusted child cutoff], high blood pressure (>120/80?mmHg), fasting glucose (?100?mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (>7%), blood lipids [triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total cholesterol], diet, smoking, alcohol, and socioeconomic status (SES) factors. Results The population was stunted (46%) and few were overweight (?2%–4% with high BMI or WC). Twelve percent had high blood pressure. Plasma hypertriglyceridemia (?150?mg/dL) affected ?8.5%, and 78% had low HDL-C concentrations <40?mg/dL (male) or <50?mg/dL (female)], while few (?3%) had elevated total cholesterol (?180?mg/dL), glucose, and HbA1c. Females were at higher risk than males for high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–2.3] and overweight (4.2; 3.0–5.8), but had lower risk of dyslipidemia (0.7; 0.6–0.9). Ethnic plains Madheshi were less likely to be overweight (0.3; 0.2–0.4), but had greater risk of dyslipidemia (1.4; 1.1–1.7) versus those of Hill origin. Some dietary factors were significantly associated with high blood pressure or dyslipidemia, but not overweight. Conclusions Dyslipidemia and high blood pressure are emerging health concerns among young adults in rural Nepal. PMID:23682595

  4. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Three Instructional Approaches to Teaching the Bible in Selected Korean Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Joo Dong

    2013-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the differences in achievement and attitudes toward learning among adult Sunday School classes in selected Korean churches taught with a traditional lecture method (LT), with the 4MAT instructional method (4M), and with an interactive engagement method (IE). Procedures: In this study, 109 adult

  6. Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J; Schauer, Gillian L; Lang, Delia L; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-02-01

    Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3% marijuana in cars. Allowing cigarettes in the home was associated with younger age, racial/ethnic minority status, living off campus, personal marijuana use, parental tobacco use and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in the home included older age, not having children, living off campus, positive perceptions of marijuana and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing cigarettes in cars included personal cigarette and marijuana use, parental tobacco and marijuana use, more cigarette-smoking friends and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in cars included being non-Hispanic black; positive perceptions of marijuana; and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Interventions must target distinct factors influencing policies regarding cigarette versus marijuana use in personal settings to address the consequences of marijuana and cigarette SHSe. PMID:25214515

  7. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  8. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  9. The Korean War: A Bibliography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robinson, Ken.

    This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

  10. Characteristics of Type D personality in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Cha, Jae Yeon; Lee, Hongjae

    2012-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of the Type D construct using the Korean version of the Type D Personality-14 (DS14) on the Korean youth population and to identify relationships between the Type D construct and other mental health measures. Adolescent participants aged 13-18 years were recruited from 12 schools (7 middle schools and 5 high schools) in Ansan city, located in the southwest area of Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. A total of 4,899 students were assessed with the Korean version of the DS14, Beck depression inventory (BDI), Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI), Adolescent Mental health Problem behavior Questionnaire (AMPQ), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korean version (AUDIT-K). We found significant differences in all the measured scales and subscale scores between two groups, those with Type D personality and those without (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). When comparing the distributions of the high risk participants identified by the results of BDI, K-ESI, AMPQ, and AUDIT-K between participants with either Type D or non-Type D personality, a significantly higher proportion of high risk participants were in the Type D personality group according to all measures (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). In conclusions, Type D adolescents experience various and more severe mental health problems. Type D personality was more related with internalizing symptoms in Korean adolescents. DS14 can be useful in a community mental health program designed for adolescents. PMID:22899442

  11. Prevalence and predictors of initial oral antibiotic treatment failure in adult emergency department patients with cellulitis: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Quirke, Michael; Boland, Fiona; Fahey, Tom; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Hill, Arnold; Stiell, Ian; Wakai, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of cellulitis severity in the emergency department (ED) setting is problematic. Given the lack of research performed to describe the epidemiology and management of cellulitis, it is unsurprising that heterogeneous antibiotic prescribing and poor adherence to guidelines is common. It has been shown that up to 20.5% of ED patients with cellulitis require either a change in route or dose of the initially prescribed antibiotic regimen. The current treatment failure rate for empirically prescribed oral antibiotic therapy in Irish EDs is unknown. The association of patient risk factors with treatment failure has not been described in our setting. Lower prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-associated infection, differing antibiotic prescribing preferences and varying availability of outpatient intravenous therapy programmes may result in different rates of empiric antibiotic treatment failure from those previously described. Methods and analysis Consecutive ED patients with cellulitis will be enrolled on a 24/7 basis from 3 Irish EDs. A prespecified set of clinical variables will be measured on each patient discharged on empiric oral antibiotic therapy. A second independent study recruiter will assess at least 10% of cases for each of the predictor variables. Follow-up by telephone call will occur at 14?days for all discharged patients where measurement of the primary outcome will occur. Our primary outcome is treatment failure, defined as a change in route of antibiotic administration from oral to intravenous antibiotic. Our secondary outcome is change in dose or type of prescribed antibiotic. A cohort of approximately 152 patients is required to estimate the proportion of patients failing oral antibiotic treatment with a margin of error of 0.05 around the estimate. Ethics and dissemination Full ethics approval has been granted. An integrated dissemination plan, involving diverse clinical specialties and enrolled patients, is described. Trial registration number NCT 02230813. PMID:26112223

  12. Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although rural Canadians are reported to have higher rates of diabetes than others, little is known about the relative influence of known versus agriculture-related risk factors. The purpose of this research was to carry out a comprehensive study of prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan and to determine possible differences between those living on and off farms. Methods In 2010, we conducted a baseline mail-out survey (Saskatchewan Rural Health Study) of 11,982 households located in the province?s four agricultural quadrants. In addition to self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, the questionnaire collected information from farm and small town cohorts on possible diabetes determinants including lifestyle, family history, early life factors and environmental/agricultural-related exposures. Clustering effect within households was adjusted using Generalized Estimating Equations approach. Results Responses were obtained from 4624 (42%) households comprising 8208 males and females aged 18 years or older and 7847 self-described Caucasian participants (7708 with complete information). The overall age-standardized diabetes prevalence for the latter was 6.35% but people whose primary residence was on farms had significantly lower diabetes prevalence than those living in non-farm locations (5.11% versus 7.33% respectively; p<0.0001). Diabetes risk increased with age and affected almost 17% of those older than 65 (OR 2.57; CI? 1.63, 4.04 compared to those aged 18–45). Other known independent risk factors included family history of diabetes (OR 2.50 [CI?s 1.94, 3.23] if father; OR 3.11 [CI?s 2.44, 3.98] if mother), obesity (OR 2.66; CI?s 1.86, 3.78), as well as lower socioeconomic status, minimal/no alcohol intake and smoking. The most original finding was that exposure to insecticides conferred an increased risk for diabetes among males (OR 1.83; CI?s 1.15, 2.91). Finally, the co-morbidities with the strongest independent association with diabetes were heart disease and hypertension. Conclusions While known diabetes risk factors are important determinants of diabetes in the agricultural zones of Saskatchewan, on-farm residence is protective and appears related to increased outdoor activities. In contrast, we have now shown for the first time that exposure to insecticides is an independent risk factor for diabetes among men in rural Canada. PMID:23289729

  13. Prevalence, Risk Factors, Quality of Life, and Health-Care Seeking Behaviors of Female Urinary Incontinence: Results From the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2007-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Choon Sig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is a lack of information on female urinary incontinence (UI) in South Korea. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors, quality of life (QoL), and healthcare-seeking behaviors of women with UI. Methods We included 9,873 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. The condition of UI was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Do you have UI?" Additionally, health care seeking behavior for UI was defined as answering "yes" to "Have you ever been treated for UI?' The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QoL. Results The mean age of our sample was 49.7 years. The overall prevalence of UI was 7.9%. The prevalence of UI significantly increased with age. The rate of healthcare-seeking behavior for UI also significantly increased with age. However, the rate of healthcare seeking for UI was significantly lower when compared to the prevalence of UI. In our multivariate analysis, age, body mass index, and marriage were significantly and independently associated with UI. As the severity of all the subscales of EQ-5D increased, the unadjusted odds ratio for UI also increased. After adjusting for potential confounders, the subscales of mobility, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression from the EQ-5D were significantly associated with UI. Conclusions UI is a common disease and is significantly associated with QoL. Our results suggest the need for developing preventive measures and treatment policies for UI. PMID:24729925

  14. Variability in the prevalence of adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients: Results from an international multi-center study exploring DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria??

    PubMed Central

    van de Glind, Geurt; Konstenius, Maija; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Kaye, Sharlene; Degenhardt, Louisa; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Schillinger, Arild; Møller, Merete; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Casas, Miguel; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Wallhed, Sara; Barta, Csaba; Alleman, Peter; Levin, Frances R.; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Background Available studies vary in their estimated prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in substance use disorder (SUD) patients, ranging from 2 to 83%. A better understanding of the possible reasons for this variability and the effect of the change from DSM-IV to DSM-5 is needed. Methods A two stage international multi-center, cross-sectional study in 10 countries, among patients form inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers for alcohol and/or drug use disorder patients. A total of 3558 treatment seeking SUD patients were screened for adult ADHD. A subsample of 1276 subjects, both screen positive and screen negative patients, participated in a structured diagnostic interview. Results Prevalence of DSM-IV and DSM-5 adult ADHD varied for DSM-IV from 5.4% (CI 95%: 2.4–8.3) for Hungary to 31.3% (CI 95%:25.2–37.5) for Norway and for DSM-5 from 7.6% (CI 95%: 4.1–11.1) for Hungary to 32.6% (CI 95%: 26.4–38.8) for Norway. Using the same assessment procedures in all countries and centers resulted in substantial reduction of the variability in the prevalence of adult ADHD reported in previous studies among SUD patients (2–83%? 5.4–31.3%). The remaining variability was partly explained by primary substance of abuse and by country (Nordic versus non-Nordic countries). Prevalence estimates for DSM-5 were slightly higher than for DSM-IV. Conclusions Given the generally high prevalence of adult ADHD, all treatment seeking SUD patients should be screened and, after a confirmed diagnosis, treated for ADHD since the literature indicates poor prognoses of SUD in treatment seeking SUD patients with ADHD. PMID:24156882

  15. Listeriosis at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Beijing, China: High Prevalence of Nonclustered Healthcare-Associated Cases Among Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan-ling; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Wang, Peng; Yang, Shuang; Li, Tai-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Listeriosis is an emerging infectious disease associated with high mortality. There are few published reports from East Asia and developing countries. Our goal was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes at a tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China. Methods.?Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH), an 1800-bed hospital, consists of 2 campuses that house different medical departments. We retrospectively reviewed all culture-proven cases of listeriosis occurring at PUMCH between 1999 and 2011. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Results.?There were 38 patients with listeriosis: 5 neonatal, 8 maternal, and 25 nonmaternal. The median age of the adult nonmaternal patients was 47 (range, 18–79) years with a female predominance (72%). Forty percent (n = 10) had an underlying rheumatic disease. Forty-four percent of cases (n = 11) were healthcare-associated infections occurring a median of 20 (range, 3–44) days after hospital admission. Only 2 of the 11 healthcare-associated cases clustered in space and time. One healthcare-associated case occurred in a patient receiving KHI-272 therapy, an oral, irreversible dual EGFR/HER2 inhibitor. The neonatal and maternal listeriosis cases were similar to those reported in the literature. Conclusions.?Nonclustered healthcare-associated cases of L. monocytogenes occurred at a large tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China. The source of these infections is unclear. Although rare, in the setting of immunosuppression, Listeria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of healthcare-associated infections, even in the absence of a point-source outbreak. PMID:23175565

  16. Activities of the korean institute of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Sungweon; Kim, Hee Jin

    2014-12-01

    The Korean National Tuberculosis Association (KNTA) set up the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT) in 1970 to foster research and technical activities pertaining to tuberculosis (TB). The KNTA/KIT had successfully conducted a countrywide TB prevalence survey from 1965 to 1995 at 5-year intervals. The survey results (decline in TB rates) established Korea as a country that had successfully implemented national control programs for TB. The KIT developed the Korea Tuberculosis Surveillance System and the Laboratory Management Information System, both of which were transferred to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its establishment. The KIT functions as a central and supranational reference TB laboratory for microbiological and epidemiological research and provides training and education for health-care workers and medical practitioners. Recently, the KIT has expanded its activities to countries such as Ethiopia, Laos, and Timor-Leste to support TB control and prevention. The KIT will continue to support research activities and provide technical assistance in diagnosing the infection until it is completely eliminated in Korea. PMID:25861580

  17. Molecular and serologic detection of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kwak, Dongmi

    2014-09-17

    The occurrence of Q fever in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) was investigated for the first time in the country using ELISA and PCR. A total of 597 blood samples were collected from goats belonging to five different provinces of Korea. To detect Coxiella burnetii, sera were separated from the whole blood and analysed by ELISA; DNA was extracted directly from the whole blood and analysed by PCR. Overall, 114 (19.1%, 95% C.I.=16.1-22.4) and 57 goats (9.5%, 95% C.I.=7.5-12.2) tested positive for C. burnetii in the ELISA- and PCR-based screening, respectively, while 18 goats (3.0%, 95% C.I.=1.9-4.7) tested positive in both the assays. There was a significant difference between the number of ELISA- and PCR-positive goats (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of Q fever was significantly higher among the adult goats (?1y, 22.0%) than among the young goats (<1y, 13.8%) (P<0.05). While the results of the serologic analysis showed no seasonal variation, data from the PCR-based assay indicated that there were a higher number of positive cases during the cold seasons. Because Q fever infection has high rates of prevalence in native Korean goats, further studies on humans at a high risk of contracting this disease should be conducted. The PCR-based assay used in this study is a useful method for the direct detection of C. burnetii in blood samples from small ruminants. PMID:25061007

  18. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. Results We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45–0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50–59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46–1.60), 60–69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39–1.51), and ?70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86–2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Conclusions Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required. PMID:24808945

  19. Physical phantom of typical Korean male for radiation protection purpose.

    PubMed

    Kim, J I; Choi, H; Lee, B I; Lim, Y K; Kim, C S; Lee, J K; Lee, C

    2006-01-01

    Dose distribution within a human body can be measured using physical anthropomorphic phantoms. In an effort to establish reference Korean physical model, the first Korean physical phantom of average Korean adult male was constructed using computed tomography (CT) images of a healthy volunteer. The body dimension of the subject was close to that of average Korean male. The source images were obtained using fusion positron emission tomography machine at Radiation Health Research Institute in Korea, and ported into rapid prototyping process. The physical phantom was composed of three tissue-equivalent materials: epoxy resin, urethane foam and polyurethane representing bone, lungs and soft tissues, respectively. The densities of the tissue-equivalent materials were close to those recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements. To facilitate dose mapping, the phantom was sliced into 2 cm sections. Hole grids for thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeter chips were drilled. To verify the appropriateness of the physical phantom, organ doses of selected organs were measured for reference photon beam, and compared with those computed by tomographic model constructed from the same CT images. Absorbed doses converted from TL relative response showed good agreement within 7% with those calculated. PMID:16410295

  20. Prevalence and correlation of hypertension among adult population in Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Yalew, Worku Awoke; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the most common causes of premature death and morbidity and has a major impact on health care costs. It is an important public health challenge to both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and correlates of hypertension. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014 among 681 adult residents of Bahir Dar city using multistage sampling techniques. An interview-administrated questionnaire and physical measurements such as blood pressure (BP), weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences were employed to collect the data. The data were coded, entered, and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software package. Results A total of 678 responses were included in the analysis resulting in a response rate of 99.6%. The findings declared that 17.6%, 19.8%, and 2.2% of respondents were prehypertension, hypertension stage I, and hypertension stage II, respectively, on screening test. The overall prevalence of hypertension (systolic BP ?140 mmHg, or diastolic BP ?90 mmHg, or known hypertensive patient taking medications) was 25.1%. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age; having ever smoked cigarette; number of hours spent walking/cycling per day; number of hours spent watching TV per day; history of diabetes; adding salt to food in addition to the normal amount that is added to the food during cooking; and body mass index were statistically significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusion One out of every four respondents of the study had hypertension, and more than one out of three cases of hypertension (38.8%) did not know that they had the hypertension; 17.6% of the respondents were in prehypertension stage, which adds to overall future risk of hypertension. Therefore, mass screening for hypertension, health education to prevent substance use, regular exercise, reducing salt consumption, and life style modifications are recommended. PMID:26005357

  1. Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

  2. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  3. Immunohistochemistry of glucagon?immunoreactive cells in the developing pancreas of the Korean native goat (Capra hircus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of glucagon?immunoreactive cells in the pancreas during various developmental stages (fetus, neonate, 1?month?old, 6?month?old and adult) of the Korean native goat was investigated by immunohistochemical methods. The varying distribution and frequency of glucagon?immunoreactive cells in the pancreas of the Korean native goat were observed. The glucagon?immunoreactive cells were detected in both exocrine and endocrine portions (pancreatic islets) at

  4. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-04-21

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638

  5. Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

  6. Ten-year changes in the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity among the Chinese adults in urban Shanghai, 1998–2007 — comparison of two cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, obesity is expected to increase rapidly in both urban and rural areas. However, there have been no comprehensive reports on secular trends in obesity prevalence among Chinese adults in urban Shanghai, which is the largest city in southern China. Methods In 1998–2001 and again in 2007–2008, two independent population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Shanghai to investigate the prevalence of metabolic disorders. These surveys obtained height, waist circumference (WC), and weight measurements for Chinese adults aged between 20 and 74 years who lived in urban communities. From the 1998–2001 survey, 4,894 participants (2,081 men and 2,813 women, mean age: 48.9 years) were recruited, and 4,395 participants (1,599 men and 2,796 women, mean age: 49.8 years) were recruited from the 2007–2008 survey. Using the World Health Organization criteria, overweight was defined as 25 kg/m2???BMI?prevalence of obesity, central obesity and overweight between the two surveys were tested using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Compared to the 1998–2001 survey, in the 2007–2008 survey the BMI distribution for men and the WC distribution for both genders is shifted significantly to the right along the x-axis (all p?prevalence of combined overweight and obesity increased 24% (from 31.5% to 39.1%, p?prevalence of central obesity increased 40% in men (from 19.5% to 27.3%; p?adult population. However, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly increased in men but not in women. PMID:24215220

  7. A Culturally Enhanced Smoking Cessation Study among Chinese and Korean Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn; Shive, Steven E.; Su, Xuefen; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Miller, Suzanne; Tan, Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of and presents preliminary findings on a culturally enhanced, theory-driven smoking cessation intervention for adult Chinese and Korean smokers. A one-group pre-post test design was used. The intervention consisted of behavioral and nicotine replacement strategies. Participants (N=43) were recruited through…

  8. The Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Impaired Glucose Regulation in Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong; Wu, Nannan; Yang, Jing; Liu, Simo; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in the population of Tongzhou, China, and to provide scientific basis for preventive interventions. In the study, the overall age-standardized prevalence of IGR (16.0%) in Tongzhou residents was higher than that in the national population (15.0%). There was no significant geographic difference in prevalence of IGR between urban and rural males. Older age, elevated blood pressure, high serum lipids, overweight, and central obesity were significantly associated with increased risk of IGR. PMID:26136780

  9. Prevalence of carriage of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, and O145:H28 among slaughtered adult cattle in France.

    PubMed

    Bibbal, Delphine; Loukiadis, Estelle; Kérourédan, Monique; Ferré, Franck; Dilasser, Françoise; Peytavin de Garam, Carine; Cartier, Philippe; Oswald, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Auvray, Frédéric; Brugèrea, Hubert

    2015-02-01

    The main pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains are defined as Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) belonging to one of the following serotypes: O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8, and O145:H28. Each of these five serotypes is known to be associated with a specific subtype of the intimin-encoding gene (eae). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of bovine carriers of these “top five” STEC in the four adult cattle categories slaughtered in France. Fecal samples were collected from 1,318 cattle, including 291 young dairy bulls, 296 young beef bulls, 337 dairy cows, and 394 beef cows. A total of 96 E. coli isolates, including 33 top five STEC and 63 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) isolates, with the same genetic characteristics as the top five STEC strains except that they lacked an stx gene, were recovered from these samples.O157:H7 was the most frequently isolated STEC serotype. The prevalence of top five STEC (all serotypes included) was 4.5% in young dairy bulls, 2.4% in young beef bulls, 1.8% in dairy cows, and 1.0% in beef cows. It was significantly higher in young dairy bulls (P<0.05) than in the other 3 categories. The basis for these differences between categories remains to be elucidated. Moreover,simultaneous carriage of STEC O26:H11 and STEC O103:H2 was detected in one young dairy bull. Lastly, the prevalence of bovine carriers of the top five STEC, evaluated through a weighted arithmetic mean of the prevalence by categories, was estimated to 1.8% in slaughtered adult cattle in France. PMID:25527532

  10. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  11. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    PubMed

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop

    2015-04-01

    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society. PMID:25769109

  12. Dietary Pattern and Nutrient Intake of Korean Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hui Song; Ahn, In Su; Byun, Yun Sun; Yang, Yoon Seok; Kim, Jin Hye; Chung, Bo Young; Kim, Hye One

    2014-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by itching and eczema-like skin lesions, and its symptoms alleviate with age. Recently, the prevalence of AD has increased among adolescents and adults. The increasing prevalence of AD seems to be related to westernized lifestyles and dietary patterns. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary patterns and nutrient intake of patients with AD. Methods The study population consisted of 50 children with AD who visited the Department of Dermatology at Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea from May 2008 to May 2009. Physical condition and calorie intake were evaluated using the Eczema Area and Severity Index score and Food Record Questionnaire completed by the subjects, and the data were analyzed using the Nutritional Assessment Program Can-pro 3.0 (The Korean Nutrition Society, 2005) program to determine the gap between the actual ingestion and average requirements of 3 major nutrients (i.e. carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), vitamins (i.e. A, B, C, and E), niacin, folic acid, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc in all subjects. Results The intake rate of proteins was 18.02% (recommended dietary allowance [RDA], 7%~20%), of carbohydrates was 67.7% (RDA, 55%~70%), and of lipids was 14.24% (RDA, 15%~30%). Thirty-one subjects (62%) showed deficiency of folic acid, and 21 subjects (42%), of iron supplements. Conclusion Essential nutrient intake tends to be lower in AD patients than in healthy subjects, and this low intake is closely related to the severity of AD. PMID:25324648

  13. Drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Kim, YoungHo

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of drinking behavior and sex differences were examined. A possible relationship between drinking behavior and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) also was investigated among a convenience sample of 582 Korean college students (309 men, 273 women). A drinking habit scale (from AUDIT-K) and drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire (DRSEQ-R) were administered. Results indicated 74.4% of the students drank alcohol and 80.1% of the students were regular drinkers (> 2 to 4 times per month). There were significant differences in drinking behavior by sex and in the DRSE constructs for current drinking statuses. Drinking behavior was significantly associated with sex and DRSE. The present study offers more information about practical interventions aimed at reasonably controlling the drinking behavior of Korean college students in a university setting. The findings may provide better understanding of Korean students' drinking behavior. PMID:25457098

  14. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  15. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  16. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  17. Korean telecommunication industry in transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-wan Tcha; June S. Park; Suk-gwon Chang; Kwan Ho Song

    2000-01-01

    This paper, as a preface to this special issue, gives an overview of recent developments in Korean telecommunication market and industry. It provides background information that is helpful for understanding the motivations behind research papers contained in this issue. In particular, we discuss the transition of the market structure from monopoly to deregulated competition, the activities in telecommunications R&D, and

  18. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  19. A Korean Legend: Hungbu and Nolbu; and Korean Songs We Can Sing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta; And Others

    A Korean legend and a number of Korean songs are presented in this illustrated booklet. English translations and a pronunciation guide are provided. Musical notations are included for the songs presented. (EB)

  20. 78 FR 13139 - Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...Notice 8198] Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 AGENCY...Department of State. ACTION: Designation of the Korean Committee for Space Technology, Paek...

  1. Errors in inflectional morphemes as an index of linguistic competence of Korean Heritage language learners and American learners of Korean

    E-print Network

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-12-31

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to ...

  2. Teenage and Young Adult Cancer-Related Fatigue is Prevalent, Distressing, and Neglected: It is Time to Intervene. A Systematic Literature Review and Narrative Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Spathis, Anna; Booth, Sara; Grove, Sarah; Hatcher, Helen; Kuhn, Isla; Barclay, Stephen

    2015-02-26

    limited focus on the fatigue suffered by teenagers and young adults with cancer, a group recognized as having unique experiences and developmental needs. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to provide a comprehensive overview...

  3. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  4. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  5. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  6. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants' demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  7. Diagnosing acute and prevalent HIV-1 infection in young African adults seeking care for fever: a systematic review and audit of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Henrieke A.B.; Mugo, Peter; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander; Smith, Adrian; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Fever is a common complaint in HIV-1 infected adults and may be a presenting sign of acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). We investigated the extent to which HIV-1 infection was considered in the diagnostic evaluation of febrile adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through a systematic review of published literature and guidelines in the period 2003–2014. We also performed a detailed audit of current practice for the evaluation of febrile young adults in coastal Kenya. Our review identified 43 studies investigating the aetiology of fever in adult outpatients in SSA. While the guidelines identified recommend testing for HIV-1 infection, none mentioned AHI. In our audit of current practice at nine health facilities, only 189 out of 1173 (16.1%) patients, aged 18–29 years, were tested for HIV-1. In a detailed record review, only 2 out of 39 (5.1%) young adults seeking care for fever were tested for HIV-1, and the possibility of AHI was not mentioned. Available literature on adult outpatients presenting with fever is heavily focused on diagnosing malaria and guidelines are poorly defined in terms of evaluating aetiologies other than malaria. Current practice in coastal Kenya shows poor uptake of provider-initiated HIV-1 testing and AHI is not currently considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24842982

  8. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Adults Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Adults [text version] Note: Lower numbers are ... chart depicts the prevalence of likely noise-induced hearing loss from 2 time periods in adults (20–69 ...

  9. Sexual Abuse of Deaf Children: A Retrospective Analysis of the Prevalence and Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Deaf Adults in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2004-01-01

    Objective: North American studies conclude that deaf children may have a 2-3 times greater risk of sexual abuse than hearing children. No comparative studies are available in the Nordic countries. The present study was initiated to estimate the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among deaf children in Norway, describe the nature of the abuse,…

  10. Prevalence of associated injuries of spinal trauma and their effect on medical utilization among hospitalized adult subjects – a nationwide data-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dachen Chu; Yi-Hui Lee; Ching-Heng Lin; Pesus Chou; Nan-Ping Yang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was wanted to investigate the prevalence of concomitant injuries among hospitalized acute spinal trauma patients aged 20 and over and the effects of those injuries on medical utilization in Taiwan. METHODS: Nationwide inpatient datasets of Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) database from between 2000 and 2003 were used. The major inclusion criteria used to select cases admitted

  11. Prevalence, Attributes, and Outcomes of Fitness and Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Report From the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Rockwood; Susan E. Howlett; Chris MacKnight; B. Lynn Beattie; Howard Bergman; Rejean Hebert; David B. Hogan; Christina Wolfson; Ian McDowell

    Background. Frailty and fitness are important attributes of older persons, but population samples of their prevalence, attributes, and outcomes are limited. Methods. The authors report data from the community-dwelling sample (n ¼ 9008) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a representative, 5-year prospective cohort study. Fitness and frailty were determined by self-reported exercise and function level and testing

  12. Syllable transposition effects in korean word recognition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang H; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for syllable-transposed Korean nonwords were delayed as compared with matched Korean nonwords without syllable transpositions. These findings bolster the case that the syllable provides an important functional unit in Korean word recognition, and suggest a degree of position invariance in syllable representations. PMID:25694048

  13. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  14. Health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Hirsch, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Despite the nation-wide efforts to improve the health status of minority immigrants, studies documenting the outcomes of these efforts are lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants to the US In this descriptive study, 70 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited from a Korean senior center and church. Health care utilization was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and hypertension management was ascertained through the objective measurement of blood pressure and a self-report questionnaire. Result indicated that 87 % of elderly Korean immigrants received regular health check-ups. Although their hypertension was not managed effectively, all participants with a diagnosis of hypertension were aware of it and were taking blood pressure medications. This study provides an overview of health care utilization and hypertension management in elderly Korean immigrants as well as ideas on ways to reach out to minority older adults for further health promoting interventions. PMID:23054538

  15. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  16. Depression among Asian-American Adults in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jun; Park, EunMi; Storr, Carla L.; Tran, Katherine; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this systematic review, we provide an overview of the literature on depression among Asian-Americans and explore the possible variations in depression prevalence estimates by methodological and demographic factors. Methods Six databases were used to identify studies reporting a prevalence estimate for depression in Asian-American adults in non-clinical settings. Meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled estimates of rates of depression by assessment type. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed for subgroup analyses by gender, age, ethnicity, and other participant characteristics. Results A total of 58 studies met the review criteria (n = 21.731 Asian-American adults). Heterogeneity across the studies was considerably high. The prevalence of major depression assessed via standardized clinical interviews ranged between 4.5% and 11.3%. Meta-analyses revealed comparable estimated prevalence rates of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (35.6%, 95% CI 27.6%–43.7%) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (33.1%, 95% CI 14.9%–51.3%). Estimates varied by Asian racial/ethnic group and other participant characteristics. Estimates of depression among special populations, which included maternity, caregivers, and homosexuals, were significantly higher than estimates obtained from other samples (58.8% vs 29.3%, p = .003). Estimates of depression among Korean and Filipino-Americans were similar (33.3%-34.4%); however, the estimates were twice as high as those for Chinese-Americans (15.7%; p = .012 for Korean, p = .049 for Filipino). Conclusion There appears to be wide variability in the prevalence rates of depression among Asian-Americans in the US. Practitioners and researchers who serve Asian-American adults need to be sensitive to the potential diversity of the expression of depression and treatment-seeking across Asian-American subgroups. Public health policies to increase Asian-American access to mental health care, including increased screening, are necessary. Further work is needed to determine whether strategies to reduce depression among specific Asian racial/ethnic groups is warranted. PMID:26029911

  17. Sex-dependent and body weight-dependent associations between environmental PAHs exposure and insulin resistance: Korean urban elderly panel

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, Jin Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic diseases rises rapidly with an ageing population. Recent studies suggest the potential involvement of environmental chemicals in insulin resistance (IR) that plays a core role in the development of metabolic diseases. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous components of outdoor and indoor air pollution. The influence of PAHs on IR may differ depending on sex and weight. Objectives We examined the association between exposure to environmental PAHs and IR in Korean urban elderly adults controlling for major risk factors that contribute to an increase in IR. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, PAH metabolite levels (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)) and the homoeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR) were repeatedly measured in 502 adults aged ?60?years. Linear mixed effect models were fit to evaluate the associations of 1-OHP concentration with HOMA-IR. Subgroups were modelled by sex and weight. Results After adjusting for sociodemographics, air pollution and metabolic disease status, the highest (vs lowest) quartile of 1-OHP was associated with an 0.57 (95% CI 0.10 to 1.04) increase in the HOMA-IR score (p trend=0.037). When stratified by sex, women presented a significantly dose-dependent trend of 1-OHP with HOMA-IR (p trend=0.013), whereas no association was observed in men (p trend=0.904). When further stratified by weight (body mass index ?25 vs <25?kg/m2), a significant association was found only in overweight women (p trend=0.023). Conclusions Our results suggest that environmental exposure to PAHs is associated with increased IR in elderly adults and that the association may be limited to overweight women. PMID:25669219

  18. Prevalence of co-occurring disorders in a sample of adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities who reside in a residential treatment setting.

    PubMed

    Turygin, Nicole; Matson, Johnny L; Adams, Hilary

    2014-07-01

    The presence of an intellectual disability (ID) is associated with a myriad of co-occurring conditions, including psychiatric and genetic disorders, behavior problems, physical disabilities, and seizure disorders. Often the most severely affected individuals reside in residential treatment facilities, where they may obtain specialized treatment and management of their challenging behavior. The present study examines the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, seizures, and ID within the context of demographic categories in a sample of 101 individuals with mild to moderate ID living in a long-term residential treatment facility. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were more prevalent among individuals with moderate ID, whereas personality disorders were more likely to be diagnosed in individuals with mild ID. Impulse disorders were more frequently observed in females. Further research is needed in order to determine appropriate treatment for such individuals, which should include therapies that are targeted to the specific problems of this population. PMID:24656808

  19. Oral disease in adults treated with hemodialysis: prevalence, predictors, and association with mortality and adverse cardiovascular events: the rationale and design of the ORAL Diseases in hemodialysis (ORAL-D) study, a prospective, multinational, longitudinal, observational, cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background People with end-stage kidney disease treated with dialysis experience high rates of premature death that are at least 30-fold that of the general population, and have markedly impaired quality of life. Despite this, interventions that lower risk factors for mortality (including antiplatelet agents, epoetins, lipid lowering, vitamin D compounds, or dialysis dose) have not been shown to improve clinical outcomes for this population. Although mortality outcomes may be improving overall, additional modifiable determinants of health in people treated with dialysis need to be identified and evaluated. Oral disease is highly prevalent in the general population and represents a potential and preventable cause of poor health in dialysis patients. Oral disease may be increased in patients treated with dialysis due to their lower uptake of public dental services, as well as increased malnutrition and inflammation, although available exploratory data are limited by small sample sizes and few studies evaluating links between oral health and clinical outcomes for this group, including mortality and cardiovascular disease. Recent data suggest periodontitis may be associated with mortality in dialysis patients and well-designed, larger studies are now required. Methods/design The ORAL Diseases in hemodialysis (ORAL-D) study is a multinational, prospective (minimum follow-up 12 months) study. Participants comprise consecutive adults treated with long-term in-center hemodialysis. Between July 2010 and February 2012, we recruited 4500 dialysis patients from randomly selected outpatient dialysis clinics in Europe within a collaborative network of dialysis clinics administered by a dialysis provider, Diaverum, in Europe (France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain) and South America (Argentina). At baseline, dental surgeons with training in periodontology systematically assessed the prevalence and characteristics of oral disease (dental, periodontal, mucosal, and salivary) in all participants. Oral hygiene habits and thirst were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires. Data for hospitalizations and mortality (total and cause-specific) according to baseline oral health status will be collected once a year until 2022. Discussion This large study will estimate the prevalence, characteristics and correlations of oral disease and clinical outcomes (mortality and hospitalization) in adults treated with dialysis. We will further evaluate any association between periodontitis and risk of premature death in dialysis patients that has been suggested by existing research. The results from this study should provide powerful new data to guide strategies for future interventional studies for preventative and curative oral disease strategies in adults who have end-stage kidney disease. PMID:23597063

  20. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies among ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for the first time in an ethnic population, specifically Zoroastrian citizens in Yazd, Iran whose ages were 30 or older. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, participants aged?30 years were selected using systematic random sampling. An inventory, including socio-demographic data, was completed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid were measured. The latest criteria established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to diagnose DM. Results: The mean age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The total prevalence of diabetes, including previously diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and IGT was 26.1%, 18.6%, 7.5%, 34.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P<0.001), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (P<0.001), urea (P=0.019), BMI (P=0.001), systolic blood pressures (P<0.001), TG (P=0.007) and lower HDL (P=0.034) than patients with IFG, IGT, and normoglycemic subjects. Conclusions: The current study showed a high prevalence of T2DM in the Zoroastrian population of Yazd, Iran. One-third of the total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. PMID:26052411

  1. Characteristics of indoor and outdoor bioaerosols at Korean high-rise apartment buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Hyun Lee; Wan-Kuen Jo

    2006-01-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the bioaerosol exposure of apartment residents at high-rise apartment buildings in a Korean city. The characteristics associated with the bioaerosol exposure included the apartment floor, seasonal variation, summer survey period (seasonal rain-front period (SRFP) or no rain-front period (NRFP)), and room location inside an apartment. Four most prevalent fungal genera detected in both the indoor

  2. Increased Prevalence of Brucella suis and Pseudorabies Virus Antibodies in Adults of an Isolated Feral Swine Population in Coastal South Carolina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cory S. Gresham; Charles A. Gresham; Michael J. Duffy; Charles T. Faulkner; Sharon Patton

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred twenty seven adult (.8 mo) feral swine (Sus scrofa) trapped from April through July 1999 at three locations on a coastal South Carolina (USA) peninsula with restricted ingress and egress were tested for Brucella suis and pseudorabies virus (PRV) an- tibodies. Approximately 44% of the animals tested positive for B. suis antibodies and 61% tested positive for antibodies

  3. Prevalence of obesity in Bombay.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, N V; Kulkarni, P R

    1992-05-01

    Obesity has been reported in developed as well as developing countries. However, data on a large sample of the Indian population are lacking. This study analysed the prevalence of obesity among 1,784 adults in Bombay from various sections of society. Since the prevalence of obesity depends upon the criteria used, prevalence was judged by three criteria viz. percentage excess of body weight, body mass index, and body fat content. The data were classified and analysed according to occupation, age group, income, diet type, and also with respect to family history of obesity. The three methods gave a different prevalence of obesity. In general, the criterion of body mass index under-estimated, and body fat content over-estimated the prevalence as compared to that obtained by percentage excess body weight. An extremely high prevalence of obesity was found in all sub-groups of the sample. As judged by a body mass index of 25 and above, male students had the lowest (10.7%) and male medical doctors had the highest (53.1%) prevalence of obesity. Prevalence was highest for the age group 31-50 years for males and females, and declined on either side of this age range. Prevalence was directly proportional to financial income, and subjects with a family history of obesity had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to those without. This study indicates the gravity of the problem of obesity in Bombay, and provides directions for nutritional planning in the future. PMID:1319972

  4. Useful Phrases in English: Korean. Language SOS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    This English-Korean phrase book is designed for the English speaking person learning Korean. The useful phrases and vocabulary words are divided into eleven sections: basic needs and safety; greetings and amenities; getting acquainted; directions and classroom articles; calendar, numbers, and time; subjects; shapes, sizes, and colors; body parts…

  5. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    This paper examines the relationship between Korean culture and the historical development of its kindergarten (preschool) curriculum. After reviewing the values that were emphasized in traditional Korean society, focusing on ethics, loyalty and filial piety, propriety, and gender roles, the paper provides examples of how these values influences…

  6. North Korean nuclear crisis and Russia's role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Soo Lee

    2005-01-01

    North Korean government officially admitted to having at least one nuclear bomb at this year. This dramatic change suggested that North Korean government have changed nuclear policy and strategy. Russia will get more economic benefits with South Korea than with North Korea. Russia will maintain friendly relations with North Korea in the future only up to a level that does

  7. Korean Students' Minority Schooling Experience in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study conducted in western Japan examined the perceptions of Korean students in Japanese junior high school to identify factors contributing to a consistently low high school advancement rate compared to mainstream Japanese students. Fourteen people were interviewed about their Korean students' experiences in Japan. The findings of…

  8. Overview of Noncommunicable Diseases in Korean Children and Adolescents: Focus on Obesity and Its Effect on Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ah

    2013-01-01

    Obesity during childhood is a dominant risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and is itself considered a disease that needs to be treated. Recently, the growth in childhood obesity in Korea has become stagnant; however, two in every ten children are still overweight. In addition, 60% or more of overweight children have at least one metabolic syndrome risk factor. Thus, childhood obesity should be controlled through lifestyle modification. This paper reviews studies of the modifiable risk factors of obesity in Korean children. According to the life-course approach, preschool-aged children (<5 years) are influenced by their parents rather than individual habits because they are under mostly parental care. Elementary school-aged children (6 to 11 years) are affected by overlapping individual and parental effects. This may mean that the establishment of individual behavior patterns begins during this period. The conditions of poor eating habits such as skipping meals, eating out, and high fat intake, along with low physical activity, facilitate increased obesity among adolescents (12 to 18 years). Notably, adolescent girls show high rates of both underweight and obesity, which may lead to the development of NCDs in their offspring. Therefore, the problem of NCDs is no longer limited to adults, but is also prevalent among children. In addition, early intervention offers cost-effective opportunities for preventing NCDs. Thus, children need primary consideration, adequate monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment to reduce the burden of NCDs later in adulthood. PMID:23946875

  9. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  10. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  11. High rate of pneumococcal bacteremia in a prospective cohort of older children and adults in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R Feikin; Geoffrey Jagero; Barrack Aura; Godfrey M Bigogo; Joseph Oundo; Bernard W Beall; Angela Karani; Susan Morpeth; M Kariuki Njenga; Robert F Breiman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ?5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. METHODS: Blood cultures were done on patients

  12. Homeless Youths and Young Adults in Los Angeles: Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and the Relationship Between Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer B. Unger; Michele D. Kipke; Thomas R. Simon; Susanne B. Montgomery; Christine J. Johnson

    1997-01-01

    Although understanding of the subsistence patterns, service utilization, and HIV-risk behaviors of homeless youths and young adults is increasing, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of mental health problems in this group or the relationships between mental health problems and substance use. This study measured symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, ADHD, suicidality, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and drug and alcohol

  13. Prevalence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescent Males in Seoul, Korea: Prevalence of Adolescent LDH in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Keun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Myoung Seok; Park, Hyung-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2011-01-01

    Objective The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria. Methods The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings. Results The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade. Conclusions In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH.

  14. Temporal trends in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity prevalence among economically-active working-age adults in Scotland between 1995 and 2011: a population-based repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity has been an alarming public health issue in the UK. Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity have been well-studied, however limited studies addressed inequality trends over time and none of them in Scotland. Methods We used nationally-representative data from the Scottish Health Survey (SHeS) across four time points between 1995 and 2010/2011. Respondents were economically active adults aged 16–65?years (N=27?059, 12?218 men). Socioeconomic position (SEP) was assessed by highest educational qualification, occupational social class and household income (2003 and 2010/2011 only) as well as a composite SEP score. We carried out sex-stratified logistic regression analyses (adjusted for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, self-rated general health and physical activity) and we computed the relative index of inequality (RII). Results Between 1995 and 2010/2011, obesity prevalence increased in both men (from 17% in 1995 to 30.2% in 2010/2011, 2010/2011 OR of obesity compared with 1995=2.07; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.34) and women (from 18.4% to 30.2%; OR=1.85; 95% CI 1.66 to 2.07). Increase in obesity prevalence was observed across all socioeconomic strata, within which the most rapid increase was among males from the highest socioeconomic groups. RII showed that educational inequalities in obesity narrowed for both men (p=0.007) and women (p=0.008). Income inequalities in obesity between 2003 and 2010/2011 in women were also reduced (p=0.046) on the relative scale. Conclusions Obesity prevalence in Scotland increased substantially between 1995 and 2010/2011, although socioeconomic inequalities have decreased due to the more rapid increase in the higher socioeconomic strata. PMID:26088806

  15. Association between environmental tobacco smoke and depression among Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Ju-Mi; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and depression among Korean women. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, we examined 731 men and 1249 women (aged 39–85?years) for the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)-Kangwha. Among 1208 never-smoking women, we excluded two women taking antidepressants and five women who did not complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional analysis on 1201 women. ETS exposure was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire, and was classified into three groups: no exposure, occasional exposure and regular exposure. Depression was assessed using the BDI score, which ranged from 0 to 63, and the presence of depression was defined as a BDI score ?10. Results Women exposed to ETS were more likely to have depression than those without ETS exposure (p=0.019). When BDI was analysed as a continuous variable, women exposed to ETS had significantly higher BDI scores after full adjustment (overall exposure: ?=1.36, p=0.013; occasional exposure: ?=1.15, p=0.063; regular exposure: ?=1.90, p=0.039). ETS exposure was significantly associated with depression in a dose–response manner even after adjusting for age, body mass index, menopause, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and prevalent chronic diseases. The adjusted OR for depression (95% CI) was 1.72 (1.25 to 2.37) for overall ETS exposure, 1.56 (1.09 to 2.24) for occasional exposure and 2.19 (1.30 to 3.69) for regular exposure, when compared to no exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ETS was associated with depression among middle aged and elderly Korean women. PMID:26100025

  16. The prevalence and correlation of carotid artery calcification on panoramic radiographs and peripheral arterial disease in a population from the Republic of Korea: the Dong-gu study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J-S; Kim, O-S; Chung, H-J; Kim, Y-J; Kweon, S-S; Lee, Y-H; Shin, M-H; Yoon, S-J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of carotid artery calcification (CAC) detected on panoramic radiographs and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to evaluate the difference in the prevalence of PAD between patients with CAC and patients without CAC detectable by panoramic radiograph. Methods: The surveyed population consisted of 4078 subjects aged 50 years and older (1410 males and 2668 females) who underwent medical and dental examination in Gwangju city, South Korea. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists interpreted the panoramic radiographs for the presence of carotid artery calcification. A trained research technician measured the ankle–brachial index (ABI). An ABI <0.9 in either leg was considered evidence of PAD. Results: The prevalence of CAC on panoramic radiographs was 6.2% and that of PAD was 2.6%. Subjects with CAC had a significantly higher prevalence of PAD than those without CAC (5.5% vs 2.4%, respectively). The presence of CAC on panoramic radiographs was associated with PAD (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.01–3.36) after adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusion: CACs detected on panoramic radiographs were positively associated with PAD in middle-aged and older Korean adults. PMID:22752323

  17. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jung-Sug

    2013-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  18. Effects of calcium intake, milk and dairy product intake, and blood vitamin D level on osteoporosis risk in Korean adults: analysis of the 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake, milk and dairy product intake, and serum vitamin D level on bone mineral density. The survey data from the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for adults (3,819 males, 5,625 females) aged > 20 years were examined; osteoporosis was defined according to the standards for Asian populations (T-score < -2.5). The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as Ca intake increased; this effect persisted (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 of Ca intake: odds ratio [OR] 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.87) even after adjustment for gender, age, and other factors (body mass index, serum vitamin D, menstruation, female hormone intake, menopausal status, and the number of days per week of muscular strength exercise). Additionally, the risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the Ca/P ratio increased (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). The degree of risk was 0.96 (0.66-1.38) in those who consumed < 1 portion of milk or dairy products daily, and 0.71 (0.53-0.96) in those who consumed > 1 portion per day, compared with those who had zero intake. The risk for osteoporosis significantly decreased as the serum 25(OH) vitamin D level increased. From these results, we advocate an increase in Ca, milk, and dairy product intake, and that serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels be maintained within the normal range, for the maintenance of bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis in adults. PMID:24133621

  19. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of South Korean sacbrood virus isolates from infected honey bees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Choe, Se-Eun; Nguyen, Thuy Thi-Dieu; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Seung-Won

    2012-05-25

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most destructive honey bee viruses. The virus causes failure to pupate and death in both larvae and adult bees. Genetic analysis of SBV infected honey bees (Apis cerana) from five different provinces was carried out based on three nucleotide sequences; one partial structural protein coding sequence and two non-structural protein coding sequences. Sequences amplified by three specific primer pairs were aligned and compared with reference sequences deposited in the GenBank database. Sequence alignments revealed a low level of sequence variation among Korean isolates (? 98.6% nucleotide identity), regardless of the genome regions studied or the geographic origins of the strains. Multiple sequence comparisons indicated that Korean SBV isolates are genetically closely related to Chinese and other Asian strains. Interestingly, the Korean SBV isolates showed a number of unique nucleotides and amino acids that had not been observed in other published strains. Korean and other Asian isolates from the host A. cerana and the UK, European and Japanese strains from the host Apis mellifera showed differences in nucleotide and deduced amino acid identities. This suggests that host-specificity exists among SBV strains isolated from different species. Phylogenetic relatedness between compared sequences was analyzed by MEGA 4.1 software using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method with a boot-strap value of 1000 replicates. Obtained topologies were in agreement with previous studies, in which a distinct group of SBV was formed by UK and European genotypes and another group was comprised of Asian genotypes including strains that originated from China, Japan (japonica), India and Nepal. However, phylogeny based on a partial protein structural coding sequence grouped all Korean SBV isolates identified in A. cerana as a separate cluster. Our findings suggest that further study, including Korean SBV isolated from A. mellifera, is needed. PMID:22221381

  20. Prevalence Projections

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Prevalence Projections Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health

  1. Trends in the Levels of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins and the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Adults with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in the Southwest Chinese Han Population during 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hewen; Jia, Fang; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Shengbing; Li, Ke; Zhang, Lili; Wu, Jinlin; Liu, Dongfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the trends of serum lipid levels and dyslipidemia in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus during 2003–2012 in Southwest China. Methods. Serum lipid measurements of 994 adults were obtained from 5 independent, cross-sectional studies (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012). The main outcome measures were mean serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; body mass index; hemoglobin A1C level; and the percentages of patients with dyslipidemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Results. The mean total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased from 4.92 ± 1.15 to 5.30 ± 1.17?mmol/L (P = 0.039) and 2.72 ± 0.83 to 3.11 ± 1.09?mmol/L (P = 0.004), respectively, and the mean HDL cholesterol level declined from 1.22 ± 0.30 to 1.06 ± 0.24?mmol/L (P < 0.001). The percentages of patients with dyslipidemia increased gradually. The incidence of coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases increased from 8.2% to 19.1% and 6.6% to 15.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Unfavorable upward trends were observed in serum lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southwest China during 2003–2012.

  2. Gender differences in depressive symptoms among older Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A

    2011-01-01

    Despite consistent reports over many years of a greater prevalence of depression among women, mechanisms underlying the gender difference remain unclear. Mechanisms relevant to immigrant elderly populations are virtually unexplored. The present study examined gender variations in depressive symptoms using a community sample of 230 older Korean American immigrants (M(age) = 69.8; standard deviation = 7.05) in Florida. We were interested in examining not only mean differences but gender differences in the impact of demographic variables (age, marital status, and education), health constraints (chronic conditions and functional disability), and personal resources (sense of control, social network, and acculturation) on depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous literature, women scored higher on depressive symptoms than men. In a hierarchical regression model, women and those with more chronic conditions, greater functional disability, and lower sense of control were found to have more depressive symptoms. The interaction of gender-by-chronic conditions was found to be significant, and further analysis indicated that the association of chronic conditions with mental well-being was stronger for women. The findings suggest that among older Korean immigrants, women are at particular risk of declining psychological well-being in the face of physical health problems and call attention to the need for interventions designed to promote their physical and mental health. PMID:21213190

  3. Cultural Influence on Empathy: Cross-Cultural Comparison between Korean and Korean American Adolescents

    E-print Network

    Yoon, Hyun Hee

    2014-05-23

    alliance with the U. S. after the Korean War. A great deal of cultural exchange and westernization occurred in Korean society due to the political, economic, and military alliances between Korea and the U.S. over the past half-century 21 (Cummings..., 1997). These influences might have caused a shift in Korea’s position on the continuum of the Hofested model (Cummings, 1997). Empirical findings about Koreans’ cultural configurations in recent studies, however, represent a portrait...

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India: findings from a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the distribution of diabetes and modifiable risk factors to provide data to aid diabetes prevention programmes in India. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey of men and women included in India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006). Setting The sample is a multistage cluster sample with an overall response rate of 98 %. All states of India are represented in the sample (except the small Union Territories), covering more than 99 % of the country's population. Subjects Women (n 99 574) and men (n 56 742) aged 20–49 years residing in the sample households. Results Prevalence of diabetes was 1598/100 000 (95 % CI 1462, 1735) among men and 1054/100 000 (95 % CI 974, 1134) among women in India. Rural–urban and marked geographic variation were found with higher rates in south and north-eastern India. Weekly and daily fish intake contributed to a significantly higher risk of diabetes among both women and men. Risks of diabetes increased with increased BMI, age and wealth status of both women and men, but no effects of the consumption of milk/curd, vegetables, eggs, television watching, alcohol consumption or smoking were found. Daily consumption of pulse/beans or fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes among women, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in the case of men. Conclusions Prevalence was underestimated using self-reports. The wide variation in self-reported diabetes is unlikely to be due entirely to reporting biases or access to health care, and indicates that modifiable risk factors exist. Prevention of diabetes should focus on obesity and target specific socio-economic groups in India. PMID:22050916

  5. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant Pneumococcal molecular epidemiology network clones among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imai, S; Ito, Y; Ishida, T; Hirai, T; Ito, I; Maekawa, K; Takakura, S; Iinuma, Y; Ichiyama, S; Mishima, M

    2009-11-01

    A total of 141 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia were collected from May 2003 through October 2004. The strains were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility, serotype and genotype by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the presence of the pilus rlrA islet. MLST analysis identified 49 sequence types (STs), of which 19 were novel. eBURST analysis using the MLST database (3773 STs) grouped the isolates into 27 clonal complexes and three singletons. A total of 92 (65.2%) isolates were related to ten of the 43 international Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones; major clones found were multidrug-resistant Netherlands(3)-31 [clonal complex (CC) 180], Taiwan(19F)-14 (CC271), Taiwan(23F)-15 (CC242), and Colombia(23F)-26 (CC138) (the latter new to Asia). We adopted univariate and multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with PMEN CCs. Multivariate analysis showed that multidrug resistance (OR 6.3; 95% CI 2.0-22.9), carriage serogroups (OR 7.2; 95% CI 2.5-23.7), prevalence of rlrA (OR 12.6; 95% CI 3.6-59.7) and central nervous system-related disorders (OR 7.7; 95% CI 1.8-48.4) were independently associated with PMEN CCs. Our data indicate that multidrug-resistant PMEN clones are highly prevalent, contributing to the high frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents in Japan, and suggest that certain predisposing factors in patients contribute to the high frequency of these clones. PMID:19694764

  6. Prevalence and correlates of inadequate glycaemic control: results from a nationwide survey in 6,671 adults with diabetes in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Ana Beatriz Valverde; Fittipaldi, João Antônio Saraiva; Neves, Raimundo Celestino Silva; Chacra, Antônio Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is a significant public health burden on the basis of its increased incidence, morbidity, and mortality. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of inadequate glycaemic control and its correlates in a large multicentre survey of Brazilian patients with diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a consecutive sample of patients aged 18 years or older with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, attending health centres located in ten large cities in Brazil (response rate = 84%). Information about diabetes, current medications, complications, diet, and satisfaction with treatment were obtained by trained interviewers, using a standardized questionnaire. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in a central laboratory. Patients with HbA1c ? 7 were considered to have inadequate glycaemic control. Overall 6,701 patients were surveyed, 979 (15%) with type 1 and 5,692 (85%) with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of inadequate glycaemic control was 76%. Poor glycaemic control was more common in patients with type 1 diabetes (90%) than in those with type 2 (73%), P < 0.001. Characteristics significantly associated with improved glycaemic control included: fewer years of diabetes duration, multi professional care, participation in a diabetes health education program, and satisfaction with current diabetes treatment. Despite increased awareness of the benefits of tight glycaemic control, we found that few diabetic patients in Brazil met recommended glycaemic control targets. This may contribute to increased rates of diabetic complications, which may impact health care costs. Our data support the public health message of implementation of early, aggressive management of diabetes. PMID:19655083

  7. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: Differences by age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre-and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  8. Increased prevalence of Brucella suis and pseudorabies virus antibodies in adults of an isolated feral swine population in coastal South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Gresham, Cory S; Gresham, Charles A; Duffy, Michael J; Faulkner, Charles T; Patton, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Two hundred twenty seven adult (> 8 mo) feral swine (Sus scrofa) trapped from April through July 1999 at three locations on a coastal South Carolina (USA) peninsula with restricted ingress and egress were tested for Brucella suis and pseudorabies virus (PRV) antibodies. Approximately 44% of the animals tested positive for B. suis antibodies and 61% tested positive for antibodies to PRV. Previous surveys (1976 and 1992) of feral swine at the same location with similar methods indicated lower seroprevalences (28% and 18% for B. suis and 0% and 19% for PRV). We also found 39% of feral swine seropositive (n = 179) for Trichinella spiralis and 49% seropositive (n = 181) for Toxoplasma gondii. Results of repeated sampling demonstrated that seroprevalence to pathogens can increase with time in an isolated, unhunted population of feral swine suggesting an increased risk to local domestic livestock and potentially to human health. PMID:12238392

  9. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  10. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., and Ehrlichia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction. Forty-one (14.3%) ticks (31 A. americanum and 10 D. variabilis) were polymerase chain reaction–positive for a Rickettsia spp. Fourteen (4.9%) ticks (6 A. americanum and 8 D. variabilis) were positive for E. chaffeensis, and 4 A. americanum (1.4%) were positive for E. ewingii. One (0.4%) A. americanum was positive for Borrelia lonestari. Although Rocky Mountain spotted fever is diagnosed in Kentucky, no R. rickettsii was found in ticks in this study. PMID:21976578

  11. Factors Associated with Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension among Adults in Southern China: A Community-Based, Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xinwei; Zhang, Jie; He, Qingfang; Hu, Ruying; Wang, Lixin; Su, Danting; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Pan, Jin; Ye, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in southern China. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in 180 villages across 15 counties in southern China from July to November 2010. Totally, 17437 persons completed all of the questionnaires, measurement examination and blood specimen collection. Adjusted rate of hypertension was 22.59% (95%CI: 22.52%–22.66%), for men 23.36% (95%CI: 23.25%–23.47%) and for women 21.77% (95%CI: 21.68%–21.86%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that old age, education attainment, alcohol use, diabetes, obesity, high TC and high TG were associated with hypertension. Among the hypertensive individuals, 54.33% were aware of their hypertension, and 46.34% were currently taking antihypertensive medication, but only 18.26% had their blood pressure controlled. Among all the hypertensive subjects, awareness was more common in those who were female, living in the urban, old age, low education attainment, diabetes, overweight, obese, Low HDL-C. Among the subjects aware of their diagnosis of hypertension, medication treatment was more common in those living in the urban, old age, nonsmoker and diabetes. Among the individuals who receiving medication treatment, controlled hypertension were less common in those living in the urban, young age, low education attainment, overweight and obese. Despite high rate of hypertension, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension still need to be strengthened. PMID:23671599

  12. The North Korean nuclear dilemma.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-01-01

    The current nuclear crisis, the second one in ten years, erupted when North Korea expelled international nuclear inspectors in December 2002, then withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and claimed to be building more nuclear weapons with the plutonium extracted from the spent fuel rods heretofore stored under international inspection. These actions were triggered by a disagreement over U.S. assertions that North Korea had violated the Agreed Framework (which froze the plutonium path to nuclear weapons to end the first crisis in 1994) by clandestinely developing uranium enrichment capabilities providing an alternative path to nuclear weapons. With Stanford University Professor John Lewis and three other Americans, I was allowed to visit the Yongbyon Nuclear Center on Jan. 8, 2004. We toured the 5 MWe reactor, the 50 MWe reactor construction site, the spent fuel pool storage building, and the radiochemical laboratory. We concluded that North Korea has restarted its 5 MWe reactor (which produces roughly 6 kg of plutonium annually), it removed the 8000 spent fuel rods that were previously stored under IAEA safeguards from the spent fuel pool, and that it most likely extracted the 25 to 30 kg of plutonium contained in these fuel rods. Although North Korean officials showed us what they claimed was their plutonium metal product from this reprocessing campaign, we were not able to conclude definitively that it was in fact plutonium metal and that it came from the most recent reprocessing campaign. Nevertheless, our North Korean hosts demonstrated that they had the capability, the facility and requisite capacity, and the technical expertise to produce plutonium metal. On the basis of our visit, we were not able to address the issue of whether or not North Korea had a 'deterrent' as claimed - that is, we were not able to conclude that North Korea can build a nuclear device and that it can integrate nuclear devices into suitable delivery systems. However, based on the capabilities we saw, we must assume that North Korea has the capability to produce a crude nuclear device. On the matter of uranium enrichment programs, our host categorically denied that North Korea has a uranium enrichment program - he said, 'we have no program, no equipment, and no technical expertise for uranium enrichment.' The denials were not convincing at the time and since then have proven to be quite hollow by the revelations of A.Q. Khan's nuclear black market activities. There is no easy solution to the nuclear crisis in North Korea. A military strike to eliminate the nuclear facilities was never very attractive and now has been overcome by events. The principal threat is posed by a stockpile of nuclear weapons and weapons-grade plutonium. We have no way of finding where either may be hidden. A diplomatic solution remains the only path forward, but it has proven elusive. All sides have proclaimed a nuclear weapons-free Korean Peninsula as the end goal. The U.S. Government has chosen to negotiate with North Korea by means of the six-party talks. It has very clearly outlined its position of insisting on complete, verifiable, irreversible dismantlement of all North Korean nuclear programs. North Korea has offered several versions of 're-freezing' its plutonium program while still denying a uranium enrichment program. It has insisted on simultaneous and reciprocal steps to a final solution. Regardless of which diplomatic path is chosen, the scientific challenges of eliminating the North Korean nuclear weapons programs (and its associated infrastructure) in a safe, secure, and verifiable manner are immense. The North Korean program is considerably more complex and developed than the fledgling Iraqi program of 1991 and Libyan program of 2004. It is more along the lines, but more complex than that of South Africa in the early 1990s. Actions taken or not taken by the North Koreans at their nuclear facilities during the course of the ongoing diplomatic discussions are key to whether or not the nuclear program can be eliminated safely and securel

  13. Review of Korean Dacetini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae)

    E-print Network

    Villemant, Claire

    , Formicidae, Korea INTRODUCTION The Dacetini is a tribe of ants that are all predators, most of them smallReview of Korean Dacetini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae) Dong-Pyeo LYU, Byeong-MOON CHOI1

  14. Overweight Korean Adolescents and Academic Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Hoon Cho; Dayton M. Lambert; Hyun Jae Kim; Seung Gyu Kim

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and being overweight among South Korean high school students was examined. Data\\u000a used in the regression were from the Korean Education and Employment Panel Survey. The theoretical framework that poor school\\u000a performance increases the risk of adolescents’ being overweight, which, in turn, causes poor school performance, was supported.\\u000a With no other direct or indirect association

  15. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  16. Human security in the Korean Penninsula: A case of the north Korean drug trafficking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Woosang Kim

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of human security as it is currently developing and try to locate the concept of human security within the context of comprehensive security and national security. As a case study, we also introduce the historical trend of North Korean drug trafficking and discuss its impact on human security around the Korean peninsula. We

  17. Evaluation of vitamin B6 intake and status of 20- to 64-year-old Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recent research regarding vitamin B6 status including biochemical index is limited. Thus, this study estimated intakes and major food sources of vitamin B6; determined plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); and assessed vitamin B6 status of Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Three consecutive 24-h diet recalls and fasting blood samples were collected from healthy 20- to 64-year-old adults (n = 254) living in the Seoul metropolitan area, cities of Kwangju and Gumi, Korea. Vitamin B6 intake and plasma PLP were analyzed by gender and by vitamin B6 supplementation. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine associations of vitamin B6 intake and plasma PLP. RESULTS The mean dietary and total (dietary plus supplemental) vitamin B6 intake was 1.94 ± 0.64 and 2.41 ± 1.45 mg/day, respectively. Median (50th percentile) dietary intake of men and women was 2.062 and 1.706 mg/day. Foods from plant sources provided 70.61% of dietary vitamin B6 intake. Only 6.3% of subjects consumed total vitamin B6 less than Estimated Average Requirements. Plasma PLP concentration of all subjects was 40.03 ± 23.71 nmol/L. The concentration of users of vitamin B6 supplements was significantly higher than that of nonusers (P < 0.001). Approximately 16% of Korean adults had PLP levels < 20 nmol/L, indicating a biochemical deficiency of vitamin B6, while 19.7% had marginal vitamin B6 status. Plasma PLP concentration showed positive correlation with total vitamin B6 intake (r = 0.40984, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS In this study, vitamin B6 intake of Korean adults was generally adequate. However, one-third of subjects had vitamin B6 deficiency or marginal status. Therefore, in some adults in Korea, consumption of vitamin B6-rich food sources should be encouraged. PMID:25489409

  18. Clinical Significance of Asthma Clusters by Longitudinal Analysis in Korean Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujeong; Yoon, Sun-young; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, You Sook; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung Won; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Cho, Young-Joo; Choi, ByoungWhui; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously identified four distinct groups of asthma patients in Korean cohorts using cluster analysis: (A) smoking asthma, (B) severe obstructive asthma, (C) early-onset atopic asthma, and (D) late-onset mild asthma. Methods and Results A longitudinal analysis of each cluster in a Korean adult asthma cohort was performed to investigate the clinical significance of asthma clusters over 12 months. Cluster A showed relatively high asthma control test (ACT) scores but relatively low FEV1 scores, despite a high percentage of systemic corticosteroid use. Cluster B had the lowest mean FEV1, ACT, and the quality of life questionnaire for adult Korean asthmatics (QLQAKA) scores throughout the year, even though the percentage of systemic corticosteroid use was the highest among the four clusters. Cluster C was ranked second in terms of FEV1, with the second lowest percentage of systemic corticosteroid use, and showed a marked improvement in subjective symptoms over time. Cluster D consistently showed the highest FEV1, the lowest systemic corticosteroid use, and had high ACT and QLQAKA scores. Conclusion Our asthma clusters had clinical significance with consistency among clusters over 12 months. These distinctive phenotypes may be useful in classifying asthma in real practice. PMID:24391784

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  20. 75 FR 45035 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...Proclamation 8543--National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010 Executive...Proclamation 8543 of July 26, 2010 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2010 By the...died for freedom and democracy in the Korean War. This year marks the 60th...

  1. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  2. Distinguishing Samples of Spoken Korean from Rhythmic and Regional Competitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna

    2002-01-01

    Examined characteristics of the acoustic signature of languages in connection with identification of the target language, Korean. In one experiment, listeners were asked to distinguish spoken samples of Korean from competitor languages sharing syllable based rhythm. In another, listeners attempted to distinguish Korean from languages spoken in the…

  3. Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood Na-Ri Shin, Min-Soo Kim, Mi, designated NAL101T , was isolated from gajami-sikhae, a traditional Korean fermented seafood made of flatfish ). Sikhae, a kind of traditional Korean food, also known as jeotgal, consists of fermented fish without

  4. Korean Americans in U.S. Race Relations: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Elaine H.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the position of Korean Americans in U.S. history and in current race relations, focusing on the difficult task of building strategic alliances rooted in understanding of the relationships between the well-being of Korean Americans and that of collective American society. Korean Americans have a pivotal role to play in creating a…

  5. A Descriptive Statistical Approach to the Korean Pharmacopuncture Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungdae Kim; Dae-In Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews trends in research related to Korean pharmacopuncture therapy. Specifically, basic and clinical research in pharmacopuncture within the last decade is summarized by introducing categorical variables for classification. These variables are also analyzed for association. This literature review is based on articles published from February 1997 to December 2008 in a Korean journal, the Journal of the Korean

  6. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  7. MEMENTA—‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’. A cross-sectional epidemiological multisite study assessing prevalence of psychiatric symptomatology, needs for care and quality of healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability in Germany: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Andrea; Vogel, Anke; Holzmann, Marco; Pfennig, Andrea; Salize, Hans Joachim; Puschner, Bernd; Schützwohl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study ‘Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder’ (MEMENTA) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out in three different regions of Germany. Its main aim is to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID) as well as quality of mental healthcare for this population. Methods and analysis The target population are persons aged between 18 and 65?years with a mild or moderate ID. The study population will be recruited through service providers. A representative sample is realised by two-stage sampling. First, institutions providing services for people with ID (sheltered workshops) are selected in a stratified cluster sampling, with strata being (1) types of service-providing non-governmental organisations and (2) sizes of their sheltered workshops. Then persons working in selected sheltered workshops are selected by simple random sampling. An estimated number of 600 adults with ID will be included. Information will be obtained from the group leaders in the sheltered workshops, informal carers or staff members in sheltered housing institutions and the person with ID. Besides the main outcome parameter of psychiatric symptomatology and problem behaviour, other outcome parameters such as needs for care, quality of life, caregiver burden, health services utilisation and costs for care are assessed using well-established standardised instruments. If a comorbid mental disorder is diagnosed, quality of mental healthcare will be assessed with open questions to all interview partners and, in addition, problem-focused interviews with a small subgroup. Analyses will be carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. Ethics and dissemination Approval of all three local ethics committees was obtained. Research findings will add much needed empirical information in order to improve services provided to this vulnerable group of patients. Trial Registration number NCT01695395. PMID:24844270

  8. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  9. Wilson Center Digital Archive: Korean War Armistice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Korean Armistice Agreement was signed on July 27, 1953, effectively ending hostilities and bringing an end to the Korean War. The Wilson Center has curated this fine collection of documents related to the armistice negotiations from the period of 1951 to 1953. These various papers, reports, and telegrams written originally in Russian, Polish, and Chinese shed light on North Korean, Soviet, and Chinese strategic thinking on the conflict and coinciding armistice. The 62 documents are arranged in chronological order and visitors can scroll through individual items or read transcripts along the way. Items of note include cables from Joseph Stalin to Mao Zedong, along with formal telegrams and reports from the National Security Council.

  10. Demographic Features of Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Jaeryung; Ahn, Soh-Eun; Park, Choul Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical and demographic features of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (MacTel) in Korean patients since the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods We reviewed medical records of patients who were diagnosed with MacTel from 2009 to 2013. All patients underwent fluorescein angiography and SD-OCT and were classified as type 1 or type 2 according to the classification system proposed by Yannuzzi. Results Over a period of 5 years, 4 (18.2%) patients were diagnosed with type 1 MacTel and 18 (81.8%) patients were diagnosed with type 2 MacTel. All patients with type1 MacTel were male, and their mean age was 51 ± 8.6 years. Among patients with type 2 MacTel, 3 (16.7%) were male, 15 (83.3%) were female, and the mean age was 60 ± 13.6 years. Whereas all type 1 MacTel patients had either metamorphopsia or mild scotoma, of the 18 patients with type 2 MacTel, only 4 (22.2%) had those symptoms, 10 (55.6%) complained of only mild visual impairment, and the other 4 (22.2%) had no symptoms. Intraretinal cystoid spaces were observed in 26 (72.2%) of 36 eyes with type 2 MacTel by SD-OCT. These cystoid spaces had irregular boundaries and did not correspond to angiographic leakages. Conclusions Type 2 MacTel was most common in the present study. The wider availability of SD-OCT may have contributed to the diagnosis of type 2 MacTel. Type 2 MacTel may be more prevalent than type 1 in Koreans, which corresponds to the results of Western countries. PMID:26028942

  11. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  12. A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies. PMID:26024377

  13. Korean Legal Research Resources on the Internet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ryoo, Heija B.

    Created by Heija B. Ryoo, Director of Library Systems and Technical Services at the School of Law Library, Southern Illinois University, this site offers a thorough overview of the South Korean legal system accompanied by numerous links to official sites, primary documents, and other authoritative resources. These are arranged under three major headings on a no-nonsense single page. Please be aware that the information provided for each link varies and that many of the sites require the appropriate plug-in for reading Korean characters, though this is noted by the site.

  14. A Study of the Korean People

    E-print Network

    Smith, Lura McLane

    1911-05-15

    and other provincial offices, the large majority live in Seoul where it is much easier to graft on the public treasury. Even the landed propri- eters live in Seoul. The Yang-Ban is a drone of the first order, being almost entirely paralysed by long... Korean can never keep a secret and it is his business to hear and tell everything he can, creating news if necessary. The Korean language belongs to the Turanian or Ural- Altaic family and is an agglutinative polysyllabic and phonetic language whose...