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1

Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend?=?0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend?=?0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

2014-01-01

2

Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend?=?0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend?=?0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

2014-01-01

3

Socioeconomic Disparities in Osteoporosis Prevalence: Different Results in the Overall Korean Adult Population and Single-person Households  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study was conducted in order to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and osteoporosis prevalence in Korea and to assess whether different associations are found in single-person households. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2008 to 2011. The study subjects were people aged ? 50 years with osteoporosis as defined by bone mineral density. Multivariate logistic models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (pORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Gender differences in the likelihood of osteoporosis were analyzed based on household income, education level, and residential area. Results: There were 8221 osteoporosis patients aged ? 50 years, of whom 927 lived in single-person households. There was a gender-specific association between osteoporosis prevalence and all three SES factors that we analyzed: income, education, and residential area. After adjusting for age, SES, and health behaviors, including body mass index (BMI), low household income was only significantly associated with osteoporosis in men, whereas education level had an inverse relationship with osteoporosis only in women (p=0.01, p<0.001, respectively). However, after controlling for age and BMI, rural residency was only associated with osteoporosis in women living in single-person households (pOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.43). Conclusions: The Korean adult population showed a gender-specific relationship between SES and osteoporosis prevalence, with a different pattern found in single-person households. PMID:25857646

Kim, Jungmee; Lee, Joongyub; Shin, Ju-Young; Park, Byung-Joo

2015-01-01

4

The prevalence and factors associated with hearing impairment in the korean adults: the 2010-2012 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (observational study).  

PubMed

There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n?=?33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6-21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6-9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19-39 years' old) was 4.4% (3.5-5.5), in middle-age adults (40-64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8-22.5), and in older adults (?65 years' old), it was 69.7% (67.8-71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60?mL/min/1.73m as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60?mL/min/1.73m, and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of developing hearing impairment. As such, these groups may benefit from hearing loss screening in addition to those groups typically considered to be of elevated risk including geriatrics, those of low socioeconomic status, and those with considerable occupational noise exposure. PMID:25761183

Hong, Jae W; Jeon, Ju H; Ku, Cheol R; Noh, Jung H; Yoo, Hyung J; Kim, Dong-Jun

2015-03-01

5

Korean Adults' Attitudes towards Varieties of English   

E-print Network

This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research questions: 1) do Korean adults...

Kim, Young Soo

2007-11-28

6

Are Food Constituents Relevant to the Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Young Adults? - A Rome III Based Prevalence Study of the Korean Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is prevalent in general population. This study investigates the prevalence of IBS in medical college students in Korea as well as the influence of dietary habits and nutritional intake on IBS. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 319 students (239 males and 80 females, age 22.3 ± 2.5 years) from the 6 grade levels of the Medical College in Korea. All students filled out a self-reported questionnaire for ROME III criteria. They also completed a questionnaire to validate dietary habits and food frequency in Korean. Results The overall prevalence of IBS was 29.2% without correlation to age, body mass index and grade level in Medical School. However, the prevalence was significantly higher in females than males (33/80 vs 60/239, P = 0.007). There were no significant differences between the IBS-group and the non-IBS group in aspect of nutrition. Not only the diet habits, but also the daily nutritional intake, and even the breakdown into the 12 micronutrients, yielded no significant differences between the 2 groups. Conclusions Twenty-nine percent of the medical college students have IBS with a greater prevalence in females. The dietary habits and nutritional intake of the students might not be associated with IBS. PMID:21860822

Jung, Hyun Joo; Moon, Won; Park, Seun Ja; Kim, Hyung Hun; Noh, Eun Ji; Lee, Gyu Jin; Kim, Joo Hoon; Kim, Dong Gyu

2011-01-01

7

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

2007-01-01

8

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive\\u000a measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they\\u000a were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In general, who is a happy

Myoung So Kim; Hye Won Kim; Kyeong Ho Cha; Jeeyoung Lim

2007-01-01

9

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

10

Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ?60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013). Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults. PMID:25652709

Chu, Sang Hui; Baek, Ji Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Stefani, Katherine M.; Lee, Won Joon; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

2015-01-01

11

Psychometric testing of the Depressive Cognition Scale in Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study translated the Depressive Cognition Scale (DCS) from English into Korean and tested the reliability and validity of the scale. Data were from a convenient sample of 795 community-dwelling Korean adults with a self-administered questionnaire. With regard to the reliability estimate, the internal consistency of the Korean version of the DCS (K-DCS) was acceptable, where the Chronbach's alpha is

Eun Ja Yeun; Young Mi Kwon; Jung A Kim

12

Somatic symptoms and depressive symptoms among older adult Korean immigrants.  

PubMed

Given the lack of understanding of how Korean immigrants express depressive symptoms, the purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe somatic symptoms and depressive symptoms and examine the relationship between them, as reported by older adult Korean immigrants. Purposive sampling was used in this study of 160 older adult (ages 65 to 91) Korean immigrants. Most of these participants immigrated to the United States at an older age. They reported a high level of depressive symptoms, and these symptoms were closely associated with somatic symptoms, a finding that coincides with previous studies differentiating Korean individuals from individuals of other cultures. The findings from this study highlight the need for health care providers to be aware of and recognize cultural differences in how patients express depressive symptoms somatically when assessing and treating depression within the older adult Korean immigrant population. PMID:24971586

Lee, Young Me

2015-01-01

13

Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

14

Prevalence of osteoporosis and reference data for lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density in a Korean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to establish reference data for bone mineral density (BMD) at central skeletal sites using Lunar\\u000a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to estimate the age-and sex-specific prevalence of osteoporosis in a Korean population.\\u000a We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study. The subjects were 4148 (1810 men and 2338 women) Korean adults, aged\\u000a 20–79 years. The BMD

Lian-Hua Cui; Jin-Su Choi; Min-Ho Shin; Sun-Seog Kweon; Kyeong-Soo Park; Young-Hoon Lee; Hae-Sung Nam; Seul-Ki Jeong; Jeong-Soo Im

2008-01-01

15

Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of Korean adults to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria as a marker for early-stage chronic kidney disease. Methods A total of 8,497 adults (3,625 men and 4,872 women) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012 were included. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to recommendation from a joint interim statement of international organizations published in 2009. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. The association between metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria was evaluated using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates while considering sampling weights and the complex survey design. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuriain subjects with metabolic syndrome was 11% for men and 14.4% for women, whereas the prevalence in subjects without metabolic syndrome was 3.1% for men and 6.7% for women. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with an increased risk of microalbuminuriain both women (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 2.01 to 3.88) and men (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 4.27). All components of the metabolic syndrome were associated with a significantly increased risk of microalbuminuria with the strongest association for high blood pressure. The risk of microalbuminuria increased in a dose-dependent manner (P-value for trend < 0.001) with the number of metabolic syndrome components observed for both sexes. Conclusion These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease from an early stage.

Lee, Hyun-Ok; Bak, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Jin-Young

2015-01-01

16

Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).  

PubMed

We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

2014-01-01

17

Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California  

PubMed Central

This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2012-01-01

18

Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

2015-01-01

19

Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

Kwon, Hyuckhoon

2009-01-01

20

Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.  

PubMed

Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity from various diseases, some of which have rarely been explored in previous epidemiologic studies. PMID:24906069

Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2014-08-01

21

Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 226 older (age ?65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI. Results The prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (?74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003), educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001), and systolic blood pressure (?135 mm Hg vs. ?120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012) were associated with MCI. Conclusion More concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24851209

Lee, Yun Jeong; Kang, Hye Mi; Kim, Na Kyung; Yang, Ju Yeon; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

2014-01-01

22

Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments. Materials and Methods: Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression equations were constructed. Results: It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety. Conclusions: The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults. PMID:24860222

Lim, Young-Jin

2014-01-01

23

Korean American Adult Children's Beliefs about What Their Parents Want at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the beliefs of Korean American adult children about their parents' wishes regarding life-support treatments and the children's attitudes toward advance care planning. Data were collected from 115 Korean-American adult children (mean age = 44.5 years). Results indicated that Korean American adult children tended to believe that their parents would want life support treatments and had positive attitudes

Minju Kim; Marquis D. Foreman

2011-01-01

24

Drinking Patterns Among Korean Adults: Results of the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives In Korea, the proportion of deaths due to alcohol is estimated at 8.9%, far exceeding the global estimate of 3.8%. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the factors associated with low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk drinking patterns in Korean adults and to identify target populations for prevention and control of alcohol-related diseases and deaths. Methods We analyzed data from 230 715 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between socio-demographic and health-related factors and patterns of alcohol use. Results A substantially larger proportion of men than women engaged in high risk (21.2% vs. 3.4%) and moderate-risk alcohol use (15.5% vs. 8.2%). In both sexes, moderate- and high-risk uses were associated with younger age, higher income, being currently employed, smoking, being overweight/obese, and good self-rated health. Conclusions Given the large proportion of the population that is engaging in moderate- and high-risk drinking and given the social norms that support this behavior, public health policies and campaigns to reduce alcohol consumption targeting the entire population are indicated. PMID:23946876

Crespi, Catherine M.; Maxwell, Annette E.

2013-01-01

25

Smoking on Both Sides of the Pacific: Home Smoking Restrictions and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Korean Adults and Children in Seoul and California  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study, informed by ecological frameworks, compared the prevalence, predictors, and association of home smoking restrictions with secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) between Koreans in Seoul, South Korea, and Korean Americans in California, United States. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was drawn from telephone interviews with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2,830) during 2001–02. Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Results: Koreans, compared with Korean Americans, had significantly fewer complete home smoking bans, 19% (95% CI: 16–23) versus 66% (95% CI: 64–68), and were more likely to not have a home smoking restriction, 64% (95% CI: 60–69) versus 5% (95% CI: 4–6). Home smoking restrictions were associated with lower home SHSe; however, the impact was consistently larger among Korean Americans. Households with more SHSe sources were less likely to have the strongest home smoking restrictions, where the difference in complete bans among Korean Americans versus Koreans was largely among those at low risk of SHSe, 82% (95% CI: 76–86) versus 36% (95% CI: 17–57), while high-risk Korean American and Koreans had similar low probabilities, 10% (95% CI: 7–13) versus 7% (95% CI: 3–13). Conclusions: Consistent with ecological frameworks, exposure to California’s antismoking policy and culture was associated with stronger home smoking restrictions and improved effectiveness. Interventions tailored to Korean and Korean American SHSe profiles are needed. Behavioral interventions specifically for high-risk Korean Americans and stronger policy controls for Koreans may be effective at rapidly expanding home smoking restrictions. PMID:20924042

Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Park, Haeryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Irvin, Veronica L.; Lee, Jooeun; Juon, Hee-Soon; Latkin, Carl; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2010-01-01

26

Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in the korean population: results of the fifth KoreaNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ?10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ?65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed. PMID:24550649

Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Ju Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

2014-02-01

27

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Study subjects were composed of underweight and normal-weight adults excluding overweight adults. Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. Health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and physical activity were surveyed through self-administered questionnaires, and socioeconomic status, marital status, and history of morbidity were surveyed through face-to-face interviews. Results Women had a higher frequency of underweight (10.4% vs. 7.0%, P < 0.001) than men. Among men, current smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.62) and past history of cancer (OR, 2.55) were independently related to underweight. Among women, young age (OR, 2.06), former smoking (OR, 1.69), and being unmarried (OR, 1.56) were identified as independently related factors of underweight. In addition, among both men and women, alcohol drinking (men OR, 0.57; women OR, 0.77) and past history of chronic diseases (men OR, 0.55; women OR, 0.43) were independently related to a lower frequency of underweight. Conclusion We showed that various sociodemographic factors were associated with underweight. It was ascertained that there were differences in the sociodemographic factors related to underweight between Korean men and women. PMID:24340160

Park, Sung Il; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

2013-01-01

28

Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for the dairy and carbohydrate pattern whereas sodium (P for trend < 0.0001) intake was decreased for this pattern. In conclusion, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern may be associated with a reduced risk of hypertension whereas the western pattern may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among Korean adults. PMID:23766884

Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung

2013-01-01

29

Prevalence and correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Korean college students  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood in a high proportion of cases, causing social difficulties and affective problems. We evaluated the prevalence of symptoms of ADHD and the correlates thereof in Korean college students. Methods A total of 2,172 college students, stratified to reflect geographical differences, were asked to complete self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, depression, and related factors. Results ADHD symptoms were found in 7.6% of college students. Univariate analysis revealed that younger students had higher rates of ADHD symptoms than did older students. We found significant associations between ADHD symptoms and problematic alcohol use, depression, and lifetime suicidal behavior. Multivariate analysis revealed that ADHD symptoms in adults were significantly associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] =4.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.23–6.80; P<0.001) and overweight or obesity (OR =1.50; 95% CI 1.02–2.22; P=0.040), after controlling for sex and age. Conclusion These results have implications in terms of the mental health interventions required to assess problems such as depression, alcohol use, obesity, and suicidality in young adults with ADHD symptoms.

Kwak, Young-Sook; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo

2015-01-01

30

Community-Based Home Healthcare Project for Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the effects of community-based home healthcare projects that influence service performances with regard to Korean national long-term care insurance services in older adults. Methods The project's applicants were 18 operational agencies in national long-term care institutions in Korea, and participants were care recipients (n = 2263) registered in long-term care institutions. We applied our healthcare system to the recruited participants for a 3-month period from October 2012 to December 2012. We measured the community-based home healthcare services such as long-term care, health and medical service, and welfare and leisure service prior to and after applying the community-based home healthcare system. Results After the implementation of community-based home healthcare project, all community-based home healthcare services showed an increase than prior to the project implementation. The nutrition management service was the most increased and its increase rate was 628.6%. A comparison between the long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries showed that health and medical services’ increase rate of nonbeneficiaries was significantly higher than beneficiaries (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our community-based home healthcare project might improve the service implementation for older adults and there was a difference in the increase rate of health and medical services between Korean national long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. PMID:24298438

Lee, TaeBum

2013-01-01

31

Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

Ko, In Yeong

2011-01-01

32

Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

2008-01-01

33

Prevalence and correlates of orthostatic hypotension in middle-aged men and women in Korea: the Korean Health and Genome Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the prevalence and correlates of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in middle-aged adults enrolled in the Korean Health and Genome Study. Participants were 8908 individuals aged 40–69 years. Supine blood pressure (BP) was measured three times at 30-s intervals after at least 5 min of rest in the supine position and single standing BP was measured at 0 and 2

C Shin; R D Abbott; H Lee; J Kim; K Kimm

2004-01-01

34

What and When Korean American Older Adults Want to Know About Serious Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this exploratory study was to describe disclosure preferences about serious illness among Korean American older adults. Three focus groups (N = 6, 8, and 9) were conducted with Korean Americans age 65+ from two senior centers and a primary care practice in NYC. Six themes were identified: (1) Disclosure allows patients to make decisions and preparations, (2)

Cathy S. Berkman; Eunjeong Ko

2010-01-01

35

Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

2011-01-01

36

Association between Total Sleep Duration and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean General Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Examine the association between sleep duration and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Data obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, and probability-cluster survey of civilian non-institutionalized Korean residents. Participants: A total of 15,236 subjects (6,638 males and 8,598 females) ? 19 years old. Measurements and Results: The weighted prevalence of self-reported short sleep duration (? 5 h/day) was 11.7% in males and 15% in females, and of long sleep duration (? 9 h/day) was 6.7% in males and 8.9% in females. A U-shaped relationship existed, with both short and long sleep durations associated with a higher suicidal ideation risk. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health status. After controlling for covariates, people with short sleep were 38.1% more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR = 1.381, 95% CI 1.156-1.650) than people with sleep duration of 7 h/day. Suicidal ideation was 1.196 times higher (95% CI: 0.950-1.507) in long-sleeping people than people sleeping 7 h/day, although statistically not significant. Inclusion of depressive mood (a potential confounder) in multiple logistic regression models attenuated but did not eliminate the sleep duration/suicidal ideation association. Limitations: Sleep duration and suicidal ideation were assessed only by self-report. Conclusions: The sleep duration/suicidal ideation relationship is U-shaped in the Korean adult population. Self-reported habitual sleep duration may be a useful behavioral indicator for both individual and societal suicidal ideation risk. Citation: Kim JH; Park EC; Cho WH; Park JY; Choi WJ; Chang HS. Association between total sleep duration and suicidal ideation among the Korean general adult population. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1563-1572. PMID:24082316

Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jong-Yeon; Choi, Won-Jung; Chang, Hoo-Sun

2013-01-01

37

Socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

Kang, Jae Heon; Jeong, Baek Geun; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

2011-12-01

38

Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents  

PubMed Central

Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun

2013-01-01

39

Seroepidemiology of tetanus in Korean adults and adolescents in 2012.  

PubMed

This seroepidemiologic study was performed to evaluate the immune status against tetanus in Korean adolescents and adults and to provide evidence to develop strategies for tetanus prevention. Between July 2012 and December 2012, serum samples were collected from adults and adolescents 11 years of age and older, and serum anti-tetanus IgG titers were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. Subjects were divided into six age groups: 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, 51-60 years, and ?61 years. The mean anti-tetanus IgG titers and tetanus seroprevalence of the age groups were compared. A total of 1193 adults and adolescents were enrolled. Mean anti-tetanus IgG titer and tetanus seroprevalence of all subjects were 1.20 ± 3.58 IU/mL and 56.4%, respectively. The mean anti-tetanus IgG titer decreased with an increase in age (p < 0.001). Tetanus seroprevalence increased from 92.0% in the 11-20 year age group to 95.7% in the 21-30 year age group, and then decreased with a further increase in age (p < 0.001). These results reflected an appropriate Td booster vaccine coverage at 11-12 years of age. However, the tetanus seroprevalence of adults older than 41 years was as low as the levels in previous studies: therefore, adults should be more encouraged to acquire decennial Td booster vaccinations recommended by the National Immunization Program. PMID:24802766

Sung, Hyunwoo; Jang, Mi Jin; Bae, E Young; Han, Seung Beom; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Park, Yeon-Joon; Ma, Sang Hyuk

2014-07-01

40

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults: The 2001 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Korea, a rapidly changing country. Data of 5,132 adults aged 20-85 were used from the 2001 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression was carried out to identify risk factors for T2D. Three models were specified: (i) socioeconomic and demographic factors (model 1: age, gender, education, poverty income ratio, employment), (ii) behavioral risk factors and covariates (model 2: obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary quality, family history of T2D, co-morbidity) and (iii) socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral factors (model 3). The prevalence of T2D was 7.4%. Less education (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.84), age (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.56-3.08 in 40-59 yrs, OR 4.05, 95% CI 2.76-5.95 in 60 yrs + comparing to 20-39 yrs) and abdominal obesity (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.79-2.82) were risk factors for T2D even after controlling for other factors simultaneously. There was a significant association of T2D with ever smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.67). The relationship of age with T2D was modified by gender in model 1 and the relationship of smoking with T2D was modified by obesity in model 2. Less educated, older, obese or ever smokers were more likely to have T2D. Gender mediated the relationship of age, and obesity mediated the relationship of smoking, with T2D. Intervention programs for T2D in Korea should take the interactions among risk factors into account. PMID:20098581

Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

2009-01-01

41

Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

42

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and subclinical RBD in the Korean elderly population. Design: A community-based Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia and time-synchronized video-polysomnography (vPSG) in a laboratory. Setting: Sleep laboratory in a university hospital. Participants: 348 individuals aged 60 years or older. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Among 696 subjects who were invited to participate in a vPSG study, 348 completed the vPSG. RBD was diagnosed when subjects showed REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) in the vPSG, and had history of complex and vigorous behaviors during sleep or abnormal REM sleep behaviors in the vPSG. Subjects with RSWA but no abnormal REM sleep behaviors were diagnosed with subclinical RBD. Seven subjects (5 male, 2 female) had RBD, three of whom (1 male, 2 female) had Parkinson disease. Two subjects reported history of sleep-related injury. The crude prevalence of RBD and idiopathic RBD was 2.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54% to 3.49%) and 1.15% (95% CI = 0.03% to 2.27%). An age and sex-adjusted prevalence estimate of RBD and idiopathic RBD in the Korean elderly was 2.01% and 1.34%. Eighteen subjects were diagnosed with subclinical RBD, and the prevalence of subclinical RBD was estimated to be 4.95%. Conclusions: RBD and subclinical RBD are not rare in the elderly in the community with abnormal REM sleep behaviors of RBD being mild to injurious and violent. The clinical significance and long-term progression of subclinical RBD needs to be further explored, given the prevalence and its possible relation to RBD. Citation: Kang SH; Yoon IY; Lee SD; Han JW; Kim TH; Kim KW. REM sleep behavior disorder in the Korean elderly population: prevalence and clinical characteristics. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1147-1152. PMID:23904674

Kang, Suk-Hoon; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Sang Don; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

2013-01-01

43

Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p?=?0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p?=?0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination. PMID:24884673

2014-01-01

44

The Prevalence of Lumbar Spine Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Its Association with Low Back Pain in Selected Korean Populations  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to evaluate the association of lumbar spine facet joint osteoarthritis (LSFJOA) identified by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with age and low back pain (LBP) in an adult community-based population in Korea. Methods A sample of 472 participants (age range, 20 to 84 years) who underwent MDCT imaging for abdominal or urological lesions, not for chief complaints of LBP, were included in this study. LSFJOA based on MDCT findings was characterized using four grades of osteoarthritis of the facet joints. The prevalence of LSFJOA according to age group (below 40 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and above 70 years), gender, and spinal level was analyzed using chi-square tests and the association between LBP and LSFJOA adjusting for age, gender, and spine level was analyzed using multiple binary logistic regression test. Results Eighty-three study subjects (17.58%) had LSFJOA (grade ? 2). The prevalence of LSFJOA was not associated with gender (p = 0.092). The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age (p = 0.015). The highest prevalence of LSFJOA was observed at L4-5 in men (p = 0.001) and at L5-S1 in women (p = 0.003), and at L5-S1 in the overall population (p = 0.000). LSFJOA was not associated with LBP in men (p = 0.093) but was associated with LBP in women (p = 0.003), especially at L3-4 (p = 0.018) and L5-S1 (p = 0.026). Conclusions The prevalence of LSFJOA based on the computed tomography imaging was 17.58% in the adult community Korean population. The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age, and the highest prevalence was noted at L5-S1. LSFJOA was not associated with LBP at any spinal level and age except at L3-4 and L5-S1 in women. PMID:25436061

Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jaekun; Chang, Hojin

2014-01-01

45

Private religious practice, spiritual coping, social support, and health status among older Korean adult immigrants.  

PubMed

This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems. PMID:25068608

Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

2014-01-01

46

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Hearing Loss and Hearing Aid Use in Korean Elders  

PubMed Central

Background: This study examined hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid usage rates among Korean elders by comparing the differences between those with and without hearing loss, and between those who used and did not use hearing aids. Methods: This study was based on data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010–2012). The study sample consisted of 5,447 Koreans aged ?60 years who received a hearing assessment. Hearing loss was measured using a pure tone audiometry test and classified according to the World Health Organization’s criteria. Hearing aid use was assessed by self-report. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between hearing loss, hearing aid use, and related variables. Results: Hearing loss was found in 16.8% of the elders and only 15.9% of them used a hearing aid. Male (95% CI: 1.27–2.15), tinnitus (95% CI: 1.58–2.32), dizziness (95% CI: 1.05–1.73), and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.32–2.38) were the variables most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment. Tinnitus (95% CI: 1.34–4.13) and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.01–5.02) were strongly associated with hearing aid use after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: More than half of South Korean elders aged ?60 and older have hearing loss but the rate of hearing aid use is very low. An aural public health program should address modifiable risk factors, such as tinnitus and noise exposure, and non-modifiable risk factors associated with hearing loss in the elderly. PMID:25905073

2015-01-01

47

The Impact of HLA and KIR Ligand Mismatching on Unrelated Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Korean Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of HLA and KIR ligand mismatching on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclear. Previous reports have identified considerable ethnic differences in the impact of HLA and KIR ligand mismatches, as well as KIR ligand status, on HSCT; however, to date, no data has been acquired in Korean adult patients. Methods We investigated the association of high-resolution HLA matching on five loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1), KIR ligand mismatching, and KIR ligand status on the outcome of allogeneic HSCT from unrelated donors in 154 Korean adult patients treated at Seoul National University Hospital. Results In a multivariate analysis, less than 9/10 allelic matches in five HLA loci was an independent risk factor for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (grade II to IV) (P=0.019, odds ratio [OR]=2.7). In addition, HLA-A allele mismatching was increasingly prevalent in patients with acute GVHD compared to patients without (61.9% vs. 34.5%, P=0.06). For KIR ligand status, the patient and donor combination of both C1/C1 ligands showed better event-free and overall survival than combinations with C2 ligand patients or donors (P=0.048, P=0.034, respectively) by log-rank test. Conclusions Korean adult transplant patients with less than 9 of 10 HLA allele matches in the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and DQB1 loci have a higher likelihood of developing acute GVHD (grade II to IV). Impact of KIR ligand status on clinical outcome should be further studied in a larger patient population. PMID:25553290

Park, Hyewon; Rho, Eun Youn; In, Ji Won; Kim, Inho; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Shin, Sue; Park, Kyoung Un

2015-01-01

48

A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

49

The Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Wild Korean Water Deer, Korea  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetti infection in wild Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in Korea, by using serology and real-time PCR analyses. One hundred ninety-six sera were collected from 4 provinces and tested for anti-C. burnetii antibody detection, by means of CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit; and C. burnetii IS1111 insertion sequence detection, by means of real-time PCR. Antibodies were detected in 18 of the 196 (9.18%) serum samples, whereas genomes of C. burnetii were detected in 13 of the 196 (6.63%) serum samples. Based on overall high seroprevalence, the public health implications of these findings are important, because they indicate that asymptomatic seropositive or seronegative wild animals may be consistently shedding C. burnetii. This is the first study of C. burnetii prevalence in Korean water deer in the Republic of Korea that has indicated the presence of infected animals throughout the country. PMID:24717533

SHIN, Gee-Wook; KIM, Eun-Ju; LEE, Hae-Beom; CHO, Ho-Seong

2014-01-01

50

The prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in wild Korean water deer, Korea.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetti infection in wild Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in Korea, by using serology and real-time PCR analyses. One hundred ninety-six sera were collected from 4 provinces and tested for anti-C. burnetii antibody detection, by means of CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit; and C. burnetii IS1111 insertion sequence detection, by means of real-time PCR. Antibodies were detected in 18 of the 196 (9.18%) serum samples, whereas genomes of C. burnetii were detected in 13 of the 196 (6.63%) serum samples. Based on overall high seroprevalence, the public health implications of these findings are important, because they indicate that asymptomatic seropositive or seronegative wild animals may be consistently shedding C. burnetii. This is the first study of C. burnetii prevalence in Korean water deer in the Republic of Korea that has indicated the presence of infected animals throughout the country. PMID:24717533

Shin, Gee-Wook; Kim, Eun-Ju; Lee, Hae-Beom; Cho, Ho-Seong

2014-07-01

51

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Thyroid Eye Disease among Korean Dysthyroid Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of thyroid eye disease among dysthyroid Korean patients and to analyze the relationship between demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease. Methods All dysthyroid patients who visited endocrinology clinics in 24 general hospitals in Korea during a chosen one-week period were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease variables were analyzed as risk factors using multivariable regression models to identify independent associations with thyroid eye disease. Results A total of 1,632 dysthyroid patients were included (1,301 females [79.7%] and 331 males [20.3%]). Two hundred eighty-three of these patients (17.3%) had thyroid eye disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, young age, Graves' disease, dermopathy, anti-thyroid medication treatment, and radioiodine treatment were independent risk factors for thyroid eye disease. Conclusions The lower prevalence of thyroid eye disease in dysthyroid Korean patients and the influence of gender on risk factors in this study are novel findings compared to studies performed involving Europeans. Although the risk factors for thyroid eye disease are understood in part, a more in-depth comparative study of gender and ethnic groups is needed to fully understand the biological significance of the demographic factors. PMID:24311923

Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck

2013-01-01

52

Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

2011-01-01

53

Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in…

Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung

2012-01-01

54

Are Korean Adults Meeting the Recommendation for Physical Activity during Leisure Time?  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine if Korean adults meet their physical activity recommendations during their leisure time to promote a healthy living. [Subjects and Methods] The sample included South Korean adults, aged over 20, who were currently residing in K City, South Korea. The author used a quota sampling technique to select 1,000 samples. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 845 questionnaires were used to conduct a ?2 test. [Results] It was revealed by the questionnaire that there was a clear distinction in the categories of very high level activity (11.0%), high level activity (29.1%), acceptable level activity (12.9%), low level activity (9.7%), and inactive level of physical activity (38.3%) in Korean adults’ leisure time. [Conclusions] The most interesting finding was that more than half of Korean adults do reach the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of moderate activity, on three or more days a week for at least three months. The other interesting finding was that the questionnaire is a useful instrument suitable for analyzing the recommendations of physical activity, comprising frequency, intensity, time, and overall duration. PMID:25013279

Cho, Min-Haeng

2014-01-01

55

Changing Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infections in Korean Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the changing prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infection in children, of different age groups, with recurrent abdominal pain over a 10-year period. Methods Children with recurrent abdominal pain who visited the pediatric outpatient clinic at university hospital were screened for H. pylori. Children were divided into 3 age categories of 4-5, 6-11, and 12-16 years. To study the changes in the annual prevalence rates of H. pylori infection, the study period was divided into 3 time periods: 2004-2007, 2008-2010, and 2011-2014. Urea breath test was performed for all children aged 4-16 years, with a cut-off value of 4.0‰ for children aged ?6 years and 7‰ for children aged <6 years. Results A total of 2,530 children (1,191 boys) with a mean age of 10.0±3.0 years (range, 4.0-16.9 years) were included in the study. The total prevalence of H. pylori infection was 7.4% (187/2,530). The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain was 8.0% (70/873) in 2004-2007, 7.7% (51/666) in 2008-2010, and 6.7% (66/991) in the 2011-2014. Nevertheless, a significant difference was observed in the prevalence rate between children <12 years old and ?12 years of age (p=0.018). Conclusion The prevalence of H. pylori infection in Korean children with recurrent abdominal pain was 7.4%, showing no significant decrease in the last 11 years; however, the prevalence rate in children <12 years old was significantly lower than that in those ?12 years old.

Jang, Kyung Mi; Choe, Jae Young; Hong, Suk Jin; Park, Hyo Jung; Chu, Mi Ae; Cho, Seung Man; Kim, Jung Mi

2015-01-01

56

Role of Children in End-of-Life Treatment Planning Among Korean American Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make

Eunjeong Ko; Cathy S. Berkman

2010-01-01

57

Prevalence of human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in Korean commercial sex workers.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the prevalence of sexually transmitted viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in Korean commercial sex workers (CSWs), we selected 188 CSWs (age range 20-44 years, median age 24 years) who regularly visited one public health center in Seoul, Korea. HPV genotypes were analyzed by using a HPV DNA chip, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect type-specific IgG against HSV2 antibody identifying seropositivity for HSV2 infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with specific primers to detect HPV and HSV1/2 in cervical swabs from the CSWs. The prevalence of HPV infection was 83.5% in 188 cervical swab specimens and the main high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV16, 18, 56, and 58. The principal low-risk HPV genotypes were HPV6 and 11. The prevalence of HSV1/2 DNA was 13.8% and HSV2 seroprevalence was 86.2%. These results suggest that high frequencies of HPV and HSV2 infection might contribute to the rapid spread of STD viruses in CSWs in Korea. Additionally, an understanding of why high-risk HPV genotypes are so prevalent could provide guidelines for prophylactic vaccine development in Korea. PMID:18309283

Yun, Haesun; Park, Jeongjoo; Choi, Inkyung; Kee, Meekyung; Choi, Byeongsun; Kim, Sungsoon

2008-02-01

58

Prevalence and seroprevalence of low-risk human papillomavirus in Korean women.  

PubMed

Little is known about the prevalence and seroprevalence of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and the risk factors for HPV infection in Korean women. We determined the prevalence of low-risk HPV among 902 women aged 20-59 yr and the seroprevalence of low-risk HPV subtypes 6 and 11 among 1,094 women aged 9-59 yr in the general population. Genital low-risk HPV DNA was assessed by liquid hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibody titers against HPV 6 and 11 were measured by a multiplexed competitive luminex technique. The prevalence of genital low-risk HPV was 4.9%. It reached its highest peak of 10.3% at 20-29 yr of age and a second peak of 3.2% at 50-59 yr of age. The seroprevalence of HPV 6 or 11 was 9.4%. It reached its highest peak of 12.7% at 25-29 yr of age and a second peak of 12.3% at 50-59 yr of age. In multivariable analysis, the number of lifetime sexual partners and past history of sexually transmitted diseases were associated with the seroprevalence but not prevalence of HPV. It is suggested that younger women should receive prophylactic HPV vaccination before they become sexually active and exposed to HPV in their 20s. This study provides baseline data for developing HPV vaccination programs and monitoring vaccine efficacy in Korea. PMID:22876060

Kim, Min-A; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Bo Wook; Chay, Doobyung; Park, Dong Choon; Kim, Seok Mo; Kang, Eun-Suk; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Chi-Heum; Shin, Hai-Rim; Seo, Kyung

2012-08-01

59

Cultural Relevance of Adult Attachment: Rasch Modeling of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships in a Korean Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cultural relevance of adult attachment within a Korean sample (N = 390) using Rasch rating scale modeling. The psychometric properties of scores from the Korean version of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships, comprised of two subscales of Anxiety (self) and Avoidance (other), were assessed. Results obtained from…

Lee, Young-Sun; Grossman, Jennifer; Krishnan, Anita

2008-01-01

60

Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n?=?7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI?25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.45–0.89 for ?2 times/day vs. ?1 time/month; p for trend?=?0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.83; 95% CI?=?0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.02, OR?=?0.78; 95% CI?=?0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:24915202

Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

2014-01-01

61

Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2013-01-01

62

Glycated haemoglobin as a predictor for metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Aims With increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS), the importance of early detection of insulin resistance is emphasized. However, a simple and practical method of measurement is not readily available. Therefore, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c for predicting impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and MS and its association with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in the normal range of HbA1c levels in non-diabetic Korean subjects. Methods In 40 155 participants (median age 40 years) participating in a medical check-up programme, analysis of the distribution of HbA1c and its association with various cardiovascular risk factors was performed. In 22 465 selected participants, an analysis was conducted of the ability of HbA1c to predict MS and IFG. Anthropometric measurements were made in all subjects and fasting glucose, lipid profiles and HbA1c were measured. The presence of MS was defined according to the definitions of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guideline and the new International Diabetes Federation (IDF) guideline. Patients with diabetes were excluded from the study. Results The incidence of MS was 12.2% according to ATP III criteria and 7.6% according to IDF criteria. When subjects were grouped by quartile of HbA1c, cardiovascular risk factors significantly increased as the HbA1c increased. An HbA1c of 5.45% predicted the presence of MS (ATP III: sensitivity/specificity 57.4/64.3%, area under the curve 64.8%; IDF: sensitivity 60.2/63.4%, area under the curve 66.1%) and fasting blood glucose ? 5.6 mmol/l (sensitivity/specificity 53.7/70%, area under the curve 66.1%). When the analyses were done separately by gender, female subjects showed higher cut-off of HbA1c for the prediction of MS (5.55% for both ATP III and IDF criteria). Conclusions HbA1c increased as cardiovascular risk factors increased and HbA1c of 5.45% predicted the presence of MS. HbA1c might be a predictive measure of IFG and MS, and also cardiovascular risk factors in the Korean population. Diabet. Med. 24, 848–854 (2007) PMID:17650158

Sung, K C; Rhee, E J

2007-01-01

63

Assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass by bioimpedance in older community-dwelling Korean adults.  

PubMed

It is crucial to investigate age-related body composition changes in geriatric medicine. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is easy to perform, non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, and portable. However, the accuracy of measurement by BIA is questionable. To develop and cross-validate the predictive equation for estimated appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) using BIA in older community-dwelling Korean adults, we include two cohorts: study participants aged 65-80 years in the Ansung cohort for the Korean Health and Genome Study (men, n=285; women, n=435) used as equation-generating group, and Korean Longitudinal Study of Health Aging (KLoSHA) as cross-validation group (men, n=202; women, n=208). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and BIA were performed in both cohorts. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we drew a predictive equation for DXA-measured ASM by BIA resistance. From DXA and BIA measurements in the Ansung cohort, we generated the estimated equation ASM (kg)=[(Ht(2)/R×0.104)+(age×-0.050)+(gender×2.954)+(weight×0.055)]+5.663 where Ht is height in centimeters; R is BIA resistance in 250?; for gender, men=1 and women=0; and age is in years. We validated this equation in the KLoSHA. The r(2) of the estimated ASM was 0.890. This BIA equation provides valid estimates of ASM in older Korean adults. PMID:24309033

Kim, Jung Hee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Kim, Ki Woong; Lim, Jae Young; Cho, Nam H; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

2014-01-01

64

Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males  

PubMed Central

Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (?eGFR/yr). The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ?eGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8%) of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years), 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years), and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years). The median decrease in ?eGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ?eGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with <5.3% decrease in ?eGFR/yr (3.16% versus 0.00%; P = 0.049). The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decrease in ?eGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ?eGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice. PMID:24895568

Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

2014-01-01

65

End-of-Life Communication: Ethnic Differences Between Korean American and Non-Hispanic White Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined ethnic differences in end-of-life communication between Korean American and non-Hispanic White older adults using the Health Belief Model as a conceptual framework. Method: A cross-sectional design was employed to survey 217 community-dwelling older adults (112 Korean Americans and 105 Non-Hispanic Whites). Results: Half of the participants had never held end-of-life discussions with significant others. Non-Hispanic Whites

Eunjeong Ko; Jaehoon Lee

2009-01-01

66

Comparison of Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Between Korean Emigrants and Host Country Residents in Japan and China-The Korean Emigrant Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between Korean emigrants (KEs) and their host country residents in Japan and China. METHODS The Korean Emigrant Study (KES) is a cohort study initiated in 2005 to elucidate the effect of genetic susceptibility and environmental change on hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Equal numbers of KEs and host country residents, aged 30 or over, were recruited from three regions; Kobe-Osaka in Japan (total number=965), Yanbian in China (n=1,019), and Changchun in China (n=949). RESULTS The age-adjusted prevalences of metabolic syndrome among KEs in Kobe-Osaka were significantly higher than those among Japanese (in men 24.0% vs. 15.6%, p=0.04, in women 8.4% vs. 2.7%, p=0.01), while the age-adjusted prevalences among KEs in Changchun were similar to those among Chinese (in men 11.7% vs. 16.1%, p=0.37, in women 28.3% vs. 30.1%, p=0.91). The age-adjusted prevalences were generally higher in Yanbian than other regions, and KEs had higher prevalence than Chinese in men but not in women (in men 37.9% vs. 28.3%, p=0.03, women 46.0% vs. 50.6%, p=0.44). The components with significant ethnic differences in prevalence were high blood pressure and abdominal obesity in Japan, and triglyceride in China. The most influential component in diagnosing metabolic syndrome was abdominal obesity in men and triglyceride in women. CONCLUSION The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in KEs than in host country residents in Japan but not in China. Abdominal obesity and triglyceride are both discriminating and influential components in metabolic syndrome. PMID:21191458

Kim, Mi Kyung; Li, Zhong Min; Oh, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Soo Ryang; Taniguchi, Miyuki; Fang, Jinnv

2010-01-01

67

One portion size of foods frequently consumed by Korean adults  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to define a one portion size of food items frequently consumed for convenient use by Koreans in food selection, diet planning, and nutritional evaluation. We analyzed using the original data on 5,436 persons (60.87%) aged 20 ~ 64 years among 8,930 persons to whom NHANES 2005 and selected food items consumed by the intake frequency of 30 or higher among the 500 most frequently consumed food items. A total of 374 varieties of food items of regular use were selected. And the portion size of food items was set on the basis of the median (50th percentile) of the portion size for a single intake by a single person was analyzed. In cereals, the portion size of well polished rice was 80 g. In meats, the portion size of Korean beef cattle was 25 g. Among vegetable items, the portion size of Baechukimchi was 40 g. The portion size of the food items of regular use set in this study will be conveniently and effectively used by general consumers in selecting food items for a nutritionally balanced diet. In addition, these will be used as the basic data in setting the serving size in meal planning. PMID:20198213

Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Hyun, Wha-Jin; Lee, Sim-Yeol; Park, Hong-Ju; Kim, Se-Na

2010-01-01

68

Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California  

PubMed Central

This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms. PMID:20886700

Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong

2010-01-01

69

Predictors of the Severity and Serious Outcomes of Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Differences in definitions of the condition, relevant triggers, and the geographical locations of study centers, cause estimates of the prevalence of anaphylaxis to vary. Recent epidemiological data indicate that the incidence of anaphylaxis is rising. Methods To investigate the causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis in Korean adults, factors associated with the severity of the condition, and serious outcomes, a retrospective medical record review was performed on adult patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2007 and 2011 in 15 University Hospitals of South Korea. Results A total of 1,806 cases (52% male, age 16-86 years) were reported. Cutaneous symptoms (84.0%), combined with respiratory (53.9%) and/or cardiovascular (55.4%) symptoms, were the most frequent presentations. Using a recognized grading system, 1,776 cases could be classified as either mild, 340; moderate, 690; or severe, 746. Although eliciting factors varied significantly by age, gender, and regional and seasonal factors, drugs (46.5%; including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and radiocontrast media) were the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by foods (24.2%), insect stings (16.4%), exercise (5.9%), and unknown etiology (7.0%). All of age, multi-organ involvement, a history of allergic disease, and drug-induced anaphylaxis, were significant predictors of serious outcomes requiring hospital admission or prolongation of hospital stay. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed for 7.4% of reported cases. Conclusions The principal causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adults were drugs, food, and insect stings. Drug-associated anaphylaxis, a history of allergic disease, multi-organ involvement, and older age, were identified as predictors of serious outcomes. PMID:25553259

Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Hur, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heon; Choi, Gil-Soon; Lee, Soo-Keol

2015-01-01

70

Advance Directives Among Korean American Older Adults: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study objective was to explore knowledge, attitudes, and behavior about advance directives and how cultural values influence these beliefs. Three focus groups with 23 Korean American older adults were conducted. Advance directives were seen as helpful for ensuring that preferences for unwanted end-of-life treatment are honored and for relieving the decision-making burden on family members. However, some viewed completing

Eunjeong Ko; Cathy S. Berkman

2012-01-01

71

The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.  

PubMed

The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population. PMID:25863477

Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

2015-05-01

72

Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults  

PubMed Central

A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

73

Vitamin D Status and Its Association with the SCORAD Score and Serum LL-37 Level in Korean Adults and Children with Atopic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D insufficiency could be associated with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To examine vitamin D status and the relations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, SCORAD score, serum LL-37 level, and body mass index (BMI) in Korean AD patients, and to explore whether these associations differ between adults and children. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, serum LL-37, and clinical features were analyzed in a total of 72 Korean patients with AD (39 adults and 33 children) and 140 healthy control subjects (70 adults and 70 children). Results Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly reduced in children with AD (15.06±4.64 ng/ml) compared with normal children in the control group (16.25±6.60 ng/ml) (p=0.036). Significant inverse correlations were found between BMI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (r=-0.315, p=0.007) and between the SCORAD score and serum LL-37 level (r=-0.3, p=0.011) in the total AD patients. Conclusion The results showed that serum vitamin D levels were lower in children with AD than in healthy children; however, the same relation was not observed between adults with AD and healthy adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not significantly correlated with AD severity or serum LL-37 levels in our study population. PMID:25673925

Kong, Tae Seok; Kim, Min Ho; Chae, Jeong Don; Lee, June Hyun Kyung; Son, Sook-Ja

2015-01-01

74

Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults  

PubMed Central

The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

2014-01-01

75

Nursing assistants' communication styles in korean american older adults with dementia: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

As ethnic diversity increases in the United States with the anticipated increase in dementia, it is critical to understand the implications of dementia and culturally appropriate communication for ethnic minority older adults with dementia. Utilizing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, this article describes the relationship between nursing assistants' communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia, focused on Korean American older adults with dementia residing in nursing homes. The discussion includes reviewing currently available studies, nursing implications, and suggestions for future studies. PMID:25139299

Kim, Haesook; Woods, Dianna Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Ruiz, Maria Elena; Salem, Benissa; Jeffers-Skrine, Kia; Salem, Nancy

2015-03-01

76

Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Cancer Survivors in Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated not only with increased risk of cancer incidence, but also influences prognosis, and the quality of life of the cancer survivors. Thus, smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis is necessary. However, smoking behavior among Korean cancer-survivors is yet unknown. Materials and Methods We investigated the smoking status of 23770 adults, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the Health Interview Survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010. Data on the cancer diagnosis and smoking history were obtained from an interview conducted by trained personals. "Cancer-survivor" was defined as anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer by a physician regardless of time duration since diagnosis. Smoking status was classified into "never-smoker", "former-smoker", and "current-smoker". Former-smoker was further divided into "cessation before diagnosis" and "cessation after diagnosis". Results Overall, 2.1% of Korean adults were cancer-survivors. The smoking rate of Korean cancer-survivors was lower than that of non-cancer controls (7.8±1.3% vs. 26.4±0.4%, p<0.001). However, 53.4% of the cancer-survivors continued to smoke after their cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, male gender [odds ratio (OR), 6.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.62-15.31], middle-aged group (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.12-6.72), the lowest income (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.19-14.15), living with smoking family member(s) (OR, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.42-12.48), and the poor self-perceived health status (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.01-7.71) were independently associated with persistent smoking among Korean cancer-survivors. Conclusion The smoking rate among Korean cancer survivors is low. However, the smoking cessation rate after the cancer diagnosis is also low. This mandates comprehensive and systematic intervention for smoking cessation among cancer-survivors. PMID:25684009

Park, Jin Joo

2015-01-01

77

HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

2014-07-01

78

Acculturation and BMI Among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Adults  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to examine the association between acculturation and BMI among Asian Americans using multiple measures of acculturation. Data of 847 Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese recruited for a health education program in Maryland during 2009 to 2010 were used. Acculturation was measured by the short version of Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) and its individual components. Height and weight were measured by trained staff. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between acculturation and BMI. After adjusting for age, gender, education, income, marital status, and ethnicity, SL-ASIA (? = 0.71, SE = 0.28), having education in the US (? = 0.56, SE = 0.28), younger age of arrival (0–5 years: ? = 3.32, SE = 0.76, 6–10 years: ? = 1.55, SE = 0.78), self identified as Americans (? = 1.51, SE = 0.77) and equal preference of Asian/American food in restaurants (? = 0.92, SE = 0.28) were significantly associated with increased BMI. The association between acculturation and BMI was stronger among men than women, strongest among Chinese and weakest among Vietnamese. Acculturation was moderately associated with increased BMI among Asian Americans and this association varied by measures of acculturation. The association of acculturation and BMI was moderated by sex and ethnicity groups. PMID:21922164

Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon

2013-01-01

79

Spousal Support in Diabetes Self-Management Among Korean Immigrant Older Adults.  

PubMed

The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 20xx; x(x):xxx-xxx.]. PMID:25420183

Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

2014-12-01

80

Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: A Q methodology approach  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. Methods The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents’ ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. Results The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented–self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented–self-recognition type, reflection-oriented–self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented–self-maintenance type. Conclusions The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. PMID:22583944

Kae Hwa, JO; Gyeong-Ju, AN; DOORENBOS, Ardith Z.

2013-01-01

81

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Workers by Occupational Group: Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased rapidly in South Korea over the past 10 years. However, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in workers grouped according to the specific type of work is not well understood in Korea. In this study, we assessed the differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and evaluated the risk of the metabolic syndrome among occupational groups. Methods From the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010), 3,303 employed participants were included in this study. The unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalences of the metabolic syndrome were estimated and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted using the presence of the metabolic syndrome as a dependent variable, and adjusting for age, education level, household income, drinking behavior, smoking status, physical activity, work hours, and work scheduling pattern. Results Among male workers, non-manual workers had the greatest age-adjusted prevalence (26.4%, 95% CI: 22.3-30.5%) among the occupational groups. In a logistic regression analysis, male manual workers had a significantly lower odds ratio for the metabolic syndrome relative to non-manual workers (0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.85). Conclusion Our study demonstrated differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome by occupational group and identified the greatest risk for the metabolic syndrome in male non-manual workers. PMID:24472422

2013-01-01

82

Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.  

PubMed

Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues. PMID:24066632

Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

2013-10-01

83

The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

Nho, Sung Hyun

2012-01-01

84

Psychosocial, Physical, and Autonomic Correlates of Depression in Korean Adults: Results from a County-Based Depression Screening Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial and neurophysiological correlates of depression in a large county-based cohort of Korean adults. Methods We recruited 2355 adults from a rural county-based health promotion program. The following psychometric scales were used: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to evaluate stress, and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was used to determine perceived social support. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess neurophysiological properties. The psychosocial and neurophysiological variables of adults with depression (CES-D score ?25) and without depression (CES-D score <25) were statistically compared. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with depression. Results We estimated that 17.7% of the subjects had depression, which was associated with old age, being female, being single, less religious affiliation, high education, low body mass index (BMI), low levels of aerobic exercise, low social support, and a low HRV triangular index. The explanatory factors of depression included high education, less religious affiliation, low levels of current aerobic exercise, low BMI, and low social support. Conclusion Given the relatively high prevalence of overall depression, subsyndromal depression should also be regarded as an important issue in screening. The independent factors associated with depression suggest that practical psychosocial intervention, including brief psychotherapy, aerobic exercise, and other self-help methods should be considered. In addition, the HRV results suggest that further depression screening accompanied by neurophysiological features would require fine methodological modifications with proactive efforts to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:25395971

Kim, Ki Won; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Shin, Jin Ho; Choi, Bo Yul; Nam, Jung Hyun

2014-01-01

85

Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and stylized ORNL phantom. The armless KTMAN-1 can be applied to dosimetry for computed tomography or lateral x-ray examination, while the whole body KTMAN-2 can be used for radiation protection dosimetry.

Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, NSC 202, Gainesville, Florida 32606 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang, Sungdong, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-02-15

86

Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

2014-01-01

87

Prevalence of Unhealthy Lifestyle Patterns Among Overweight and Obese Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the prevalence of unhealthy eating, exercise, and coping pattern traits among a large sample of overweight and obese adults. We analyzed responses to a 53-item lifestyle pattern questionnaire posted on a commercial weight loss program Web site collected from 2004 through 2008. Subjects included 446,608 healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults, 18–65 years old, average age 31.9

Robert F. Kushner; Seung W. Choi

2010-01-01

88

Awareness and completion of advance directives in older korean-american adults.  

PubMed

There has been growing concern about racial and ethnic disparities in completion rates of advance directives (ADs) in community-dwelling older populations. Although differences in AD completion rates between non-Hispanic whites and African Americans have been reported, not much is known about the awareness and completion of ADs in other groups of ethnic minorities. Using a sample of community-dwelling Korean-American older adults (n = 675) as a target, factors associated with their awareness and completion of ADs were explored. Guided by Andersen's behavioral health model, predisposing (age, sex, marital status, education), need (chronic conditions, functional disability), and enabling (health insurance, acculturation) variables were included in the separate logistic regression models of AD awareness and AD completion. In both models, acculturation was found to be a significant predictor; those who were more acculturated were more likely to be aware of ADs and to have completed ADs. This study contributes to the knowledge about the role of acculturation in explaining AD awareness and completion in Korean-American older adults and provides recommendations for possible AD educational interventions for this older adult minority population. PMID:25803787

Dobbs, Debra; Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Meng, Hongdao

2015-03-01

89

Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ?16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ?16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

2014-01-01

90

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... non-Hispanic Asian (11.4%) women. The only difference by sex was found among non-Hispanic black adults: 56. ... Figure 2. Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity, by sex and race and Hispanic origin, ... 1 Significant difference from non-Hispanic Asian. 2 Significant difference from ...

91

Prevalence and Correlates of Exercise Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secondary analysis of data from the 1990 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of exercise among adults aged 55 and older and identify correlates of exercise in this population. Walking and participation in other exercises were the exercise variables, and the explanatory variables included sociodemographic measures, self-reported

Hirsch S. Ruchlin; Mark S. Lachs

1999-01-01

92

Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?  

PubMed

The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

2014-08-13

93

Knee Pain and Its Severity in Elderly Koreans: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impact on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the epidemiology (prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life) of knee pain and its severity in elderly Koreans. The subjects (n=3,054) were participants aged ?50 yr from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010. Knee pain was defined as pain in the knee lasting ?30 days during the most recent 3 months; severity was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. EQ-5D was used to measure quality of life. The prevalence of knee pain was 23.1% (11.7% in men, 31.9% in women). The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe knee pain were 4.3%, 9.1%, and 9.7%, respectively (2.8%, 5.4%, and 3.5% in men and 5.4%, 12.0%, and 14.4% in women). Old age, female gender, a low level of education, a manual occupation, obesity, and radiographic osteoarthritis were risk factors for knee pain, and were associated with increased severity of knee pain. Excluding men with mild knee pain, people with knee pain had significantly lower quality of life than those without knee pain. Early interventional approaches are needed to reduce the medical, social, and economic burden of knee pain in elderly Koreans. PMID:24339713

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Sung, Nak-Jeong

2013-01-01

94

Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.  

PubMed

This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements. PMID:25297054

Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

2014-10-01

95

Prevalence of asthma in adults in Busselton, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate whether the prevalence of asthma in adults increased over a nine year interval. DESIGN--Serial cross sectional studies of the population with a protocol that included both subjective and objective measurements. SETTING--Busselton, Western Australia. SUBJECTS--A random sample of 553 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1981, and of 1028 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Respiratory symptoms measured

J. K. Peat; M. Haby; J. Spijker; G. Berry; A. J. Woolcock

1992-01-01

96

Detoxification of chlorella supplement on heterocyclic amines in Korean young adults.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been established as carcinogenic chemicals in Western diet. This study was performed to estimate HCA exposure levels in Korean daily life and to assess the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to detoxify carcinogenic HCAs in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with chlorella supplement (N=6, all females, age: 27.17±7.73yr) for 2 weeks. We analyzed HCAs in hydrolyzed urine specimens using LC/TOF-MS. As results, urinary levels of MeIQx, PhIP, and IQx-8-COOH were 323.36±220.11ng/L, 351.59±254.93ng/L, and 130.85±83.22ng/L, respectively. Effects of chlorella to reduce urinary MeIQx were marginally significant (before, 430±226.86pg/mL vs. after, 174.45±101.65pg/mL: 0.05Korean young adults are not lower than those in the Western world. In addition, the effects of chlorella's to detoxify HCAs likely occur by interfering e with absorption or metabolism. PMID:25590673

Lee, Inyeong; Tran, Minhphuong; Evans-Nguyen, Theresa; Stickle, Dawn; Kim, Soyeon; Han, Jaegab; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

2015-01-01

97

Prevalence of HIV and chronic comorbidities among older adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Limited evidence is available on HIV, aging and comorbidities in sub-Saharan Africa. This article describes the prevalence of HIV and chronic comorbidities among those aged 50 years and older in South Africa using nationally representative data. Design The WHO’s Study of global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) was conducted in South Africa in 2007–2008. SAGE includes nationally representative cohorts of persons aged 50 years and older, with comparison samples of those aged 18–49 years, which aims to study health and its determinants. Methods Logistic and linear regression models were applied to data from respondents aged 50 years and older to determine associations between age, sex and HIV status and various outcome variables including prevalence of seven chronic conditions. Results HIV prevalence among adults aged 50 and older in South Africa was 6.4% and was particularly elevated among Africans, women aged 50–59 and those living in rural areas. Rates of chronic disease were higher among all older adults compared with those aged 18–49. Of those aged 50 years and older, 29.6% had two or more of the seven chronic conditions compared with 8.8% of those aged 18–49 years (P < 0.0001). When controlling for age and sex among those aged 50 and older, BMI was lower among HIV-infected older adults aged 50 and older (27.5 kg/m2) than in HIV-uninfected individuals of the same age (30.6) (P < 0.0001). Grip strength among HIV-infected older adults was significantly (P=0.004) weaker than among similarly-aged HIV-uninfected individuals. Conclusion HIV-infected older adults in South Africa have high rates of chronic disease and weakness. Studies are required to examine HIV diagnostics and treatment instigation rates among older adults to ensure equity of access to quality care, as the number and percentage of older adults living with HIV is likely to increase. PMID:22781177

Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Cumming, Robert G.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Madurai, Lorna; Williams, Sharon; Kowal, Paul

2015-01-01

98

Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI<18.5 kg/m2. Results Of the total sample, 19.5% of males and 10.1% of females were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2). The wealth index showed that 30.9% of the adult population with low a BMI belongs to the poorest 20% of the households while only 9.6% comprised of the richest 20% of the households. Results from logistic regression analysis indicated that both adult men and women who had no education and belonged to the low socioeconomic group had a statistically significant association with low BMI. Among the female adult population, being young and not having watched TV at least once a week were significantly associated with low BMI. For the male adult population, being unmarried was significantly associated with low BMI. Conclusions Programme interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status of adults can use these findings to make appropriate policy, to establish baselines and study nutritional changes over time and its covariates. PMID:25054546

Letamo, Gobopamang; Navaneetham, Kannan

2014-01-01

99

Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional status in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which is being used at the Samsung Medical Center. In total, 305 (190 males and 115 females) participants consented and completed the 3-day diet records and FFQ. Age, gender and energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0.317 (polyunsaturated fatty acid) to 0.748 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.550. The weighted kappa value ranged from 0.18 (vitamin A) to 0.57 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.36. More than 75% of the subjects were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles. The FFQ had reasonably good validity compared with that of another study. Therefore, our FFQ is considered a proper method to assess nutrient intake in healthy Korean adults. PMID:23198024

Na, Youn Ju

2012-01-01

100

Sexism, Ageism and Racism Prevalent Throughout the South Korean System of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean society has for long been shaped by Confucian ideologies wherein age and gender among other factors predetermine one's position in relation to others among friends, family and society as a whole. Especially the determiners pertaining to age and gender lead to sexism and ageism which in essence encompass the widely spread prejudicial…

Jambor, Zoltan Paul

2009-01-01

101

Prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus infection in Korean women as determined by restriction fragment mass polymorphism assay.  

PubMed

The development of a prophylactic vaccine that targets human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 to prevent cervical cancer has increased interest in the ethnic and geographical distributions of HPV genotypes. We investigated HPV prevalence and type distribution by restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) testing a total of 60,775 specimens (aged 18-79 yr, median 44) taken from liquid-based cytology. Overall HPV positive rate of total patients was 34.2%. Among the positive patients, 87.7% was single type infections, and 12.3% was multiple HPV types. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype observed in 2,307 (26.0%), followed by type 52 in 2,269 (25.5%), type 58 in 1,090 (12.3%), type 18 in 633 (7.1%), type 56 in 436 (4.9%). The pattern of high risk-HPV positive rate according to age showed U-shape with a peak in HPV prevalence among women less than 30 yr of age, and a second peak among the older females aged 70 to 79 yr. The leading four high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV-16, HPV-52, HPV-58, and HPV-18 in descending order. In conclusion, this study provides the most representative prevalence and type-specific distribution of HPV among Korean women, and demonstrates that the epidemiology of HPV infection is different from that of other regions of the world. PMID:22969258

Lee, Eun Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Hong, Young-Joon; Cha, Young Joo

2012-09-01

102

Impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of vasospastic angina in korean patients.  

PubMed

Cystatin-C, a marker of mild renal dysfunction, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases including vasospastic angina (VSA). We aimed to investigate the impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of VSA in Korean patients.A total of 549 patients in the VA-KOREA (Vasospastic Angina in KOREA) registry who underwent ergonovine provocation tests were consecutively enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin-C were assessed before angiography.The patients were classified into two groups: the VSA group (n = 149, 27.1%) and the non-VSA group (n = 400). Although eGFR and Cr levels were similar between the two groups, the VSA group had a significantly higher level of cystatin-C (P < 0.05). A high level of cystatin-C (second tertile, hazard ratio 1.432; 95% confidence interval [1.1491.805]; P = 0.026, third tertile, 1.947 [1.132-2.719]; P = 0.003) and current smoking (2.710 [1.415-4.098]; P < 0.001) were independently associated with the prevalence of VSA. Furthermore, the highest level of cystatin-C (> 0.96 ng/mL) had a significant impact on the incidence of multivessel spasm (2.608 [1.061-4.596]; P = 0.037).A high level of cystatin-C was independently associated with the prevalence of VSA and with a high-risk type of VSA in Korean patients, suggesting that proactive investigation of VSA should be considered for patients with mild renal dysfunction indicated by elevated cystatin-C. PMID:25742943

Lee, Su Nam; Shin, Dong Il; Jung, Mi-Hyang; Choi, Ik Jun; Seo, Suk Min; Her, Sung Ho; Kim, Pum-Joon; Moon, Keon-Woong; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Baek, Sang Hong; Seung, Ki-Bae

2015-01-21

103

What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

2005-01-01

104

Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ?40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of???40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ?50 (OR?=?3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR?=?1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR?=?1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR?=?2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR?=?1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI???30 Kg/meter squared (OR?=?2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

2014-01-01

105

Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

2014-01-01

106

Nonlinear regression equations for segmental mass-inertial characteristics of Korean adults estimated using three-dimensional range scan data.  

PubMed

Human modeling and the biomechanical analysis of human movement require the accurate estimation of body segment parameters for various populations and individuals. In this study, the body characteristics of adult Koreans were investigated using three-dimensional range scan data for 40 males and 40 females aged between 18 and 59 years obtained from the SizeKorea anthropometric database. Each subject was divided into 16 segments, and the mass-inertial parameters of each segment were calculated under the assumption of a uniform density distribution for the segment. The length and at least one circumference of each segment were determined from the scan data for that segment. Nonlinear regression equations were then derived based on the segment lengths and circumferences. The body segment parameters of Korean adults can be estimated using these equations if the required dimensions are measured directly or derived from an anthropometric database. PMID:20797694

Ma, Yanzhao; Lee, Kunwoo; Li, Linlin; Kwon, Junghoon

2011-01-01

107

Perceived Neighborhood Environment Affecting Physical and Mental Health: A Study with Korean American Older Adults in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how subjective perceptions of the neighborhood environment (e.g., perceived ethnic density, safety, social\\u000a cohesion, and satisfaction) influenced the physical and mental health of Korean American older adults. Using data from 420\\u000a residents of the New York City metropolitan area (M\\u000a age = 71.6, SD = 7.59), health perceptions and depressive symptoms were estimated with hierarchical regression models entered\\u000a in the order

Soonhee Roh; Yuri Jang; David A. Chiriboga; Kyung Hwa Kwag; Sunhee Cho; Kunsook Bernstein

108

No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Methods Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Korean version was used to evaluate neuroticism, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR)-Korean version was used to evaluate body dissatisfaction, and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES)-Korean version was used to evaluate self-esteem. The 5-HTTLPR genotype by neuroticism (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total BDDE-SR score, and 5-HTTLPR genotype by BDDE-SR (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total SES score. Results The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism (high : low) with respect to body dissatisfaction showed no main effects of genotype whereas neuroticism did influence the BDDE-SR score and no interaction of the genotype with neuroticism. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and BDDE-SR (high : low) with respect to self-esteem score showed no main effects of genotype whereas BDDE-SR did influence the self-esteem score and no interaction of the genotype with body dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and neuroticism does not affect body dissatisfaction and an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and body dissatisfaction does not affect self-esteem in a young adult Korean population. PMID:25598828

Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan

2014-01-01

109

Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan’s day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE?22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11?MMSE?21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE?10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

2014-01-01

110

Prevalence and factors associated with frailty among Peruvian older adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval "Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara") were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: (1) unintentional weight-loss, (2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), (3) self-reported exhaustion, and (4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-m walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Parodi, José F; Wong, Rebeca

2014-01-01

111

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Frailty Among Peruvian Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval “Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara”) were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: 1) unintentional weight-loss, 2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), 3) self-reported exhaustion, and 4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-meter walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M.; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Snih, Soham Al; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Parodi, José F.; Wong, Rebeca

2013-01-01

112

Age- and Sex-Specific Relationships between Household Income, Education, and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Methods Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. Results The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected. Conclusions We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations. PMID:25622031

Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

2015-01-01

113

Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (? 40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV1/FVC ratio before (r = -0.276, p < 0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r = -0.115, p = 0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV1/FVC ratio (? = -0.017, p = 0.001, adjusted R(2) = 0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV1/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR = 0.007, 95% CI = 0.000-0.329) and Model 2 (OR = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.000-0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. PMID:25460646

Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

2015-01-01

114

Prevalence of Back Problems in 1069 Adults With Idiopathic Scoliosis and 158 Adults Without Scoliosis.  

PubMed

Study Design. Multi-center case-control studyObjective. To investigate the prevalence of back problems in adults with idiopathic scoliosis.Summary of Background Data. Information on the prevalence of back problems in adults with idiopathic scoliosis is scarce, especially in untreated individuals, males and individuals with an age at onset of the scoliosis of less than 10 years.Methods. 1069 individuals with idiopathic scoliosis and 158 individuals without scoliosis, all aged 20-65 years, answered a questionnaire on back problems. Individuals with scoliosis were diagnosed between ages 4 and 20 years and any treatment was terminated before age 20. Logistic regression or ANCOVA was used for group comparisons.Results. Mean (SD) age at the time of investigation in individuals with scoliosis (123 men and 946 women) was 41 (9) years, and in individuals without scoliosis (75 men and 83 women) 45 (13) years. 374 individuals with scoliosis were untreated, 451 had been brace treated and 244 surgically treated. The mean prevalence of back problems was 64% in the individuals with scoliosis and 29% in the individuals without scoliosis (p<0.001). Among the untreated individuals with scoliosis, 69% reported back problems, among the brace treated 61%, and among the surgically treated 64% (p = 0.06). When comparing females and males with scoliosis, and individuals with juvenile and adolescent scoliosis, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of back problems (p = 0.10 and p = 0.23, respectively).Conclusion. Adults with idiopathic scoliosis have a higher prevalence of back problems than individuals without scoliosis. Treatment, gender and juvenile or adolescent onset of diagnosis was not related to the prevalence of back problems in adulthood. PMID:24718070

Grauers, A; Topalis, C; Möller, H; Normelli, H; Karlsson, Mk; Danielsson, A; Gerdhem, P

2014-04-01

115

Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.  

PubMed

The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

2009-01-01

116

Suboptimal Effectiveness of the 2011–2012 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Adult Korean Populations  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness of the 2011–2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications. Materials and Methods A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons)]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview. Results The VE of the 2011–2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1) for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2) for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1) among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2) among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5) among those aged ?65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%). Conclusions The 2011–2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations. PMID:25815717

Choi, Won Suk; Noh, Ji Yun; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Seo, Yu Bin; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Park, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Soo; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

2015-01-01

117

Variable Association between Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities have been strongly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Little is known, however, about the association between individual components of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities, especially in Asian populations. Methods We examined clinical and laboratory data from 31,399 subjects (age 20 to 89 years) who underwent medical check-ups. ECG abnormalities were divided into minor and major abnormalities based on Novacode criteria. Ischemic ECG findings were separately identified and analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rates of ECG abnormalities were significantly higher in subjects with than in those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). Ischemic ECG was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in all age groups of both sexes, except for younger women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was independently associated with ischemic ECG (odds ratio, 2.30 [2.04 to 2.62]; p < 0.01), after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Of the metabolic syndrome components, hyperglycemia in younger subjects and hypertension in elderly subjects were major factors for ischemic ECG changes, whereas hypertriglyceridemia was not an independent risk factor in any age group. The association between ischemic ECG findings and central obesity was weaker in women than in men. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with ECG abnormalities, especially ischemic ECG findings, in Koreans. The association between each component of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities varied according to age and sex. PMID:20526391

Kim, Chul-Hee; Ko, Kwan-Ho; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

2010-01-01

118

Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest. PMID:24228237

Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

2013-01-01

119

High Prevalence of Self-Reported Photophobia in Adult ADHD  

PubMed Central

Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N?=?494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances. PMID:25540636

Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

2014-01-01

120

Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ?49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ?80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ?13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

2014-01-01

121

The relationship between metabolic conditions and prevalence of periodontal disease in rural Korean elderly.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the duration and number of components of metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease among rural elderly in Korea over 60 years old. This longitudinal study consisted of 399 participants who underwent regular health examinations at Seongju-gun Public Health Center from 2000 to 2007. The components of metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia) were evaluated from clinical records of Seongju-gun Public Health Center, which were recorded from 2000 to 2007, and periodontal examination by Community Periodontal Index, recorded from 2006 to 2007. Participants suffering from longer durations of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were more likely to have periodontal disease. Individuals with a greater number of metabolic syndrome components were more likely to have periodontal disease. Older rural Koreans with components of metabolic syndrome have unmet periodontal treatment needs. Medical and dental professionals need to coordinated systemic and oral care for these people. PMID:24075494

Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Wook; Choi, Youn-Hee; Mechant, Anwar T; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Hee-Kyung

2014-01-01

122

Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, ?-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake. PMID:21103089

Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung

2010-01-01

123

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht, Iran, enrolled in a cross-sectional study. For each individual a detailed questionnaire based on the world health organization (WHO) guidelines in order to diagnosis of the lesions was filled and it contained all the required data. Participants were divided into two groups with and without oral mucosal lesions and oral mucosal lesions were divided into two groups with and without. Demographic characteristics and clinical information including age, sex, smoking (cigarette and tobacco), opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene were collected and compared between these two groups. Results The prevalence of mucosal lesions in our study was 19.4%. Our data demonstrated higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in males and young adults (30-40 years). The most common mucosal lesion among our participants was Fissured tongue(4%), followed by Fordyce granules(2.8%), geographic tongue(2.6%) , Pigmentation(2.5%), Candida(1.8%), Smoker Plate(1.6%), lingual Varices(1.5%), Petechiae(1.4%) and lingual labial(1.4%) . Leukoplakia was observed only in two people (0.1%).No case of malignant lesions was detected. No statistically significant difference was confirmed between the two groups regarding smoking, opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene. Conclusions Our data has provided baseline information about epidemiologic aspects of oral mucosal lesions which can be valuable in organized national program targeting on oral health and hygiene in the society. PMID:24396581

Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

2013-01-01

124

Prevalence and predictors for periodontitis among adults in China, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although the interrelationship between poor oral health and chronic diseases is well established, few related studies are available in China. In this study, the prevalence of severe periodontitis and its association with chronic diseases among adults in China have been explored. Design During China's 2010 Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance (CCDRFS) survey among adults aged 18 and older, 3 out of 162 surveillance points and the entire sample from each point (600×3=1,800 subjects) were selected as pilot study sites in which oral examination was performed. Basic demographic information, chronic diseases status, and results of oral examination were collected from 2010 CCDRFS data. A standard oral examination was conducted by trained staff. Periodontitis was defined as moderate (4–5 mm pockets) or severe (?6 mm pockets). Chronic disease status was determined by using standard methods and criteria. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to identify the independent association of various factors with severe periodontitis. Results Of 1,800 subjects, 1,728 subjects (96%) provided complete information. The prevalence of severe periodontitis was 1.9% (32/1,728) (95% CI=1.2–2.5). In multivariate model, participants with diabetes were 2.4 times (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.1–5.6) more likely to have severe periodontitis. Being male was significantly associated with severe periodontitis (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.6–7.7). Living in a rural area was related to an increased chance of having severe periodontitis (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0– 4.9). Attainment of at least 6 years of education was inversely associated with severe periodontitis (OR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1–0.8). Conclusions According to this pilot project, prevalence of severe periodontitis was low. Control measures should be particularly emphasized for high-risk groups such as less educated people (<6 years of education), people living in rural areas, men, and diabetes patients. Population-based studies, including oral examination by trained staff, are feasible and should be done in order to understand the burden of periodontitis and to provide an effective response to this key oral health issue. PMID:25008055

Zhang, Qi; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Chunxiao; Shen, Tao; Yang, Yang; Chotivichien, Saipin; Wang, Linhong

2014-01-01

125

Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult populations is not known. To document its prevalence and distribution and to determine the factors associated with it, a random sample of the adult population of Busselton, Western Australia, was studied. Spirometric function, bronchial responsiveness to histamine, and atopic responses to skin prick tests were measured. Respiratory symptoms were determined by questionnaire. Data

A J Woolcock; J K Peat; C M Salome; K Yan; S D Anderson; R E Schoeffel; G McCowage; T Killalea

1987-01-01

126

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult population, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey

Baker, Chris I.

127

Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

128

The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults. Methods A total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS. Results Midnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12) than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34) (P=0.001). Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ?100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4). Conclusion The results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS. PMID:22737665

Jang, Yun-Mi; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

2012-01-01

129

Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis and Contributing Factors to Current Arthritic Pain in South Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. Materials and Methods The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Results Age (p=0.005), female gender (p<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and osteoporosis (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for osteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (p<0.001), and unfavorable subjective health status (p<0.001) were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain among subjects with osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Conclusion Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain. PMID:25510755

Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok

2015-01-01

130

The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the\\u000a present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population\\u000a aged 18–64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate

Martina de ZwaanBarbara; Barbara Gruß; Astrid Müller; Holmer Graap; Alexandra Martin; Heide Glaesmer; Anja Hilbert; Alexandra Philipsen

131

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with\\u000a the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level,\\u000a and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem behaviours compared with the whole\\u000a adult population with intellectual disabilities, compared with individually

Craig A. Melville; Sally-Ann Cooper; Jill Morrison; Elita Smiley; Linda Allan; Alison Jackson; Janet Finlayson; Dipali Mantry

2008-01-01

132

Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28 years. Former smokers were more likely to have smoked fewer cigarettes per day and to have smoked for significantly less time than current smokers. DISCUSSION: Given the fact that free education is provided at all levels by the government, anti-tobacco education and awareness should be included as an integral part of the curriculum in schools and colleges. PMID:11143190

Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

2000-01-01

133

Clash in South Korean heritage? A case study of work values among South Koreans and Korean-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes a case-study analysis of work values among four types of South Koreans: a traditional South Korean, three young-adult South Koreans, a white South Korean-American, and a black South Korean-American, all of whom worked at a South Korean-owned small business. Data for this qualitative study were drawn from an exploratory survey, 50 hours of participant observation, a focus

Eun-Jeong Han; Jeanne S. McPherson

2009-01-01

134

Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Body image perception, weight control attempts during the past one year, various health behaviors, history of chronic diseases, and socioeconomic status were surveyed. Results Underweight women had a higher rate of weight control attempts than underweight men (25.4% vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001). Among underweight men, subjects with the highest physical activity level (odds ratio [OR], 7.75), subjects with physician-diagnosed history of chronic diseases (OR, 7.70), and subjects with non-manual jobs or other jobs (OR, 6.22; 12.39 with reference to manual workers) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Among underweight women, subjects who did not perceive themselves as thin (OR, 4.71), subjects with the highest household income level (OR, 2.61), and unmarried subjects (OR, 2.08) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Conclusion This study shows that numbers of underweight Korean adults have tried to control weight, especially women. Seeing that there are gender differences in factors related to weight control attempts in underweight adults, gender should be considered in helping underweight adults to maintain a healthy weight. PMID:24340161

Choi, O Jin Ee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

2013-01-01

135

Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Programs Training and Jobs Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America ... U.S. Census populations) Estimated Number of Cases by Vision Problem Age ? 40 Total Population ? 40 14,186, ...

136

Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety

Yuri Jang; David A. Chiriboga; Sumie Okazaki

2009-01-01

137

Chronic Kidney Disease Awareness, Prevalence, and Trends among U.S. Adults, 1999 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of kidney failure treatment in the United States increased 57% from 1991 to 2000. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence was 11% among U.S. adults surveyed in 1988 to 1994. The objective of this study was to estimate awareness of CKD in the U.S. population during 1999 to 2000 and to determine whether the prevalence of CKD in the

Josef Coresh; Danita Byrd-Holt; Brad C. Astor; Josephine P. Briggs; Paul W. Eggers; David A. Lacher; Thomas H. Hostetter

138

Bipolar Disorder 12-month Prevalence: 2.6% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Bipolar Disorder Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 2.6% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 82 years old4 Treatment/Services Use6 12-month Healthcare Use: 48.8% of those with disorder are receiving minimally adequate treatment (18.8% of those with disorder) 12-month Any Service Use (including Healthcare

Baker, Chris I.

139

Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

2013-01-01

140

Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

2011-01-01

141

Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

2005-01-01

142

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

2006-01-01

143

Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.  

PubMed

Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ? 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

2013-01-01

144

Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male?=?1,994; female?=?1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 ?g/L in men and 3.7 ?g/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

2014-01-01

145

Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2012-01-01

146

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

147

The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

2008-01-01

148

Religious Involvement and Depression Among Korean Young Adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 102 Korean church goers, this study found that a higher level of general religiosity was significantly associated with a lower level of depression only for non-visa-holding church members (U.S. citizens). The results underscore the importance of considering both the type of religiosity\\/spirituality assessed and sample characteristics when examining the religiosity–mental health relationship since both the dimension

Grace Jeongim Heo; Gary F. Koeske

2010-01-01

149

Validation of the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey screening questionnaire for use in epidemiologic studies for adult asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Standardized questionnaire is one of key instruments for general population surveys. Objective The present study aimed to develop and validate the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire for adult asthma surveys. Methods The ECRHS screening questionnaire was translated into Korean language according to the international criteria. Study participants were prospectively recruited from six referral hospitals and one health check-up center. Comprehensibility of the translation was tested in a pilot study of 10 patients. The reliability was evaluated by internal consistency and test-retest repeatability. Validity was assess with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. Results A total of 100 adult asthma patients and 134 volunteers were recruited. Reliability was examined for 10 items in 100 asthmatics; Cronbach ? coefficients were 0.84, and test-retest repeatability was good (Cohen ? coefficient, 0.71-1.00). Validity was assessed for 8 items in 234 participants; in particular, 'recent wheeze' showed a high sensitivity (0.89) for physician-diagnosed asthma. 'Recent asthma attack' and 'current asthma medication' showed high specificity (0.96-0.98). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the Korean version of the ECRHS screening questionnaire was comprehensible, reliable and valid. We suggest the questionnaire to be utilized in further epidemiological studies for asthma in Korean adult populations. PMID:25653917

Song, Woo-Jung; Lee, So-Hee; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sun-Sin; Lee, Jong-Myung; Min, Kyung-Up

2015-01-01

150

It's Others, Not the Police: Smoking, Reprimand, and Fines among Adults of Korean Descent in California  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assesses the association of immediate social and legal reprimand and current smoking status among Californians of Korean descent. Design Data were drawn from a population-based probability sample using a telephone survey conducted by bilingual, professional interviewers (N=2085). About 85.0% of eligible respondents completed interviews and 86.3% of participants preferred to be interviewed in Korean. Main Outcome Measure Smoking status was measured using CDC criteria, ever smoked 100 cigarettes and currently smoke every day or some days. Results and Conclusion Reports of immediate criticism by others in several settings was associated with non-smoking, but likelihood of immediate legal penalties was unrelated. Participants were far less likely to expect legal than social sanction. Results were replicated after controlling for reinforcers of smoking and ecologically relevant variables including models of smoking, primary group social support for smoking, acculturation, gender, acculturation by gender (male) interaction, age, and education. It may be efficacious to target public health interventions encouraging appropriate social sanctions of smoking in public among persons of Korean descent, and to encourage strict enforcement of legal penalties for smoking in public places. PMID:20496979

Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne; Kang, Sunny

2009-01-01

151

Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in U.S. older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey  

PubMed Central

Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161

Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

2015-01-01

152

Prevalence of Diabetes Treatment Effect Modifiers: the External Validity of Trials to Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Potential treatment effect modifiers (TEMs) are specific diseases or conditions with a well-described mechanism for treatment effect modification. The prevalence of TEMs in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of pre-specified potential TEMs; (2) demonstrate the potential impact of TEMs in the older adult population using a simulated trial; (3) identify TEM combinations associated with number of hospitalizations to test construct validity. Methods Data are from the nationally-representative United States National Health and Examination Survey, 1999–2004: 8,646 Civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 45–64 or 65+ years, including 1,443 with DM. TEMs were anemia, congestive heart failure, liver inflammation, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dizziness, frequent mental distress, mobility difficulty, and visual impairment. A trial was simulated to examine prevalence of potential TEM impact. The cross-sectional association between TEM patterns and number of hospitalizations was estimated to assess construct validity. Results The prevalence of TEMs was substantial such that 19.0% (95%CI: 14.8–23.2) of middle-aged adults and 38.0% (95% CI: 33.4–42.5) of older adults had any two. A simulated trial with modest levels of interaction suggested the prevalence of TEMs could nullify treatment benefit in 3.9–27.2% of older adults with DM. Compared to having DM alone, hospitalization rate was increased by several combinations of TEMs with substantial prevalence. Conclusions We provide national benchmarks that can be used to evaluate TEM prevalence reported by clinical trials of DM, and correspondingly their external validity to older adults. PMID:23238312

Weiss, Carlos O.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Leff, Bruce

2012-01-01

153

Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in U.S. older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey.  

PubMed

Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161

Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

2015-02-01

154

Immunogenicity and safety of Intanza®/IDflu® intradermal influenza vaccine in South Korean adults: A multicenter, randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Intanza®/IDflu® (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is an intradermal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine developed as an alternative to intramuscular influenza vaccine. The objective of this study was to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of Intanza/IDflu in South Korean adults. In a phase IV multicenter trial, South Korean adults 18–59 y old (n = 120) and ? 60 y old (n = 120) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of Intanza/IDflu (9 µg for 18–59 y, 15 µg for ? 60 y) or trivalent intramuscular vaccine (Vaxigrip® 15 µg, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood was collected on pre-vaccination (day 0) and on day 21. Hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates were determined on day 21. Geometric mean titers, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were similar between the intradermal and intramuscular vaccines in both age groups for all three vaccine strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). Both vaccines met Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria for all three strains. Solicited systemic reactions of the intradermal groups were generally mild, transient, and similar to those of the intramuscular groups. Solicited injection site reactions were more frequent in the intradermal groups but were mostly mild, transient, and consisted mainly of pain, erythema, and pruritus. No treatment-related serious adverse events or other safety concerns were reported. These results confirm that Intanza/IDflu is an effective and well-tolerated alternative to IM influenza vaccination. (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ID: NCT01215669) PMID:23778938

Hoon Han, Sang; Hee Woo, Jun; Weber, Francoise; Joo Kim, Woo; Ran Peck, Kyong; Il Kim, Sang; Hwa Choi, Young; Myung Kim, June

2013-01-01

155

Immunogenicity and safety of Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) intradermal influenza vaccine in South Korean adults: a multicenter, randomized trial.  

PubMed

Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is an intradermal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine developed as an alternative to intramuscular influenza vaccine. The objective of this study was to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of Intanza/IDflu in South Korean adults. In a phase IV multicenter trial, South Korean adults 18-59 y old (n = 120) and ? 60 y old (n = 120) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of Intanza/IDflu (9 µg for 18-59 y, 15 µg for ? 60 y) or trivalent intramuscular vaccine (Vaxigrip(®) 15 µg, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood was collected on pre-vaccination (day 0) and on day 21. Hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates were determined on day 21. Geometric mean titers, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were similar between the intradermal and intramuscular vaccines in both age groups for all three vaccine strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). Both vaccines met Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria for all three strains. Solicited systemic reactions of the intradermal groups were generally mild, transient, and similar to those of the intramuscular groups. Solicited injection site reactions were more frequent in the intradermal groups but were mostly mild, transient, and consisted mainly of pain, erythema, and pruritus. No treatment-related serious adverse events or other safety concerns were reported. These results confirm that Intanza/IDflu is an effective and well-tolerated alternative to IM influenza vaccination. (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ID: NCT01215669). PMID:23778938

Hoon Han, Sang; Hee Woo, Jun; Weber, Francoise; Joo Kim, Woo; Ran Peck, Kyong; Il Kim, Sang; Hwa Choi, Young; Myung Kim, June

2013-09-01

156

A fruit, milk and whole grain dietary pattern is positively associated with bone mineral density in Korean healthy adults.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:Osteoporosis is a major health problem that will grow in burden with ageing of the global population. Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis, including diet, have significant implications for disease prevention. We examined associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD) in a Korean adult population.Subjects/Methods:In total, 1828 individuals from the Healthy Twin Cohort were included as subjects. Information on general characteristics, lifestyles and health status was obtained through a health examination, and BMD was assessed using DEXA. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record, and dietary patterns were examined by factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMD were examined using mixed linear regression, adjusting for family and twin structure as well as other potential risk factors for bone health.Results:Four dietary patterns were identified (Rice and kimchi; eggs, meat and flour; Fruit, milk and whole grains; and Fast food and soda). The 'Fruit, milk and whole grains' pattern was associated with a reduced risk of having low BMD in men (odds ratio (OR)=0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.22-0.67) and women (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.28-0.72) and was positively associated with BMD at multiple sites. The 'rice and kimchi' pattern had a positive association with only whole-arm BMD in men and women.Conclusions:Our results suggest that a dietary pattern with high intake of dairy products, fruits and whole grains may contribute positively to bone health in a Korean adult population, and dietary pattern-based strategies could have potential in promoting bone health.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.231. PMID:25351648

Shin, S; Sung, J; Joung, H

2014-11-01

157

Weight Control Methods Related to Cotinine-Verified Smoking among Korean Adult Women: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Korean women are known to have a very low smoking rate. However, the actual smoking rate among Korean women is higher than 10% and may continue to increase gradually. In addition, some Korean women use extreme weight control methods that have potentially harmful effects. This study was conducted to elucidate weight control methods related to cotinine-verified smoking among Korean adult women. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 4,189 women aged ?19 years who had attempted weight control during the past 1 year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Smoking status was assessed using both self-report questionnaires and assays of urinary cotinine, and weight control methods were investigated using self-report questionnaires. Results The smoking rate based on the measurement of urinary cotinine was 12.4% ± 0.8% among Korean women. Cotinine-verified smokers were more likely to attempt fasting (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence intervals, 1.03 to 4.67), taking prescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence intervals, 1.47 to 3.82), and taking nonprescription diet-pills (odds ratio, 3.46; 95% confidence intervals, 1.71 to 6.98), and were less likely to attempt eating less food or modifying dietary patterns (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence intervals, 0.51 to 0.99) compared to non-smokers. Conclusion Korean adult women's smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of using weight control methods with potentially harmful effects, such as fasting and taking diet-pills, and a low likelihood of choosing weight control methods, including dietary modification, that require constant effort for a prolonged time.

Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yoo, Yeon Gak; An, Jiyoung

2015-01-01

158

Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

159

Korean and American Music Reduces Pain in Korean Women After Gynecologic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women

Marion Good; Sukhee Ahn

2008-01-01

160

Free Adult Internet Web Sites: How Prevalent Are Degrading Acts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russell (Dangerous relationships: Pornography, misogyny, and rape, 1988) argued that essential features of pornography were\\u000a the inclusion of more female than male nakedness and the portrayal of men in dominant roles. Utilizing a sample of 45 Internet\\u000a adult web sites, a content analysis was conducted to see if free and easily available Internet adult videos may generally\\u000a be described as

Stacy Gorman; Elizabeth Monk-Turner; Jennifer N. Fish

2010-01-01

161

The leukoaraiosis is more prevalent in the large artery atherosclerosis stroke subtype among Korean patients with ischemic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that the specific stroke subtype may influence the presence of leukoaraiosis in patients with ischemic stroke. We investigated the association between stroke subtype and leukoaraiosis in Korean patients with ischemic stroke by MRI. METHODS: There were 594 patients included in this study that were classified as large artery disease, lacune and cardioembolic stroke. For large-artery

Seung-Jae Lee; Joong-Seok Kim; Kwang-Soo Lee; Jae-Young An; Woojun Kim; Yeong-In Kim; Bum-Soo Kim; So-Lyung Jung

2008-01-01

162

Prevalence of body dissatisfaction among United States adults: review and recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

As the evidence supporting the role of body dissatisfaction (BD) in chronic disease risk factors and health behaviors increases, documenting the prevalence of BD is an essential first step in determining to what degree BD is a public health problem. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to critically evaluate research examining the population prevalence of BD among U.S. adults. Seven studies were located and provided estimates of prevalence of BD among U.S. adults that were extremely varied (11%-72% for women, and 8%-61% for men). While some of the variation may be due to increases in BD over time, the literature is also clouded by a lack of randomly selected samples, lack of consistency in measurement tools, lack of consistency in operational definitions of BD, and lack of standardized cut-off points for BD. Recommendations for improving BD prevalence research to enable public health research are provided. PMID:25064281

Fiske, Lauren; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Blissmer, Bryan; Redding, Colleen A

2014-08-01

163

Point prevalence survey for healthcare-associated infections within Canadian adult acute-care hospitals.  

PubMed

A survey of adult patients 19 years of age and older was conducted in February 2002 in hospitals across Canada to estimate the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). A total of 5750 adults were surveyed; 601 of these had 667 HAIs, giving a prevalence of 10.5% infected patients and 11.6% HAIs. Urinary tract infections (UTI) were the most frequent HAI, shown by 194 (3.4%) of the patients surveyed. Pneumonia was found in 175 (3.0%) of the patients, surgical site infections (SSI) in 146 (2.5%), bloodstream infections (BSI) in 93 (1.6%) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in 59 (1%). In this first national point prevalence study in Canada, the prevalence of HAI was found to be similar to that reported by other industrialized countries. PMID:17574304

Gravel, D; Taylor, G; Ofner, M; Johnston, L; Loeb, M; Roth, V R; Stegenga, J; Bryce, E; Matlow, Anne

2007-07-01

164

Chronic Low Back Pain in Young Korean Urban Males: The Life-Time Prevalence and Its Impact on Health Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed the life-time prevalence (LTP) of chronic low back pain (LBP) in young Korean males. We also evaluated the relationship between lumbar spinal lesions and their health related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Methods A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted in Korean males (aged 19-year-old) who underwent physical examinations for the conscript. We examined 3331 examinees in November 2014. We included 2411 subjects, who accepted to participate this study without any comorbidities. We interviewed using simple binary questions for their LBP experience and chronicity. HRQOL was assessed by Short-Form Health-Survey-36 (SF-36) in chronic LBP and healthy control groups. Radiological assessment was performed in chronic LBP group to determine whether there were any pathological causes of their symptoms. Results The LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%. Most (71.7%) of them didn't have any lumbar spinal lesions (i.e., non-specific chronic LBP). The SF-36 subscale and summary scores were significantly lower in subjects with chronic LBP. Between specific and non-specific chronic LBP group, all physical and mental subscale scores were significantly lower in specific chronic LBP group, except mental health (MH) subscale score. In MH subscale and mental component summary score, statistical significant differences didn't appear between two groups (p=0.154, 0.126). Conclusion In Korean males 19 years of age, the LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%, and more than two-thirds were non-specific chronic LBP. Chronic LBP had a significant impact on HRQOL. The presence of lumbar spinal pathoanatomical lesions affected mainly on the physical aspect of HRQOL. It influenced little on the mental health. PMID:25628807

Shim, Jae-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Doh, Jae-Won; Bae, Hack-Gun

2014-01-01

165

Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

1988-01-01

166

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components based on a harmonious definition among adults in Morocco  

PubMed Central

Purpose Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases that includes central obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors in a representative sample of Morocco adults using the 2009 joint interim statement definition. Patients and methods We analyzed data of 820 patients aged 19 years and older. For metabolic syndrome diagnosis, we used the criteria of the recently published joint interim statement (2009). Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 35.73% among all adults, 18.56% among men, and 40.12% among women. Prevalence increased with age, peaking among those aged 50–59 years. The most common abnormality highlights abdominal obesity (49.15%). Also, half of patients have one or two risk factors for developing this syndrome. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors is high among adults in Morocco, especially in women. The most prevalent component of metabolic syndrome in our population was abdominal obesity. PMID:25114576

El Brini, Otmane; Akhouayri, Omar; Gamal, Allal; Mesfioui, Abdelhalem; Benazzouz, Bouchra

2014-01-01

167

Association of the Estimated 24-H Urinary Sodium Excretion with Albuminuria in Adult Koreans: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium intake and albuminuria have important roles in blood pressure and renal progression. Although their relationship has been reported, the results have not been consistent and all studies have examined small populations. Objective This study investigated the role of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake and albuminuria. Design This investigation included 5,187 individuals age 19 years and older from a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2), in 2011. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ?30 mg/g. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion was estimated from a spot urine. Results On classifying our participants into quartiles based on the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion, the prevalence of albuminuria increased with the 24-h urinary sodium excretion (5.3, 5.7, 7.5, and 11.8% in the first through fourth quartiles, respectively, p for trend <0.001). Even after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, the significance persisted. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the second and third quartiles of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion were not associated with the presence of albuminuria with the first quartile as a control. However, the fourth quartile was significantly associated with the presence of albuminuria (odds ratio 1.61 [95% confidence interval 1.71–2.21], p?=?0.003) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Conclusions These findings suggest that salt intake is associated with the presence of albuminuria in the general Korean adult population. PMID:25313865

Han, Sang Youb; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

168

The Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders Among Adults with Asthma: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research estimating the comorbidity of asthma and anxiety disorders has produced highly disparate findings and little consensus.\\u000a This study is a meta-analytic review of data from 15 independent studies of the co-occurrence of adult asthma and anxiety\\u000a disorders and was conducted to provide more precise comorbidity estimates. Aggregating across studies, the average prevalence\\u000a of any anxiety disorder among adults with

Eric B. Weiser

2007-01-01

169

Racial and ethnic differences in adult asthma prevalence, problems, and medical care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We document the extent to which racial and ethnic differences exist in asthma prevalence among US adults, and among asthmatic adults, we document racial differences in asthma problems and asthma-related medical care. We also explore potential explanations for racial and ethnic disparities in each outcome.Design. Using data on a 24-state sample of white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American

Bridget K. Gorman; Meredith Chu

2009-01-01

170

Prevalence of trial of snus products among adult smokers.  

PubMed

A 2008 survey assessed the proportion of smokers in 8 geographic areas who reported trying snus. In test markets, 10% of smokers had tried snus in the past year. Among young adult men, the trial rate was 29%. Trial was more likely among Whites than among minorities, among respondents with lower education than among those with higher education, and among those without immediate plans to quit smoking than among those intending to quit in the next 30 days. The association between trial and low cessation motivation is an important target for research. PMID:21330582

Biener, Lois; McCausland, Kristen; Curry, Laurel; Cullen, Jennifer

2011-10-01

171

Prevalence and reasons for initiating use of electronic cigarettes among adults in Montana, 2013.  

PubMed

We used data from the 2013 Montana Adult Tobacco Survey to estimate the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and reasons for initiation among Montana adults. More than 1 in 10 (11.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-13.2%) adults reported ever using e-cigarettes, and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.9%) reported current use. Most respondents reported "trying something new" (64%) or "trying to quit or reduce cigarette use" (56%) as a reason for initiating use. Ongoing surveillance of these addictive products is needed. PMID:25412027

Schmidt, Lisa; Reidmohr, Alison; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

2014-01-01

172

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in a Rural Chinese Adult Population: The Handan Eye Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in a rural adult population in Northern China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. A total of 5,105 subjects aged ?30 years were included in this analysis.

LiPing Jiang; YuanBo Liang; Bo Qiu; FengHua Wang; XinRong Duan; XiaoHui Yang; Wen Huang; NingLi Wang

2010-01-01

173

Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: Implications for clinical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on the prevalence of the DSM-IV symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 720 adults applying for or renewing their driver's licenses in central Massachusetts (ages 17-84 years). Symptoms were assessed using two self- report rating scales: One for current symptoms and a second for retrospective recall of child hood symptoms (ages

K. Murphy; R. A. Barkley

1996-01-01

174

The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

2005-01-01

175

Adult Sexual Assault: Prevalence, Symptomatology, and Sex Differences in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse

Diana M. Elliott; Doris S. Mok; John Brierel

2004-01-01

176

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Dyslipidemia in the Adult Chinese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the prevalence, associated factors, awareness and control of dyslipidemia in Chinese living in Greater Beijing, we measured the serum cholesterol concentration in 3251 Chinese adults (age: 45 to 89 years) as participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2006. Additional information on treatment of dyslipidemia was obtained using a standard questionnaire. The mean concentrations of total, HDL cholesterol,

Shuang Wang; Liang Xu; Jost B. Jonas; Qi Sheng You; Ya Xing Wang; Hua Yang; Massimo Federici

2011-01-01

177

Prevalence and Correlates of Postsecondary Residential Status among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prevalence and correlates of three living arrangements (with a parent or guardian, independently or with a roommate, or in a supervised setting) among a nationally representative sample of postsecondary young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. We assessed living arrangements since leaving high school. Compared with…

Anderson, Kristy A.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Roux, Anne M.; Wagner, Mary

2014-01-01

178

Prevalence and Demographic Correlates of Childhood Maltreatment in an Adult Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study had two aims: (1) to determine the prevalence of five categories of retrospectively reported childhood maltreatment in an adult community sample and (2) to examine relationships between three theoretically and practically chosen demographic variables and childhood maltreatment. Method: Participants were a representative sample…

Scher, Christine D.; Forde, David R.; McQuaid, John R.; Stein, Murray B.

2004-01-01

179

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

Hove, Oddbjorn

2004-01-01

180

Prevalence and Correlates of Pica Among Adults with Intellectual Disability in Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased knowledge of complex behaviors such as pica is needed to improve the support and services in the community for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Though the prevalence of pica has been documented extensively in institutionalized settings, few studies have explored its etiology. The aim of this study is to explore the correlates of pica among institutionalized adults with ID.

Melody Ashworth; Lynn Martin; John P. Hirdes

2008-01-01

181

Prevalence of Campylobacter Species in Adult Crohn's Disease and the Preferential Colonization Sites of Campylobacter Species in the Human Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionCrohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric CD and adult UC. Currently, the prevalence of C. concisus in adult CD and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. In this study, we examined

Vikneswari Mahendran; Stephen M. Riordan; Michael C. Grimm; Thi Anh Tuyet Tran; Joelene Major; Nadeem O. Kaakoush; Hazel Mitchell; Li Zhang; Markus M. Heimesaat

2011-01-01

182

Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level. Citation: Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050. PMID:23814341

Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M.; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

2013-01-01

183

E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison.  

PubMed

Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ?18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ?18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors. PMID:24680203

Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

2014-07-01

184

Retrospective study on antihyperlipidemic efficacy and safety of simvastatin, ezetimibe and their combination in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Antihyperlipidemic agents such as 3-hydroxymethyglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and cholesterol transporter inhibitors are used in coronary heart disease. However, controversy remains over the pharmacologic effects and safety of these drugs, especially when used in combination therapies. This retrospective study evaluated the therapeutic effect and safety of simvastatin 20 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg combination therapy compared to simvastatin 20 mg or ezetimibe 10 mg monotherapy in Korean patients according to gender, age, baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and cardiovascular risk factors. We observed significant differences among patient subgroups. Simvastatin and ezetimibe monotherapies and combination therapy reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 27.6%, 10.1%, and 36.8% (p < 0.001) and total cholesterol levels by 17.5%, 9.2%, and 25.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. Both monotherapy and combination therapy groups had similar incidences of all types of adverse events. However, one case of rhabdomyolysis was observed in the combination therapy group. These results suggest that, compared to monotherapy, combination therapy has an additive effect that is not influenced by risk factors. Despite the low incidence of adverse events, caution is required when using these drugs, especially in the context of musculoskeletal side effects. PMID:21910055

Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Chang-Ik; Bae, Jung-Woo; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

2011-08-01

185

Nutritional Issues of Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural

Cha-Nam Shin; Helen Lach

2011-01-01

186

Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia linked CSF1R mutation: Report of four Korean cases.  

PubMed

We describe detailed clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), linked to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutations in four Korean cases. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings were obtained by direct evaluation and from previous medical records. The genetic analysis of the CSF1R gene was done in two autopsy-confirmed ALSP cases and two cases where ALSP was suspected based on the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics. We identified two known mutations: c.2342C>T (p.A781V) in one autopsy-proven HDLS and clinically ALSP-suspected case and c.2345G>A (p.R782H) in another autopsy-proven POLD case. We also found a novel mutation (c.2296A>G; p.M766V) in a patient presenting with hand tremor, stuttering and hesitant speech, and abnormal behavior whose father died from a possible diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented ALSP-linked CSF1R mutation in Korea and supports the suggestion that HDLS and POLD, with pathological characteristics that are somewhat different but which are caused by CSF1R mutations, are the same spectrum of disease, ALSP. PMID:25563800

Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Hun; Na, Duk L; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Hwang, Sun Jae; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young Min; Shin, Myung-Jun; Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Yoon, Uicheul; Park, Do Youn; Jung, Dae Soo; Ahn, Jae Woo; Sung, Suk; Huh, Gi Yeong

2015-02-15

187

Prevalence of risk factors of chronic kidney disease in adults.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emergent public health burden. Its prevalence varies country to country, even in different professional and social groups in the same country. In Bangladesh there is no reported nationwide survey but there are some reports of survey in disadvantageous and advantageous population. In this study 125 CKD patients (cases) and 125 age and sex matched healthy subjects (control) in Mymensingh Medical College, a tertiary hospital of Bangladesh were compared for the presence of non-modifiable [age, sex, family history of hypertension (HTN), Cardiovascular disease (CVD), family history of kidney disease and Socioeconomic condition] and modifiable [HTN, Diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking habit, and obesity] risk factors. The mean age of control was 43.5 ± 6.3 years and the mean age of CKD cases was 44.7 ± 12.7 years. Out of 125 patients of CKD, males were 96 in number (76.8%) and females were 29 in numbers (23.2%). Most of the patients (52.8%) were in poor socioeconomic status while most of controls were from middle class (68.8%). Most of the participants were in stage-3 CKD [67.2%, creatinine clearance (Ccr):36.74 ± 13.61 ml/min]. Glomerulonephritis was the dominant cause of CKD (67.2%) followed by diabetes (24%), hypertension (4.8%) and others (4%). 72.8% of CKD patients were smokers. Among CKD, 86.4% participants had hypertension and 26.4% had diabetes. The difference of hypertension, diabetes and Body mass index (BMI) between case and control group is statistically significant (p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found with risk factor like family history of kidney diseases. This emphasizes risk factor identification in general population to early diagnose CKD. PMID:23134905

Kabir, M S; Dutta, P K; Islam, M N; Hasan, M J; Mondol, G

2012-10-01

188

Prevalence and characteristics of hospitalized adults on chronic opioid therapy  

PubMed Central

Background As chronic opioid therapy (COT) becomes more common, complexity of pain management in the inpatient setting increases; little is known about medical inpatients on COT. Objective To determine the prevalence of COT among hospitalized patients and to compare outcomes among these patients relative to those not receiving COT. Design Observational study of inpatient and outpatient administrative data Participants All Veterans with acute medical admissions to 129 Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals during fiscal years 2009-2011, residing in the community, and with outpatient pharmacy use. Measurements We defined COT as 90 or more days of opioids prescribed in the 6 months prior to hospitalization. Patient characteristics included demographic variables and major comorbidities; outcomes included 30-day readmission and death during hospitalization or within 30 days, with associations ascertained using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 122,794 hospitalized Veterans, 31,802 (25.9%) received COT. These patients differed from comparators in age, sex, race, residence, and presence of chronic non-cancer pain, COPD, complicated diabetes, cancer, and mental health diagnoses including PTSD. After adjustment for demographic factors, comorbidities, and admission diagnosis, COT was associated with hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR]: 1.15, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.20) and death (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.29). Conclusions COT is common among medical inpatients; patients on COT differ from patients without COT beyond dissimilarities in pain and cancer diagnoses. Occasional and chronic opioid use are associated with increased risk of hospital readmission, and COT is associated with increased risk of death. Additional research relating COT to hospitalization outcomes is warranted. PMID:24311455

Mosher, Hilary J.; Jiang, Lan; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Cram, Peter; Kaboli, Peter J.; Vander Weg, Mark W.

2014-01-01

189

First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.  

PubMed

Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

Penezi?, Aleksandra; Selakovi?, Sanja; Pavlovi?, Ivan; ?irovi?, Duško

2014-09-01

190

Factors That Affect Suicidal Attempt Risk Among Korean Elderly Adults: A Path Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Among the Korean elderly (those 65 years of age and older), the suicide rate is 80.3/100 000 people, which is ten times higher than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development average. Because South Korea is rapidly becoming an aging population, this high elderly suicidal rate will only get worse. Although the size of the elderly suicide problem is quite large, previous research in South Korea has surveyed restricted areas and not the entire country. Even though the factors that affect elderly suicide are complicated, there has been little research into these influencing factors. Thus, this research uses the national survey data (Community Health Survey) that was obtained in 2009. Additionally, we analyze factors affecting elderly suicidal ideation and attempts as well as the paths of these effects. Methods: Community Health Survey data obtained by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009 was used for this study. We additionally examined the factors that affect suicide with chi-squared tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation test, and path analysis. Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are the only factors that directly affect suicidal attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors have indirect effects on suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Depression has the strongest influence on suicidal ideation and attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts mostly through depressive symptoms. In addition, there is a path that suggests that demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts not through depression symptoms but only through suicidal ideation. This means that the elderly who do not have depression symptoms attempt suicide according to their own situations and characteristics. PMID:25652708

Ro, Junsoo; Park, Jongheon; Lee, Jinsuk; Jung, Hyemin

2015-01-01

191

Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use in India: Evidence from Recent Global Adult Tobacco Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use in India is characterized by a high prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use, with dual use also contributing a noticeable proportion. In the context of such a high burden of tobacco use, this study examines the regional variations, and socioeconomic, demographic and other correlates of smoking, smokeless tobacco and dual use of tobacco in India. Methods and Findings We analyzed a cross sectional, nationally representative sample of individuals from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in India (2009–10), which covered 69,296 individuals aged 15 years and above. The current tobacco use in three forms, namely, smoking only, smokeless tobacco use only, and both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were considered as outcomes in this study. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations and multinomial logistic regression analysis were adopted as analytical tools. Smokeless tobacco use was the major form of tobacco use in India followed by smoking and dual tobacco use. Tobacco use was higher among males, the less educated, the poor, and the rural population in India. Respondents lacking knowledge of health hazards of tobacco had higher prevalence of tobacco use in each form. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varies significantly by states. The prevalence of tobacco use increases concomitantly with age among females. Middle-aged adult males had higher prevalence of tobacco use. Age, education and region were found to be significant determinants of all forms of tobacco use. Adults from the poor household had significantly higher risk of consuming smokeless tobacco. Lack of awareness about the selected hazards of tobacco significantly affects tobacco use. Conclusions There is an urgent need to curb the use of tobacco among the sub-groups of population with higher prevalence. Tobacco control policies in India should adopt a targeted, population-based approach to control and reduce tobacco consumption in the country. PMID:25474196

Singh, Akansha; Ladusingh, Laishram

2014-01-01

192

Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: Prevalence of Age-Related Conditions  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS) has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods: In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results: The mean age of study participants was 38?years (range, 18–58?years) and 42 (70.0%) were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0%) participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7%), and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%). Six (10.0%) participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3%) were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%), followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%), osteoporosis (18, 30.0%), and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%). Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ?40?years. Conclusion: Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits, and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment. PMID:25593924

Carfì, Angelo; Antocicco, Manuela; Brandi, Vincenzo; Cipriani, Camilla; Fiore, Francesca; Mascia, Donatella; Settanni, Silvana; Vetrano, Davide L.; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

2014-01-01

193

Prevalence and correlates of childhood sexual abuse in adults consulting for sexual problems.  

PubMed

The main objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in individuals consulting for sexual therapy and to explore the association between a history of childhood sexual abuse and psychological and couple functioning. A sample of 218 adults receiving sex therapy completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptomatology, as well as dyadic adjustment. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was high in women (56%) and men (37%), and clients with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report psychological and relationship problems. Findings should aware clinicians of the need to assess sexual trauma and related outcomes. PMID:24127985

Berthelot, Nicolas; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Goulet, Michel; Bergeron, Sophie

2014-01-01

194

Diabetes and hypertension prevalence in homeless adults in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We estimated hypertension and diabetes prevalence among US homeless adults compared with the general population, and investigated prevalence trends. We systematically searched 5 databases for published studies (1980-2014) that included hypertension or diabetes prevalence for US homeless adults, pooled disease prevalence, and explored heterogeneity sources. We used the National Health Interview Survey for comparison. We included data from 97366 homeless adults. The pooled prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 27.0% (95% confidence interval=23.8%, 29.9%; n=43 studies) and of diabetes was 8.0% (95% confidence interval=6.8%, 9.2%; n=39 studies). We found no difference in hypertension or diabetes prevalence between the homeless and general population. Additional health care and housing resources are needed to meet the significant, growing burden of chronic disease in the homeless population. PMID:25521899

Bernstein, Rebecca S; Meurer, Linda N; Plumb, Ellen J; Jackson, Jeffrey L

2015-02-01

195

Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga’s decomposition method. Results Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35–49 in men and aged 25–39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25–29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. Conclusions The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy. PMID:24897953

2014-01-01

196

Caregiver Stress and Elder Abuse among Korean Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify risk factors and mediating factors of elder abuse among older adults with disabilities being cared\\u000a for by their family caregivers. The data were based on a sample of 1,000 primary family caregivers from the Comprehensive\\u000a Study for the Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul (2003). Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to identify significant\\u000a indicators for the

Minhong Lee

2008-01-01

197

Prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted with a national epidemiological survey to investigate the prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure the history of child abuse and the demographic characteristics. The participants reported the following 4 types of child abuse: physical abuse (3%), sexual abuse (0.6%), neglect (0.8%), and psychological abuse (4%). Significant unequal distribution of child abuse was found to be associated with sex, living region, marital status, job status, and educational status. We determined the prevalence of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan and found that their demographic characteristics were unequally distributed. Policy makers and public health providers should take these demographic disparities into account in considering effective public health interventions for survivors of child abuse. PMID:23687257

Tsuboi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Honami; Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamura, Kunio

2015-03-01

198

Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata) of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]). Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 <0.89 ng/dl and TSH >5.50 ?U/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ?18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females) were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78) of which 7.48% (n = 401) patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186) were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportion of females vs. males (15.86% vs 5.02%) and older vs. younger (13.11% vs 7.53%), adults were diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Additionally, 8.02% (n = 430) patients were diagnosed to have subclinical hypothyroidism (normal serum free T4 and TSH >5.50 ?IU/ml). Anti – TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171) patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations. PMID:23961480

Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Kalra, Sanjay; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathi; John, Mathew; Tewari, Neeraj

2013-01-01

199

Prevalence of Foot and Ankle Conditions in a Multiethnic Community Sample of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of foot and ankle disorders was determined in a community-based, multiethnic (non-Hispanic White, African American, and Puerto Rican) random sample of 784 community-dwelling adults aged 65 or more years in 2001-2002 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Overall, the five most common conditions were toenail disorders (74.9%), lesser toe deformities (60.0%), corns and calluses (58.2%), bunions (37.1%), and signs of fungal

J. E. Dunn; C. L. Link; D. T. Felson; M. G. Crincoli; J. J. Keysor; J. B. McKinlay

2004-01-01

200

Prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adults with Kawasaki disease.  

PubMed

Background: Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in patients with Kawasaki disease, in conjunction with coronary artery aneurysm and stenosis that characterise this disease, are potential risk factors for developing coronary artery disease in young adults. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adult patients with Kawasaki disease. Methods: All patients aged 18-55 years of age diagnosed with Kawasaki disease were sampled from Nationwide Inpatient Sample database using International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD 9 code 446.1) from 2009 to 2010. Demographics, prevalence of coronary artery disease, and other traditional risk factors in adult patients with Kawasaki disease were analysed using ICD 9 codes. Results: The prevalence of Kawasaki disease among adults was 0.0005% (n=215) of all in-hospital admissions in United States. The mean age was 27.3 years with women (27.6 years) older than men (27.1 years). Traditional risk factors were hypertension (21%), hyperlipidaemia (15.6%), diabetes (11.5%), tobacco use (8.8%), and obesity (8.8%), with no significant difference between men and women. Coronary artery disease (32.4%), however, was more prevalent in men (44.7%) than in women (12.1%; p=0.03). In multivariate regression analysis, after adjusting for demographics and traditional risk factors, hypertension (OR=13.2, p=0.03) was an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease. Conclusion: There was increased preponderance of coronary artery disease in men with Kawasaki disease. On multivariate analysis, hypertension was found to be the only independent predictor of coronary artery disease in this population after adjusting for other risk factors. PMID:25338916

Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Paudel, Rajiv; Chatterjee, Saurav; Ahmad, Hasan; Snyder, Christopher

2014-10-23

201

Prevalence and long-term course of lifetime eating disorders in an adult Australian twin cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few studies exist that have examined the spectrum and natural long-term course of eating disturbance in the community. We examine the lifetime prevalence and long-term course of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in an adult female twin population. Method: Female twins (n =1002) from the Australian Twin Registry, aged 28-39years, were

Tracey D. Wade; Jacqueline L. Bergin; Marika Tiggemann; Cynthia M. Bulik; Christopher G. Fairburn

2006-01-01

202

Prevalence of Physical Activity Among Adults in a Metropolitan Nigerian City: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Baseline information on physical activity is relevant to controlling the epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases occurring in many African countries. However, standardized data on physical activity are lacking in Nigeria. We assessed the prevalence of physical activity and its relationships with sociodemographic characteristics in a subnational sample of Nigerian adults. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a representative sample of 934 adults (age, 20–82 years) living in metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria. Physical activity was measured using the validated Nigerian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Hausa IPAQ-SF). Using the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline, participants were classified as sufficiently active or insufficiently active. Sociodemographic correlates of sufficient physical activity were identified using multinomial logistic regression. Results Overall, 68.6% of Nigerian adults were sufficiently active. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence of physical activity between men (68.0%) and women (69.3%), but physical activity tended to decrease with increasing age category, especially among men. Physical activity prevalence was positively associated with being married (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.04–4.37) and blue collar work (OR = 2.19, CI = 1.16–4.12) and negatively associated with car ownership (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.17–0.86) and higher income (OR = 0.54, CI = 0.10–0.95). Conclusions The prevalence of physical activity varied between sociodemographic subgroups of Nigerian adults; thus, public health policies and interventions based on ecologic models of health behaviors may be warranted in promoting physical activity in Nigeria. PMID:23604060

Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Jidda, Zainab A; Babagana, Fatima

2013-01-01

203

Prevalence of hypertransaminasemia in adult celiac patients and effect of gluten-free diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia and the effect of gluten-free diet (GFD) were evaluated in 158 consecutive adult celiac patients, 127 women and 31 men, aged 18 to 68 years (mean, 32). At diagnosis, 67 patients (42%) had raised aspartate and\\/or alanine transaminase levels (AST and ALT; mean, 47 IU\\/L, range, 30 to 190; and 61 IU\\/L, range, 25 to 470,

Maria Teresa Bardella; Mirella Fraquelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Nicoletta Molteni; Paolo Bianchi; Dario Conte

1995-01-01

204

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among Turkish adults: Trabzon MetS study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective In order to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria\\u000a in the Trabzon Region and its associations with demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, reproductive history in women,\\u000a and level of education), socioeconomic factors (household income and occupation), family history of selected medical conditions\\u000a (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity),

Cihangir Erem; Arif Hac?hasanoglu; Orhan Deger; Murat Topba?; Ilg?n Hosver; Halil Onder Ersoz; Gamze Can

2008-01-01

205

Wholegrain intake and the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in Tehranian adults1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although dietary guidelines recommend increased intake of grain products to prevent chronic diseases, no epidemio- logic data associate whole-grain intake with hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the relation between whole-grain intakes and the prevalence of HW phenotype in adults in Tehran, Iran. Design: Whole-grain intake, serum triacylglycerol concentration, andwaistcircumference(WC)wereassessedinapopulation-based, cross-sectional study of 827 Iranian subjects

Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

206

Prevalence of Childhood Conduct and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders in Adult Maximum-Security Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was studied in a sample of 100 adult maximum-security inmates. Inmate criminal and developmental history was obtained using interviews and records, and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) was administered to assess childhood ADHD. It was found that 63% of the sample met DSM-IV criteria for childhood CD,

Romeo Vitelli

1996-01-01

207

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino adults aged 20 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using data collected from 4,541 adults aged 20 years and over covered in the Fifth National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. The metabolic variables ana- lyzed were: total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. In addition, measurements of obesity such as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)

Celeste C Tanchoco; Arsenia J Cruz RND; Charmaine A Duante; Augusto D Litonjua

208

Nutritional issues of Korean Americans.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural equation modeling were used for analysis. Participants reported retaining elements of the traditional Korean diet regardless of acculturation. The worst eating habits were seen in participants who were younger (t = 4.57), currently not married (t = 3.10), less educated (F = 5.03), and acculturated to American society (F = 5.93) at the p < .05. Clinicians should provide culturally sensitive interventions targeting Korean Americans with poor dietary habits by providing population-specific, tailored interventions about the benefits of healthy eating and modeling healthier recipes for traditional Korean dishes. PMID:21160079

Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen

2011-05-01

209

Comparison of Serum Ferritin and Vitamin D in Association with the Severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Increased serum ferritin and decreased vitamin D levels associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, their association with the severity of NAFLD has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the association of serum ferritin and 25(OH)D3 levels with the severity of ultrasonographically detected NAFLD (US-NAFLD) and hepatic steatosis defined by fatty liver index (FLI) in Korean adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of clinical and anthropometric data, including serum ferritin and 25(OH)D3, from men (n=295) and women (n=263) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2012. Results In men, with an increase in the quartile of serum ferritin level, the incidences of subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.002), US-NAFLD (P=0.041), and FLI ?60 (P=0.010) were significantly elevated. In women, the incidence of subjects with US-NAFLD was also significantly elevated with increases in the serum ferritin quartile (P=0.012). Regarding 25(OH)D3, no statistical differences were observed among the different quartiles in either gender. Serum ferritin level significantly increased as the severity of US-NAFLD increased (P<0.001); however, no significant differences in 25(OH)D3 level were observed in men. No significant differences in either serum ferritin or 25(OH)D3 level were observed among women with different levels of severity of US-NAFLD. Conclusion Increased serum ferritin level showed a closer association with severity of NAFLD compared with level of serum vitamin D, suggesting that serum ferritin level may be a better marker than vitamin D level for predicting the severity of US-NAFLD and hepatic steatosis in a clinical setting. PMID:25559574

Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Cho, Young Hye; Yi, Dong Won; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Son, Seok Man

2014-01-01

210

Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial. PMID:24586672

Estévez, Natalia; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

2014-01-01

211

Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90) meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking. PMID:25101300

Carrà, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

212

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a North Indian District  

PubMed Central

Background Recent population prevalence estimates of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are not available for several areas in India. We conducted a field-based population survey at a north Indian district to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB. Methods A stratified cluster sampling design was used to conduct the survey in both urban and rural areas within the district. All adults aged more than 15 years, in 18 rural and 12 urban clusters of 3000 subjects each, were interviewed using a symptom card. Two sputum samples were collected from all persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB, or history of antitubercular treatment, for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and mycobacterial culture. Those having at least one sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were categorized as having PTB. Prevalence was estimated after adjusting for cluster sampling and incomplete data (through individual level analysis with robust standard error). Results Of 91,030 eligible adult participants (47,714 men and 43,316 women), 85,770 (94.2%) completed the symptom cards. Of them, 2,898 persons were considered eligible for sputum examination and 2,839 (98.0%) provided at least one sample. Overall, 21 persons had bacteriologically positive PTB, and cluster level prevalence was estimated at 24.5 per 100,000 population (95% CI 12.8–36.2). Individual level analysis with robust standard error yielded a prevalence estimate of 24.1 per 100,000 populations (95% CI 12.8–35.4). Conclusion The observed prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB in this district is lower than empiric national estimates, probably as a result of successful implementation of tuberculosis control measures in the area. PMID:25695761

Aggarwal, Ashutosh N.; Gupta, Dheeraj; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sethi, Sunil; Thakur, Jarnail S.; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Meera; Behera, Digambar; Jindal, Surinder K.

2015-01-01

213

Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

2012-01-01

214

Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions among US adults: estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, 2010.  

PubMed

Preventing and ameliorating chronic conditions has long been a priority in the United States; however, the increasing recognition that people often have multiple chronic conditions (MCC) has added a layer of complexity with which to contend. The objective of this study was to present the prevalence of MCC and the most common MCC dyads/triads by selected demographic characteristics. We used respondent-reported data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to study the US adult civilian noninstitutionalized population aged 18 years or older (n = 27,157). We categorized adults as having 0 to 1, 2 to 3, or 4 or more of the following chronic conditions: hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, hepatitis, weak or failing kidneys, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or current asthma. We then generated descriptive estimates and tested for significant differences. Twenty-six percent of adults have MCC; the prevalence of MCC has increased from 21.8% in 2001 to 26.0% in 2010. The prevalence of MCC significantly increased with age, was significantly higher among women than men and among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults than Hispanic adults. The most common dyad identified was arthritis and hypertension, and the combination of arthritis, hypertension, and diabetes was the most common triad. The findings of this study contribute information to the field of MCC research. The NHIS can be used to identify population subgroups most likely to have MCC and potentially lead to clinical guidelines for people with more common MCC combinations. PMID:23618545

Ward, Brian W; Schiller, Jeannine S

2013-01-01

215

Wheat-Induced Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Report of 6 Cases  

PubMed Central

Wheat is a common cause of food allergy. Wheat-induced anaphylaxis (WIA) and wheat-dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) are severe forms of immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated allergic reaction to wheat protein. As the diagnosis of WIA or WDEIA is not easy because of the risk of oral challenge, identification of specific IgE of various wheat proteins is helpful for diagnosis. In Korea, there are only a few reports on WIA in adults. We report six cases of WIA diagnosed on the basis of clinical history and specific IgE of wheat proteins or provocation test. For immunologic evaluation of severe wheat allergy including WIA and WDEIA, it is important to measure specific IgE to each component of wheat including gluten and ?-5 gliadin not just measuring wheat-specific IgE. PMID:23429235

Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon

2013-01-01

216

Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors in Older Adult Public Housing Residents  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this pilot study was to identify the prevalence of and risk factors associated with depressive symptoms among older adult residents of a public housing apartment. Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 8. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on risk factors of sociodemographic information, cardiovascular health history, and history of depression. Fifty-eight of 171 residents responded, and 31% of residents met the CES-D 8 criterion for depression (total score >7). Sequential multiple regression models identified age, loss of loved ones in the past year, and financial worries as significant predictors of CES-D 8 scores. These study results have implications for future studies of depressive symptoms in older adults, suggesting that grief and financial assistance programs may help reduce risks associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults living in public housing. PMID:25036530

Shin, Ju Young; Sims, Regina C.; Bradley, Diane L.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Harrison, Barbara E.

2015-01-01

217

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tinnitus: Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Tinnitus is a common condition and frequently can be annoying to affected individuals. We investigated the prevalence and associated factors for tinnitus in South Korea using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 2009–2011. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21 893). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. Results Among the population over 12 years of age, the prevalence of any tinnitus was 19.7% (95% CI 18.8%–20.6%). Tinnitus was more prevalent in women, and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). Among those with any tinnitus, 29.3% (95% CI 27.3%–31.3%) experienced annoying tinnitus that affected daily life. Annoying tinnitus also increased with age (P < 0.001), but no sex difference was demonstrated (P = 0.25). In participants aged 40 years or older, age, quality of life, depressive mood, hearing loss, feeling of dizziness, and rhinitis were associated with any tinnitus (P < 0.05). Age, hearing loss, history of cardiovascular disease, and stress were associated with annoying tinnitus (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tinnitus is a common condition, and a large population suffers from annoying tinnitus in South Korea. Public understanding of associated factors might contribute to better management of tinnitus. PMID:24953134

Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Park, Hun Yi; Lee, Kyu Yup; Choi, Young Seok; Oh, Kyung Won; Lee, Ari; Yang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seon Woo; Cho, Yang-Sun

2014-01-01

218

Prevalence, Course, and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depression in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: (1) To describe the prevalence and prospective course of insomnia in a representative young-adult sample and (2) to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between insomnia and depression. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Community of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Representative stratified population sample. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: The Zurich Study prospectively assessed psychiatric, physical, and sleep symptoms in a community sample of young adults (n = 591) with 6 interviews spanning 20 years. We distinguished 4 duration-based subtypes of insomnia: 1-month insomnia associated with significant distress, 2- to 3-week insomnia, recurrent brief insomnia, and occasional brief insomnia. The annual prevalence of 1-month insomnia increased gradually over time, with a cumulative prevalence rate of 20% and a greater than 2-fold risk among women. In 40% of subjects, insomnia developed into more chronic forms over time. Insomnia either with or without comorbid depression was highly stable over time. Insomnia lasting 2 weeks or longer predicted major depressive episodes and major depressive disorder at subsequent interviews; 17% to 50% of subjects with insomnia lasting 2 weeks or longer developed a major depressive episode in a later interview. “Pure” insomnia and “pure” depression were not longitudinally related to each other, whereas insomnia comorbid with depression was longitudinally related to both. Conclusions: This longitudinal study confirms the persistent nature of insomnia and the increased risk of subsequent depression among individuals with insomnia. The data support a spectrum of insomnia (defined by duration and frequency) comorbid with, rather than secondary to, depression. Citation: Buysse DJ; Angst J; Gamma A; Ajdacic V; Eich D; Rössler W. Prevalence, Course, and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depression in Young Adults. SLEEP 2008;31(4):473-480. PMID:18457234

Buysse, Daniel J.; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Eich, Dominique; Rössler, Wulf

2008-01-01

219

Prevalence of asthma and risk factors among Chinese, Malay, and Indian adults in Singapore.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--The prevalence and morbidity of asthma vary greatly among different ethnic communities and geographical locations, but the roles of environmental and genetic factors are not fully understood. The differences in prevalence of adult asthma among Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in Singapore were examined, and the extent to which these could be explained by personal and environmental factors were investigated. METHODS--A stratified disproportionate random sample (n = 2868) of Chinese (n = 1018), Malays (n = 967), and Indians (n = 883) of both sexes was drawn from households in five public housing estates, and an interviewer administered questionnaire was used to determine cumulative and current prevalence of "physician diagnosed asthma" (symptoms with a physician diagnosis of asthma). RESULTS--Lifetime cumulative prevalence (standardised to the general population) of "physician diagnosed asthma" was 4.7% in men and 4.3% in women; 12 month period prevalences were 2.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Cumulative prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in Indians (6.6%) and Malays (6.0%) than in Chinese (3.0%); period prevalences of asthma were 4.5% in Indians, 3.3% in Malays, and 0.9% in Chinese. Ownership of cats or dogs was more frequent in Malays (15.4%) and Indians (11.2%) than in Chinese (8.8%). Rugs and carpets were also more frequently used by Malays (52.2%) and Indians (40.7%) than by Chinese (8.9%). Current smoking prevalences were higher in Malays (27.3%) than in Indians (19.4%) and Chinese (23.0%). Malays and Indians did not have higher rates of atopy (11.1% and 15.2%, respectively) than Chinese (15.4%). Adjustment for these factors in multivariate analyses reduced the greater odds of asthma in Malays and Indians, but not to a significant extent. CONCLUSIONS--There are ethnic differences in the prevalence of asthma in Singapore which are not entirely explained by differences in smoking, atopy, or other risk factors. Other unmeasured environmental factors or genetic influences are likely to account for residual differences in the prevalence of asthma. PMID:8202905

Ng, T. P.; Hui, K. P.; Tan, W. C.

1994-01-01

220

The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status), Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373). Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013), ethnicity (p = 0.001), religion (p = 0.002), schooling (p = 0.020), educational level (p = 0.016), marital status (p = 0.001) and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken. PMID:19358728

Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj

2009-01-01

221

Prevalence, incidence and predictive factors for hand eczema in young adults – a follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background Hand eczema is common in the general population and affects women twice as often as men. It is also the most frequent occupational skin disease. The economic consequences are considerable for society and for the affected individuals. Methods To investigate the prevalence and incidence of hand eczema and to evaluate risk factors for development of hand eczema in young adults. Subjects and methods; This is a prospective follow-up study of 2,403 young adults, 16 – 19 years old in 1995 and aged 29 – 32 years, 13 years later, in 2008. They completed a postal questionnaire that included questions regarding one-year prevalence of hand eczema, childhood eczema, asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis and factors considered to affect hand eczema such as hand-washing, washing and cleaning, cooking, taking care of small children and usage of moisturisers. These factors were evaluated with the multinominal logistic regression analysis. Results The one-year prevalence of hand eczema was 15.8% (females 20.3% and males 10.0%, p?prevalence 2008, OR 1.02 (p?=?0.038). Conclusions After 13 years an increased 1-year prevalence of hand eczema was found. The significant risk factors for hand eczema changed over time from endogenous to exogenous factors. PMID:24164871

2013-01-01

222

Fulminant type 1 diabetes in Korea: high prevalence among patients with adult-onset type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fulminant type 1 diabetes and the clinical characteristics of the\\u000a disease among newly diagnosed Korean patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using data retrieved from the Seoul National University Hospital database, we identified all patients newly diagnosed with\\u000a type 1 diabetes from 1 January 1999 to 31 July 2006. Information on clinical manifestations and

Y. M. Cho; J. T. Kim; K. S. Ko; B. K. Koo; S. W. Yang; M. H. Park; H. K. Lee; K. S. Park

2007-01-01

223

Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

2014-01-01

224

A Review of Adult Obesity Prevalence, Trends, Risk Factors, and Epidemiologic Methods in Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Objective. Kuwait is among the countries with the highest obesity rates worldwide; however, little is known about the state of obesity epidemiology research in Kuwait. In this paper, we therefore review the findings and methodology of studies on the prevalence, trends and risk factors of obesity in Kuwait. Methods. The PubMed database was searched using the keyword combination: obesity and adults and Kuwait. Out of 111 articles, 39 remained after abstract review, and 18 were selected after full-text review. Results. The studies were all cross-sectional and published in the last fifteen years (1997–2012). The sample size ranged from 177 to 38,611 individuals. Only 30% of studies used random sampling. The prevalence (BMI ? 30) in studies with a nationally representative sample ranged from 24% to 48% overall and in adults >50 years was greater than 52%. Rates were significantly higher in women than those in men. Studies that examined trends showed an increase in obesity prevalence between 1980 and 2009. Multiple risk factors including sociocultural factors were investigated in the studies; however, factors were only crudely assessed. Conclusion. There is a need for future studies, particularly surveillance surveys and prospective cohort studies utilizing advanced methods, to monitor trends and to comprehensively assess the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic in Kuwait. PMID:24455212

Alsmadi, Osama; Behbehani, Kazem

2013-01-01

225

Self-reported anthropometric information cannot vouch for the accurate assessment of obesity prevalence in populations of middle-aged and older Korean individuals.  

PubMed

While there are strong correlations between self-reported and directly measured anthropometric data, the discrepancy and systematic errors associated with these, particularly among middle-aged and older persons residing in South Korea, remain a contentious issue. All participants were selected from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), a panel study conducted by the Korea Labor Institute; data from 510 participants (290 females; 56.9%) were analyzed. We considered general characteristics, including sex, age, education, marital status, employment, income, and residential region, and used self-rated health (SRH) as a generic indicator of health status. One-way ANOVA, t-test, and Scheffé's test (?=0.1) were employed to explore the difference between directly measured and self-reported values. Sensitivity and specificity values were used to assess the validity of obesity diagnoses based on self-reported body mass index (BMI: body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters). The means of BMI differences were 1.3 (±1.2)kg/m(2) among men and 1.8 (±1.5)kg/m(2) among women. In men, the difference could be attributed to measured BMI and residential region; among women, age and education level influenced the discrepancy in BMI. Scheffé's test (?=0.1) for multiple comparisons of group means revealed that women over the age of 65 years, with lower than middle-school education, who lived in rural areas, and had a measured BMI of 25kg/m(2) or more, were more likely to have significant BMI discrepancies. In contrast, for men, significant predictors were living in rural areas and being obese. Although adequate correlations were seen in self-reported BMI, they indicated low sensitivity, with 46.5% and 60.1% among males and females, respectively. However, specificities were very high, at 97.8% and 98.0% for males and females, respectively. The diagnostic performance of self-reported BMI is insufficient for assessing obesity prevalence among middle-aged or older Koreans. PMID:25179443

Yoon, Kyuhyun; Jang, Soong-Nang; Chun, Heeran; Cho, Sung-Il

2014-01-01

226

The prevalence and epidemiology of genetic renal disease amongst adults with chronic kidney disease in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background There are an established and growing number of Mendelian genetic causes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, though estimates of prevalence have been speculative. The CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD) registry enables partial clarification of this through the study of adults with CKD receiving nephrology care throughout Queensland, Australia. Methods Data from the first 2,935 patients consented to the CKD.QLD registry across five sites was analysed, with a comparison between those with and without Genetic Renal Disease (GRD). Prevalence of GRD amongst those with diagnosed CKD, the general population, and commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) was calculated using the CKD.QLD registry, national census data and extracted Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation (ANZDATA) registry report data respectively. Results Patients with GRD constituted 9.8% of this Australian adult CKD cohort (287/2935). This was lower than in local incident RRT cohorts (2006–2011: 9.8% vs 11.3%, x2?=?0.014). Cases of adult CKD GRD were more likely to be female (54.0% vs 45.6%; x2?=?0.007), younger (mean 52.6 yrs vs 69.3 yrs, p?adult CKD population in specialty renal practice is similar to past estimations. GRD is a significant cause for CKD and for RRT commencement, presenting opportunities for ongoing longitudinal study, directed therapeutics and clinical service redesign. PMID:24980890

2014-01-01

227

High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

PubMed Central

The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease. PMID:9616201

McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

1998-01-01

228

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

2008-01-01

229

The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

2013-01-01

230

Prevalence and Determinants of Falls among Older Adults in Ecuador: An Analysis of the SABE I Survey  

PubMed Central

The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls. PMID:23476643

Orces, Carlos H.

2013-01-01

231

Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

2014-01-01

232

Prevalence and clinical features of Thought-Perception-Sensitivity Symptoms: results from a community survey of Korean high school students.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic research indicates that psychosis and depression most frequently develop during adolescence. Hence, an efficient strategy for improving youth mental health would be to focus on detection of early-stage psychosis and depression in adolescence. In this study, 1461 high school students were surveyed using self-report scales. Students who scored equal to or above the cut-off value on any of the scales and who agreed to a further examination proceeded to a second assessment, using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States along with self-reporting scales. The estimated prevalence of adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and of depression-spectrum disorders was 1.26 and 3.69% respectively. Compared with the normal group, experiences of bullying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were significantly higher in these two groups; the subjects at UHR for psychosis were found to have significantly lower academic performance and lower ratings on SCRS; and submissive behavior was more prevalent in the depression-spectrum group. Our results reveal several clinical features of adolescents at UHR for psychosis and with depression-spectrum disorder and underscore the importance of accurate assessment of and early appropriate care for these adolescents. PMID:22475525

Kang, Nam-In; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Oh, Keun-Young; Shim, Shi-Ha; Chung, Young-Chul

2012-08-15

233

Prevalence of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis among Adults in Yaounde, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Population-based estimates of asthma and allergic rhinitis in sub-Saharan African adults are lacking. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of asthma and allergic rhinitis in urban adult Cameroonians. Methods A community-based survey was conducted from December 2013 to April 2014 among adults aged 19 years and above (N = 2,304, 57.3% women), selected through multilevel stratified random sampling across all districts of Yaounde (Capital city). Internationally validated questionnaires were used to investigate the presence of allergic diseases. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the determinants of allergic conditions. Results Prevalence rates were 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1-3.4) for asthma-ever, 6.9% (5.9-7.9) for lifetime wheezing, 2.9% (92.2-3.6) for current wheezing and 11.4% (10.1-12.7) for self-reported lifetime allergic rhinitis; while 240 (10.4%) participants reported current symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and 125 (5.4%) had allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. The prevalence of current asthma medication use and self-reported asthma attack was 0.8 (0.4-1.2) and 1 (0.6-1.4) respectively. Multivariable adjusted determinants of current wheezing were signs of atopic eczema [2.91 (1.09-7.74)] and signs of allergic rhinitis [3.24 (1.83-5.71)]. Age group 31-40 years [0.27(0.09-0.78), p = 0.016] was an independent protective factor for wheezing. Determinants of current rhinitis symptoms were active smoking [2.20 (1.37-3.54), p<0.001], signs of atopic eczema [2.84 (1.48-5.46)] and current wheezing [3.02 (1.70-5.39)]. Conclusion Prevalence rates for asthma and allergic rhinitis among adults in this population were at the lower tails of those reported in other regions of the world. Beside the classical interrelation between allergic diseases found in this study, active smoking was an independent determinant of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Nationwide surveys are needed to investigate regional variations. PMID:25853516

Pefura-Yone, Eric Walter; Kengne, André Pascal; Balkissou, Adamou Dodo; Boulleys-Nana, Julie Raïcha; Efe-de-Melingui, Nelly Rachel; Ndjeutcheu-Moualeu, Patricia Ingrid; Mbele-Onana, Charles Lebon; Kenmegne-Noumsi, Elvira Christelle; Kolontchang-Yomi, Barbara Linda; Theubo-Kamgang, Boris Judicaël; Ebouki, Emilienne Régine; Djuikam-Kamga, Chrystelle Karen; Magne-Fotso, Christiane Gaelle; Amougou, Francine; Mboumtou, Liliane; Ngo-Yonga, Martine; Petchou-Talla, Elsie Linda; Afane-Ze, Emmanuel; Kuaban, Christopher

2015-01-01

234

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Intellectual Disability\\/Mental Retardation (DC-LD; Royal

Oddbjørn Hove; Odd E. Havik

2008-01-01

235

Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Adult Population of Isfahan City, Iran  

PubMed Central

Determination of vitamin D status in different age-groups in a community and in different climates of a country is necessary and has important implications for general health. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population of Isfahan, a centrally-located city in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 1,111 healthy people—243 men and 868 women—aged 41.4 (mean 14 and range 20-80) years, who attended a single-consultation outpatient clinic, were selected. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus concentrations were measured. Mild, moderate and severe vitamin D deficiencies were defined as 25-OHD values of 20-30 ng/mL, 10-20 ng/mL, and <10 ng/mL respectively. The median (range) concentrations of 25-OHD were 21 (4.0-105.0) ng/mL in males and 18 (1.5-117) ng/mL in females (p=0.05). The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe vitamin D deficiencies among the adult population was 19.6%, 23.9%, and 26.9% respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent among women (p=0.001) and younger age-group (p=0.001). Medians of 25-OHD in spring-summer and autumn-winter were 21 ng/mL and 18 ng/mL respectively (p=0.005). The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency was higher in autumn-winter than in spring-summer (odds ratio=1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.2, p=0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was high in a sunny city—Isfahan— especially among women and younger population. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this city emphasizes the necessity of vitamin D supplementation as more exposure to sun is limited due to the type of clothing required by current law. PMID:21608424

Hovsepian, Silva; Amini, Massoud; Amini, Peyvand; Iraj, Bijan

2011-01-01

236

Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies. PMID:22839762

2012-01-01

237

Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD. PMID:19058330

Giangreco, Emiliano; D’agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

2008-01-01

238

Adult depression screening in Saudi primary care: prevalence, instrument and cost  

PubMed Central

Background By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. Depression is a mental illness which causes persistent low mood, a sense of despair, and has multiple risk factors. Its prevalence in primary care varies between 15.3-22%, with global prevalence up to 13% and between 17-46% in Saudi Arabia. Despite several studies that have shown benefit of early diagnosis and cost-savings of up to 80%, physicians in primary care setting continue to miss out on 30-50% of depressed patients in their practices. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at three large primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aiming at estimating point prevalence of depression and screening cost among primary care adult patients, and comparing Patient Health Questionnaires PHQ-2 with PHQ-9. Adult individuals were screened using Arabic version of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9. PHQ-2 scores were correlated with PHQ-9 scores using linear regression. A limited cost-analysis and cost saving estimates of depression screening was done using the Human Capital approach. Results Patients included in the survey analysis were 477, of whom 66.2% were females, 77.4% were married, and nearly 20% were illiterate. Patients exhibiting depressive symptoms on the basis of PHQ9 were 49.9%, of which 31% were mild, 13.4% moderate, 4.4% moderate-severe and 1.0% severe cases. Depression scores were significantly associated with female gender (p-value 0.049), and higher educational level (p-value 0.002). Regression analysis showed that PHQ-2 & PHQ-9 were strongly correlated R = 0.79, and R2 = 0.62. The cost-analysis showed savings of up to 500 SAR ($133) per adult patient screened once a year. Conclusion The point prevalence of screened depression is high in primary care visitors in Saudi Arabia. Gender and higher level of education were found to be significantly associated with screened depression. Majority of cases were mild to moderate, PHQ-2 was equivocal to PHQ 9 in utility and that screening for depression in primary care setting is cost saving. PMID:24992932

2014-01-01

239

Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

1996-01-01

240

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination. Results The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI?28 kg/m2) was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as “fat” (OR?=?3.78 in men, OR?=?2.91 in women). Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise. Conclusion Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic. PMID:25225884

Cai, Li; Han, Xiaoyan; Qi, Zhi; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping

2014-01-01

241

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

2014-01-01

242

Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ?3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

2014-01-01

243

Contributors to Depressive Symptoms among Korean Immigrants with Type 2 Diabete  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with diabetes have a higher prevalence of depression than the general population. Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes are understudied. Objectives To identify the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Korean immigrants. Method In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a community sample of 164 Korean immigrant adults with type 2 diabetes were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Predictors of depression were grouped into three categories: demographic (age, gender, education, English proficiency); clinical (duration of diabetes, comorbidities, insulin use); and psychosocial (general health, diabetes-related quality-of-life, family support). Results Approximately 56% of participants had CES-D scores ? 16. Higher levels of depression were associated with greater impact of diabetes on QOL (b = 5.68, p = .001), worse overall health (b = -0.09, p = .012), and less family support (b = -4.02, p = .042). The relationship between depression and diabetes impact on quality-of-life was stronger for men than women (b = 6.67, p = .020). Discussion Depressive symptoms are common among Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes. Assessing diabetes-related quality-of-life, general health, and family support may be of value in better understanding depressive symptoms among this population. Among Korean immigrant men with type 2 diabetes, specific attention should be paid to diabetes-related quality-of-life. PMID:23190692

Choi, Sarah E.; Reed, Preston L.

2012-01-01

244

Relationship of serum retinol-binding protein 4 with weight status and lipid profile among Korean children and adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Although some studies have suggested that retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a fat-derived adipokine, is positively related to overweight and obesity-related disorders, these claims have been disputed. This study investigated relationships between RBP4 level and weight status and metabolic disorders in a Korean population including confounding factors, age and gender.Subjects\\/Methods:From 2005 to 2007, we recruited 570 children and 241 of their

I K Kim; H-J Lee; J H Kang; J Song

2011-01-01

245

The prevalence of dental caries among adult population of different regions of Georgia.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of dental caries in adult population of Georgia according to their regional distribution. The survey was carried out by pathfinder survey, based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34 years, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ years, the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of dental status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 'Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and an explorer. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk-factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people's attitude towards oral hygiene (tooth brushing, using dental floss) accessibility and acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The study revealed the high prevalence of dental caries in Georgia's adult population (96-100%) Caries intensity and severity was seen as the highest in Mtskheta- Mtianeti - 13.26±5.97, Guria - 12.79±8.92, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 12.62±8.44, Shida Qartli - 12.03±7.22 and Achara - 12.23±7.89 regions, relatively lower in Tbilisi - 11.64±7.8; Qvemo Qartli - 10.96±7.07; Imereti - 10.79±7.63 Samegrelo - 10.54±7.95 and in Kakheti - 9.86±7.02. By the mean number of caries decayed teeth Mckheta-Mtianeti - 4.26±3.51, Samckhe-Javakheti - 3.52±3.51 and Imereti - 3.05±3.1 were distinguished. The mean number of caries missing teeth was noted to be highest in Guria - 5.49±7.42, Samckhe-Javakheti - 5.31±6.97 and Achara - 5.32±6.73. Mckheta-Mtianeti - 2.62±3.05, Shida Qartli - 2.39±2.8 and Tbilisi - 2.28±2.09 were the leading regions by the mean number of filled teeth, the lowest value of filled teeth variable was seen in Imereti - 0.67±1.39. In summary behavioral factors (unsatisfactory oral hygiene and less acceptability of dental service due to low medical educational background) play substantial role in occurrence and prevalence of dental caries among adult population of Georgia in all regions, though the financial problem seems to be a considerable contributor in caries prevalence. Reliable statistical data obtained in the study allowed to conclude that in spite of small differences in prevalence in different regions of Georgia dental caries is very widespread throughout the country (96-100%). It represents a major problem in Georgia and needs serious attention and preventive measures to be carried out to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and improve medical educational background of the population. PMID:25214266

Tsitaisvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelasvili, V

2014-01-01

246

Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Adults from Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the prevalence rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults from two First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods. Body weight, height, and waist circumference as well as fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 31 men and 41 women. Results. The mean age of the sample was 43 ± 13?y. The prevalence of obesity was 65.3% and was comparable between men and women. 90.3% of the individuals presented waist circumference levels greater than the thresholds associated with an increased risk of developing health problems. 26 of the 72 individuals (36.1%) were found to be type 2 diabetic. The prevalence of diabetes was not different between men and women. Conclusion. Using objective measurements, this study confirms that First Nations adults from remote communities of Canada continue to experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than nonaboriginal Canadians. PMID:21603265

Imbeault, Pascal; Haman, François; Blais, Jules M.; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krümmel, Eva M.; Robidoux, Michael A.

2011-01-01

247

Prevalence Rates of Gambling Problems in Montreal, Canada: A Look at Old Adults and the Role of Passion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine the prevalence rate of gambling problems in senior citizens (55 years\\u000a and older). A community-dwelling sample composed of 810 old adults living in the greater Montreal area in the Province of\\u000a Quebec completed the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R). Results revealed that the 12-month prevalence rate was 1.2%\\u000a for pathological gambling

Frédérick Philippe; Robert J. Vallerand

2007-01-01

248

Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating-out among Korean people has become an important part of modern lifestyle due to tremendous growth of the food service industry and various social and economic changes. This study examined trends in meal patterns and meal sources while eating-out among Korean adults aged 19 years and older. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data were from the 1998-2012 KNHNES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) by the 24-hour dietary recall method. This study included 55,718 adults aged 19 years and older. For analysis of eating-out frequency, data were categorized by source of meals and serving place. RESULTS Average frequency of meals consumed away from home increased from 1998 to 2012, although it remained lower than that of meals at home. In addition, male, unmarried, employed, higher educated, and high income individuals more frequently consumed meals away from home. Moreover, sodium intake while eating-out significantly increased from 2,370 mg in 1998 to 2,935 mg in 2012. Lastly, percentage contributions of daily total protein intake, fat intake, and sodium intake from eating-out increased to more than half (53-55%) in 2012 compared with 47-48% in 1998. CONCLUSIONS As eating-out has grown in popularity, greater recognition of public health and nutritional education aimed at promoting healthy food choices is needed. In addition to developing consumer education for overall healthier eating patterns, individuals who are younger, unmarried, higher educated, and males are especially at risk and require attention. PMID:25489407

Kwon, Yong-Seok

2014-01-01

249

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among Panamanian Adults. 1982–2010  

PubMed Central

Background In Central America, there has been a marked increase in obesity in the last 30 years. Over this time frame, in Panama, there have been lifestyle changes associated with economic development and urbanization that may have facilitated increases in body weight. The aim of the study is to describe the change in the prevalence of obesity in the country since 1982 and to analyze the association of obesity with gender, place of residence and socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed three nationally representative cross-sectional studies and one sub-national study of Panamanian adults that evaluated anthropometric and socioeconomic variables; ENPA-1982 (n?=?11 611), ENV-II 2003 (n?=?14 737), ENV-III 2008 (n?=?15 484), PREFREC-2010 (n ?=?3 590). We also evaluated one nationally representative study that evaluated people’s perception of their body weight, ENSCAVI-2007 (n?=?25 748). Results In 1982, the prevalence in males of a body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2 was 3.8% (3.3 – 4.2) and in females 7.6% (6.9 – 8.2). In 2003, the prevalence in males increased to 14.4% (13.6 – 15.2) and in females to 21.8% (20.8 – 22.7). In 2008, the prevalence in males was 16.9% (16.0 – 17.7) and in females it was 23.8% (22.8 – 24.7). Nevertheless, in 2007, the national perception of being obese was only 4% among males and 6.7% among females. The highest prevalence of obesity was noted in urban areas. Female gender and higher income were found to be positively associated with obesity. Income level was positively associated with abdominal obesity in men but not in women. Conclusions There has been a marked increase of obesity in Panama in the last 3 decades. Initiatives to control this problem will have to take into consideration the observed gender difference and the lifestyle changes that have contributed to the rise of this problem. PMID:24621825

Sasson, Morris; Lee, Marcos; Jan, Carmen; Fontes, Flavia; Motta, Jorge

2014-01-01

250

Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-01-01

251

Features and prevalence of patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who request treatment for cocaine use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize those patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who ask for treatment of cocaine use disorders; to estimate the prevalence of probable adult ADHD among these patients. This is a cross-sectional and multi-center study performed at outpatient resources of 12 addiction treatment centers in Spain. Participants were treatment-seeking primary cocaine abusers recruited consecutively at one center

José Pérez de los Cobos; Núria Siñol; Carmen Puerta; Vanessa Cantillano; Cristina López Zurita; Joan Trujols

2011-01-01

252

Prevalence and Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Adults and Children in Mangalore, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-limited countries. Among the bacterial pathogens, diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) are most frequently implicated in cases of epidemic and endemic diarrhea worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of DEC in stool specimens from patients with acute diarrhea using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Escherichia coli stool samples were collected from 115 hospitalized children and adults with acute diarrhea in Mangalore, a coastal city, in southern India. PCR amplification of eae, bfp, stx, ehx genes were used for detection of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), lt and st genes were used for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and astA gene for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Results: During the 24 month study period, of the 115 stool samples, DEC type was detected in 20 (17.4%) using the PCR method. The most prevalent DEC was atypical EPEC accounting for 12 (10.4%) cases followed by 4 cases of EAEC (3.4%) and 4 of STEC (3.4%). No ETEC strains were isolated from any of the examined stool samples. Conclusion: This study suggests that the atypical EPEC are the newly emerging group among DEC stains in Southern India. Further studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiology and virulence properties of atypical EPEC strains. PMID:22923918

Shetty, Veena A; Kumar, Sanath H; Shetty, Avinash K; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

2012-01-01

253

Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ?60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

2015-01-01

254

Prevalence of Self-Reported Stroke and Disability in the French Adult Population: A Transversal Study  

PubMed Central

In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named “the Disability Health survey” was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%–1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without. PMID:25521057

Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

2014-01-01

255

Prevalence and changes of untreated isolated systolic hypertension among non-Hispanic black adults in the United States.  

PubMed

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a growing health concern in the United States (US) black population. The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH has not been fully investigated in non-Hispanic blacks. Cross-sectional data on 4625 non-Hispanic blacks aged ?18 years were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010, representing a probability sample of the US civilian noninstitutionalized black population. The 6-year prevalence of ISH and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conducting weighted frequency and logistic procedures. The prevalence of untreated ISH was 11.2% among non-Hispanic black adults in 1999-2010. Individuals who received lower education (high school or below) had higher prevalence of untreated ISH than those with higher education (12.8% (95% CI: 11.3-14.2%) vs. 9.0% (95% CI: 7.5-10.6%)). The prevalence of untreated ISH was higher in young men than in young women (4.3% (95% CI: 3.3-5.4%) vs. 1.8% (95% CI: 0.9-2.7%)), and higher in middle-aged adults with lower education than in middle-aged adults with higher education (14.1% (95% CI: 11.4-16.7%) vs. 7.7% (95% CI: 5.5-9.8%)). Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 decreased for old individuals (27.7% vs. 40.8%), old men (24.4% vs. 40.0%) and old individuals who received higher education (21.4% vs. 40.7%). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in old blacks, and significant reduction of the prevalence in this group suggests that public health interventions, lifestyle modifications or health awareness are in the right direction. PMID:24621464

Liu, Xuefeng; Tsilimingras, Dennis; Paul, Timir K

2014-07-01

256

Prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

AIM—To assess the prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.?METHODS—In 179 consecutive patients (96 with Crohn's disease, 55 with ulcerative colitis, and 28 with inflammatory bowel disease of undetermined nature) without previous or concurrent ocular complaints, quantitative flare measurements were obtained with the Kowa FC laser flare to detect the presence of subclinical uveitis.?RESULTS—The mean flare value was 3.9 (SD 1.1) ph/ms in patients younger than 30 years of age, rising to 5.8 (2.5) ph/ms in those over 60 years of age. No measurement performed in this patient population fell outside the mean observed value plus or minus SD of the normal controls within the same age category.?CONCLUSION—In an adult population of 179 consecutive patients with inflammatory bowel disease the presence of a form of subclinical uveitis, as described by Hofley et al in a group of juvenile patients, is highly unlikely.?? PMID:11159490

Verbraak, F; Schreinemachers, M; Tiller, A; van Deventer, S J H; de Smet, M D

2001-01-01

257

PREVALENCE OF PERSISTENT COUGH AND PHLEGM IN YOUNG ADULTS IN RELATION TO LONG-TERM AMBIENT SULFUR OXIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

In early 1976, a survey of persistent cough and plegm (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 micrograms per cubic meter. Corresponding m...

258

Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes Among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community supportiveness, and the prevalence of community alcohol use exhibited by adolescents and adults. Multilevel analyses were applied to 1,424

Laura DeHaan; Tina Boljevac

2010-01-01

259

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

260

Accuracy of the estimated prevalence of obesity from self reported height and weight in an adult Scottish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine whether self reported heights and weights from Scottish adults can provide an accurate assessment of obesity prevalence in the population.DESIGNStandardised clinic measurements of weight and height were compared against self reported values on a postal questionnaire in the fourth Scottish MONICA cross sectional study.SETTINGA sex and five year age band stratified random population sample drawn from general

Caroline Bolton-Smith; Mark Woodward; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe; Caroline Morrison

2000-01-01

261

The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

2010-01-01

262

Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

2010-01-01

263

The prevalence of mental disorders in adults in different level general medical facilities in Kenya: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The possibility that a significant proportion of the patients attending a general health facility may have a mental disorder means that psychiatric conditions must be recognised and managed appropriately. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in adult (aged 18 years and over) inpatients and outpatients seen in public, private and faith-based general hospitals, health

David M Ndetei; Lincoln I Khasakhala; Mary W Kuria; Victoria N Mutiso; Francisca A Ongecha-Owuor; Donald A Kokonya

2009-01-01

264

Association between Low-Grade Albuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have indicated that low UACR levels (<30 ?g/mg) previously considered to be in the normal range (‘low-grade albuminuria’) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We studied 9,736 participants with albuminuria in the normal range from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Results The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the 10-year risk for coronary heart disease measured using the Framingham risk score (FRS) ? 20% (high risk) were 22.5 ± 0.7% and 14.5 ± 0.7%, respectively, in males and 23.3 ± 0.8% and 8.5 ± 0.4%, respectively in females. Weighted comparisons among the tertiles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS increased with increasing UACR (MS: males, 15.9 ± 1.1, 20.2 ± 1.2, 32.4 ± 1.5%, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 17.6 ± 1.0, 22.7 ± 1.0, 30.2 ± 1.4%, respectively; P < 0.001. High-risk FRS: males, 9.5 ± 0.7, 12.3 ± 0.9, 22.5 ± 1.2, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 5.8 ± 0.6, 7.9 ± 0.7, 12.0 ± 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). The positive association persisted after adjusting for hypertension and diabetes. The weighted comparisons among the deciles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS began to increase at the ranges of 3.89–5.15 and 5.16–7.36 mg/g Cr, respectively. Conclusion Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with estimated cardiovascular risk and MS in a nationally representative sample of Koreans. PMID:25742159

Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2015-01-01

265

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

2012-01-01

266

Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 +  

E-print Network

Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 7.1 8.1 7.2 7.6 8.6 8.7 10.2 8.2 7.8 8.5 9.0 8.0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Percent IL U.S. Adult current asthma prevalence was highest among adults aged 18-24 years throughout the U.S. Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Sex, BRFSS

267

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

2008-08-01

268

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Durame Town, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background To date, non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are becoming severe public health challenges particularly in developing countries. Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor that contributes the leading role for mortality. The problem is significant in low- and middle-income countries like sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are limited studies in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, determining the magnitude of hypertension and identifying risk groups are important. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in April 2013 among adults (age>31 years) old. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 518 study participants. Data were collected after full verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to control the effect of confounding. Adjusted Odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to measure associations. Variables having P-value <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension in Durame town was 22.4% (95% CI: 18.8–26.0). Nearly 40% of hypertensive patients were newly screened. Male sex [AOR ?=?2.03, 95% CI; 1.05–3.93], age [AOR ?=?29.49, 95% CI; 10.60–81.27], salt use [AOR ?=?6.55, 95% CI; 2.31–18.53], eating vegetable three or fewer days per week [AOR ?=?2.3,95% CI; 1.17–4.51], not continuously walking at least for 10 minutes per day [AOR ?=?7.82, 95% CI; 2.37–25.82], having family history of hypertension [AOR ?=?2.46, 95%CI; 1.31–4.61] and being overweight/obese [AOR ?=?15.7, 95% CI 7.89–31.21)] were found to be risk factors for hypertension. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Older age, male sex, having family history of hypertension, physical inactivity, poor vegetable diet, additional salt consumption and obesity were important risk factors associated with hypertension among adults. Community level intervention measures with a particular emphasis on prevention by introducing lifestyle modifications are recommended. PMID:25415321

Helelo, Tsegab Paulose; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Adane, Akilew Awoke

2014-01-01

269

Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults aged 19 years and older in Basrah, Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background Six of the top ten countries in the world with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus are in the Middle East. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Southern Iraq. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, simple random study screened 5,445 persons aged 19–94 years in Basrah, with glycated hemoglobin measured in 88.3% of the population and fasting plasma glucose in 18.7%. Body mass index and other demographic parameters were also measured. Results Of the 5,445 persons screened, 8.7% had already been diagnosed with diabetes and 11% were found by screening to have undiscovered diabetes, giving an age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes of 19.7%, with 55.7% of those with diabetes being previously undiagnosed. In addition, 29.1% of the screened population had prediabetes, giving a prevalence of dysglycemia of 48.8%, with only 51.2% of the persons screened being normoglycemic. The prevalence of diabetes in both sexes peaked at age 46–60 years. Diabetes was slightly more prevalent in females than in males, and about 70.3% of diabetic individuals had a body mass index ?25 kg/m2. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Iraq, is very high, affecting one in five adults. The epidemic of diabetes will result in strain on the financial resources of health care systems. PMID:24833912

Mansour, Abbas Ali; Al-Maliky, Ahmed A; Kasem, Bashar; Jabar, Abdulsatar; Mosbeh, Khalid Abdulabass

2014-01-01

270

Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases  

PubMed Central

Background The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. Methods Patients undergoing lumbar punctures between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2008 at a public sector referral hospital were studied. Cases were classified by microbiological diagnosis, or in the absence of definitive microbiology as 1) normal CSF (neutrophils ? 1 × 106/L, lymphocytes ? 5 × 106/L, protein ? 0.5 g/dL, glucose ?1.5 mmol/L), 2) minor abnormalities (neutrophils 2-5, lymphocytes 6-20, protein 0.51-1.0, glucose 1.0-1.49) or 3) markedly abnormal (neutrophils>5, lymphocytes>20, protein>1.0, glucose<1.0). Results 5578 LPs were performed on 4549 patients, representing 4961 clinical episodes. Of these, 2293 had normal CSF and 931 had minor abnormalities and no aetiology identified. Of the remaining 1737, microbiological diagnoses were obtained in 820 (47%). Cryptococcus accounted for 63% (514) of microbiological diagnoses, TB for 28% (227), bacterial meningitis for 8% (68). Of the remaining 917 who had marked abnormalities, the majority (59%) had a sterile lymphocytic CSF. Of note 16% (81) patients with confirmed Cryptococcus, 5% (12) with TB and 4% (3) with bacterial meningitis had normal CSF cell-counts and biochemistry. Conclusions Cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis are now the commonest causes of adult meningitis in this setting. TB meningitis is probably underdiagnosed by laboratory investigation, as evidence by the large numbers presenting with sterile lymphocytic markedly abnormal CSFs. PMID:20230635

2010-01-01

271

Obesity Prevalence Maps  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence Maps Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and ... CDCObesity Download the 2011-2013 State Adult Obesity Maps The adult obesity prevalence for states and territories ...

272

Twelve-year trends in the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and prediabetes in Turkish adults.  

PubMed

There is concern about an emerging diabetes epidemic in Turkey. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and their 12-year trends and to identify risk factors for diabetes in the adult Turkish population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, 'TURDEP-II' included 26,499 randomly sampled adults aged ? 20 years (response rate: 87 %). Fasting glucose and biochemical parameters were measured in all; then a OGTT was performed to identify diabetes and prediabetes in eligible participants. The prevalence of diabetes was 16.5 % (new 7.5 %), translating to 6.5 million adults with diabetes in Turkey. It was higher in women than men (p = 0.008). The age-standardized prevalence to the TURDEP-I population (performed in 1997-98) was 13.7 % (if same diagnostic definition was applied diabetes prevalence is calculated 11.4 %). The prevalence of isolated-IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined prediabetes was 14.7, 7.9, and 8.2 %, respectively; and that of obesity 36 % and hypertension 31.4 %. Compared to TURDEP-I; the rate of increase for diabetes: 90 %, IGT: 106 %, obesity: 40 % and central obesity: 35 %, but hypertension decreased by 11 % during the last 12 years. In women age, waist, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, low education, and living environment; in men age, BMI, and hypertension were independently associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. In women current smoking, and in men being single were associated with a reduced risk. These results from one of the largest nationally representative surveys carried out so far show that diabetes has rapidly become a major public health challenge in Turkey. The figures are alarming and underscore the urgent need for national programs to prevent diabetes, to manage the illness and thus prevent complications. PMID:23407904

Satman, Ilhan; Omer, Beyhan; Tutuncu, Yildiz; Kalaca, Sibel; Gedik, Selda; Dinccag, Nevin; Karsidag, Kubilay; Genc, Sema; Telci, Aysegul; Canbaz, Bulent; Turker, Fulya; Yilmaz, Temel; Cakir, Bekir; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2013-02-01

273

The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.  

PubMed

Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients. PMID:24924526

He, Li; Tang, Suqin; Yu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Xie, Qiuyuan; Wang, Jianping

2014-10-30

274

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

2014-01-01

275

A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.  

PubMed

Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p < 0.05); Ascaridia galli (69% of growers, 29% of adults); Syngamus trachea (14%, 3%); Tetrameres americana (94%, 82%); Trichostrongylus tenuis (43%, 7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (15%, 6%); Davainea proglottina (9%, 2%); and Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p < 0.05). There were significantly higher worm burdens (p < 0.05) in growers than in adults for A. galli, Capillaria caudinflata, R. tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively. PMID:12094676

Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

2002-05-01

276

Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code ?10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure. PMID:24840377

Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2014-01-01

277

Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (? 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ? 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

2015-01-01

278

Prevalence of retinopathy among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus: the Sri Lanka diabetes and Cardiovascular Study  

PubMed Central

Background At present there are no large scale nationally-representative studies from Sri Lanka on the prevalence and associations of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for DR in a community-based nationally-representative sample of adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus from Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional community-based national study among 5,000 adults (?18 years) was conducted in Sri Lanka, using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Ophthalmological evaluation of patients with ‘known’ diabetes (previously diagnosed at a government hospital or by a registered medical practitioner) was done using indirect ophthalmoscopy. A binary-logistic regression analysis was performed with ‘presence of DR’ as the dichotomous dependent variable and other independent covariates. Results Crude prevalence of diabetes was 12.0% (n?=?536), of which 344 were patients with ‘known’ diabetes. Mean age was 56.4?±?10.9 years and 37.3% were males. Prevalence of any degree of DR was 27.4% (Males-30.5%, Females-25.6%; p?=?0.41). In patients with DR, majority had NPDR (93.4%), while 5.3% had maculopathy. Patients with DR had a significantly longer duration of diabetes than those without. In the binary-logistic regression analysis in all adults duration of diabetes (OR:1.07), current smoking (OR:1.67) and peripheral neuropathy (OR:1.72) all were significantly associated with DR. Conclusions Nearly 1/3rd of Sri Lankan adults with self-reported diabetes are having retinopathy. DR was associated with diabetes duration, cigarette smoking and peripheral neuropathy. However, further prospective follow up studies are required to establish causality for identified risk factors. PMID:25142615

2014-01-01

279

Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting  

PubMed Central

Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data from 297 HIV-1–infected adults (mean age = 31.1 years, 69% female) living in Lusaka, Zambia to assess the prevalence and associated predictors of helminth infection. We found at least one type of intestinal helminth in 24.9% of HIV-infected adults. Thirty-nine (52.7%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 29 (39.2%) were infected with hookworm. More than 80% were light-intensity infections. A recent visit to a rural area, food shortage, and prior history of helminth infection were significant predictors of current helminth status. The high helminth prevalence and potential for adverse interactions between helminths and HIV suggests that helminth diagnosis and treatment should be part of routine HIV care. PMID:16222025

Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O.; Vermund, Sten H.

2009-01-01

280

The 6-Month Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS) Among Older Adults: Validity and Reliability of the PTSS Scale  

PubMed Central

Objective: To document the 6-month prevalence of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) in the older adult population and the validity of a PTSS Scale in an epidemiologic setting. Method: Data came from the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study) conducted during 2012–2013 using a probability sample of older adults seeking medical services in primary health clinics. Results: Results showed that a first-order PTSS measurement model consisting of 3 indicators—the number of lifetime traumatic events, the frequency of reactions and symptoms of distress associated with the traumatic events, and the presence of consequences on the social functioning—was plausible. Reliability of the PTSS was 0.82. According to the PTSS, 11.1% of the older adult patients presented with PTSS, but only 21.7% of them reported an impact of their symptoms on their social functioning. The prevalence of older adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reached 1.8%, and 1.8% of older adults reached criteria for partial PTSD. Our results also showed that women were more at risk to report PTSS than men and that older adults aged 75 years and older were less likely to report these symptoms than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusions: PTSS is a common mental health problem among adults aged 65 and older and seeking health services in the general medical sector. PMID:25565688

Préville, Michel; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Grenier, Sébastien; Potvin, Olivier; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Berbiche, Djamal

2014-01-01

281

High Mortality in Adults Hospitalized for Active Tuberculosis in a Low HIV Prevalence Setting  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of adults hospitalized for tuberculosis in a higher-income region with low HIV prevalence. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all adults hospitalized for pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis in an acute-care hospital in Hong Kong during a two-year period. Microscopy and solid-medium culture were routinely performed. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by: (1) positive culture of M. tuberculosis, (2) positive M. tuberculosis PCR result, (3) histology findings of tuberculosis infection, and/or (4) typical clinico-radiological manifestations of tuberculosis which resolved after anti-TB treatment, in the absence of alternative diagnoses. Time to treatment (‘early’, started during initial admission; ‘late’, subsequent periods), reasons for delay, and short- and long-term survival were analyzed. Results Altogether 349 patients were studied [median(IQR) age 62(48–77) years; non-HIV immunocompromised conditions 36.7%; HIV/AIDS 2.0%]. 57.9%, 16.3%, and 25.8% had pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and pulmonary-extrapulmonary tuberculosis respectively. 58.2% was smear-negative; 0.6% multidrug-resistant. 43.4% developed hypoxemia. Crude 90-day and 1-year all-cause mortality was 13.8% and 24.1% respectively. 57.6% and 35.8% received ‘early’ and ‘late’ treatment respectively, latter mostly culture-guided [median(IQR) intervals, 5(3–9) vs. 43(25–61) days]. Diagnosis was unknown before death in 6.6%. Smear-negativity, malignancy, chronic lung diseases, and prior exposure to fluoroquinolones (adjusted-OR 10.6, 95%CI 1.3–85.2) delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis. Failure to receive ‘early’ treatment independently predicted higher mortality (Cox-model, adjusted-HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–3.0). Conclusions Mortality of hospitalized tuberculosis patients is high. Newer approaches incorporating methods for rapid diagnosis and initiation of anti-tuberculous treatment are urgently required to improve outcomes. PMID:24642794

Lui, Grace; Wong, Rity Y. K.; Li, Florence; Lee, May K. P.; Lai, Raymond W. M.; Li, Timothy C. M.; Kam, Joseph K. M.; Lee, Nelson

2014-01-01

282

Prevalence, control and awareness of high blood pressure among Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of elevated blood pressure (BP) among Canadian adults and to determine the level of control, treatment, awareness and prevalence of other risk factors among adults with high BP. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Nine Canadian provinces, from 1986 to 1990. PARTICIPANTS: A probability sample of 26,293 men and women aged 18 to 74 years was selected from the health insurance registers in each province. For 20,582 subjects, BP was measured at least twice. Nurses administered a standard questionnaire and recorded two BP measurements using a standardized technique. Two further BP readings, anthropometric measurements and a blood specimen for lipid analysis were obtained from those subjects who attended a clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP, prevalence of elevated BP using different criteria, and prevalence of smoking, elevated blood cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity and presence of diabetes by high BP status are reported. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen percent of men and 13% of women had diastolic BP of 90 mm Hg or greater or were on treatment (or both). About 26% of these subjects were unaware of their hypertension, 42% were being treated and their condition controlled, 16% were treated and not controlled, and 16% were neither treated nor controlled. Use of non-pharmacologic treatment of high BP with or without medication was low (22%). Hypertensive subjects showed a higher prevalence of elevated total cholesterol, high body mass index, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle than normotensive subjects. Most people with elevated BP were in the 90 to 95 mm Hg range for diastolic pressure and 140 to 160 mm Hg range for systolic pressure. Prevalence of high isolated systolic BP sharply increased in men (40%) and women (49%) 65 to 74 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively low level of control of elevated BP calls for population and individual strategies, stressing a non-pharmacologic approach and addressing isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. PMID:1596849

Joffres, M R; Hamet, P; Rabkin, S W; Gelskey, D; Hogan, K; Fodor, G

1992-01-01

283

Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

Bu, So-Young

2012-01-01

284

Korean Microcar  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Tight urban parking spaces. Don't they just make you wish for a car that could fold itself in half and then park itself? And they must have made the tech-savvy South Koreans wish for that, too, because a professor at the Korea...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-30

285

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

2013-01-01

286

Contrasting prevalence of and demographic disparities in the World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definitions of metabolic syndrome among adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among adolescents by using definitions from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and to compare the populations identified by these definitions.

Elizabeth Goodman; Stephen R. Daniels; John A. Morrison; Bin Huang; Lawrence M. Dolan

2004-01-01

287

Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Simmons D, McKenzie A, Eaton S, Cox N, Khan MA, Shaw J, Zimmet P. Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia.

288

Interspecific variability of prevalence in blood parasites of adult passerine birds during the breeding season in Alaska.  

PubMed

Blood parasite prevalence based on microscopic examination of stained blood smears was determined in adults of 11 passerine bird species sampled during their breeding season (May and June 1997-98) in interior Alaska (USA). These species included primarily Nearctic migratory species such as the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and neotropical migratory species such as the blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata), alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum), Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), northern waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis), and bank swallow (Riparia riparia) as well as one long-distance palearctic migrant, the arctic warbler (Phylloscopus borealis). The more prevalent parasites were Leucocytozoon dubreuili (73% of the sampled turdinids), L. fringillinarum (42% of the sampled fringillids and parulids), and Trypanosoma avium (39% of the sampled hosts). Other parasites (H. fallisi: 18% of the sampled turdinids; Haemoproteus paruli: 14% of the sampled parulids; H. fringillae: 5% of the sampled fringillids; microfilariae: 4% of the sampled hosts) were observed less frequently. Plasmodium vaughani was found only in two yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia). Overall parasite prevalence varied between 0% in the alder flycatcher to >80% in Swainson's thrush, arctic warbler, and Townsend's warbler (Dendroica townsendi). Prevalence of various hematozoa also was bird species-dependent. No relationship was observed between prevalence and either foraging (aerial versus trees/shrubs) or nesting habits (ground versus arboreal) or general location of the wintering area of the different species examined. Prevalence also was unrelated to average dates of arrival on breeding grounds and, therefore, to potential duration of exposure to local insect vectors before capture. Differences in blood parasite prevalence among species breeding in a same region and in the same type of habitat may result from differences in host specificity such as immunological resistance to infection or blood meal preference by potential vectors and/or in behavioral adjustments/physiological traits that alter exposure to vectors. PMID:11272501

Deviche, P; Greiner, E C; Manteca, X

2001-01-01

289

Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Fasting Glucose, Associated with Risk Factors in Rural Kazakh Adults in Xinjiang, China  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a Kazakh population aged ?18 years living in the YiLi District of Xinjiang, China and to evaluate the associated risk factors of diabetes. Methods: Randomly selected adults, living for at least 6 months in the YiLi District in Xinjiang had their clinical characteristics and standard blood chemistries measured. DM and IFG were defined according to WHO 1999 criteria. The adjusted odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the association of diabetes risk factors in multivariate logistic regression models. Results: A total of 3919 subjects were randomly selected. The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of DM and IFG were 5.9% and 10.0%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IFG increased with age and BMI. Prevalence of 7.4%, 12.2% in males and 4.9%, 8.6% in females for DM and IFG. Compared by sex, prevalence of DM and IFG was higher in males. Prevalence of 3.4%, 8.1% in normal, 6.7%, 11.9% in overweight and 12.0%, 13.0% in obesity for diabetes and IFG. In the multivariable logistic models, male sex, older age, unmarried, overweight, obesity, hypertension, triglycerides and smoking were all significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Conclusions: The prevalence of DM and IFG among minorities was lower than the overall national level both in men and women (9.7% in total, 10.6% in males, 8.8% in females), and also lower than among the Han ethnicity (9.26%) which predominates in China today. PMID:25584422

Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia; He, Fei; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yizhong; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Liu, Jiaming; Guo, Heng; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Rulin

2015-01-01

290

High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older in Gwangju, Korea: the Dong-gu Study  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D plays an important role in bone metabolism and maintaining bone health. Recently, new evidence has revealed that vitamin D affects chronic diseases such as autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D status and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in an urban Korean population. This study included 8,976 participants (3,587 men and 5,389 women) aged 50 yr and older. Serum 25(OH)D level was measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] was 59.7% and 86.5% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased significantly with age in men, but not in women and it decreased from April to July, more prominently in men than in women. These results suggest that sun exposure, intake of vitamin D supplement, and regular physical activities is recommended in an urban Koreans, especially in women. PMID:24431921

Song, Hye-Rim; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

2014-01-01

291

Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (?18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n?=?271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] ?=?1.08 [0.98?1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98?1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n?=?153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

deCastro, B. Rey

2014-01-01

292

Prevalence of Dentin Hypersensitivity and Related Factors Among Adult Patients Visiting a Dental School in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common problem which may disturb the patient during eating, drinking, brushing and sometimes even breathing. It is a painful condition highly prevalent in the general adult population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DH and to examine some associated factors such as initiating stimuli among adult patients. Materials and Methods: The study is done under two phases. In the first phase a cross-sectional study was carried out in 665 study volunteers. Only 212 adult patients who were meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conveniently selected to the study. A detailed demographic data and a structured questionnaire regarding type of response, sensitivity episodes, and duration of sensation, and stimulus for initiation were recorded by the examiner. Evidence of DH was confirmed by the use of air blast and water from the air-water jet of the dental chair and scratching the suspected tooth surfaces which is indicated by study subjects with a dental probe and noting the responses by using visual analog scale (VAS). In the second phase the related factors or characteristics of DH were surveyed. Statistical analysis preformed by using methods of descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: The overall prevalence of DH was found to be 32%. The most common cause was consuming cold food or drinks (92%) and common predisposing factor was gingival recession (28%). Probe method yields a higher VAS score followed by Air at 10 seconds and Water at 10 seconds which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of DH in present study was 32% which is attributed to gingival recession as predisposing factor and cold stimuli. PMID:25386522

Ram K, Chaitanya; Sirisha, N R; Sree Y, Sandhya; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Satti, Narayana Reddy; Thatimatla, Chandrasekar

2014-01-01

293

How do different diagnostic criteria, age and gender affect the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults? An epidemiological study in a Hungarian community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of different diagnostic criteria on prevalence estimates\\u000a of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and (2) to provide prevalence estimates of adult ADHD for the first\\u000a time in a Hungarian sample. Subjects between 18 and 60 years were included in the screening phase of the study (N = 3,529), conducted in

István Bitter; Viktoria Simon; Sára Bálint; Ágnes Mészáros; Pál Czobor

2010-01-01

294

Prevalence of Dyspepsia and its Associated Factors Among the Adult Population in Southeast of Iran in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Dyspepsia is a common disorder that can present many clinical dilemmas in patient management. Although not usually life-threatening, its symptoms such as abdominal pain, heartburn, early satiety and postprandial fullness can have a significant negative impact on patients' quality of life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyspepsia and its associated factors among the adult population in Kerman in 2010. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 2210 patients with the mean age of 43.4 years in Kerman, a city in southeast of Iran. Demographic factors, lifestyle data and gastrointestinal symptoms were collected for each patient. Results: The prevalence of dyspepsia was 16.1% (95% confidence interval: 14.3-18.1). The prevalence in patients with abdominal obesity (7.3%) was lower in comparison with those with low physical activity (13.8%). Out of other psycho-behavioral risk factors, anxiety after controlling for other variables increased the risk of functional dyspepsia more than 65 percent (P = 0. 004) and depressive disorders also increased that risk about 2.13 percent (P < 0.0001). Patients with dyspepsia symptoms were more likely to restrict their diet, take herbal medicine, use over-the-counter drugs and consult with physicians. Conclusions: Results of this study reveal the moderate prevalence of dyspepsia among the adult population in Kerman like in other parts of the country and this prevalence is associated with several demographic factors, lifestyle and health-seeking behaviors.

Seyedmirzaei, Seyed Mehdi; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Afshari, Mahdi; Dehghani, Azam

2014-01-01

295

The Prevalence of Protein C, Protein S, and Antithrombin III Deficiency in non-APS\\/SLE Chinese Adults with Noncardiac Cerebral Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein C (PC), protein S (PS), and antithrombin III (AT-III) are vital thrombin antagonists in circulation. However, the prevalence of these natural inhibitors for cerebral ischemia is barely mentioned in the Chinese population. The prevalence of PC, PS, and AT-III deficiency in Chinese adults with cerebral ischemia is reported. The study subjects were free of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome or systemic

Wei-Hsi Chen; Min-Yu Lan; Yung-Yee Chang; Shun-Sheng Chen; Jia-Shou Liu

2003-01-01

296

Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

2013-01-01

297

Agoraphobia 12-month Prevalence: 0.8% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Lifetime Prevalence3 1 Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity Psychiatry, 2005 Jun;62(6):617-27. 2 Ibid 3 Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Demler O, Jin R, Walters EE. Lifetime PS, Lane M, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, Kessler RC. Twelve month use of mental health services

Baker, Chris I.

298

A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime  

PubMed Central

Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k?=?23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k?=?16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k?=?8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

2014-01-01

299

Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

Kim, Jihye

2014-01-01

300

Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism. PMID:24471069

Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2012-01-01

301

Epidemiological Aspects of Pertussis among Adults and Adolescents in a Korean Outpatient Setting: A Multicenter, PCR-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data of Bordetella pertussis infection among adolescents and adults are limited in Korea. Patients (? 11 yr of age) with a bothersome cough for less than 30 days were enrolled during a 1-yr period at 22 hospitals in Korea. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteriologic culture. In total, 490 patients were finally enrolled, and 34 (6.9%) patients tested positive for B. pertussis; cough duration (14.0 days [7.0-21.0 days]) and age distribution were diverse. The incidence was the highest in secondary referral hospitals, compared to primary care clinics or tertiary referral hospitals (24/226 [10.6%] vs. 3/88 [3.4%] vs. 7/176 [4.0%], P = 0.012), and the peak incidence was observed in February and August (15.8% and 15.9%), with no confirmed cases between March and June. In the multivariate analysis, post-tussive vomiting was significantly associated with pertussis (odds ratio, 2.508; 95% confidence interval, 1.146-5.486) and secondary referral hospital showed a borderline significance. In conclusion, using a PCR-based method, 6.9% of adolescent and adult patients with an acute cough illness had pertussis infection in an outpatient setting. However, hospital levels and seasonal trends must be taken into account to develop a better strategy for controlling pertussis. Graphical Abstract PMID:25246741

Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Myung Goo; Kim, Hui Jung; Cheon, Ki Tae; Jeong, Eui Hun

2014-01-01

302

Effects of a Walking Program on Self-management and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program on increasing an individual’s self-management and decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the older adult population. [Subjects] A total of 31 older adults participated in this study. Eighteen participants in the experimental group and 13 controls completed the pretest and posttest measures. A walking exercise and health education were provided for the experimental group. Data were analyzed by ANCOVAs to examine group differences. [Results] At the end of the 12-week study period, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in individuals’ ability to self-manage their health compared to the control group. Also, there were significant differences between the two groups in the total numbers of risk factors of metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure and BMI. No significant difference in blood sugar levels, HDL-C, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels were found between the experimental and control group. [Conclusion] This study revealed that a combination of health education and for walking exercise can lead to improved lifestyle management and reduce risk factors of metabolic syndrome for the elderly population of Korea. PMID:24567686

Lee, Eun-Gyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, Jee- Hee

2014-01-01

303

Epidemiological Survey on the Prevalence of Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus in Uyghur Adults from Rural Hotan Area in Xinjiang  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims. This study was designed to explore the relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Uygur adults from Xinjiang. Methods and Results. Data were obtained using questionnaire and oral examination. Participants (48.87 ±13.72 yr) were categorized into periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups in accordance with the chronic periodontitis diagnostic criteria. Based on gum inflammation, bleeding on probing, periodontal pocket depth and attachment loss, patients were further divided into mild, moderate and severe periodontitis groups. Among 962 subjects, 453 (47.1%) suffered from chronic periodontitis with a prevalence of type 2 DM and impaired fasting glucose of 9.5% and 11.4%, respectively. In the periodontitis group, the prevalence of type 2 DM was 75.6% compared with 22.4% in the non-periodontitis group. Likewise, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 71.3% and 28.7% in periodontitis and non-periodontitis groups, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe periodontitis as risk factors for DM (OR = 3.4, OR = 2.9). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that moderate periodontitis is independently associated with DM (OR = 4). Conclusions. Our data revealed that prevalence of DM is overtly higher in periodontitis patients than in individuals without periodontitis. Furthermore, moderate periodontitis is considered an independent risk factor for type 2 DM. PMID:21826136

Awuti, Gulinuer; Younusi, Kurexi; Li, Linlin; Upur, Halmurat; Ren, Jun

2012-01-01

304

Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in the Chinese adult population: International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asia (InterASIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. To estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in the general adult population of China. Methods. The International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in ASIA, conducted from 2000 to 2001, included a nationally representative sample of 15 540 adults, aged 35 to 74 years. An overnight fasting blood specimen was collected to measure serum

D. Gu; K. Reynolds; X. Duan; X. Xin; J. Chen; X. Wu; J. Mo; P. K. Whelton; J. He

2003-01-01

305

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome among Chinese Adults in a Rural Community of Shanghai in China  

PubMed Central

Aims The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in an adult Chinese population living in a rural community. We also aimed to determine the predictive diagnostic value of the 4-item screening questionnaire for RLS in this population. Methods This study was designed as a 2-phase survey. In phase 1 we performed a face-to-face interview of eligible individuals living in a rural community in Shanghai using a 4-item screening questionnaire. In phase 2, sleep specialists performed a phone interview of the individuals who screened positive to diagnosis RLS. Results Forty-one RLS cases were confirmed among 2941 eligible individuals 18 years of age or older in the study community. The prevalence of RLS was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-1.9%), with a significantly higher rate observed in females (1.9% [95%CI =1.3-2.7%]) than that in males (0.9% [95%CI =0.5-1.5%], p=0.019). The prevalence rate increased significantly with age, from 0.2% (95% CI =0.08-0.6%) in those 18-39 years old to 4.1% (95% CI =2.1-7.9%) in those ?70 years old (p<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gastritis, anemia and hypertension were risk factors for RLS. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4-item screening questionnaire used in this study were 63.4% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion RLS prevalence is relatively low among Chinese adults living in rural Shanghai. Furthermore, population-based studies with a larger sample size and a longitudinal follow-up may help to determine the risk factors of RLS and potential interventions for RLS. PMID:25803876

Ding, Ding; Yu, Peimin; Wu, Dongyan; Hong, Zhen

2015-01-01

306

Association between Self-Reported Global Sleep Status and Prevalence of Hypertension in Chinese Adults: Data from the Kailuan Community  

PubMed Central

Background: Assessment of sleep only by sleep duration is not sufficient. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the potential association of self-reported global sleep status, which contained both qualitative and quantitative aspects, with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 5461 subjects (4076 of them were male) were enrolled in the current study and were divided into two groups with the age of 45 years as the cut-off value. Sleep status of all subjects was assessed using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ?140/90 mmHg in the current study. Results: After adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics, the results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep status, which was defined as the additive measurement of sleep duration and sleep quality, was associated with hypertension prevalence in males of both age groups (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.15, p < 0.05; OR = 1.12, 95% CI, 1.08–1.15, p < 0.05) and in females aged ?45years (OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.02–1.18, p < 0.05). As one component of PSQI, short sleep duration was associated with hypertension prevalence only in Chinese male subjects, but this association disappeared after the further adjustment of the other components of PSQI that measured the qualitative aspect of sleep. Conclusion: Association between sleep status and hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults varied by age and sex. Sleep should be measured qualitatively and quantitatively when investigating its association with hypertension. PMID:25575370

Lu, Kai; Ding, Rongjing; Tang, Qin; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

2015-01-01

307

Prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders causing unfitness for military service among young adult men: An epidemiologic study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiologic study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders causing unfitness to Turkish Military Service. Methods: This study has been carried out by examining the medical reports of 1.777.500 people who applied to the Turkish Armed Forces for military service between 2009-2011. Age and geographic region of individuals were compiled and organized in groups. Musculoskeletal disorders were classified mainly as fracture sequel, spine disorders, absence of phalanges, extremity amputation, aggressive or multiple benign tumors of bones and pes planus. Results: Unfitness to military service caused by musculoskeletal disorders was found to be 6.53‰ in 2009, 7.10‰ in 2010 and 7.28‰ in 2011. The prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases has increased by years. The prevalence of fracture squeal by years was found to be 2.83‰ in 2009, 3.10‰ in 2010 and 3.03‰ in 2011. In this study, the most common musculoskeletal disorders were: limitation of joint mobility (0.89‰), degeneration of joint surface (0.69‰), lower and upper limb discrepancies (0.60‰), posterior fusion surgery (0.59‰) and the absence of the phalanges in hand (0.51‰). We found an increase in both the prevalence of posterior fusion surgery and the absence of the phalanges in study group. Conclusion: These results has given information about severe musculoskeletal disorders among young adult male in Turkey. New studies including young adult female will add important information to our knowledge about musculuskelatal problems in our community.

Ekinci, ?afak; Kocak, Necmettin; Aydin, Ibrahim; Koca, Kenan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Ersen, Omer; Kilic, Selim

2015-01-01

308

Prevalence of Premorbid Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Adult Workers Using IDF and ATPIII Diagnostic Criteria: Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined as a cluster of interconnected risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood glucose levels. Premorbid metabolic syndrome (PMetS) is defined by excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus from those suffering MetS. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PMetS in a working population, and to analyse the relationship between the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII). The relationship between the presence of PMetS and cardiovascular risk factors was also analysed. Research Methodology/Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24,529 male and 18,736 female Spanish (white western European) adult workers (20–65 years) randomly selected during their work health periodic examinations. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum parameters were measured. The presence of MetS and PMetS was ascertained using ATPIII and IDF criteria. Cardiovascular risk was determined using the Framingham-REGICOR equation. The results showed MetS had an adjusted global prevalence of 12.39% using ATPIII criteria and 16.46% using IDF criteria. The prevalence of PMetS was slightly lower (11.21% using ATPIII criteria and 14.72% using IDF criteria). Prevalence in males was always higher than in females. Participants with PMetS displayed higher values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression models reported lower PMetS risk for females, non-obese subjects, non-smokers and younger participants. Cardiovascular risk determined with Framingham-REGICOR was higher in participants with PMetS. Conclusions PMetS could be a reliable tool for the early identification of apparently healthy individuals who have a significant risk for developing cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24586656

Tauler, Pedro; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Morales-Asencio, Jose M.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Angel A.; Vicente-Herrero, Teofila; De Pedro-Gomez, Joan; Royo, Vanessa; Pericas-Beltran, Jordi; Aguilo, Antoni

2014-01-01

309

Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition\\u000a parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity,\\u000a headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were\\u000a studied. Lifetime prevalences $$\\\\permille$$ (95% CI)

O. S. A. Oluwole

2010-01-01

310

Prevalence and risk factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescents and young adults in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.\\u000a Objective  To estimate the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescent and young adults in Poland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  3 687 men (48.2%) and women (51.8%), median age 23 (interquartile range 19–20 years) participated in a survey via a ”pop-up\\u000a window-which appeared on two popular Polish internet portals during one month. Questions concerning their body image, exercise\\u000a behaviour, education level and use

Dominik Racho?; Leszek Pokrywka; Krystyna Suchecka-Racho?

2006-01-01

311

Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3.8–35.3% and 9.8% respectively. TSP was significantly associated with: concurrent musculoskeletal pain; growth and physical; lifestyle and social; backpack; postural; psychological; and environmental factors. Risk factors identified for TSP in adolescents included age (being older) and poorer mental health. Conclusion TSP is a common condition in the general population. While there is some evidence for biopsychosocial associations it is limited and further prospectively designed research is required to inform prevention and management strategies. PMID:19563667

Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

2009-01-01

312

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

2008-01-01

313

Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

1998-01-01

314

Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY BACKGROUND AND METHODS We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.6–2.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.8–2.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.73–2.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36–2.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12–1.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

Agrawal, S.; Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

2014-01-01

315

Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. Method The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35–74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. Result The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35–44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05). The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold). Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action. PMID:25544990

Ning, Xianjia; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Su, Ta-Chen; Wang, Jinghua

2014-01-01

316

Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among US adults 80 years and older, 1988-2010.  

PubMed

The authors examined trends in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in 1988-1994 (n=1164), 1999-2004 (n=1,026), and 2005-2010 (n=1048) among US adults 80 years and older in serial National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Hypertension was defined as SBP ?140 mm Hg, DBP ?90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Awareness and treatment were defined by self-report and control as SBP/DBP<140/90 mm Hg. Mean SBP decreased from 147.3 mm Hg to 140.1 mm Hg and mean DBP from 70.2 mm Hg to 59.4 mm Hg between 1988-1994 and 2005-2010. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of hypertension each increased over time. Controlled hypertension increased from 30.4% in 1988-1994 to 53.1% in 2005-2010. The proportion of patients taking ?3 classes of antihypertensive medication increased from 7.0% to 30.9% between 1988-1994 and 2005-2010. Increases in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and antihypertensive polypharmacy have been observed among very old US adults. PMID:24621268

Bromfield, Samantha G; Bowling, C Barrett; Tanner, Rikki M; Peralta, Carmen A; Odden, Michelle C; Oparil, Suzanne; Muntner, Paul

2014-04-01

317

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

E-print Network

A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 hours) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed...

Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

2009-09-01

318

Prevalence of Periodontal Disease and Characterization of its Extent and Severity in an Adult Population – An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in an adult population and to further characterize the extent and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 700 randomly selected individuals reporting to out patient department of dental college and hospital. Demographic details and lifestyle characteristics of the all the subjects were recorded and a thorough oral examination was performed. In order to evaluate the periodontal status of subjects, five indices (CAL, PD, OHI, PI and GI) were assessed and subjects having at least one site with clinical attachment loss (CAL) ?3mm were diagnosed as having periodontitis. Further, to analyse the extent of disease, subjects having periodontitis were divided into two groups as having at least one site with CAL ?5mm and having at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Results: Results showed that there was a high prevalence of periodontitis amongst population with almost 72% of the individuals having at least one site with CAL ?3mm. A trend was noted in which periodontal status worsened as the age increased. Analysing the extent and severity of disease amongst the population, results revealed that almost 41% of population had at least one site with CAL ?5mm whereas almost 21% of individuals had at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Conclusion: Present study provides with evidence of high prevalence of periodontal disease amongst the population. Importantly, this study also unveils the lack of awareness for dental health amidst the population. PMID:25654019

Peter, Kalpak Prafulla; Pitale, Unnati Mahesh; Shetty, Sujan; HC, Shashikiran; Satpute, Pranali Shirish

2014-01-01

319

Sources and prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses in adults in urban and rural settings of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study provides data on the sources of asthma diagnoses in the adult Bangladeshi population in urban and rural settings. The paper also reports the prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses and associated socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three communities: two rural settings and one urban setting, with a total sample size of 32,665 subjects. Pre-existing surveillance data provided individual socio-demographic factors. Provider categories were based on previous research describing provider plurality in Bangladesh. Descriptive statistics, univariate regression and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) generalists provided the largest proportion of diagnoses in both urban (54.6%) and rural (42.4%) sites. The largest proportion of non-MBBS-trained healthcare workers providing diagnoses of asthma was spiritual healers (13.3%) in the urban settings and village doctors (42.4%) in rural settings. The overall prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses was 5.0% in the urban population and 3.5% in the rural population. The results highlight the importance of non-MBBS doctors in serving the healthcare needs of the Bangladeshi population. This study reveals a higher prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses in the urban setting than in rural ones, which is consistent with international literature on the topic. PMID:23305210

Bartlett, Emily; Parr, John; Lindeboom, Wietze; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Koehlmoos, Tracy Pérez

2013-01-01

320

Prevalence and Perceived Preventability of Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events – A Population-Based Survey of 7099 Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and often preventable among inpatients, but self-reported ADEs have not been investigated in a representative sample of the general public. The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-month prevalence of self-reported ADEs among the adult general public, and the perceived preventability of 2 ADE categories: adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a postal survey was sent in October 2010 to a random sample of 13 931 Swedish residents aged ?18 years. Self-reported ADEs experienced during the past month included ADRs, STEs, drug dependence, drug intoxications and morbidity due to drug-related untreated indication. ADEs could be associated with prescription, non-prescription or herbal drugs. The respondents estimated whether ADRs and STEs could have been prevented. ADE prevalences in age groups (18–44, 45–64, or ?65 years) were compared. Results Of 7099 respondents (response rate 51.0%), ADEs were reported by 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 18.5–20.3%), and the prevalence did not differ by age group (p>0.05). The prevalences of self-reported ADRs, STEs, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indications were 7.8% (7.2–8.4%), 7.6% (7.0–8.2%) and 8.1% (7.5–8.7%), respectively. The prevalence of self-reported drug dependence was 2.2% (1.9–2.6%), and drug intoxications 0.2% (0.1–0.3%). The respondents considered 19.2% (14.8–23.6%) of ADRs and STEs preventable. Although reported drugs varied between ADE categories, most ADEs were attributable to commonly dispensed drugs. Drugs reported for all and preventable events were similar. Conclusions One-fifth of the adult general public across age groups reported ADEs during the past month, indicating a need for prevention strategies beyond hospitalised patients. For this, the underlying causes of ADEs should increasingly be investigated. The high burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from widely used drugs across care settings supports redesigning a safer healthcare system to adequately tackle the problem. PMID:24023828

Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

2013-01-01

321

The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient'

Oanh TH Trinh; Nguyen D Nguyen; Michael J Dibley; Philayrath Phongsavan; Adrian E Bauman

2008-01-01

322

Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

323

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among United States Adults 1999-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of hypertension and blood pressure control are critically important for reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes. We analyzed the trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States in the period 1999-2004. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 database. Blood pressure information on 14 653 individuals (4749 in

Kwok Leung Ong; Bernard M. Y. Cheung; Yu Bun Man; Chu Pak Lau; Karen S. L. Lam

2010-01-01

324

Anxiety Disorders 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

.1 18.1 28.8 1 Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity Psychiatry, 2005 Jun;62(6):617-27. 2 Ibid 3 Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Demler O, Jin R, Walters EE. Lifetime.3 PercentofThoseWithDisorder 6 Wang PS, Lane M, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, Kessler RC. Twelve month use

Baker, Chris I.

325

Specific Phobia 12-month Prevalence: 8.7% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

25 30 35 40 45 38.2 12.8 1 Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity of General Psychiatry, 2005 Jun;62(6):617-27. 2 Ibid 3 Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Demler O, Jin R, Walters EE, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, Kessler RC. Twelve month use of mental health services in the United

Baker, Chris I.

326

Social Phobia 12-month Prevalence: 6.8% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

.4 PercentofThoseWithDisorder 1 Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity of General Psychiatry, 2005 Jun;62(6):617-27. 2 Ibid 3 Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Demler O, Jin R, Walters EE, Olfson M, Pincus HA, Wells KB, Kessler RC. Twelve month use of mental health services in the United

Baker, Chris I.

327

The prevalence of marijuana smoking in young adults with sickle cell disease: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The active ingredients of marijuana may have beneficial properties in the treatment of chronic pain and inflammation and is being used by sufferers of chronic pain and arthritis in some settings. Anecdotally, marijuana is believed by some sickle cell disease (SCD) patients to improve their health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of marijuana smoking in the Jamaica

J Knight-Madden; N Lewis; IR Hambleton

2006-01-01

328

Perceived taste disturbance in adults: prevalence and association with oral and psychological factors and medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste disturbance may cause subjective discomfort and impair appetite and food intake. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of perceived taste disturbance and analyze its association to age, gender, whole salivary flow rate, subjective oral dryness, burning mouth, medication, and psychological factors. Five hundred forty-seven men and 656 women aged 20 to 69 years were randomly

Maud Bergdahl; J. Bergdahl

2002-01-01

329

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

2012-01-01

330

Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

2008-01-01

331

Prevalence and correlates of adult overweight in the Muslim world: analysis of 46 countries.  

PubMed

The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index???25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations?>50% Muslim; N?=?46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide environments that are conducive to negative energy balance. PMID:25755091

Kahan, D

2015-04-01

332

Prevalence and risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease in an adult population from southern China  

PubMed Central

Background. Population-based studies evaluating the prevalence of kidney damage in different communities have been limited in developing countries. We conducted a population-based screening study in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou that aimed to identify the prevalence and associated risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in southern Chinese populations. Methods. We interviewed 6311 residents (>20 years) from six districts of Guangzhou from July 2006 to June 2007 and tested for haematuria, albuminuria and reduced renal function. Associations between age, gender, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricaemia and kidney damage were examined. Results. There were 6311 subjects enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria, haematuria and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 6.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.5–7.6%], 3.8% (95% CI: 3.4%, 4.3%) and 3.2% (95% CI: 2.4%, 3.3%), respectively. Approximately 12.1% (95% CI: 11.3%, 12.9%) of the sample population had at least one indicator of kidney damage. Age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, central obesity, hyperlipidaemia and use of nephrotoxic medications were independently associated with albuminuria; hyperuricaemia, age, gender, hypertension and use of nephrotoxic medications were independently associated with reduced eGFR, and female gender was independently associated with haematuria. Conclusions. In the general adult population from southern China, 12.1% has either proteinuria, haematuria and/or reduced eGFR, indicating the presence of kidney damage, with an awareness of only 9.6%. The high prevalence and low awareness of CKD in this population suggest an urgent need for CKD prevention programmes in China. PMID:18952699

Chen, Wei; Chen, Weiqing; Wang, Hui; Dong, Xiuqing; Liu, Qinghua; Mao, Haiping; Tan, Jiaqing; Lin, Jianxiong; Zhou, Feiyu; Luo, Ning; He, Huijuan; Johnson, Richard J.; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Xueqing

2009-01-01

333

The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Cataract Surgery among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the prevalence of age-related eye diseases and cataract surgery among older adults in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1107 women and men of predominantly Caucasian origin were successfully enumerated and recruited for the study. All selected subjects were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. Results. Overall 8.04% (95% CI 6.44–9.64) subjects had cataract surgery in either eye. After excluding subjects with bilateral cataract surgery, the prevalence of cataract was 12.10% (95% CI 10.18–14.03). AMD was found in 4.33% (95% CI 3.14–5.54 ) of all subjects. Of them 3.25% (95% CI 2.21–4.30 ) had early AMD and 1.08% (95% CI 0.47–1.69) had late AMD. Various types of glaucoma were diagnosed in 5.51% (95% CI 4.17–6.85) of subjects and 2.62% (95% CI 1.68–3.56) had OHT. The prevalence rates of DR and myopic macular degeneration were 1.72% (95% CI 0.95–2.48) and 0.45% (95% CI 0.06–0.85), respectively. All multiple logistic regression models were only significantly associated with older age. The highest rate of visual impairment was observed among subjects with retinal diseases. Conclusions. The study revealed high prevalence of age-related eye diseases in this older population. PMID:25789169

Nowak, Michal Szymon; Smigielski, Janusz

2015-01-01

334

Prevalence of obesity and overweight and their related factors among the adults of Mazandaran Province, Iran, in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is an unpleasant outcome of changes in the behavior and lifestyle, and it leads to premature inability and loss of job in most cases. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and overweight conditions and some related factors among the adults in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010. The data collection tool was a standard questionnaire provided by the World Health organization (WHO).The sample of this study was selected from all people in the age range of 15 to 64 who lived in the urban and rural areas of Mazandaran Province. The researchers studied 1000 people (500 males and 500 females). The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, chi-squared, linear regression, and Logistic regression in SPSS version 16 software. Results: The average and the standard deviation of Body Mass Index (BMI) of the participants was 27.36±6.04 (25.76±4.5 for males and 28.95±6.9 for females), and the average prevalence of overweight was 34% (males: 35.8%, females: 32.2%); the average incidence of obesity was 28.4% (males: 17.8%, females: 39%).It was found that age groups of 35–44 (OR: 3.1, CI: 95%: 1.7–5.8), 45–54 (OR: 3.1, CI: 95%: 1.7–5.8), and 55–64 (OR: 4.02, CI: 95%: 2.1–7.5) and being a housewife (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.03–5.1) were predictive of BMI values equal to or greater than 30. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significant among people of Mazandaran Province. Therefore, it is recommended that educational-research centers and health authorities look for appropriate strategies to reduce the prevalence of this problem.

Ahmadi, Mohammad; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi-e; Dehghan, Azizallah

2014-01-01

335

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in New Zealand Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among M?ori and Non-M?ori  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Examine the distribution of symptoms and risk factors, and estimate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among M?ori and non-M?ori New Zealanders. Design: Mail-out survey to a stratified random sample from the electoral roll of 10,000 people aged 30-59 y, and overnight MESAM IV monitoring during sleep of a similarly aged stratified random sample of 364 people from the Wellington electoral roll. Setting: Nationwide survey of OSA symptoms (71% response rate) and regional home-based measurement of respiratory disturbance index (RDI, 4% oxygen desaturations/h of sleep, plus bursts of snoring or ? 10/min increase in heart rate). Participants: Sample designs aimed for equal numbers of M?ori and non-M?ori participants, men and women, and participants in each decade of age. Interventions: N/A Measurements and results: M?ori were more likely than non-M?ori to report OSAS risk factors and symptoms. After controlling for sex and age, M?ori were 4.3 times more likely to have RDI ? 15 (95% CI = 1.3–13.9). Ethnicity was not an independent risk factor after controlling for body mass index (BMI) and neck circumference. The prevalence of OSAS (RDI ? 5 and ESS > 10) was conservatively estimated to be 4.4% for M?ori men, 4.1% for non-M?ori men, 2.0% for M?ori women, and 0.7% for non-M?ori women. Conclusions: The national survey and the regional monitoring study indicate a higher prevalence of OSA among M?ori and among men. The higher prevalence among M?ori appears to be attributable to recognized risk factors, notably body habitus. In addition to increased prevention and treatment services, strategies are needed to reduce ethnic disparities in OSAS prevalence. Citation: Mihaere KM; Harris R; Gander PH; Reid PM; Purdie G; Robson B; Neill A. Obstructive sleep apnea in New Zealand adults: prevalence and risk factors among m?ori and non-m?ori. SLEEP 2009;32(7):949-956. PMID:19639758

Mihaere, Kara M.; Harris, Ricci; Gander, Philippa H.; Reid, Papaarangi M.; Purdie, Gordon; Robson, Bridget; Neill, Alister

2009-01-01

336

The efficacy and safety study of dietary supplement PURIAM110 on non-insulin taking Korean adults in the stage of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multicenter trial-pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has already become a threat to the nation and the individual due to its high prevalence rates and high medical expenses. Therefore, preventing diabetes at an earlier stage is very important. Despite advances in antidiabetic agents, we have not yet achieved any satisfying results in treating diabetes. Among various treatments, medicinal herbs and supplements for diabetes are reported to show generally good efficacy and safety data. In particular, PURIAM110, a compound from orange fruits and mulberry leaves, is supposed to prevent the progress of type II diabetes mellitus and improve diabetic symptoms. This is the first reported pilot study about the protective effect of the orange fruits and mulberry leaves mixture against pre-diabetes on Korean adults. Based on these positive results of herb-derived components, extended studies of dietary supplements have to be done to suggest confirmative evidences. Methods/Design The efficacy and safety study of PURIAM110 is a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, and multi-center clinical trial. A total of 45 subjects will participate in this study for 6 weeks. Discussion The present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of PURIAM110 for pre-diabetes, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). In addition, PURIAM110 can be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for diabetes patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN44779824 PMID:21310088

2011-01-01

337

Prevalence of binge eating disorder, obesity, and depression in a biracial cohort of young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examined the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED), obesity, and depressive symptomatology in a biracial,\\u000a population-based cohort of men and women participating in a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk factor development.\\u000a The Revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns was used to establish BED status among the 3,948 (55% women, 48% Black)\\u000a participants (age 28–40 years). Body mass

Delia E. Smith; Marsha D. Marcus; Cora E. Lewis; Marian Fitzgibbon; Pamela Schreiner

1998-01-01

338

High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

339

Physical Aggression towards Others in Adults with Learning Disabilities: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many people with learning disabilities (LD) show aggressive behaviour, but the extent of the problem and its associated factors and effects are unclear. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using interview data from 3065 adults with LD on the Leicestershire LD Register. Physical aggression towards others was defined as…

Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.; Thorp, C. F.; Donaldson, M.; Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Hollin, C.

2006-01-01

340

REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS FOR ADULT PREVALENCE STUDY Preliminary Document Submission Deadline  

E-print Network

-risk, problem and pathological gambling in the State of Florida among the adult population, 18 years of age-865-6200. BACKGROUND Since 1980, pathological gambling has been recognized and defined by the American Psychiatric". Pathological (commonly referred to as compulsive) gambling is a progressive behavior disorder in which

McQuade, D. Tyler

341

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In people with intellectual disability (ID), impaired sleep is common. Life expectancy has increased in this group, and it is known that in general population sleep deteriorates with aging. Therefore the aims of this systematic review were to examine how sleep problems are defined in research among adults and older people with ID, and to collect…

van de Wouw, E.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

2012-01-01

342

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

343

Association Between Diabetes and Increased Prevalence of Paranasal Sinus Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study in Japanese Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between diabetes and paranasal sinus disease has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the association between diabetes and the presence of paranasal sinus disease, which was confirmed by a head MRI scan in 1350 adults who underwent a health screening program focusing on brain diseases and metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression, which was adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension, smoking status, alcohol intake, and white blood cell count, was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of having paranasal sinus disease among adults with diabetes in relation to those without. The dose-response relationship between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the presence of paranasal sinus disease was also investigated. Results Of the 1350 participants (mean age, 61.6 ± 10.0 years; 71.6% men), 220 diabetes cases were identified. Paranasal sinus disease was diagnosed in 151 adults. The adjusted OR of having paranasal sinus disease was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–2.71) in those with diabetes. The odds of having paranasal sinus disease increased with HbA1c levels. Compared to those with HbA1c of ?5.4%, those with HbA1c of 5.5%–6.4%, 6.5%–7.9%, and ?8.0% were more likely to have paranasal sinus disease, with adjusted ORs of 1.32 (95% CI, 0.88–1.98), 1.63 (95% CI, 0.86–3.09) and 2.71 (95% CI, 1.12–6.61), respectively (P for trend = 0.019). Conclusions Diabetes may be significantly associated with higher prevalence of paranasal sinus disease in Japanese adults. We should keep this increased risk in mind when a diabetic patient is suspected of having paranasal sinus disease. PMID:25728620

Kabeya, Yusuke; Kato, Kiyoe; Tomita, Masuomi; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Akira

2015-01-01

344

Associations of alcohol consumption and mental health with the prevalence of arthritis among US adults: data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey.  

PubMed

The findings of association between alcohol consumption and arthritis are mixed while little is known about age differences in the associations of mental health and behavioral factors with arthritis. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of arthritis among US adults using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. In total, 8,229 adults with arthritis and 26,256 controls were selected from the adult respondents. Weighted univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals. The overall prevalence of arthritis was 22.1 %. The prevalence increased with age (6.8, 29.6, and 47.9 % for 18-49, 50-64, and 65+ years of age, respectively). The prevalence of mental problems was higher in cases than controls [4 vs. 1 % for serious psychological distress (SPD), 29 vs. 16 % for anxiety, and 26 vs. 11 % for depression, respectively]. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that being female, older age, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, SPD, depression, and anxiety were positively associated with arthritis. Stratified by age, SPD was associated with arthritis only in young adults (18-49 years old) while the ORs of anxiety and depression with arthritis decreased as age increased. Alcohol consumption revealed stronger associations in middle-aged adults and elderly. Using a large nationally representative sample in the USA, alcohol consumption, smoking, SPD, anxiety, and depression were associated with arthritis, and the associations varied across different age groups. PMID:24667977

Wang, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Xuefeng; Wang, Liang

2014-09-01

345

Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ?18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (?2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Léger, D.

2012-01-01

346

The dosing frequency of sustained-release opioids and the prevalence of end-of-dose failure in cancer pain control: a Korean multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  End-of-dose failure is commonly observed as therapeutic levels of sustained-release opioids fall. However, little is known\\u000a about using these medications for cancer pain control. To determine the dosing frequency of sustained-release opioids (morphine,\\u000a oxycodone, and transdermal fentanyl) and the prevalence of end-of-dose failure in clinical practice, a patient-reported survey\\u000a was performed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A multicenter survey was conducted in 56 hospitals in

Do-Yeun Kim; Hong-Suk Song; Jin-Seok Ahn; Baek-Yeol Ryoo; Dong-Bok Shin; Chang-Yeol Yim; Si-Young Kim

2010-01-01

347

Declining Estimated Prevalence of Alcohol Drinking and Smoking among Young Adults Nationally: Artifacts of Sample Undercoverage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone

Cristine D. Delnevo; Daniel A. Gundersen; Brett T. Hagman

348

Prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity in community-dwelling older adults in ireland.  

PubMed

The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

Murtagh, Elaine M; Murphy, Marie H; Murphy, Niamh M; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M; Lane, Aoife

2015-01-01

349

Comorbidity of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder: prevalence and clinical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity\\u000a with lifetime bipolar disorder, and the influence of this comorbidity on various demographic and clinical variables in patients.\\u000a Patients (n = 159) with a previous diagnosis of bipolar disorder (79 female, 80 male) were included in this study. All patients were\\u000a interviewed for the

Lut Tamam; Gonca Karakus; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

2008-01-01

350

Prevalence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among cocaine abusers seeking treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 281 cocaine abusers seeking treatment were assessed for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Structured assessments included the SCID for DSM-IV, a SCID-like module for ADHD, and a pattern of drug use questionnaire. The sample consisted of 82% men, 67% African-Americans, 19% Hispanics, and 14% Caucasians identified at several treatment sites. Average age was 33.7±.4 years. Twelve percent

Frances Rudnick Levin; Suzette M Evans; Herbert D Kleber

1998-01-01

351

Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Ireland  

PubMed Central

The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

Murtagh, Elaine M.; Murphy, Marie H.; Murphy, Niamh M.; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Aoife

2015-01-01

352

Prevalence and treatment of chronic airways obstruction in adults over the age of 45.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Chronic airways obstruction is common in adults and the elderly. To investigate the possibility that older adults with obstructive airways disease frequently do not receive appropriate treatment, the respiratory symptoms, medication use, and pulmonary function were studied in a random sample of white adults aged over 45 living in central Manchester, UK. METHODS: A postal questionnaire survey was performed on 783 men and women aged 45 years and over selected from GP lists by random number tables. Subjects completing the questionnaire were invited to attend for pulmonary function testing and methacholine challenge (Newcastle dosimeter method). RESULTS: The questionnaire response rate was 92.3% (723 subjects). The mean age of the population was 66.1 years and 57.2% were women; 29.2% were current smokers and 37.3% were ex-smokers. Asthma or bronchitis was reported by 30.0%. Two hundred and forty seven representative subjects attended for pulmonary function testing and spirometric evidence of chronic airways obstruction was found in 26.4%. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 76.6% of subjects with chronic airways obstruction; 55.0% had features which may predict potential improvement on treatment (increased non-specific bronchial responsiveness or significant bronchodilator reversibility). However, only 55.4% of subjects with airways obstruction had received a diagnosis of asthma or chronic bronchitis and only 36.9% were using inhaled bronchodilators or steroids. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic airways obstruction is very common in adults in this inner city population, but is frequently overlooked. Most subjects with chronic airways obstruction are not receiving appropriate treatment. PMID:8711649

Renwick, D. S.; Connolly, M. J.

1996-01-01

353

High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Alaska native population and association with low serum ferritin levels in young adults.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency anemia is a common public health problem in the Alaska Native population. Yet, a clear etiology has eluded researchers for decades. Previous studies suggested a link between Helicobacter pylori infection, gastrointestinal blood loss due to hemorrhagic gastritis, and generalized iron deficiency anemia in adult Alaska Natives. Therefore, we examined the association between the prevalence of H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum ferritin levels, a marker of iron deficiency. A random sample of 2,080 serum samples from Alaska Native residents drawn between 1980 and 1986 from residents in 13 regions was selected, and the samples were stratified by age, sex, and region. Overall, 75% were positive for H. pylori-specific IgG. The rate of H. pylori seropositivity increased with age; by age 14 years, 78% of the residents were positive. There were no gender differences in H. pylori seropositivity. However, marked regional differences were observed. Serum ferritin levels of <12 ng/ml were found most commonly among persons <20 years of age and among women of childbearing age. A significant association between low serum ferritin levels and prevalence of H. pylori-specific IgG was found, particularly for people aged less than 20 years. H. pylori may be a factor contributing to the iron deficiency anemia in the Alaska Native population. PMID:11063492

Parkinson, A J; Gold, B D; Bulkow, L; Wainwright, R B; Swaminathan, B; Khanna, B; Petersen, K M; Fitzgerald, M A

2000-11-01

354

Prevalence and Correlates of Problematic Internet Experiences and Computer-Using Time: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study in Korean School Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence. Methods A two-year, prospective school survey was performed with 1,173 children aged 13 at baseline. Data collected included demographic factors, bullying experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, psychopathology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and school performance. These factors were investigated in relation to problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time at age 15. Results The prevalence of online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, academic-purpose computer overuse, and game-purpose computer overuse was 31.6%, 19.2%, 8.5%, and 21.8%, respectively, at age 15. Having older siblings, more weekly pocket money, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and passive coping strategy were associated with reported online sexual harassment. Male gender, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were associated with reported cyber-bullying victimisation. Female gender was associated with academic-purpose computer overuse, while male gender, lower academic level, increased height, and having older siblings were associated with game-purpose computer-overuse. Conclusion Different environmental and psychological factors predicted different aspects of problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time. This knowledge is important for framing public health interventions to educate adolescents about, and prevent, internet-derived problems. PMID:24605120

Stewart, Robert; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

2014-01-01

355

Prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in Latin America, India and China: cross-cultural study  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety is a common mental disorder among older people who live in the Western world, yet little is known about its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Aims We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in low- and middle-income countries with diverse cultures. Method Cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 or over (n = 15 021) in 11 catchment sites in 7 countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru) were carried out as part of the 10/66 collaboration. Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT) diagnostic algorithm. Results The age- and gender-standardised prevalence of anxiety varied greatly across sites, ranging from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0–0.3) in rural China to 9.6% (95% CI 6.2–13.1) in urban Peru. Urban centres had higher estimates of anxiety than their rural counterparts with adjusted (age, gender and site) odds ratios of 2.9 (95% CI 1.7–5.3). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and comorbid physical illnesses were all associated with a GMS/AGECAT diagnosis of anxiety, and so was disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II). Conclusions Anxiety is common in Latin America. Estimates from this region are similar to the ones from high-income European countries found in the literature. As demographic change will occur more rapidly in these countries, further research exploring the mental health of older people in developing areas is vital, with the inclusion of other specific anxiety disorders, along with evidence for strategies for supporting those with these disorders. PMID:22016438

Prina, A. Matthew; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Brayne, Carol; Prince, Martin

2011-01-01

356

Prevalence and incidence of dyslipidaemia among adults in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally and disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries. Dyslipidaemia is an important modifiable risk factor for CVD. There are important knowledge gaps regarding the population levels of lipid variables and frequency of non-optimal levels in populations within Africa. We propose to conduct a systematic review to determine the prevalence and occurrence of dyslipidaemia in adult populations within countries in Africa. Methods and analysis We will perform a comprehensive search to identify all possible published and unpublished studies on the prevalence or incidence of dyslipidaemia in Africa reported from 1 January 1980, without language restriction. The scientific databases PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science will be searched, as well as Grey literature. Following study selection, full-text papers acquisition, and data extraction and synthesis, we will appraise the quality of studies and risk of bias, and assess heterogeneity. Prevalence/incidence data will be summarised by country and geographic regions and a meta-analysis will be conducted for variables defined identically across studies. Variance stabilising transformations will be applied as appropriate to the row data before meta-analysis. This systematic review will be reported according to the MOOSE Guidelines for Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews of Observational Studies. Ethics and dissemination The current study is based on published data and as such ethics consideration is not a requirement. This review is expected to provide relevant data to help in quantifying the magnitude of dyslipidaemia in African populations, to emphasise the need for appropriate prevention and control strategies, and to identify research gaps and remaining challenges. The final report of the systematic review in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings will further be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant health authorities. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014015376. PMID:25783427

Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Kengne, André Pascal

2015-01-01

357

Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. Methods: 1,551 adults ? 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathered as the control group who have not exposed to any earthquake. The numbers of subjects who were first identified with diabetes or had normal FBG but with diabetic history were added for the calculation of diabetes prevalence. Statistic-analysis was applied on the baseline data, and incidences of IFG as well as diabetes among all groups. Results: Statistic comparisons indicate there is no significant difference on average fasting glucose levels between the control group and the exposure group. However, the prevalence of IFG and diabetes among the exposure group displays significant variance with the control group. The prevalence of diabetes among exposure groups is significantly higher than the control group. Women are more likely to have diabetes after experiencing earthquake stresses compared to men. The earthquake stress was linked to higher diabetes incidence as an independent factor. Conclusions: The earthquake stress has long-term impacts on diabetes incidence as an independent risk factor. Emerging and long-term managements regarding the care of IFG and diabetes in populations exposed to earthquake stress should be concerned. PMID:25550966

An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

2014-01-01

358

Prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) and associated factors in institutionalized older adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this work is to determine the prevalence of FI and associated factors in institutionalized elderly. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, conducted between October and December 2013, in 10 nursing homes (NHs) of the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil). Individuals over the age of 60 were included in the study, while those hospitalized or in terminal phase were excluded. Data collection included sociodemographic information, FI characterization, as well as variables related to the institution itself and to health conditions (comorbidities, medication, pelvic floor surgery, Barthel Index for functional capacity and Pfeiffer test for cognitive status). FI was verified through the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0, which was also used to assess toileting programs. The Chi-square test and the linear Chi-square test were performed for bivariate analysis, as well as logistic regression for multivariate analysis. The final sample consisted of 321 elderly, mostly females, with mean age of 81.5 years. The prevalence of FI was 42.68% (CI 95%, 37.39-48.15). Most residents presenting FI were always incontinent (83.9%) and the most frequent incontinence type was total FI (solid and liquid stools). Incontinence control measures were applied only to 9.7% of the residents. The final model revealed a statistically significant association between FI and functional and cognitive impairments. It is concluded that FI is a health issue that affects almost half of the institutionalized elderly, and is associated with functional and cognitive disability. PMID:25721982

Jerez-Roig, Javier; Souza, Dyego L B; Amaral, Fabienne L J S; Lima, Kenio C

2015-01-01

359

Prevalence of Root Dilaceration in Adult Patients Referred to Shiraz Dental School (2005-2010)  

PubMed Central

Statement of Problem: Dilaceration is defined as a sudden change in the axial inclination of root or between the crown and the root of a tooth. There is no previous study evaluating its prevalence in south of Iran. Purpose: This study evaluates the prevalence of root dilaceration on the basis of its location in dental arch in a sample of dental patients referring to Shiraz dental school, Iran. Materials and Method: This retrospective study was performed using full mouth periapical radiographs of 250 patients who were referred to Shiraz dental school. Buccal and lingual dilaceration was determined by its known” bull’s eye” appearance in the radiographs or if the deviation was in the mesial or distal directions; the angle of 90 degree or greater between the deviation and the axis of root was the inclusion criteria. Results: Root dilaceration was detected in 0.3% of teeth and 7.2% of patients. It was distributed equally between the maxilla and mandible. Mandibular second molar was the most frequent dilacerated tooth (1.6%) followed by maxillary first molar (1.3%) and mandibular first molar (0.6%). The alveolar nerve was the most common anatomic structure near dilacerated teeth. Conclusion: According to this study, root dilaceration is an uncommon developmental anomaly which occurs mostly in the posterior teeth. PMID:24724139

Nabavizadeh, MR; Sedigh Shamsi, M; Moazami, F; Abbaszadegan, A

2013-01-01

360

The Associations between Serum Zinc Levels and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing rapidly worldwide. The functions of zinc may have a potential association with metabolic syndrome, but such associations have not been investigated extensively. Therefore, we examined the relationship between serum zinc levels and metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors among South Korean adults ?20 years of age. The analysis used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted from January to December 2010. A total of 1,926 participants were analyzed in this study. Serum zinc levels in men were negatively associated with elevated fasting glucose (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.93) and positively associated with elevated triglycerides (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01–2.13). A difference in serum zinc levels was detected in women, depending on the number of metabolic syndrome components (p?=?0.002). Furthermore, serum zinc levels showed a decreasing trend with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components in women with metabolic syndrome. These findings suggest that serum zinc levels might be associated with metabolic syndrome or metabolic risk factors. Further gender-specific studies are needed to evaluate the effect of dietary or supplemental zinc intake on metabolic syndrome. PMID:25153887

Seo, Jin-A; Song, Sang-Wook; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Ha-Na

2014-01-01

361

Gender Dysphoria – Prevalence and Co-Morbidities in an Irish Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed “gender dysphoria” in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy (HT) between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment during the study period. Results: The prevalence of GD in the Irish population was 1:10,154 male-to-female (MTF) and 1:27,668 female-to-male (FTM), similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were MTF and 59 were FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort, respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6?years (MTF) and 32.2?years (FTM). 22 of the patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on HT, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%). Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health, and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals is essential. PMID:24982651

Judge, Ciaran; O’Donovan, Claire; Callaghan, Grainne; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; O’Shea, Donal

2014-01-01

362

Prevalence and correlated factors of lifetime suicidal ideation in adults in Ningxia, China  

PubMed Central

Aim Compare the prevalence and associated factors of lifetime suicidal ideation, plans and attempts in the Hui and Han ethnic groups in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China. Methods Using a probability proportionate to size sampling method and villages (in rural areas) or neighborhoods (in urban areas) as primary sampling units, 5880 residents aged 18 and over were sampled. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a computer-administered Chinese version of the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Factors associated with self-reported lifetime suicidal ideation were identified using logistic regression models. Results Of the 4789 (81.4%) persons who completed the survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans and suicide attempts were 5.30% (95% confidence interval [CI]=4.66-5.93%), 1.52% (CI=1.17-1.86%), and 0.77% (CI=0.52-1.02%), respectively. The age standardized rate of lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicidal planning were significantly higher in the largely Muslim Hui ethnic group (n=1955) than in the largely atheist Han ethnic group (n=2834); the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt was also higher in the Hui group, but only at the trend level (p=0.20). Factors independently associated with lifetime suicidal ideation were female gender (odds ratio [OR]=2.07), being divorced or widowed (OR=2.02), rural residence (OR=1.95), mood disorder in the prior year (OR=1.96), other mental disorder in the prior year (OR=2.99), and self-reported poor physical health in the prior year (OR=2.21). After adjustment for these factors, ethnicity was not independently associated with lifetime suicidal ideation, but stratified analyses by ethnic group found some differences in the factors associated with lifetime suicidal ideation between Hui and Han respondents. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, we found that lifetime suicidal ideation was more common in a Muslim ethnic group than in a non-Muslim ethnic group of Ningxia, but this difference did not persist in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for gender, mental disorders and other factors. PMID:24991168

Wang, Zhizhong; QIN, Ying; ZHANG, Yuhong; ZHANG, Bo; LI, Lin; DING, Li

2013-01-01

363

The Prevalence of Problem Gambling Among U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from a National Survey  

PubMed Central

A random telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2,274 U.S. residents aged 14–21. The prevalence of problem gambling, as measured by the SOGS-RA, was 2.1%. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the respondents had gambled in the past year, and 11% had gambled more often than twice per week. Males had much higher gambling involvement than females, and gambling involvement increased among older respondents. Blacks were less likely than average to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to do so frequently. Low SES respondents were less likely to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to be problem gamblers. Life transitions that are associated with assuming adult roles (employment, living independently of parents, non-student status) are also associated with greater gambling involvement. The rates of problem and pathological gambling were lower than those in an adult survey conducted earlier, when measured with the same questionnaire. PMID:18097737

Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

2015-01-01

364

Prevalence, Prospective Risk Markers, and Prognosis Associated With the Presence of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

The authors sought to determine the prevalence, prospective risk markers, and prognosis associated with diastolic dysfunction in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. The CARDIA Study cohort includes approximately equal proportions of white and black men and women. The authors collected data on risk markers at year 0 (1985–1986), and echocardiography was done at year 5 when the participants were 23–35 years of age. Participants were followed for 20 years (through 2010) for a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Diastolic function was defined according to a validated hierarchical classification algorithm. In the 2,952 participants included in the primary analysis, severe diastolic dysfunction was present in 1.1% and abnormal relaxation was present in 9.3%. Systolic blood pressure at year 0 was associated with both severe diastolic dysfunction and abnormal relaxation 5 years later, whereas exercise capacity and pulmonary function abnormalities were associated only with abnormal relaxation 5 years later. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios for the composite endpoint in participants with severe diastolic dysfunction and abnormal relaxation were 4.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 9.3) and 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.5), respectively. Diastolic dysfunction in young adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and the identification of prospective risk markers associated with diastolic dysfunction could allow for targeted primary prevention efforts. PMID:23211639

Desai, Chintan S.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs,, David R.; Cook, Nakela L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Ogunyankin, Kofo O.

2013-01-01

365

The prevalence and correlates of sitting in European adults - a comparison of 32 Eurobarometer-participating countries  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged sitting is an emerging health risk. However, multi-country comparative sitting data are sparse. This paper reports the prevalence and correlates of sitting time in 32 European countries. Methods Data from the Eurobarometer 64.3 study were used, which included nationally representative samples (n?=?304-1,102) from 32 European countries. Face-to-face interviews were conducted during November and December 2005. Usual weekday sitting time was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-version). Sitting time was compared by country, age, gender, years of education, general health status, usual activity and physical activity. Multivariable-adjusted analyses assessed the odds of belonging to the highest sitting quartile. Results Data were available for 27,637 adults aged 15–98 years. Overall, mean reported weekday sitting time was 309 min/day (SD 184 min/day). There was a broad geographical pattern and some of the lowest amounts of daily sitting were reported in southern (Malta and Portugal means 194–236 min/day) and eastern (Romania and Hungary means 191–276 min/day) European countries; and some of the highest amounts of daily sitting were reported in northern European countries (Germany, Benelux and Scandinavian countries; means 407–335 min/day). Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed adults with low physical activity levels (OR?=?5.10, CI95?=?4.60-5.66), those with high sitting in their main daily activity (OR?=?2.99, CI95?=?2.74-3.25), those with a bad/very bad general health state (OR?=?1.87, CI95?=?1.63-2.15) and higher education levels (OR?=?1.48, CI95?=?1.38-1.59) were more likely to be in the highest quartile of daily sitting time. Adults within Greece (OR?=?2.91, CI95?=?2.51-3.36) and Netherlands (OR?=?2.56, CI95?=?2.22-2.94) were most likely to be in the highest quartile. High-sit/low-active participants comprised 10.1% of the sample. Adults self-reporting bad/very bad general health state (OR?=?4.74, CI95?=?3.97-5.65), those within high sitting in their main daily activities (OR?=?2.87, CI95?=?2.52-3.26) and adults aged ?65 years (OR?=?1.53, CI95?=?1.19-1.96) and were more likely to be in the high-sit/low-active group. Conclusions Weekday sitting time and its demographic correlates varied considerably across European countries, with adults in north-western European countries sitting the most. Sitting is prevalent across Europe and merits attention by preventive interventions. PMID:24020702

2013-01-01

366

Prevalence and Impact of Pain among Older Adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study  

PubMed Central

The study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States (US). Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7,601 adults ages ?65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the US. Pain did not vary across age groups (P=0.21) and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy-responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P<0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain [adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.72 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.56–1.90)]. Participants with 1, 2, 3, and >4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other confounders (P<0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the US in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

Patel, Kushang V.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Turk, Dennis C.

2013-01-01

367

Periodontal Diseases among the Adult Population of Georgia and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors on Their Prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background: Georgia is a country with a Human Development Index (HDI) score of 0.733. Significant deterioration in socio-economic conditions in the 1990s caused serious health problems in the population including oral health. Since then, there has not been an epidemiological survey of dental diseases among the adult population in Georgia. Methods: The pathfinder survey- cluster- stratified method derived by WHO was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men in nine regions of Georgia including the residents of a city, town and village in each region and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Four age groups were investigated including: I- (20–34), II-(35–44), III-(45–64), IV- (65–74). Results: Unhealthy periodontal tissues were observed in 66.9% of men and in 57.5% of women. Bleeding on probing occurred in 44.9% of men and 37.2% of women, with periodontal pockets in 46.8% of men and 40.6% of women. Inflammation was seen in 61.2% of men and 54.8% of women. Healthy periodontal tissues were most common (59.2%) in the first age group (20–34); periodontal pockets (0–3mm) were least common (9.8%) at this age. Pockets of ?4–5mm depth were observed mostly in the 3rd (9.4%) and 4th (10%) age groups. Conclusion: The high prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia is explained by a low socio-economic status and low medical education background with a negative attitude towards oral hygiene skills and low levels of dental service accessibility.

TSITAISHVILI, Lela; KALANDADZE, Manana; MARGVELASHVILI, Vladimer

2015-01-01

368

Hepatitis B Vaccination Prevalence and its Predictors Among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccination prevalence and its predictors were estimated among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American,\\u000a and Multiracial (A-PI-NA-M) adults. Using 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, estimates of HBV vaccination\\u000a among A-PI-NA-M adults (N = 233) were compared with all other racial\\/ethnic groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate predictors\\u000a of vaccination. Among A-PI-NA-M adults 42% (95%CI

John W. AyersHee-Soon; Hee-Soon Juon; Sunmin Lee; Eunmi Park

2010-01-01

369

A General Practice-Based Prevalence Study of Epilepsy among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and of Its Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Behaviour Disturbance and Carer Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the elevated occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is well recognized, the nature of seizures and their association with psychopathology and carer strain are less clearly understood. The aims were to determine the prevalence and features of epilepsy in a community-based population of adults with…

Matthews, T.; Weston, N.; Baxter, H.; Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2008-01-01

370

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Their Associations with Socioeconomic Status in a Rural Han Chinese Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity and examine their associations with socioeconomic status in a rural Chinese adult population. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 15,236 participants ? 35 years of age (6,313 men [41.4%] and 8,923 women [58.6%]). Each participant’s weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hipline circumference (HC) were measured, and demographic and socioeconomic data were collected using questionnaires. Results The mean body mass index (BMI) values were 23.31 ± 2.96 and 23.89 ± 3.23 kg m-2 and the mean WC values were 79.13 ± 8.43 and 79.54 ± 8.27 cm for men and women, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence rates of overweight (BMI ? 24.0 kg m-2), general obesity (BMI ? 28.0 kg m-2), and abdominal obesity (WC ? 85 cm for men and ? 80 cm for women) were 32.0%, 6.7%, and 27.0% for men and 35.1%, 9.7%, and 48.3% for women, respectively. All gender differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In addition, the age-specific prevalence rates of general and abdominal obesity slowly decreased among men but sharply increased among women as age increased (p < 0.001). In subsequent logistic regression analysis, educational level was negatively associated with both general obesity and abdominal obesity among women but positively associated with abdominal obesity among men. No significant correlation was found between obesity and income. Conclusions These results suggest a high prevalence of obesity which might differ by gender and age, and an inverse association among women and a mixed association among men noted between education and obesity in our locality. Preventive and therapeutic programs are warranted to control this serious public health problem. The gender-specific characteristics of populations at high-risk of developing obesity should be taken into consideration when designing interventional programs. PMID:24224024

Jin, Ming-Juan; Chen, Bing-Bing; Mao, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yi-Min; Yu, Yun-Xian; Wu, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Wu; Zhu, Shan-Kuan; Chen, Kun

2013-01-01

371

Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.  

PubMed

Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias. PMID:20143107

Oluwole, O S A

2010-07-01

372

Prevalent and Incident HIV Diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-Infected Adult Males: A Changing Epidemiology Associated with Sexual Transmission — Taiwan, 2006–2013  

PubMed Central

Background Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P?=?0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P?=?0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI. PMID:25299178

Lo, Yi-Chun; Ji, Dar-Der; Hung, Chien-Ching

2014-01-01

373

Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa †  

PubMed Central

Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. PMID:25361046

Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E.; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J.; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E.; Kowal, Paul

2014-01-01

374

Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and sleep problems in Korean children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a single institution study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children. Patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) often present with ADHD symptoms and vice versa. This study was the first to attempt to identify the prevalence of RLS and sleep problems in children with ADHD in Korea. Methods Patients diagnosed with ADHD were asked to complete a sleep questionnaire. The sleep questionnaire included items to help identify the presence of four typical symptoms that are used as diagnostic criteria for RLS. Results A total of 56 patients, including 51 boys and 5 girls (mean age, 10.7 years old) participated. Of these, 24 complained of pain, discomfort, or an unpleasant sensation in the legs. Based on the RLS diagnostic criteria, 2 patients were diagnosed with definite RLS and 4 with probable RLS. There were no significant differences in age, medication dosage, or neuropsychological test scores between the patients with and without RLS symptoms. Conclusion Approximately 42.9% of patients with ADHD presented with RLS symptoms and 7.1% of these were diagnosed with RLS. Patients with ADHD also experienced various other sleep disorders. Thus, appropriate assessment and treatment for sleep disorders in patients with ADHD is essential. PMID:25114692

Kwon, Soonhak; Sohn, Youngsoo; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Chung, Un-Sun

2014-01-01

375

The prevalence of anatomical variations that can cause inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block in Koreans: a study using magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the anatomical abnormalities that can induce inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block. The anatomy of the lumbo-sacral area was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. In 2462 of the 2669 patients imaged, the dural sac terminal was located between the upper half of the 1st sacral vertebra and the lower half of the 2nd sacral vertebra. In 22 cases (0.8%), the dural sac terminal and the spinal canal were located at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra, and these were cases of simple anatomical variations. As regards pathologic conditions, there was one case of sacral meningocoele and 46 cases of sacral perineural cyst. In 21 cases (0.8%) out of the 46 perineural cyst cases, the cyst could be found at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra level. Inadvertent dural puncture may happen when performing caudal block in patients with such abnormal anatomy. PMID:19922508

Joo, J; Kim, J; Lee, J

2010-01-01

376

Antibody screening tests variably overestimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-infected adults in Ghana.  

PubMed

HIV coinfection with HCV has been poorly studied in sub-Saharan Africa, and the reliability of available seroprevalence estimates remains uncertain. The study aim was to determine HCV RNA prevalence in HIV-infected subjects receiving care in Kumasi, Ghana, and relate the findings to HCV antibody detection. From a population of 1520 HIV-infected adults, all HBsAg-positive subjects (n = 236) and a random subset of HBsAg-negative subject (n = 172) were screened for HCV RNA using pooled plasma; positive samples were genotyped by core and NS5B sequencing. HCV antibodies were detected by three commercial screening assays and confirmed by the line immunoassay. HCV RNA was detected in 4/408 subjects (1.0%, 95% confidence interval 0.0-1.9%), comprising 3/236 (1.3%; 0.0-2.8%) HBsAg-positive and 1/172 (0.6%; 0.0-1.8%) HBsAg-negative subjects. HCV RNA-positive subjects showed reactivity in all three antibody screening assays. Among HCV RNA-negative subjects, 5/67 (7.5%), 5/67 (7.5%) and 19/67 (28.4%) showed antibody reactivity by each screening assay, respectively, including two (3.0%) with reactivity by all three assays. Only one sample (1.5%) had confirmed antibody reactivity by line immunoassay indicating past HCV infection. HCV-positive subjects (three males, two females) were aged 30-46 years, by questionnaire-based interview reported surgical procedures and blood transfusion as risk factors for infection. HCV genotypes were 2 (subtypes 2j, 2l, 2k/unassigned) and 1 (subtype unassigned). Without further testing, HCV antibody screening assays variably overestimated HCV prevalence among HIV-infected subjects in Ghana. These findings inform the interpretation of previous seroprevalence estimates based upon screening assays alone. PMID:25394987

King, S; Adjei-Asante, K; Appiah, L; Adinku, D; Beloukas, A; Atkins, M; Sarfo, S F; Chadwick, D; Phillips, R O; Geretti, A M

2015-05-01

377

Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi  

PubMed Central

Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India. PMID:25161966

Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

2014-01-01

378

Smoking prevalence and correlates among Chinese- and Filipino-American adults: Findings from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives We report prevalence rates and correlates of cigarette smoking among a population-based sample of Chinese- and Filipino-American adults together with rates found in other racial/ethnic groups in California. Methods All analyses are based on the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Results The proportion of current smokers among males was lowest among Chinese Americans (14%), followed by Non-Hispanic Whites (19%), Hispanics (20%), African Americans (22%), Filipino Americans (24%), American Indians/Alaska Natives (29%), and Pacific Islanders (32%). The proportion of current smokers among females was lowest among Chinese Americans (6%), followed by Hispanics (8%), Filipino Americans (11%), Non-Hispanic Whites (17%), African Americans (20%), Pacific Islander (21%), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (32%). Smoking rates were higher among foreign-born versus U.S.-born Asian males. CHIS data show an opposite effect among Asian women: acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased smoking prevalence rates. Multivariate analyses with Chinese and Filipino respondents showed that the likelihood of smoking varied among foreign-born versus U.S.-born men (OR 2.59 for Chinese, 1.42 for Filipino, 2.01 for all Asian men combined) and for foreign-born versus U.S.-born women (OR 0.41 for Chinese, 0.38 for Filipino, and 0.59 for all Asian women combined). Conclusion Public health intervention efforts should take into account Asian ethnic subgroup, gender, and acculturation status in targeting high-risk smoking groups. PMID:15917070

Maxwell, Annette E.; Bernaards, Coen A.; McCarthy, William J.

2006-01-01

379

A population-based study measuring the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in West Malaysia.  

PubMed

In this population-based study, we determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia in order to have accurate information for health-care planning. A sample of 876 individuals, representative of 15,147 respondents from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011, of the noninstitutionalized adult population (over 18 years old) in West Malaysia was studied. We measured the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI equation); albuminuria and stages of chronic kidney disease were derived from calibrated serum creatinine, age, gender and early morning urine albumin creatinine ratio. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in this group was 9.07%. An estimated 4.16% had stage 1 chronic kidney disease (eGFR >90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.05% had stage 2 (eGFR 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and persistent albuminuria), 2.26% had stage 3 (eGFR 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 0.24% had stage 4 (eGFR 15-29 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and 0.36% had stage 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73?m(2)). Only 4% of respondents with chronic kidney disease were aware of their diagnosis. Risk factors included increased age, diabetes, and hypertension. Thus, chronic kidney disease in West Malaysia is common and, therefore, warrants early detection and treatment in order to potentially improve outcome. PMID:23760287

Hooi, Lai Seong; Ong, Loke Meng; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Naidu, Balkish M; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon W; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M

2013-11-01

380

Sex difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular-related risk factors in urban adults from 33 communities of China: The CHPSNE study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in urban areas of China. To estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its cardiovascular-related factors in men and women, a representative sample of 15,477 urban adults aged 18-74?years in Northeast China was selected from 2009 to 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27.4% (men 27.9% and women 26.8%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher education level and a higher family income were associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men, but associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women. Higher physical activity was associated with a decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men (adjusted odds ratios (aORs)?=?0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.99), but associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women (aOR?=?1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.29). Compared with rice as the major staple food, cooked wheaten foods were associated with lower adjusted odds for metabolic syndrome both in men (aOR?=?0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.90) and in women (aOR?=?0.72, 95% CI: 0.56-0.92). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in urban areas of China, and there is heterogeneity by sex in the relationships between risk factors and metabolic syndrome prevalence. PMID:25670848

Song, Qing-Bin; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Shi-Jie; Dong, Guang-Hui

2015-05-01

381

Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.  

PubMed

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

2008-09-01

382

High prevalence of haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang provinces, Thailand, proven by adult worm recovery from suspected opisthorchiasis cases.  

PubMed

Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand. PMID:24516289

Wijit, Adulsak; Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

2013-12-01

383

Prevalence of child and adult sexual abuse and risk taking practices among HIV serodiscordant African-American couples.  

PubMed

This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

2010-10-01

384

Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Ortiz, Genaro G.; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Árias-Merino, Elva D.; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.

2014-01-01

385

Bipolar Disorder Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Statistics > Prevalence Bipolar Disorder Among Adults Statistics Home Prevalence Serious Mental ... Disorder Among Adults Any Mood Disorder in Children Bipolar Disorder Among Adults Bipolar Disorder Among Children Dysthymic ...

386

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 12-month Prevalence: 4.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 4.1% of U, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General

Baker, Chris I.

387

Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2013-01-01

388

Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis Among Adults in Urban and Rural Areas of China: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the present study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported and confirmable allergic rhinitis (AR) with positive skin prick test (SPT) results among adults living in urban and rural areas of China. Methods Adults from a community in Beijing and a village in Baoding were selected as representative urban and rural dwellers, respectively. All eligible residents were enrolled from the population register and received a face-to-face interview using modified validated questionnaires. Equal sets of randomly selected self-reporting AR-positive and AR-negative participants who responded to the questionnaires were also investigated using skin prick tests. Results A total of 803 participants in the rural area and a total of 1,499 participants in the urban area completed the questionnaires, with response rates being 75.9% and 81.5% respectively. The prevalence of self-reported AR of the rural area (19.1%) was significantly higher than that of the urban area (13.5%). The elementary school of educational level increased the risk of having AR (adjusted OR=2.198, 95% CI=1.072-2.236) .The positive SPT rates among subjects with self-reported AR in the rural and urban areas were 32.5% and 53.3%, respectively; the confirmable AR prevalence of 6.2% and 7.2% among the rural and urban adults, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of confirmable AR is similar between rural and urban areas in China, although there is a higher prevalence of self-reported AR in the former. PMID:25729622

Zheng, Ming; Wang, Xiangdong; Bo, Mingyu; Wang, Kuiji; Zhao, Yan; He, Fei; Cao, Feifei; Bachert, Claus

2015-01-01

389

PREVALENCE AND THE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BINGE DRINKING, ALCOHOL ABUSE, AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF CHINESE ADULTS IN HONG KONG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. Method: An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3%

JEAN H. KIM; SING LEE; J ULIE CHOW; J OSEPH LAU; ADLEY TSANG; JACQUELINE CHOI; SIAN M. GRIFFITHS

2008-01-01

390

The prevalence of pain and pain interference in a general population of older adults: cross-sectional findings from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although pain is experienced at all ages, there is uncertainty about the pattern of its occurrence in older people. We have investigated the prevalence of three aspects of self-reported pain—occurrence of any recent pain, number and location of pain sites, and interference with daily life—to determine their association with age in older people. A cross-sectional postal survey of all adults

Elaine Thomas; George Peat; Lindsey Harris; Ross Wilkie; Peter R Croft

2004-01-01

391

Differing Frequency of Autoantibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase among Koreans, Thais, and Australians with Diabetes Mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide racial-geographic differences in the incidence and prevalence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) between Europids and Asian populations prompted us to compare frequencies of positivity of autoantibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase) (GAD). The patients with IDDM included 41 Koreans, 30 Thais, and 45 Australian Europids; the Koreans included 14 cases regarded as atypical IDDM by reason of a delayed

T. Tuomi; P. Zimmet; M. J. Rowley; H. K. Min; A. Vichayanrat; H. K. Lee; B. D. Rhee; S. Vannasaeng; A. R. G. Humphrey; I. R. Mackay

1995-01-01

392

The Trend of Body Donation for Education Based on Korean Social and Religious Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or…

Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

2011-01-01

393

An Analysis of Sexual Harassment in Korean Hotels from the Perspective of Female Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female employees in Confucian and collective societies are particularly susceptible to sexual harassment. Occupational norms can also influence sexual harassment. First, this paper introduces the legal development of the sexual harassment law in Korea. Second, it examines the prevalence of sexual harassment in Korean luxury hotels. The results of the first survey in the Korean hotel industry detail female employees'

Minho Cho

2002-01-01

394

Prevalence, risk factors, and epidemiology of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus carried by adults over 60 years of age.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the community in Portugal is not completely understood. To evaluate S. aureus and MRSA carriage among the elderly, we conducted a large cross-sectional study between April 2010 and December 2012. A total of 3,361 adults over 60 years of age were screened for S. aureus nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal carriage. MRSA were characterized by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and tested for the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Risk factors for MRSA carriage were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriage among the elderly was 20.1 % and 1.8 %, respectively. The risk of being an MRSA carrier was higher among the elderly living in retirement homes [odds ratio (OR)?=?2.90, 95 % c