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1

Epidemiology of Insomnia in Korean Adults: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Insomnia is a common complaint in adults. However, large epidemiologic studies of insomnia involving Asian populations are rarely reported. We performed an epidemiologic study of insomnia in a large Korean adult population. Methods A total of 5,000 subjects (2,470 men and 2,530 women) were interviewed by telephone. A representative sample of subjects aged 20 to 69 years was constituted according to a stratified, multistage random sampling method. Insomnia was defined as either any difficulty getting to sleep or getting back to sleep after waking in the night. Results More than one fifth (n=1,141, 22.8%) of the 5,000 subjects complained of insomnia, with the prevalence being significantly higher in women (25.3%) than in men (20.2%, p<0.001). Logistic regression revealed that the prevalence of insomnia increased significantly with age (p<0.001), being higher in those aged 60-69 years than in those aged 20-29 years (OR=2.368, 95% CI=1.762-3.182, p<0.001), and was lower in those with a monthly income of >4.5 million Korean won than in those with an income of <1.5 million Korean won (OR=0.689, 95% CI=0.523-0.906, p<0.01). Conclusions Insomnia is a common complaint in Korean adults, and its prevalence is similar to that in adults in Western countries.

Shin, Won Chul; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Seung Bong; Kim, Juhan; Earley, Christopher J.

2009-01-01

2

Prevalence and Management of Diabetes in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This research investigated recent changes in the prevalence and management status of diabetes among Korean adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationwide survey examining the general health and nutrition status of the Korean people, was conducted in 1998, 2001, and 2005. Using the first (1998; n = 5,645), second (2001; n = 4,154), and third (2005; n = 4,628) KNHANES datasets, in the present study, we estimated the prevalence of diabetes among Korean adults (aged ?30 years), the proportions of known cases of diabetes, and the proportions of well-controlled cases of diabetes, as defined by either the American Diabetes Association (A1C <7%) or the International Diabetes Federation guidelines (A1C <6.5%). RESULTS In 2005, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 9.1% (?2.58 million people: 10.2% of men and 7.9% of women), including 6.2% with known diabetes and 2.9% with newly diagnosed diabetes. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 17.4% (?4.94 million people). The proportion of known cases of diabetes drastically increased from 23.2% in 1998 to 41.2% in 2001 and 68.0% in 2005 (P < 0.0001). Among known diabetic patients in 2005, 43.5 and 22.9% had A1C levels <7.0 and <6.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The overall prevalence of diabetes in Korea has not changed significantly between 1998 and 2005. Physician diagnosis and treatment rates of diabetes have significantly improved during this period, but glycemic control was still poorer than that in other developed countries.

Choi, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Hee Man; Park, Seok Won; Kim, Jongoh; Kim, Dae Jung

2009-01-01

3

Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), measured by a simple step test, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults, in a cross sectional design. Methods A total of 1,007 Korean adults (488 men and 519 women) who underwent routine health checkups were recruited. CRF was measured by Tecumseh step test. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III guideline was used to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. A logistic regression was performed to reveal possible associations. Results The results of the study showed that a lower level of CRF was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men, but not in women. On the other hand, higher BMI was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. However, BMI was not associated with fasting glucose nor hemoglobinA1c in men. When the combined impact of BMI and CRF on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was analyzed, a significantly increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found in both men (odds ratio [OR]: 18.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 5.0 - 70.5) and women (OR: 8.1, 95% CI: 2.8 - 23.9) who had high BMI and low cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was only increased 7.9 times (95% CI: 2.0 - 31.2) in men and 5.4 times (95% CI: 1.9 - 15.9) in women who had high level of CRF and high BMI. Conclusion In conclusion, the current study demonstrated the low CRF and obesity was a predictor for metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

2014-01-01

4

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (?19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],?65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ?65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ? 24% of Korean adults and ? 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults.

Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

5

Prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated risk factors among adult Korean hypertensive patients in a primary care setting.  

PubMed

Microalbuminuria is an early sign of nephropathy and an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this study was to assess microalbuminuria prevalence and its contributing factors in Korean hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study enrolled male and female patients of ?35 years old with an essential hypertension diagnosis as made by 841 physicians in primary care clinics and 17 in general hospitals in the Republic of Korea between November 2008 and July 2009. To assess microalbuminuria prevalence, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured in patients with a positive dipstick test. Of the 40,473 enrolled patients, 5713 (14.1%) had a positive dipstick test. Of 5393 patients with a positive dipstick test and valid UACR values, 2657 (6.6%) had significantly elevated UACR (?30??g?mg(-1)), 2158 (5.4%) had microalbuminuria (30??g?mg(-1)?UACR <300??g?mg(-1)) and 499 (1.2%) had macroalbuminuria (UACR ?300??g?mg(-1)). Based on multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with elevated UACR included low adherence to antihypertensive medication (23% higher; P=0.042), poorly controlled blood pressure (BP; 38% higher for systolic BP/diastolic BP ?130?mm?Hg/?80?mm?Hg; P<0.001), obesity (47% higher for body mass index (BMI) ?25.0?kg?m(-2); P<0.001), age (17% lower and 58% higher for age categories 35-44 years (P=0.043) and >75 years (P<0.001), respectively) and a prior history of diabetes (151% higher; P<0.001) and kidney-related disease (71% higher; P<0.001). The prevalences of elevated UACR and microalbuminuria were 6.6% and 5.4%, respectively. Age, increased BMI, presence of comorbidities, poor medication adherence and inadequately controlled BP were independent predictors of elevated UACR after controlling for potential confounders. PMID:23698804

Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Han Soo; Oh, Ha Young; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Cheol Ho; Kim, Yong Soo; Wu, David; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Oh, Byung-Hee

2013-09-01

6

The metabolic syndrome and associated lifestyle factors among South Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods Data was obtained from individuals aged 20-79 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998, a cross-sectional health survey of a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized civilian South Koreans. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III), was determined, and

Hye Soon Park; Sang Woo Oh; Sung-Il Cho; Woong Hwan Choi; Young Soel Kim

2004-01-01

7

Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

8

Cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents: prevalence and correlates.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to explore its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. As part of the Korean Institute for Health and Social Affairs' Adolescent Health Survey, 5,209 eighth graders and 4,677 eleventh graders from 70 junior and senior high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire during school hours in 1989. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45% (15.43% of boys and 1.28% of girls). Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Based on logistic regression analyses, perceived peer use was most strongly associated with smoking status (OR = 9.97 for boys; and 68.27 for girls). Academic stress, grade, and type of school were also associated with smoking status for both boys and girls. In addition, mother's smoking, birth order, and urbanity were associated with smoking status for boys. Implications of the results for prevention efforts to inhibit the onset of cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents are discussed. PMID:7484347

Juon, H S; Shin, Y; Nam, J J

1995-01-01

9

Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among Korean children.  

PubMed

Pediculus humanus capitis is an ectoparasite, which causes scalp pruritus particularly among children. A total of 15,373 children including 8,018 boys and 7,355 girls from 26 primary schools and 15 kindergartens attached to the primary schools and a total of 33 children from an orphanage were examined for head lice infestation (HLI). The overall prevalence of HLI in this study was 4.1% including 3.7% of the urban areas and 4.7% of the rural areas. Head lice were found more frequently in girls than in boys with prevalence of 6.5% and 1.9%, respectively. The infestation rate by school grade was 3.2%, 4.7%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 4.9%, 3.8%, and 2.1% for kindergarten, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, respectively. The infestation rate of the children in an orphanage was 66.7%. The prevalence of HLI has decreased especially in the rural areas. However, HLI is a still health problem of kindergarteners and primary schoolchildren in Korea. PMID:20683614

Oh, Jeong-Min; Lee, In Yong; Lee, Won-Ja; Seo, Min; Park, Sol-Ah; Lee, Seung Hyun; Seo, Jang Hoon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Soon-Jung; Shin, Myeong Heon; Pai, Ki-Soo; Yu, Jae-Ran; Sim, Seobo

2010-11-01

10

Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

Kwon, Hyuckhoon

2009-01-01

11

Prevalence and Predictors of Polypharmacy among Korean Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective Polypharmacy is widespread in the elderly because of their multiple chronic health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with polypharmacy in a nationally representative sample of Korean elderly individuals. Methods We used the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service – National Patient Sample (HIRA-NPS) data from 2010 and 2011. We used information on 319,185 elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 from the HIRA-NPS database. We defined ‘polypharmacy’ as the concurrent use of 6 medications or more per person, ‘major polypharmacy’ as 11 medications or more, and ‘excessive polypharmacy’ as 21 medications or more. The frequency and proportion (%) and their 95% confidence intervals were presented according to the polypharmacy definition. Polypharmacy was visualized by the Quantum Geographic Information Systems (QGIS) program to describe regional differences in patterns of drug use. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) to investigate the risk factors for polypharmacy. Results Of the Korean elderly studied, 86.4% had polypharmacy, 44.9% had major polypharmacy and 3.0% had excessive polypharmacy. Polypharmacy was found to be primarily concentrated in the Southwest region of the country. Significant associations between polypharmacy and the lower-income Medical Aid population (OR?=?1.52, 95% CI 1.47, 1.56) compared with National Health Insurance patients was observed. Conclusions Nationwide efforts are needed for managing polypharmacy among Korean elderly patients. In particular, a national campaign and education to promote appropriate use of medicines for the Medical Aid population is needed.

Kim, Mi-Hee; Park, Byung-Joo

2014-01-01

12

Prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors of restless legs syndrome in the Korean elderly population - results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, neuropsychiatric comorbidities, iron metabolism and potential risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the elderly Korean population. As a community-based epidemiological study, a simple random sample of 1118 was drawn from a roster of 61 730 adult individuals aged 65 years and older and 714 participated. The diagnosis of RLS was established in face-to-face interviews using the four minimal diagnostic criteria for RLS recommended by National Institute of Health. Depressive symptoms, nocturnal sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness and quality of life were evaluated. Laboratory tests of iron metabolism, markers of inflammation, renal and endocrine function, hormones and vitamins were performed. A total of 59 patients (42 women and 17 men) were diagnosed as RLS with a prevalence of 8.3% (95% confidence interval: 6.2-10.3%), with an almost twofold higher prevalence in women (10.2%) than in men (5.7%). Depression was more prevalent among the subjects with RLS than without RLS and poor nocturnal sleep and quality of life were also observed in subjects with RLS. Daytime sleepiness was observed in 32.8% of subjects with RLS. No significant differences were found in iron metabolism or other risk factors between the subjects with and without RLS. The prevalence of RLS in the Korean elderly population was comparable with that in the Caucasian population. RLS had undesirable effects on mood, sleep quality and general wellbeing of elderly individuals. PMID:19686313

Kim, Ki Woong; Yoon, In-Young; Chung, Seockhoon; Shin, Yoon-Kyung; Lee, Seok Bum; Choi, Eun Ae; Park, Joon Hyuck; Kim, Jong-Min

2010-03-01

13

Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: The Korean veterans health study.  

PubMed

Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity from various diseases, some of which have rarely been explored in previous epidemiologic studies. PMID:24906069

Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2014-08-01

14

Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 226 older (age ?65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI. Results The prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (?74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003), educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001), and systolic blood pressure (?135 mm Hg vs. ?120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012) were associated with MCI. Conclusion More concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Lee, Yun Jeong; Kang, Hye Mi; Kim, Na Kyung; Yang, Ju Yeon; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

2014-01-01

15

Socioeconomic Disparities in Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in Middle-aged Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated socioeconomic inequalities in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control among middle-aged Koreans. Methods We analyzed data from 4275 adults aged between 40 and 64 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 and 2008. Education, income, and occupational level were evaluated to assess the relationship of socioeconomic status with hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. Results There were significant differences in socioeconomic status among individuals with no hypertension, controlled hypertension, and uncontrolled hypertension in both sexes. In multiple logistic regression models, as compared with men who had more than 12 years of education, those with 7 to 12 years and less than 7 years of education had odds ratios (ORs) for untreated hypertension of 2.14 (95% CI: 1.18 to 3.90) and 2.98 (95% CI: 1.42 to 6.28), respectively (P for trend <0.05). As compared with women who had more than 12 years of education, those with 7 to 12 years and less than 7 years of education had ORs for hypertension prevalence of 1.75 (95% CI: 1.10 to 2.78) and 1.88 (95% CI: 1.12 to 3.16), respectively (P for trend <0.05). Women who worked as manual labors had an OR for uncontrolled hypertension of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.02 to 2.22) as compared with women in other jobs. There was no statistically significant association between income level and hypertension control. Conclusions Socioeconomic status was independently associated with hypertension prevalence and care, which suggests a need for health policy efforts to reduce the socioeconomic disparity in hypertension management.

Cha, Sun Hwa; Park, Hye Soon; Cho, Hong Jun

2012-01-01

16

Place matters in perceived tobacco exposure among korean american young adults: mixed methods approach.  

PubMed

A sequential mixed methods study was conducted to identify factors influencing perceived norms about smoking and to examine the association of acculturative contexts and normative beliefs among Korean American young adults (KAYA) who face increased risk of smoking. Content analysis of data from 67 participants in 10 focus groups in 2010 led to the development of an online survey in 2012 (N = 475). KAYA overestimated smoking prevalence, reporting Korean-owned businesses (KOB) as primary places of exposure. Our findings revealed that visits to KOB predicted perceived norms about smoking. Modifying perceptions about social norms and involuntary tobacco exposure may be critical in reducing smoking among KAYA. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:24779505

Huh, Jimi; Paul Thing, James; Abramova, Zarina Sabrina; Sami, Mojgan; Beth Unger, Jennifer

2014-06-01

17

Generalized Joint Hypermobility in Healthy Female Koreans: Prevalence and Age-Related Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective Objective To evaluate the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) in healthy female Koreans and to determine whether the degree of GJH differs between children and adults. Methods Two groups of females were enrolled, a group of girls from an elementary school (n=404) and women from a call center (n=266). GJH was diagnosed using the Beighton score, which is composed of an evaluation of bilateral knees, elbows, thumbs, and fifth fingers as well as thoracolumbar joint. The GJH and localized hypermobility of each joint was compared between the two groups, and the pattern of hypermobility according to age and dominant hand was investigated. Results Total prevalence of GJH was 50.0% (335/750), and it was more frequently observed in the group of girls (58.9%, 238/404) than women (36.5%, 97/266). The degree of GJH expressed in terms of Beighton score was inversely correlated with age (p<0.05). Significant differences in localized hypermobility of the thumb and fifth finger were found between the two groups and were postulated as the cause for the decline in GJH with age. The pattern of decreased mobility proportional to aging differed between the two joints. Decreased mobility occurred equally on both sides of the thumb but was biased toward the fifth finger of the dominant side (mostly the right). Conclusion The female Koreans appeared to have a high prevalence of GJH. The incidence of GJH decreased as age increased as a result of decreased mobility of the fifth finger on the dominant side.

Kwon, Ji-Won; Park, Si-Bog; Kim, Mi Jung; Jang, Seong Ho; Choi, Chang Kweon

2013-01-01

18

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents aged 12–19 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 and 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, and to examine an association between the metabolic syndrome and obesity in Korean adolescents. The data for analysis were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998 and 2001. The subjects aged 12–19 years were 1317 in 1998 and 848 in 2001. A

Hee Man Kim; Jong Park; Ho-Seong Kim; Duk Hee Kim

2007-01-01

19

Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19-Year-Old Male from 2008 to 2009: A Study Based on Korean Conscription -National and Geographic Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19YO Male-  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. Materials and Methods We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. Results The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. Conclusion In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

2013-01-01

20

The prevalence of obesity and the level of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides in Korean preschool children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the degree of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides for Children (KDAGC). In a cross-sectional study based on a child care center-based survey in Seoul, Korea, we collected parental-reported questionnaires (n = 2,038) on children's weight and height, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the quality of dietary and activity behaviors based on the 2009 KDAGC Adherence Index (KDAGCAI) which was developed as a composite measure of adherence to the KDAGC. Overweight and obesity were determined according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentile from the 2007 Korean national growth chart. Associations were assessed with generalized linear models and polytomous logistic regression models. Approximately 17.6% of Korean preschool children were classified as overweight or obese. Obese preschoolers had lower adherence to the KDAGCAI compared to those with lean/normal weight. Preschoolers with a high quality of dietary and activity behaviors had a 51% decreased odds ratio (OR) of being obese (highest vs. lowest tertile of KDAGCAI-score, 95% CI 0.31, 0.78; P = 0.001); the associations were more pronounced among those who were older (P = 0.048) and lived in lower income households (P = 0.014). A greater frequency of vegetable consumption, but not fruit, was associated with a borderline significant reduction in the prevalence of obesity. Our findings support the association between obesity prevention and high compliance with the Korean national dietary and activity guideline among preschool children.

Choi, Yuni; You, Yeji; Go, Kyeong Ah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; You, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Seungmin

2013-01-01

21

Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

2011-01-01

22

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. Methods A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 2008–2011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. Results Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.4–48.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.7–4.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.6–24.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.4–80.4) in 20–29 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.9–17.3) in 60–69 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.97–2.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.76–0.93, p = 0.002). Conclusions This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures.

Kim, Eun Chul; Morgan, Ian G.; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Kang, Seungbum; Jee, Donghyun

2013-01-01

23

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Age-Related and Anterior Polar Cataracts in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential risk factors associated with nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and anterior polar cataracts (APC) in the Korean population. Research Design and Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 7992 adults (over 40 years of age) from the data of the fourth annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed from 2007 to 2009. The presence of lens opacity was examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and evaluated according to LOCS II standard photographs. The subtype of cataract present, including nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and anterior polar cataracts, was noted. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for association of each specific type of cataract with age, sex, health examination, and medical history. Results The prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataract increased gradually with increasing age. However, the prevalence of APC peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old subjects. All types of cataract except for APCs were more prevalent in women. Oral steroid use was associated with a lower risk of APC. Conclusions These findings showed the unique characteristics of APC in the Korean population.

Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Mok, Jee Won; Joo, Choun-Ki

2014-01-01

24

Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Cervical Human Papillomavirus DNA in Korean Women: A Multicenter Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : DNA prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) varies geographically. We investigated HPV prevalence and type distribution in Korean women using the MyHPV DNA chip testing. Methods : A total of 2,368 women from five regions of the coun- try underwent Pap smear examination and MyHPV chip testing. Results : Overall HPV posi- tivity was 15.8% and

Sung Ran Hong; In Sun Kim; Dong Won Kim; Mi Jin Kim; Ae Ree Kim; Young Ok Kim; Hye Sun Kim; Seo Hee Rha; Gyeong Sin Park; Yong Wook Park; Ho Sung Park; Kwang Sun Suh; Jin Hee Sohn; Mi Kyung Shin; Hoon Kyu Oh; Ki Jung Yun; Hye Kyoung Yoon; Shi Nae Lee; Ah Won Lee; Hyo Jin Lee; Hyun Yee Cho; Chan Choi; Woon Won Jung

2009-01-01

25

Prevalence and correlates of orthostatic hypotension in middle-aged men and women in Korea: the Korean Health and Genome Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the prevalence and correlates of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in middle-aged adults enrolled in the Korean Health and Genome Study. Participants were 8908 individuals aged 40–69 years. Supine blood pressure (BP) was measured three times at 30-s intervals after at least 5 min of rest in the supine position and single standing BP was measured at 0 and 2

C Shin; R D Abbott; H Lee; J Kim; K Kimm

2004-01-01

26

Seroepidemiology of tetanus in Korean adults and adolescents in 2012.  

PubMed

This seroepidemiologic study was performed to evaluate the immune status against tetanus in Korean adolescents and adults and to provide evidence to develop strategies for tetanus prevention. Between July 2012 and December 2012, serum samples were collected from adults and adolescents 11 years of age and older, and serum anti-tetanus IgG titers were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. Subjects were divided into six age groups: 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years, 51-60 years, and ?61 years. The mean anti-tetanus IgG titers and tetanus seroprevalence of the age groups were compared. A total of 1193 adults and adolescents were enrolled. Mean anti-tetanus IgG titer and tetanus seroprevalence of all subjects were 1.20 ± 3.58 IU/mL and 56.4%, respectively. The mean anti-tetanus IgG titer decreased with an increase in age (p < 0.001). Tetanus seroprevalence increased from 92.0% in the 11-20 year age group to 95.7% in the 21-30 year age group, and then decreased with a further increase in age (p < 0.001). These results reflected an appropriate Td booster vaccine coverage at 11-12 years of age. However, the tetanus seroprevalence of adults older than 41 years was as low as the levels in previous studies: therefore, adults should be more encouraged to acquire decennial Td booster vaccinations recommended by the National Immunization Program. PMID:24802766

Sung, Hyunwoo; Jang, Mi Jin; Bae, E Young; Han, Seung Beom; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Park, Yeon-Joon; Ma, Sang Hyuk

2014-07-01

27

Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. Methods We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics. Results The prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women); moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women); regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women); healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women); and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women). The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age), low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health. Conclusions Further research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults.

Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah

2014-01-01

28

Prevalence and risk factor of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents.  

PubMed

Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H; Lim, Seung Hun; Kim, Hyun Ah

2013-05-01

29

Prevalence of insomnia and its relationship to menopausal status in middle-aged Korean women.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence of insomnia and the association of insomnia with menopause have been well reported, not much work has been conducted in population-based research on insomnia and menopause in Korea. The purpose of the present report was to determine overall and different prevalence of insomnia by menopausal status, and the relationship between insomnia and menopause in a population-based sample of middle-aged Korean women. A total of 96.1% of 2497 randomly selected middle-aged Korean women participated. Insomnia was defined as occurring three times a week or more in the previous month. Subjects were categorized into three groups: premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause. The overall prevalence of insomnia in middle-aged Korean women was 14.3%. The most common symptom of insomnia was difficulty maintaining sleep (9.7%), followed by difficulty initiating sleep (7.9%), and early morning awakening (7.5%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that menopause was independently associated with insomnia after adjusting for confounding factors such as age, income, and depression. Perimenopause was significantly associated with a dramatic increase in the risk of insomnia, but there was no significant association for postmenopause. The major finding is that insomnia is significantly associated with the menopausal transition. The prevalence of insomnia increases significantly by the transition from premenopause to perimenopause, but not to postmenopause. A further prospective study is needed to investigate the influence of menopause on insomnia. PMID:16048444

Shin, Chol; Lee, Sangyeol; Lee, Taewook; Shin, Kyungrim; Yi, Hyeryeon; Kimm, Kuchan; Cho, Namhan

2005-08-01

30

Blood Cadmium and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Cadmium is a nephrotoxicant at high exposure levels. Few studies have evaluated the role of cadmium in kidney function at low-exposure levels. Objective: We evaluated the association of blood cadmium with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the Korean adult population. Methods: We evaluated 1,909 adults ? 20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had blood cadmium determinations. eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results: Blood cadmium geometric means were 1.57 ?g/L for men and 1.49 ?g/L for women. The difference in eGFR levels that compared participants in the highest versus lowest cadmium tertiles, after multivariable adjustment, was –1.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): –3.55, –0.16] mL/min per 1.73 m2 in women and 0.67 (–1.16, 2.50) mL/min per 1.73 m2 in men. Among men, the association between blood cadmium and eGFR was modified by blood lead levels (p-value for interaction = 0.048). The fully adjusted differences in eGFR levels for a 2-fold increase in blood cadmium levels were –1.14 (–3.35, 1.07) and 1.84 (0.54, 3.14) mL/min per 1.73 m2 in men with blood lead levels below and above the median (2.75 ?g/dL), respectively. Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium levels were associated with lower eGFR in women, which supports the role of cadmium as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. In men, there was no overall association, although elevated blood cadmium levels were associated with higher eGFR levels in men with high blood lead levels and nonstatistically associated with lower eGFR levels in men with low blood lead levels.

Hwangbo, Young; Weaver, Virginia M.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Lee, Byung-Kook

2011-01-01

31

Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

32

Urinary Arsenic Concentrations and their Associated Factors in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) is a well-known human carcinogen and its dietary exposure has been found to be the major route of entry into general population. This study was performed to assess the body levels of As and their associated factors in Korean adults by analyzing total As in urine. Urine and blood samples were collected from 580 adults aged 20 years and older, who had not been exposed to As occupationally. Demographic information was collected with the help of a standard questionnaire, including age, smoking, alcohol intake, job profiles, and diet consumed in the last 24 hrs of the study. Total As, sum of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), in urine was determined using atomic absorption spectrometer involving hydride generation method. The geometric mean concentration of total As in urine was 7.10 ?g/L. Urine As was significantly higher in men (7.63 ?g/L) than in women (6.75 ?g/ L). Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and job profiles of study subjects did not significantly affect the concentration of As in urine. No significant relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI), Fe, and total cholesterol in serum and urinary As. Urine As level was positively correlated with seaweeds, fishes & shellfishes, and grain intake. A negative correlation between urinary As level and HDL-cholesterol in serum and meat intake was observed. Overall, these results suggest that urinary As concentration could be affected by seafood consumption. Therefore, people who frequently consume seafood and grain need to be monitored for chronic dietary As exposure.

Bae, Hye-Sun; Ryu, Doug-Young; Choi, Byung-Sun

2013-01-01

33

A nationwide epidemiological study of nocturnal enuresis in Korean adolescents and adults: population based cross sectional study.  

PubMed

We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in Korean adolescents and adults. A questionnaire was sent via e-mail to 51,073 people aged 16-40 yr by stratified sampling according to age, sex, and region among a 200,000 internet survey panel pool. The questionnaire included following information; presence or absence of NE, frequency of NE, possible risk factors for NE, self-esteem scale score and depression score results, and measures for the treatment of NE. Among the 2,117 responders, 54 (2.6%) had NE (?1 enuretic episode within 6 months). Of 54 bedwetters, 9.3% wet ?1 night per week and 20.5% wet ?1 per month. The prevalence rates remained relatively stable with no apparent trend of reduction with age. The presence of sleep disturbance, family history, urgency, or urge incontinence increased the probability of NE episode significantly. The self-esteem score was lower (P=0.053) and the depression scale score was higher (P=0.003) in bedwetters compared with non-bedwetters. Overall 2.6% of Korean aged 16-40 yr have NE. The higher rate of urgency and urge incontinence in adolescent and adult enuretics suggests that bladder function has an important role in adolescent and adult NE. PMID:23853491

Baek, Minki; Park, Kwanjin; Lee, Hahn-Ey; Kang, Ju Hyung; Suh, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji Hong; Lee, Sang Don; Pai, Ki Soo; Han, Sang Won; Park, Yong Hoon; Kim, Kyung Do

2013-07-01

34

The prevalence of lisping in young adults.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes other alveolar sounds too. Seven hundred and forty eight students (374 females, 374 males), native speakers of Dutch, were video-recorded while reading aloud the Dutch version of the text "The north wind and the sun..." from the International Phonetic Association (1974). Analysis of the samples yielded an overall prevalence of lisping of 23.3%. Significantly less participants presented with lisping among students of humanities than among students of natural sciences or social sciences. No significant difference was found between males and females. It remains to be determined if this high prevalence of lisping in adults represents a recent trend or if the persistence of the pattern of lisping into adulthood in some individuals is perhaps quite normal. Learning outcomes: As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to (1) discuss the nature and prevalence of residual phonological errors in general and (2) to discuss the prevalence of lisping in young adult native speakers of Dutch in particular. PMID:17223125

Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

2007-01-01

35

The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

2007-01-01

36

Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change.

Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

2014-01-01

37

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A and Associated Socioeconomic Factors in Young Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims An epidemiologic shift of hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence is expected due to an improvement in socioeconomic status in young adults in Korea. We investigated the age-specific seroprevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with HAV seropositivity in young, healthy Korean adults. Methods Between March 2009 and February 2010, a total of 5,051 persons from 20 to 49 years of age presenting for a health check-up were included and responded to a questionaire. The seroprevalence of HAV was investigated by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-HAV. A total of 984 pairs of cases and age- and sex-matched controls were analyzed for associated socioeconomic factors. Results The prevalence of seropositive HAV was 6.2% in the 20 to 29 age range, 33.1% in the 30 to 39 range and 82.4% in the 40 to 49 range (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in any group according to gender. A multivariate analysis for paired cases indicated that HAV seropositivity was significantly higher in the low monthly income (below five million won, approximately 4,300 dollars) group and the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive group (odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.14; p<0.001; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.19-1.76; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions HAV seropositivity in young adults presenting for a health checkup appears to be decreasing, and the prevalence was significantly higher in the low monthly income group and the H. pylori-positive group.

Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Lim, Seon Hee; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Young Sun; Yang, Sun Young; Yang, Jong In; Cho, Sang-Heon

2011-01-01

38

Prevalence and sociodemographic trends of weight misperception in Korean adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid physical and emotional growth occurs during youth. Adolescence is one of the most important periods for adapting to body change and establishing an ideal body image. Body change is an important and sensitive concern for adolescents, and the values and self-conception established at this time affect various aspects of the entire life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and trends of weight misperception among adolescents in Korea. Methods We analyzed raw data from the 2011 Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey-VII (KYRBWS-VII), in which 73,474 adolescents from the middle-school first grade to the high-school third grade (aged 12–18) participated. For the multivariate logistic regression model, the dependent variable was existence of misperception (yes/no) and independent variables were sociodemographic factors. Results We found that the prevalence of weight misperception was 49.3% (overestimation, 23.7%; underestimation, 25.6%). Among male students, 65.0% underestimated their weight, whereas 62.2% of female students overestimated their weight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that gender (OR?=?1.254; 95% CI?=?1.214–1.294; p?

2014-01-01

39

Private Religious Practice, Spiritual Coping, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Korean Adult Immigrants.  

PubMed

This study explored the role of spiritual factors and social support on the health status of 246 older Korean adult immigrants age 65 years or older. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that private religious practice, spiritual coping, and social support were significantly associated with improved health status. However, stressors such as the lack of English proficiency and transportation, longer residency in the United States, and financial problems were significantly associated with lower health status. Social workers need to consider providing appropriate spiritual interventions and social support programs for older Korean adult immigrants so that they may better handle their stressors and health problems. PMID:25068608

Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hwang, Myung Jin

2014-07-29

40

Comparison of Epidemiology, Emergency Care, and Outcomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke between Young Adults and Elderly in Korean Population: A Multicenter Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Stroke in young adults has been known to show a lower incidence and a better prognosis. Only a few studies have examined the epidemiology and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults and compared them with the elderly in Korean population. All consecutive patients with ischemic stroke visiting 29 participating emergency departments were enrolled from November 2007 to October 2009. Patients with less than 15 yr of age and unknown information on age and confirmed diagnosis were excluded. We categorized the patients into young adults (15 to 45 yr) and elderly (46 yr and older) groups. Of 39,156 enrolled all stroke patients, 25,818 with ischemic stroke were included and analyzed (young adult; n=1,431, 5.5%). Young adult patients showed lower prevalence of most chronic diseases but significantly higher prevalence in exercise, current smoking, and alcohol consumption. Hospital mortality was significantly lower in young adults than elderly (1.1% vs. 3.1%, P<0.001). Higher number of patients in elderly group (68.1%) showed worsening change of modified Rankin Scale than young adults (65.2%). Young adults ischemic stroke showed favorable hospital outcomes than the elderly in Korean population. Graphical Abstract

2014-01-01

41

High prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in Korean patients with coronary or cerebrovascular disease.  

PubMed

This prospective study surveyed the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Korean patients with coronary arterial disease (CAD) or cerebrovascular disorder (CVD). From March 2010, 576 hospitalized patients in cardiovascular or stroke center were enrolled as the study group. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) was measured and the cut-off point for diagnosing PAD was ? 0.9 at rest. A total of 424 hospitalized patients in the Department of Surgery and aged ? 50 yr was enrolled as the control group. The prevalence of PAD was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (7.6% vs 1.7%; P < 0.001). To analyze the relationship of other vascular diseases and PAD, the patients were regrouped; group A (no CAD or CVD), group B (CAD only), group C (CVD only), and group D (CAD and CVD). Compared with group A, those with other vascular diseases (group B, C, D) had significantly higher prevalence of PAD, diabetes, dyslipidemia, renal insufficiency and claudication. The trend that patients with CAD or CVD are at risk of PAD is observed in this cross-sectional study in Koreans. Routine ABI measurement is recommended in these high-risk groups for early detection and proper management of PAD. PMID:22690093

Ahn, Sanghyun; Park, Yang Jin; Min, Sang-Il; Kim, Seong Yup; Ha, Jongwon; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Min, Seung-Kee

2012-06-01

42

Gender differences on the MMPI across American and Korean adult and adolescent normative samples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether gender differences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) items are comparable across 2 distinctive cultural samples: Americans and Koreans. Using large, representative adult and adolescent samples from both cultures, we found that the American samples were associated with a higher proportion of items with gender differences than the Korean samples. The American adult sample produced gender differences on a higher proportion of items than did the American adolescent sample, but no such age difference was found between the Korean samples. Despite these differences between cultures and between age groups, content dimensions underlying items with gender differences were very similar across cultures and age groups, centering on stereotypical gender interests, behaviors, and emotions. PMID:23410238

Han, Kyunghee; Park, Hyung In; Weed, Nathan C; Lim, Jeeyoung; Johnson, Adam; Joles, Christopher

2013-01-01

43

Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p?=?0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p?=?0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination.

2014-01-01

44

Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

2012-01-01

45

Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in…

Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung

2012-01-01

46

Are Korean Adults Meeting the Recommendation for Physical Activity during Leisure Time?  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine if Korean adults meet their physical activity recommendations during their leisure time to promote a healthy living. [Subjects and Methods] The sample included South Korean adults, aged over 20, who were currently residing in K City, South Korea. The author used a quota sampling technique to select 1,000 samples. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 845 questionnaires were used to conduct a ?2 test. [Results] It was revealed by the questionnaire that there was a clear distinction in the categories of very high level activity (11.0%), high level activity (29.1%), acceptable level activity (12.9%), low level activity (9.7%), and inactive level of physical activity (38.3%) in Korean adults’ leisure time. [Conclusions] The most interesting finding was that more than half of Korean adults do reach the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of moderate activity, on three or more days a week for at least three months. The other interesting finding was that the questionnaire is a useful instrument suitable for analyzing the recommendations of physical activity, comprising frequency, intensity, time, and overall duration.

Cho, Min-Haeng

2014-01-01

47

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Thyroid Eye Disease among Korean Dysthyroid Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of thyroid eye disease among dysthyroid Korean patients and to analyze the relationship between demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease. Methods All dysthyroid patients who visited endocrinology clinics in 24 general hospitals in Korea during a chosen one-week period were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease variables were analyzed as risk factors using multivariable regression models to identify independent associations with thyroid eye disease. Results A total of 1,632 dysthyroid patients were included (1,301 females [79.7%] and 331 males [20.3%]). Two hundred eighty-three of these patients (17.3%) had thyroid eye disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, young age, Graves' disease, dermopathy, anti-thyroid medication treatment, and radioiodine treatment were independent risk factors for thyroid eye disease. Conclusions The lower prevalence of thyroid eye disease in dysthyroid Korean patients and the influence of gender on risk factors in this study are novel findings compared to studies performed involving Europeans. Although the risk factors for thyroid eye disease are understood in part, a more in-depth comparative study of gender and ethnic groups is needed to fully understand the biological significance of the demographic factors.

Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck

2013-01-01

48

Gender differences in three dimensional gait analysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The research hypothesis was that healthy adults would walk differently according to their gender when walked barefoot at their comfortable speed. The aim of this study was to prove the hypothesis in healthy Korean adults.Design. Between-gender statistical comparisons of the gait analysis data including spatiotemporal, three-dimensional joint kinematic and kinetic data.Background. There have been few attempts to identify the

S. H. Cho; J. M. Park; O. Y. Kwon

2004-01-01

49

Cultural Relevance of Adult Attachment: Rasch Modeling of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships in a Korean Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the cultural relevance of adult attachment within a Korean sample (N = 390) using Rasch rating scale modeling. The psychometric properties of scores from the Korean version of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships, comprised of two subscales of Anxiety (self) and Avoidance (other), were assessed. Results obtained from…

Lee, Young-Sun; Grossman, Jennifer; Krishnan, Anita

2008-01-01

50

ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

2007-01-01

51

Diabetes and Depressive Symptoms among Korean American Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Subjective Health Perceptions  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE In recognition of the impact of chronic diseases on mental health and the lack of research on Asian American subgroups, the present study examined subjective perceptions of health as a potential mediator in the association between diabetes and depressive symptoms in Korean American older adults. METHODS Multivariate analysis with data from 672 Korean American older adults in Florida explored the mediation model of health perceptions. RESULTS The presence of diabetes was associated with negative perceptions of health and elevated symptoms of depression. The proposed mediation model was also supported: negative perceptions of health served as an intervening step between diabetes and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The intervening role of health perceptions yields implications for developing health promotion interventions targeting older individuals with diabetes. Results suggest that even in the presence of chronic health conditions, mental well-being of older adults can be maintained by having optimistic beliefs and positive attitudes towards their own health.

Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Cho, Soyeon; Roh, Soonhee; Chiriboga, David A.

2012-01-01

52

The Prevalence of Os Acromiale in Korean Patients Visiting Shoulder Clinic  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of os acromiale has been documented to be between 1% and 15% and is known to be clinically associated with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tear. However, the prevalence of os acromiale in Korea has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of os acromiale in Korean patients who visited shoulder clinics and to investigate the correlations with rotator cuff tear. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the X-rays of patients visiting a shoulder clinic at a tertiary hospital in Korea from January 2011 to January 2012 to determine the frequency of os acromiale. X-ray findings were confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for patients who had these images available. MRI was also used to assess the status of the rotator cuff. The correlation between the presence of os acromiale either with gender, hand dominance or rotator cuff tear was analyzed statistically. Results A total of 2,946 shoulders from 1,568 patients were analyzed with X-rays. Thirteen cases out of 1,568 patients had an os acromiale; and there were five and eight cases of pre-acromiale and meso-acromiale, respectively. Thus, the prevalence of os acromiale in this study population was found to be 0.7 (7 cases per 1,000 patients). Bilaterality was found in two cases. Os acromiale was not more frequent according to gender (five males versus eight females, p = 0.525) and hand dominance was not associated with frequency of os acromiale (seven dominant arms versus six non-dominant arms, p = 0.631). A sub-analysis of shoulders with available MRIs (1,074 shoulders) revealed that there were two rotator cuff tears (40%) out of five cases of os acromiale, whereas 607 rotator cuff tears were observed (57%) among 1069 cases without os acromiale. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.656). Conclusions The identified prevalence of os acromiale in Korean patients who visited shoulder clinics is 0.7%, which is much lower as compared with the prevalence of general population from other ethnic groups. No correlation was observed between rotator cuff tears and os acromiale in this study population.

Kumar, Jayant; Park, Won Ha; Kim, Seung-Ho

2013-01-01

53

Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n?=?7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI?25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.63; 95% CI?=?0.45–0.89 for ?2 times/day vs. ?1 time/month; p for trend?=?0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR?=?0.83; 95% CI?=?0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.02, OR?=?0.78; 95% CI?=?0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend?=?0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

2014-01-01

54

Vitamin D deficiency in Korean children: prevalence, risk factors, and the relationship with parathyroid hormone levels  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as well as to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in Korean children. Methods Participants were 1,212 children aged 4 to 15 years, who visited Bundang CHA Medical Center (located at 37°N) between March 2012 and February 2013. Overweight was defined as body mass index?85th percentile. Participants were divided into 4 age groups and 2 seasonal groups. VDD was defined by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <20 ng/mL. Results The level of 25OHD was significantly lower in overweight group than in normal weight group (17.1±5.1 ng/mL vs. 19.1±6.1 ng/mL, P<0.001). Winter-spring season (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.45-5.77), older age group (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.36-1.88), and overweight (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.62-3.01) were independently related with VDD. The PTH levels were significantly higher in VDD group compared to vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency group (P<0.001). In normal weight children, 25OHD (?=-0.007, P<0.001) and ionized calcium (?=-0.594, P=0.007) were independently related with PTH, however, these associations were not significant in overweight children. Conclusion VDD is very common in Korean children and its prevalence increases in winter-spring season, in overweight children and in older age groups. Further investigation on the vitamin D and PTH metabolism according to adiposity is required.

Chung, In Hyuk; Kim, Hae Jung; Chung, Sochung

2014-01-01

55

Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure.

Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2013-01-01

56

Trends in Cardiovascular Health Metrics among Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background American Heart Association (AHA) defined 7 cardiovascular health metrics for the general population to improve cardiovascular health in 2010: not smoking; having normal blood pressure; being physically active; normal body mass index, blood glucose, and total cholesterol levels; and eating a healthy diet. To investigate trends in cardiovascular health metrics in Korea, we used data from the third and fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods We defined seven cardiovascular health metrics similar to the one defined by AHA but physical activity, body mass index, and healthy diet were properly redefined to be suited for the Korean population. We compared each cardiovascular health metric and calculated the sum of cardiovascular health metrics after dichotomizing each health metric to ideal (scored 1) and poor (scored 0). Results Health metric scores of smoking in males (P value for trend < 0.001), physical activity both in males and females (P-value for trend < 0.001 both), body mass index in females (P-value for trend = 0.030), and blood pressure both in males and females (P-value for trend < 0.001, both) were improved. On the other hand, health metric scores of healthy diet in males (P-value for trend = 0.002), and fasting blood glucose both in males and females (P-value for trend < 0.001 both) got worse. The total scores of seven health metrics were stationary. Conclusion Total scores were not changed but each metric showed various trends. A long-term study is necessary for analyzing exact trends.

Lee, Hae-Joon; Suh, Beomseok; Yoo, Tae-Gon; Lee, Haewon

2013-01-01

57

Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males  

PubMed Central

Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (?eGFR/yr). The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ?eGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8%) of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years), 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years), and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years). The median decrease in ?eGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ?eGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with <5.3% decrease in ?eGFR/yr (3.16% versus 0.00%; P = 0.049). The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decrease in ?eGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ?eGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

2014-01-01

58

Association between Urinary Bisphenol A and Waist Circumference in Korean Adults.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and food and beverage containers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between urinary concentrations of BPA and waist circumference in Korean adults. A total of 1,030 Korean adults (mean age, 44.3 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in the study on the integrated exposure to hazardous materials for safety control, conducted by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety from 2010 to 2012. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of at least 90 cm and 85 cm for men and women, respectively. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the urinary BPA concentration quartile. Waist circumference was significantly higher among subjects with a urinary BPA concentration in the highest quartile relative to those in the lowest quartile (p = 0.0071). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and body mass index, body fat, after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, subjects with urinary BPA concentrations in the fourth quartile were more likely to be obese compared to those with urinary BPA concentrations in the first quartile (odds ratio, 1.938; 95% CI: 1.314~2.857; p for trend = 0.0106). These findings provide evidence for a positive association between urinary BPA concentration and waist circumference in Korean adults. PMID:24795798

Ko, Ahra; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Park, Jae-Hong; Kang, Hui-Seung; Lee, Hee-Seok; Hong, Jin-Hwan

2014-03-01

59

Association between Urinary Bisphenol A and Waist Circumference in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and food and beverage containers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between urinary concentrations of BPA and waist circumference in Korean adults. A total of 1,030 Korean adults (mean age, 44.3 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in the study on the integrated exposure to hazardous materials for safety control, conducted by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety from 2010 to 2012. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of at least 90 cm and 85 cm for men and women, respectively. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the urinary BPA concentration quartile. Waist circumference was significantly higher among subjects with a urinary BPA concentration in the highest quartile relative to those in the lowest quartile (p = 0.0071). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and body mass index, body fat, after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, subjects with urinary BPA concentrations in the fourth quartile were more likely to be obese compared to those with urinary BPA concentrations in the first quartile (odds ratio, 1.938; 95% CI: 1.314~2.857; p for trend = 0.0106). These findings provide evidence for a positive association between urinary BPA concentration and waist circumference in Korean adults.

Ko, Ahra; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Park, Jae-Hong; Kang, Hui-Seung; Lee, Hee-Seok

2014-01-01

60

Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California  

PubMed Central

This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms.

Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong

2010-01-01

61

Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Adult Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Health Screening  

PubMed Central

Background This study was aimed to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the association between MS and its components with CKD in Korea. Methods We excluded diabetes to appreciate the real impact of MS and performed a cross-sectional study using the general health screening data of 10,253,085 (48.86±13.83 years, men 56.18%) participants (age, ?20 years) from the Korean National Health Screening 2011. CKD was defined as dipstick proteinuria ?1 or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results The prevalence of CKD was 6.15% (men, 5.37%; women, 7.15%). Further, 22.25% study population had MS (abdominal obesity, 27.98%; hypertriglyceridemia, 30.09%; low high-density cholesterol levels, 19.74%; high blood pressure, 43.45%; and high fasting glucose levels, 30.44%). Multivariate-adjusted analysis indicated that proteinuria risk increased in participants with MS (odds ratio [OR] 1.884, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.867–1.902, P<0.001). The presence of MS was associated with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR 1.364, 95% CI 1.355–1.373, P<0.001). MS individual components were also associated with an increased CKD risk. The strength of association between MS and the development of CKD increase as the number of components increased from 1 to 5. In sub-analysis by men and women, MS and its each components were a significant determinant for CKD. Conclusions MS and its individual components can predict the risk of prevalent CKD for men and women.

Kang, Yong Un; Kim, Ha Yeon; Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

2014-01-01

62

Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively. PMID:23714934

Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

2013-05-01

63

Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in adults aged 20-39 years.  

PubMed

Morningness-Eveningness (ME) can be defined by the difference in individual diurnal preference observed from general behavioral patterns including sleep habits. The Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) has been used for classifying ME types. We examined the reliability of a Korean version of the MEQ (Korean MEQ) and verified its validity by comparing responses on the Korean MEQ to objectively-recorded sleep-wake rhythms. After translating and back translating the MEQ from English into Korean, we examined the internal consistency of 19 items of the Korean MEQ in 91 subjects, and the test-retest reliability in 21 subjects who took the Korean MEQ twice, 4 weeks apart. The Korean MEQ was then administered to 1022 young adult subjects. A subset of 46 morning, neither, and evening type subjects took part in a validation study in which their rest-activity timing was collected by actigraphy for 7 days. Cosinor analyses on these data were done to obtain the acrophase and amplitude of the sleep-wake rhythm. Cronbach's alpha of the total scores from the Korean MEQ was 0.77, and the test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.90 (p?Korean MEQ score and reported sleep-wake timing among the entire cohort (p?Korean MEQ was verified by illustrating the difference in acrophases of the sleep-wake rhythm between the ME types in young adults. PMID:24467306

Lee, Jung Hie; Kim, Seong Jae; Lee, Se Yong; Jang, Kwang Ho; Kim, In Soo; Duffy, Jeanne F

2014-05-01

64

Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus Infections and Cervical Cytological Abnormalities among Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study of 134 sexually active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cytological abnormalities among Korean women with SLE. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, HPV testing and routine cervical cytologic examination was performed. HPV was typed using a hybrid method or the polymerase chain reaction. Data on 4,595 healthy women were used for comparison. SLE patients had greater prevalence of high-risk HPV infection (24.6% vs. 7.9%, P<0.001, odds ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 2.5-5.7) and of abnormal cervical cytology (16.4 vs. 2.8%, P<0.001, OR 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-7.8) compared with controls. SLE itself was identified as independent risk factors for high risk HPV infection among Korean women (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7) along with ?2 sexual partners (OR 8.5, 95% CI 1.2-61.6), and Pap smear abnormalities (OR 97.3, 95% CI 6.5-1,456.7). High-risk HPV infection and cervical cytological abnormalities were more common among Korean women with SLE than controls. SLE itself may be a risk factor for HPV infection among Korean women, suggesting the importance of close monitoring of HPV infections and abnormal Pap smears in SLE patients.

Lee, You-Hyun; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Sung-Hoon; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kang, Young-Mo; Nam, Eon-Jeong; Park, Won; Kwon, Seong-Ryul; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Yun-Jung; Suh, Chang-Hee; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Hur, Nam Wook

2010-01-01

65

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Three Latitudinal Regions of the Korean Peninsula  

PubMed Central

A large-scale survey was conducted to investigate the infection status of fresh water fishes with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by latitudinal levels of the Korean peninsula. A total of 4,071 freshwater fishes were collected from 3 regions, i.e., northern (Gangwon-do: 1,543 fish), middle (Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1,167 fish), and southern areas (Jeollanam-do, Ulsan-si, and Gyeongsangnam-do: 1,361 fish). Each fish was examined by the artificial digestion method from 2003 to 2010. In northern areas, only 11 (0.7%) fish of 2 species, Pungtungia herzi and Squalidus japonicus coreanus from Hantan-gang, Cheolwon-gun, Gangwon-do were infected with av. 2.6 CsMc. In middle areas, 149 (12.8%) fish were infected with av. 164 CsMc. In southern areas, 538 (39.5%) fish were infected with av. 159 CsMc. In the analysis of endemicity in 3 regions with an index fish, P. herzi, 9 (6.2%) of 146 P. herzi from northern areas were infected with av. 2.8 CsMc. In middle areas, 34 (31.8%) of 107 P. herzi were infected with av. 215 CsMc, and in southern areas, 158 (92.9%) of 170 P. herzi were infected with av. 409 CsMc. From these results, it has been confirmed that the infection status of fish with CsMc is obviously different among the 3 latitudinal regions of the Korean peninsula with higher prevalence and burden in southern regions.

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Eom, Keeseon; Seok, Won-Seok; Lee, Taejoon

2011-01-01

66

Effect of lifestyles on the blood mercury level in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is widely distributed in the environment and oral exposure is a main route in the general population. In this study, we estimated the dietary intake of Hg and its relationship with blood Hg levels in Korean adults. The study subjects were recruited from three different districts (rural: 189, coastal: 208 and urban: 184). We used a general questionnaire to collect information about demographic factors, lifestyles and diet. Dietary habits were studied using the 24-h recall method. The estimation of Hg intake was performed using the database of Hg contents in 128 Korean foods based on the previous studies. Blood Hg was analyzed using Direct Mercury Analyzer with the gold-amalgam method. Daily intake of Hg by diet was estimated at 13.57 ?g (0.22 ?g/kg body weight). The geometric mean Hg concentration in whole blood was 3.92 ?g/L. Blood Hg level and Hg intake by diet was higher in coastal areas than in urban or rural areas, respectively. Blood Hg level correlated with the intake of Hg consumed from diet. Seafood was highly responsible and account for 75.6% of total dietary Hg intake. In this study, blood Hg concentrations were found to be significantly affected by sex, age, individual lifestyles and especially the amount of seafood intake, which might play an important role in determining blood Hg levels in Korean adults. PMID:23155199

Kim, N-Y; Ahn, S-J; Ryu, D-Y; Choi, B-S; Kim, H; Yu, I-J; Park, J-D

2013-06-01

67

Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: A Q methodology approach  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. Methods The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents’ ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. Results The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented–self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented–self-recognition type, reflection-oriented–self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented–self-maintenance type. Conclusions The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings.

Kae Hwa, JO; Gyeong-Ju, AN; DOORENBOS, Ardith Z.

2013-01-01

68

Prevalence of chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia syndrome: a Korean hospital-based study.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to estimate the point prevalence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in a primary care center of a hospital in Korea. CWP was defined as pain lasting more than 3 months involving all the classified pain sites (axial, left and right, above and below waist). FMS was diagnosed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and also by clinical judgment of a physician. All 1,077 subjects were classified into three groups as no chronic pain (NCP), chronic regional pain (CRP), and CWP. CRP was defined as chronic pain with the exception of CWP. The point prevalence of CWP was 6.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-12.8) and the point prevalence of FMS was 1.7% (95% CI 0.0-4.9) by ACR criteria and 2.3% (95% CI 0.0-6.1) by clinical judgment, respectively. We also analyzed the differential demographic characteristics among patients with NCP, CRP, and CWP. When compared to NCP, CWP was significantly associated with the female gender after adjusting for other variables (odds ratio 4.2; 95% CI 1.4-12.4, P = 0.009). Compared to NCP, CWP patients had lower levels of education (P = 0.018), a lower likelihood of a professional occupation (P = 0.014), infrequent alcohol intake (P = 0.014) and a lower proportion of current smokers (P = 0.003) based on a univariable analysis. In this Korean hospital-based study, CWP patients were common and had different demographic characteristics and life habits from NCP. PMID:22057141

Kim, Cheolhwan; Kim, Hyejin; Kim, Jongkwan

2012-11-01

69

Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future.

Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

2014-01-01

70

Use of Senior Center and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the use of senior center and health-related quality of life in Korean older adults. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted to two types of older adults who lived in Busan, Korea: 154 older adults who used a senior center and 137 older adults who did not use a senior center. The Korean version of short-form 36-item health survey was administered to assess the health-related quality of life. Demographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire. These were gender, age, family status, marital status, education, monthly income, present illness, body mass index and physical activity. Results The 8-domain scales of physical function and role-physical were significantly higher in the users of the senior center compared with the non-users (F=4.87, p=0.027 and F=7.02, p=0.009, respectively). The 8-domain scales of vitality was also significantly higher in the users of the senior center compared with the non-users (F=7.48, p=0.007). Conclusions The present study showed that the users of the senior center have higher physical function, role-physical and vitality compared with the non-users. These findings suggest that although the results are unable to specify causal relationships using the senior center may lead to some improvement in health-related quality of life.

Kim, Hyun-Shik; Harada, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Masashi; Lee, Eun-A; Park, Jin-Kee

2011-01-01

71

Negative effects of alcohol consumption and tobacco use on bone formation markers in young Korean adult males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in young Korean adult males. A total of 463 healthy adult males 20 to 26 years of age participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated for anthropometric characteristics, amount of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and nutrient

Mi-Hyun Kim; Yoon-Sok Chung; Chung-Ja Sung

2007-01-01

72

Low cholesterol is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases: a dynamic cohort study in Korean adults.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the association of single serum total cholesterol (TC) measurement with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) deaths in Korean adults. The study subjects were taken from the multi-site collaborative dynamic prospective cohort for epidemiologic investigation on cancer risk in residents nearby nuclear power plants in Korea. A total of 12,740 adults aged 40 to 69 yr who underwent a mass screening examination were followed up from 1993 to 2008. Occurring CVD deaths were confirmed by the death certificates in the National Statistical Office, Korea. Groups with the lowest group having TC < 160 mg/dL as well as the highest group having >= 240 mg/dL were associated with higher CVD mortality in Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusting for age, sex, smoking and drinking status, body mass index, level of blood pressure, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The distribution of adjusted hazard ratios showed the U-shaped curve. Based on the results of this study, caution should be taken in prescribing statins for primary prevention among people at low cardiovascular risk in Korean adults. PMID:22219615

Bae, Jong-Myon; Yang, Yeong-Ja; Li, Zhong-Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

2012-01-01

73

Gender differences in factors influencing sexual satisfaction in Korean older adults.  

PubMed

This study investigates the sex lives of Korean older adults (i.e., those over 60 years) and attempts to identify gender-related factors influencing sexual satisfaction. It used data from the 2008 Korean National Survey on Older Adults conducted by the Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Families. Of the 15,146 individuals who had taken part in the 2008 study, secondary analysis was conducted with data from 3360 persons who had spouses and were willing to respond to sex-related questions in a face-to-face interview. The mean age of male and female subjects was 67.34 and 66.86 years respectively. In the male subjects, sexual frequency, followed by marital satisfaction and cognitive function, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These three variables together accounted for 21% of the male subjects' sexual satisfaction. In the female subjects, marital satisfaction, followed by frequency of sexual activity, absence of depressive symptoms, age, and length of cohabitation with spouse, had the greatest effect on sexual satisfaction. These five variables together explained 11% of their sexual satisfaction. This study indicates that sexual frequency and physical factors have the most important effects on the sex lives of older men, while older women value psychosocial and relational factors more highly. Therefore, interventions aiming to improve sexual satisfaction in older adults should take gender differences into account. PMID:23153985

Kim, Oksoo; Jeon, Hae Ok

2013-01-01

74

Association between kimchi intake and asthma in Korean adults: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2011).  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19-64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40-79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80-119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534-0.987), 0.506 (0.348-0.736), and 0.678 (0.502-0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri; Chang, Namsoo

2014-01-01

75

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with alanine aminotransferase in clozapine-treated Korean patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Widely ranging prevalence rates for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients taking clozapine have been reported on the basis of various criteria, and most studies have been carried out in non-Asian countries. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of MetS in Korean patients using three commonly applied criteria with two waist-circumference cutoff values. The indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) was estimated using data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES, 2007) to compare the prevalence of MetS in patients with that in the general population. In addition, we also examined whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase levels serve as biochemical markers for the identification of MetS. We reviewed the electromedical records of patients with schizophrenia who had taken clozapine as the sole antipsychotic for 3 months or more. The prevalence of MetS ranged from 34.5 to 46.9%, and the ISPR ranged from 2.4 to 2.8, given the three definitions of MetS and the two waist-circumference cutoff points for women. The ISPR for MetS among those aged 18-30 years was the highest and decreased with age in both men and women. After adjusting for age, patients with normal serum ALT levels who were in the top third were significantly more likely to have MetS compared with those who were in the bottom third. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum ALT levels and use of antidepressants were significantly related to the presence of MetS. Korean patients with schizophrenia who were receiving clozapine as the sole antipsychotic showed a high prevalence of MetS. Although we found substantial differences in the prevalence according to criteria, the ISPR indicated significantly higher rates of MetS in this group than in the general population. In the general population, younger patients had a much higher risk for MetS than older patients. Elevated levels of serum ALT that were in the normal range were associated with the presence of MetS, which suggests the possibility of using serum ALT level as an early indicator for MetS in patients treated with clozapine. PMID:23211493

Lee, N Y; Roh, M S; Kim, S H; Jung, D C; Yu, H Y; Sung, K H; Chung, I W; Youn, T; Kang, U G; Ahn, Y M; Kim, Y S

2013-03-01

76

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population.

2013-01-01

77

Prevalence of body dissatisfaction among a United States adult sample.  

PubMed

Body dissatisfaction (BD) is a primary determinant of eating disorders and has been linked to chronic disease via decreased likelihood of cancer screening self-exams and smoking cessation. Yet, there are few recent estimates of the prevalence of BD among United States adults. Using an internet-based, opt-in, cross-sectional survey, United States adults (N=1893) completed assessments of demographic variables, body areas satisfaction, appearance evaluation, fitness evaluation, health evaluation, and overweight preoccupation. Results revealed that the range of BD is 13.4%-31.8% among women and 9.0%-28.4% among men. Compared to previous assessments of prevalence (1973, 1986, 1995, 1997), the prevalence of BD among United States adults may have plateaued or declined over time. PMID:24411768

Fallon, Elizabeth A; Harris, Brandonn S; Johnson, Paige

2014-01-01

78

Meal skipping relates to food choice, understanding of nutrition labeling, and prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P < 0.001), whereas the daily intake frequency of soft drinks and instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children. PMID:22977687

Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Na-Rae; Lee, Jung-Sug; Choi, Young-Sun; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chung, Hae Rang; Kwon, Sehyug; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Soon-Kyu; Kang, Myung-Hee

2012-08-01

79

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Working Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria among working East African adults. Design. This cross-sectional study of 1,935 individuals (1,171 men and 764 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization. Results. According to ATP III and IDF definitions, the overall prevalence of MetS was 12.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Using ATP III criteria, the prevalence of MetS was 10.0% in men and 16.2% in women. Application of the IDF criteria resulted in a MetS prevalence of 14.0% in men and 24.0% in women. The most common MetS components among women were reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (23.2%) and abdominal obesity (19.6%); whilst reduced HDL-C concentrations (23.4%) and high blood pressure (21.8%) were most common among men. Conclusion. MetS and its individual components are prevalent among an apparently healthy working population in Ethiopia. These findings indicate the need for evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs; and more robust efforts directed towards the screening, diagnosis and management of MetS and its components among Ethiopian adults.

Tran, A.; Gelaye, B.; Girma, B.; Lemma, S.; Berhane, Y.; Bekele, T.; Khali, A.; Williams, M. A.

2011-01-01

80

The Prevalence of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Eleven Year-Old Korean Adolescents: A 3 Year Epidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose School screening allows for early detection and early treatment of scoliosis, with the purpose of reducing the number of patients requiring surgical treatment. Children between 10 and 14 years old are considered as good candidates for school screening tests of scoliosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the epidemiological findings of idiopathic scoliosis in 11-year-old Korean adolescents. Materials and Methods A total of 37856 11-year-old adolescents were screened for scoliosis. There were 17110 girls and 20746 boys. Adolescents who were abnormal by Moiré topography were subsequently assessed by standardized clinical and radiological examinations. A scoliotic curve was defined as 10° or more. Results The prevalence of scoliosis was 0.19% and most of the curves were small (10° to 19°). The ratio of boys to girls was 1:5.5 overall. Sixty adolescents (84.5%) exhibited single curvature. Thoracolumbar curves were the most common type of curve identified, followed by thoracic and lumbar curves. Conclusion The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis among 11-year-old Korean adolescents was 0.19%.

Lee, Jin-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Han Jo; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Nam, Ji Hoon; Jung, Jae Kyun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

2014-01-01

81

The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults. Methods Nine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men) in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography. Results One hundred forty-six subjects (15.4%) showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7%) had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC) value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women). Conclusion In our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.

Yu, Jung-Hee; Yim, Seo Hyoung; Yu, Su Hyeon; Lee, Ji Yong; Kim, Jong Dae; Seo, Mi Hae; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se-Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

2013-01-01

82

Early Abnormalities of Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Middle-Aged Korean Adults With Prehypertension: The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrehypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are few population-based studies on the changes of cardiovascular structure and function that characterize prehypertension. The aim of this study was to assess whether prehypertension is associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular structure and function in the general Korean population.MethodsWe analyzed the cross-sectional relationships between prehypertension and cardiovascular structure and

Seong Hwan Kim; Goo-Yeong Cho; Inkyung Baik; Sang Yup Lim; Cheol Ung Choi; Hong Euy Lim; Eung Ju Kim; Chang Gyu Park; Juri Park; Jinyoung Kim; Chol Shin

2011-01-01

83

Release bursts in English word-final stops: A longitudinal study of Korean adults' and children's production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stops at the end of Korean words are always unreleased. The question addressed here was whether Korean adults and children living in the U.S. can learn to release stops at the end of English words. Four groups of 18 native Koreans (NK) who differed according to age (adult versus child) and length of residence in the U.S. (3 vs 5 years at T1) participated. Two native English (NE) groups served as age-matched controls. Production data were collected at two times (T1, T2) separated by one year. English words ending in /t/ and /k/ were then examined in perception experiments (Exp. 1, Exp. 2). NE-speaking judges decided whether the final stop has a release burst or not. Exp. 1 showed that NE talkers released /t/ more often than NK talkers did. The effect of time was also significant. Talkers produced release bursts more often at T2 than at T1. Exp. 2 showed that, unlike Exp. 1, there were significant differences between NK adults and children. While NK children did not differ from NE children, NK adults released the final /k/ much less often than NE adults did. Possible reasons for why the expected children's advantage was seen for /k/, but not for /t/, will be discussed. [Work supported by NIH.

Tsukada, Kimiko; Mack, Molly; Sung, Hyekyung; Birdsong, David; Bialystok, Ellen

2002-05-01

84

Prevalence and Outcomes of Frailty in Korean Elderly Population: Comparisons of a Multidimensional Frailty Index with Two Phenotype Models  

PubMed Central

Background Frailty is related to adverse outcomes in the elderly. However, current status and clinical significance of frailty have not been evaluated for the Korean elderly population. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of established frailty criteria for community-dwelling Korean elderly. We also tried to develop and validate a new frailty index based on a multidimensional model. Methods We studied 693 participants of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). We developed a new frailty index (KLoSHA Frailty Index, KFI) and compared predictability of it with the established frailty indexes from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF). Mortality, hospitalization, and functional decline were evaluated. Results The prevalence of frailty was 9.2% (SOF index), 13.2% (CHS index), and 15.6% (KFI). The criteria from CHS and KFI correlated with each other, but SOF did not correlate with KFI. During the follow-up period (5.6±0.9 years), 97 participants (14.0%) died. Frailty defined by KFI predicted mortality better than CHS index (c-index: 0.713 and 0.596, respectively; p<0.001, better for KFI). In contrast, frailty by SOF index was not related to mortality. The KFI showed better predictability for following functional decline than CHS index (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.937 for KFI and 0.704 for CHS index, p?=?0.001). However, the SOF index could not predict subsequent functional decline. Frailty by the KFI (OR?=?2.13, 95% CI 1.04–4.35) and CHS index (OR?=?2.24, 95% CI 1.05–4.76) were associated with hospitalization. In contrast, frailty by the SOF index was not correlated with hospitalization (OR?=?1.43, 95% CI 0.68–3.01). Conclusion Prevalence of frailty was higher in Korea compared to previous studies in other countries. A novel frailty index (KFI), which includes domains of comprehensive geriatric assessment, is a valid criterion for the evaluation and prediction of frailty in the Korean elderly population.

Jung, Hee-Won; Kim, Sun-Wook; Ahn, Soyeon; Lim, Jae-Young; Han, Ji-Won; Kim, Tae-Hui; Kim, Ki-Woong; Kim, Kwang-il; Kim, Cheol-Ho

2014-01-01

85

Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Young Adult Indian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in our society with dyslipidemia contributing significantly to atherosclerosis. Thus measurement of plasma lipids would help in identifying people at risk for CVD. The goal of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of Dyslipidemia among young adult population in urban India. Material and Methods : The study

Tester F Ashavaid

86

The leukoaraiosis is more prevalent in the large artery atherosclerosis stroke subtype among Korean patients with ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have suggested that the specific stroke subtype may influence the presence of leukoaraiosis in patients with ischemic stroke. We investigated the association between stroke subtype and leukoaraiosis in Korean patients with ischemic stroke by MRI. Methods There were 594 patients included in this study that were classified as large artery disease, lacune and cardioembolic stroke. For large-artery disease, the analysis focused on the intracranial or extracranial location of the stenosis, and the multiplicity of the stenotic lesions. Leukoaraiosis grading was performed according to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Results There was a significant association between leukoaraiosis and the stroke subtypes; the large-artery-disease group had a higher prevalence of leukoaraiosis than did the other groups (55.4% in the large-artery-disease group, 30.3% in the lacunar group and 14.3% in the cardioembolic group, P = 0.016 by chi-square test). On the multivariate linear regression analysis, age, the presence of hypertension, previous stroke and stroke subtype were independently associated with the presence of leukoaraiosis. In the sub analysis of the large-artery-disease group, the leukoaraiosis had a tendency to be more prevalent in the mixed and intracranial stenosis group than did the extracranial stenosis group (45.5% in the mixed group, 40.3% in the intracranial group and 26.9% in the extracranial group, P = 0.08 by chi-square test). Conclusion The association of leukoaraiosis with large-artery disease in this study might be due to the relatively high prevalence of intracranial occlusive lesions in Korean stroke patients compared to other ethnic groups.

Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Joong-Seok; Lee, Kwang-Soo; An, Jae-Young; Kim, Woojun; Kim, Yeong-In; Kim, Bum-Soo; Jung, So-Lyung

2008-01-01

87

High prevalence of low bone mass and associated factors in Korean HIV-positive male patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Low bone mass is prevalent in HIV-positive patients. However, compared to Western countries, less is known about HIV-associated osteopenia in Asian populations. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey in Seoul National University Hospital from December 2011 to May 2012. We measured bone mineral density using central dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, with consent, in male HIV-positive patients, aged 40 years and older. Diagnosis of low bone mass was made using International Society for Clinical Densitometry Z-score criteria in the 40–49 years age group and World Health Organization T-score criteria in the >50-year age group. The data were compared with those of a community-based cohort in Korea. Results Eighty-four HIV-positive male patients were included in this study. Median age was 49 (interquartile range [IQR], 45–56) years, and median body mass index (BMI) was 22.6 (IQR, 20.9–24.4). Viral suppression was achieved in 75 (89.3%) patients and median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 71 (IQR, 36–120) months. The overall prevalence of low bone mass was 16.7% in the 40–49 years age group and 54.8% in the>50 years age group. Our cohort had significantly lower bone mass at the femur neck and total hip than HIV-negative Koreans in the 40–49 years age group. Low bone mass was significantly associated with low BMI, and a high level of serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, but was not associated with antiretroviral regimen or duration of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Low bone mass is prevalent in Korean HIV-positive males undergoing antiretroviral therapy, and may be associated with increased bone resorption.

Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Park, Wan Beom; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Bang, Ji Hwan; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-don; Kim, Nam Joong

2014-01-01

88

Optimal hemoglobin A1C Cutoff Value for Diagnosing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Commonly used tests for the diagnosis of diabetes include measurements of fasting plasma glucose levels and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Recently, a hemoglobin A1C (A1C) level of 6.5% has been included as a criterion for diabetes diagnosis by the American Diabetes Association. We aimed to determine appropriate A1C cutoff values for identifying patients with diabetes or prediabetes, including impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose among Korean adults and to determine whether these cutoffs vary according to age. We recruited 4616 adults without a history of diabetes from 10 university hospitals. A 75-g OGTT and A1C sampling were performed in all examinees. Pointwise area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the A1C cutoff. An A1C threshold of 6.1% proved to be the optimal limit for diagnosing diabetes, with 63.8% sensitivity and 88.1% specificity. The cutoff value increased with age (5.9% in 18-39 years, 6.2% in 40-64 years, and 6.4% in older than 65 years) and were similar for men and women. An A1C cutoff of 5.7% had reasonable sensitivity (48.6%) and specificity (65.7%) for the identification of prediabetes. Further prospective studies should be carried out to determine whether the application of age-specific diagnostic criteria is appropriate. PMID:23541039

Lee, Hyejin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sin-Gon; Moon, Sungdae; Park, Ie-Byung; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Chung, Choon-Hee; Kim, Byung-Joon; Ku, Bon-Jeong

2013-02-01

89

Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen’s (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs.

Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A.; Okazaki, Sumie

2009-01-01

90

Prevalence of asthma in adults in Busselton, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate whether the prevalence of asthma in adults increased over a nine year interval. DESIGN--Serial cross sectional studies of the population with a protocol that included both subjective and objective measurements. SETTING--Busselton, Western Australia. SUBJECTS--A random sample of 553 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1981, and of 1028 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Respiratory symptoms measured

J. K. Peat; M. Haby; J. Spijker; G. Berry; A. J. Woolcock

1992-01-01

91

Parity as a correlate of adult female urinary incontinence prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to investigate the possible association between parity, as indicated by the number of childbirths, and prevalence of urinary incontinence in an adult female population sample. DESIGN AND SETTING--A sample of 3114 women aged 30-59 years was selected at random from the population of Aarhus, Denmark, and mailed a self administered questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among

A Foldspang; S Mommsen; G W Lam; L Elving

1992-01-01

92

Unexpectedly low prevalence rates of IBS among adult Israeli Jews.  

PubMed

The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are common functional gastrointestinal disorders. The prevalence of IBS using Rome II criteria is generally lower than with previous criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and other FBDs in the adult Israeli Jewish population, which has not been surveyed to date. A telephone survey was conducted on a representative sample of the study population provided by the Israel Ministry of the Interior. IBS and other FBDs were diagnosed by Rome II criteria. The study population was 981 individuals and the overall response rate was 54%. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. In all, 2.9% had IBS (females: 3.7%, males: 1.8%, P = 0.08). The rate increased to 4.1% when the Rome II diagnostic criteria were amended to include some chronic alternators who are not picked up by the original scoring system. Approximately 26% of the respondents had a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (females: 32.1%, males: 17.7%, P < 0.0001). Prevalence rates for IBS among Israeli Jewish adults are lower than rates reported from most countries, despite the high level of stress resulting from Israel's geopolitical circumstances. Possible reasons for this low prevalence are discussed. PMID:15787941

Sperber, A D; Shvartzman, P; Friger, M; Fich, A

2005-04-01

93

Effect of Probiotics on Symptoms in Korean Adults with Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a troublesome disease. Some strains of probiotics reportedly exert remarkable immunomodulatory effects, and so we designed a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study to assess their effects in Korean adults with IBS. Methods IBS patients who met Rome III criteria were randomly assigned to receive composite probiotics or placebo. A total of 20 billion lyophilized bacteria were administered twice daily for 8 weeks. Primary outcome variables were symptom scores consisting of abdominal pain, flatulence, defecation discomfort, and sum of symptom scores. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify the severity. Secondary outcome variables consisted of the quality of life and bowel habits including defecation frequency and stool form. Results Thirty-six and 34 patients were randomized to the probiotics and placebo groups, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis showed significant reductions in pain after 8 weeks of treatment: -31.9 and -17.7 in the probiotics and placebo groups, respectively (p=0.045). The reductions in abdominal pain, defecation discomfort, and sum of scores were more significant in 58 patients with a score of at least 3 on the baseline stool-form scale. Conclusions Composite probiotics containing Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4, Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031, and other species are safe and effective, especially in patients who excrete normal or loose stools.

Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Im, Jong Pil; Ji, Geun Eog; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

2009-01-01

94

Soft-tissue thickness of South Korean adults with normal facial profiles  

PubMed Central

Objective To standardize the facial soft-tissue characteristics of South Korean adults according to gender by measuring the soft-tissue thickness of young men and women with normal facial profiles by using three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models. Methods Computed tomographic images of 22 men aged 20 - 27 years and 18 women aged 20 - 26 years with normal facial profiles were obtained. The hard and soft tissues were three-dimensionally reconstructed by using Mimics software. The soft-tissue thickness was measured from the underlying bony surface at bilateral (frontal eminence, supraorbital, suborbital, inferior malar, lateral orbit, zygomatic arch, supraglenoid, gonion, supraM2, occlusal line, and subM2) and midline (supraglabella, glabella, nasion, rhinion, mid-philtrum, supradentale, infradentale, supramentale, mental eminence, and menton) landmarks. Results The men showed significantly thicker soft tissue at the supraglabella, nasion, rhinion, mid-philtrum, supradentale, and supraglenoid points. In the women, the soft tissue was significantly thicker at the lateral orbit, inferior malar, and gonion points. Conclusions The soft-tissue thickness in different facial areas varies according to gender. Orthodontists should use a different therapeutic approach for each gender.

2013-01-01

95

Health Conditions Sensitive to Retirement and Job Loss Among Korean Middle-aged and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to examine the association between health condition and leaving the labor market among middle-aged and older adults in South Korea. Methods Data was obtained from individuals aged 45 years and older participating in the 2006 and 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We used various health measures including chronic diseases, comorbidities, traffic accident injuries, disabilit of instrumental activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health. The odds ratios of job loss, and retirement, versus employment were calculated using multinomial logistic regression by each health measure. Results In our cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, health problems related to physical disabilities had the greatest effect on leaving the worksite. A shift in health condition from good to poor in a short period was a predictor of increased risk of unemployment but a persistent pattern of health problems was not associated with unemployment. Women with health problems showed a high probability of retirement, whereas among men, health problems instantly the possibility of both job loss and retirement. Conclusions Health problems of middle aged and older workers were crucial risk factors for retirement and involuntarily job loss. Especially functional defect and recent health problems strongly and instanty affected employment status.

Park, Susan; Cho, Sung-Il

2012-01-01

96

Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest.

Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

2013-01-01

97

Location and morphometry of the thyroid isthmus in adult Korean cadavers.  

PubMed

The thyroid isthmus has different measurements in its width, height, and thickness, and its location with respect to the tracheal rings has been inconsistent, among the anatomical literature. This study was performed to clarify the location and morphometric characteristics of the thyroid isthmus. One hundred thyroid isthmuses of adult Korean cadavers (gender 58 males and 42 females, mean age 62.9 years, range 19-94 years) were used for this study. The distances from the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage to the superior and inferior margins of the isthmus were 4.9 ± 3.7 and 20.8 ± 5.8 mm, respectively. The width, height, and thickness of the thyroid isthmus were 11.1 ± 6.2, 15.9 ± 5.8 and 3.4 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. The thyroid isthmus was located on the 2nd to 4th, 1st to 3rd, and 1st to 4th tracheal rings, in 22, 18 and 18 % of the specimens, respectively. These results are expected to further the current knowledge of the location and morphometry of the thyroid isthmus and provide helpful information for surgical procedures in this region. PMID:23818140

Won, Hyung-Sun; Han, Seung-Ho; Oh, Chang-Seok; Chung, In-Hyuk; Won, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jung-Han

2013-09-01

98

Morphometric Study of the Korean Adult Pituitary Glands and the Diaphragma Sellae  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the morphometric characteristics of the pituitary gland and diaphragma sellae in Korean adults. Methods Using the 33 formaline fixed adult cadavers (23 male, 10 female), the measurements were taken at the diaphragma sellae and pituitary gland. The authors investigated the relationship between dura and structures surrounding pituitary gland, morphometric aspects of pituitary gland and stalk, and morphometric aspect of central opening of diaphragma sellae. Results The boundary between the lateral surface of pituitary gland and the medial wall of cavernous sinus was formed by the thin dural layer and pituitary capsule. The pituitary capsule adherent tightly to the pituitary gland was observed to continue from the diaphragma sellae. Mean width, length, and height of the pituitary gland were 14.3 ± 2.1, 7.9 ± 1.3, and 6.0 ± 0.9 mm in anterior lobes, and 8.7 ± 1.7, 2.9 ± 1.1, and 5.8 ± 1.0 mm in posterior lobes, respectively. Although all dimensions of anterior lobe in female were slightly larger than those in male, statistical significance was noted in only longitudinal dimension. The ratio of posterior lobe to the whole length of pituitary gland was about 27%. The mean thickness of pituitary stalk was 2 mm. The diaphragmal opening was 5 mm or more in 26 (78.8%) of 33 specimen. The opening was round in 60.6% of the specimen, and elliptical oriented in an anterior-posterior or transverse direction in 39.4%. Conclusion These results provide the safe anatomical knowledge during the transsphenoidal surgery and may be helpful to access the possibility of the development of empty sella syndrome.

Ju, Kyo-Sung; Park, Hyung-Ki; Chang, Jae-Chil; Choi, Soon-Kwan; Sim, Ki-Bum

2010-01-01

99

Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI<18.5 kg/m2. Results Of the total sample, 19.5% of males and 10.1% of females were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2). The wealth index showed that 30.9% of the adult population with low a BMI belongs to the poorest 20% of the households while only 9.6% comprised of the richest 20% of the households. Results from logistic regression analysis indicated that both adult men and women who had no education and belonged to the low socioeconomic group had a statistically significant association with low BMI. Among the female adult population, being young and not having watched TV at least once a week were significantly associated with low BMI. For the male adult population, being unmarried was significantly associated with low BMI. Conclusions Programme interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status of adults can use these findings to make appropriate policy, to establish baselines and study nutritional changes over time and its covariates.

Letamo, Gobopamang; Navaneetham, Kannan

2014-01-01

100

Prevalence of dietary supplement use in Korean children and adolescents: insights from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents and to examine the related factors associated with DS use from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total 6,131 participants aged between 2 and 18 yr were included in the analysis. We estimated the prevalence of DS use mainly from the DS questionnaire data of the Nutrition Survey. Reported supplements were classified according to the Health Functional Food Code. We also assessed the relationship between DS use and anthropometry, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Approximately 34% of Korean children and adolescent was taking DS. Younger age (P = 0.003), higher household income (P < 0.001), presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.05), regular meal consumption (P = 0.002), frequent snack consumption (P = 0.001), and normal body mass index rather than overweight (P = 0.10) or obesity (P = 0.03) were associated with the DS use after adjustment for related factors. Vitamin/mineral supplements (343.5/10(3) persons) were the most commonly taken DS in Korean children and adolescents, followed by Omega-3 (28.8), ginseng (18.3), colostrums (14.1) and chlorella/spirulina (10.0). In conclusion, DS use is common as much as in 34% of Korean children and adolescents and is associated with age, household income level, chronic diseases, meal regularity, and obesity status. PMID:22563216

Yoon, Ji Ye; Park, Hyun Ah; Kang, Jae Heon; Kim, Kyung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Park, Jin Joo; Lee, Ran; Lee, Hyun Hye

2012-05-01

101

Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Korean Children and Adolescents: Insights from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents and to examine the related factors associated with DS use from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total 6,131 participants aged between 2 and 18 yr were included in the analysis. We estimated the prevalence of DS use mainly from the DS questionnaire data of the Nutrition Survey. Reported supplements were classified according to the Health Functional Food Code. We also assessed the relationship between DS use and anthropometry, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Approximately 34% of Korean children and adolescent was taking DS. Younger age (P = 0.003), higher household income (P < 0.001), presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.05), regular meal consumption (P = 0.002), frequent snack consumption (P = 0.001), and normal body mass index rather than overweight (P = 0.10) or obesity (P = 0.03) were associated with the DS use after adjustment for related factors. Vitamin/mineral supplements (343.5/103 persons) were the most commonly taken DS in Korean children and adolescents, followed by Omega-3 (28.8), ginseng (18.3), colostrums (14.1) and chlorella/spirulina (10.0). In conclusion, DS use is common as much as in 34% of Korean children and adolescents and is associated with age, household income level, chronic diseases, meal regularity, and obesity status.

Yoon, Ji Ye; Kang, Jae Heon; Kim, Kyung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Park, Jin Joo; Lee, Ran; Lee, Hyun Hye

2012-01-01

102

Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). PMID:24462432

Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

2014-01-01

103

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Sri Lankan adults.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity, and the underlying socio-demographic correlates among Sri Lankan adults. Data were from 4532 adults aged ?18 years randomly selected for a national level study on diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. The mean (95% confidence interval) BMI and WC were 21.1 kg m(-2) (20.9-21.3), 22.3 kg m(-2) (22.1-22.4) and 78.0 cm (77.5-78.6) and 77.5 cm (77.0-78.0) for males and females, respectively. According to the proposed World Health Organization cut-off values for Asians, the percentage of Sri Lankan adults in the overweight, obese and centrally obese categories were 25.2%, 9.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Based on the cut-offs for Caucasians, these were 16.8%, 3.7% and 10.8%. Our findings were compatible with prevalence of obesity in regional countries. In addition, female sex, urban living, higher education, higher income and being in the middle age were shown to be associated with overweight and obesity in Sri Lankans. In conclusion, we have documented a relatively high prevalence of overweight and obesity, particularly, abdominal obesity among adults in Sri Lanka which is a middle-income country. Urgent public health interventions are needed to control the problem at an early stage. PMID:20406417

Katulanda, P; Jayawardena, M A R; Sheriff, M H R; Constantine, G R; Matthews, D R

2010-11-01

104

A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.

Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

2011-01-01

105

Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes among Ethiopian Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among members of an Ethiopian occupational cohort; and to examine the proportion of adults who were aware of their conditions. Methods A total of 2,153 of subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach for non-communicable diseases was used to collect socio-demographic data, blood pressure measures and blood samples from participants. Prevalence estimates for hypertension and diabetes were determined separately. The 95% confidence intervals for prevalence estimates were also determined. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 19.1% (95%CI: 17.1–20.8) and 22% (95%CI: 20.2–23.8) and 14.9% (95%CI: 13.4–16.4) among men and women respectively. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 6.5%(95%CI: 5.4–7.6) and 6.4%(95%CI: 5.0–7.8) and 6.6%(95%CI: 4.8–8.4) among men and women correspondingly. Notably, 15% of hypertensives reported never having had their blood pressure checked prior to the present study examination. Approximately 45% of participants who had their blood pressure checked were never diagnosed with hypertension, but were found to be hypertensive in our study. Approximately 27% of newly diagnosed diabetics (during this study) reported never having a previous blood glucose test. Among those who had their blood glucose assessed prior to this study, 17.4% were found to have diabetes but were never diagnosed. Conclusion The high prevalence of hypertension and diabetes reported in our study confirms findings from other Sub Saharan Africa countries, and extends the literature to urban dwelling Ethiopians where non-communicable diseases are emerging as a major public health concern.

Nshisso, Lemba D.; Reese, Angela; Gelaye, Bizu; Lemma, Sebelewengel; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A.

2012-01-01

106

What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

2005-01-01

107

Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ?40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of???40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ?50 (OR?=?3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR?=?1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR?=?1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR?=?2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR?=?1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI???30 Kg/meter squared (OR?=?2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions.

2014-01-01

108

Association between urinary levels of bisphenol-A and estrogen metabolism in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Bisphenol-A (BPA) possesses estrogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo as an endocrine disrupting chemical. Humans experience a long-term and cumulative exposure to BPA. BPA was detectable in 97.3% of 1904 urine specimens from Korean adults. We investigated urinary estrogen concentrations in subjects with low and high BPA concentrations and its possible association with estrogen metabolism. Urine samples were collected from a high BPA concentration group (BPA-H; n=100, 11.05 ± 20.47 ?g/g creatinine) and a low BPA concentration group (BPA-L; n=100, 0.70 ± 0.22 ?g/g creatinine) from Korea Biomonitoring Program of Hazardous Materials Survey 2009-2010. Urinary estrogens were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted, and then derivatized for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estrogen levels were higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group. Concentrations of estrone, 17?-estradiol, and their hydroxylated metabolites in both men and women were significantly higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group (p<0.04). Furthermore, in the BPA-H group, estrogen metabolism to 4-hydroxy-estrone and 4-hydroxy-17?-estradiol was more active than that to 2-hydroxy-estrone and 2-hydroxy-17?-estradiol. Although single measurement and/or single spot urine samples limit the measurement of long-term exposure to BPA, we found significant differences of estrogen metabolism in the BPA-H and the BPA-L groups. The increase of hydroxyestrogens, especially 4-hydroxyestrogens, can be an important factor resulting negative effects of prolonged exposure to BPA. PMID:23954212

Kim, Eun Jee; Lee, Dongho; Chung, Bong Chul; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Jeongae

2014-02-01

109

Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.  

PubMed

Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n?=?5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals. PMID:23394202

Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

2013-12-01

110

Prevalence of communication disorders in HIV-infected adults.  

PubMed

Few adult patients with HIV/AIDS are evaluated for communication disorders. A broad inventory of the communication disorders was obtained in a convenience sample of 82 adult HIV/AIDS patients who presented for medical appointments. Each participant underwent a head and neck exam and a communications skills evaluation. Speech, language, and cognition were assessed using a 10-item test battery. A 14-item hearing test battery was conducted in a separate session. The primary outcomes were the presence and degree of communication disorders. Head and neck exams revealed 40% with ear-related issues. Only 2 participants showed normal findings on all 24 communication skills assessments. Four demonstrated normal findings on all speech-language-cognitive assessments, whereas 8 had normal findings on the complete hearing test battery. A relatively high prevalence of cognitive and language deficits and central auditory disturbances were found. Clinicians must recognize the potential for communication deficits even in a relatively healthy patient with HIV. PMID:24284265

Kallail, K James; Downs, David; Scherz, Julie; Sweet, Donna; Zackula, Rosalee E

2014-01-01

111

Hemoglobin A1c Is Positively Correlated with Framingham Risk Score in Older, Apparently Healthy Nondiabetic Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have suggested that elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in nondiabetic individuals. However, it is unclear whether HbA1c levels can serve as a simple screening marker for increased CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c levels and CVD risk using the Framingham risk score (FRS) in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults. Methods We retrospectively studied 2,879 Korean adults between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent voluntary health check-ups at the Health Promotion Center of our hospital from July 2009 to June 2011. Subjects were subdivided based on their HbA1c levels into four groups: tertiles within the HbA1c normal tolerance range and a group for subjects with an increased risk for diabetes (IRD). Results The mean FRS for the upper tertile (9.6±3.8) group was significantly higher than that of the middle tertile (8.4±4.0) and lower tertile (7.6±3.8) groups. In addition, FRS was highest in the IRD group (10.5±3.7). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that HbA1c levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with FRS when adjusted for confounding variables in all subjects (?±standard error [SE], 0.018±0.002; R2, 0.131), women (?±SE, 0.023±0.003; R2, 0.170), and men (?±SE, 0.016±0.004; R2, 0.109). Conclusion HbA1c levels were positively correlated with FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults. We propose that HbA1c levels may reflect CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals.

Shin, Ji Hye; Kang, Ji In; Jung, Yun; Choi, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jung; So, Jung Hae; Kim, Jin Hwa; Bae, Hak Yeon

2013-01-01

112

Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults  

PubMed Central

Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ?15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup).

Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

2013-01-01

113

HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

Kim, Chan Hyeong; Hyoun Choi, Sang; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

2008-08-01

114

Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea for More than One Year  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in North Korean defectors who have been living in South Korea for more than one year. Methods We used questionnaires developed by the authors to collect sociodemographic data in addition to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Psychosocial Well-being Index to measure stress, and a social support scale. A total of 367 subjects were included in this study. Results The results showed that 30.5% of the men and 34.7% of the women reported depressive symptoms, and 33.1% of the men and 36.1% of the women exhibited signs of severe distress. Correlates of depressive symptoms were lack of occupation [odds ratio (OR)=2.198, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.247-3.873], having escaped without family (OR=1.725, 95% CI, 1.006-2.959), and a poor subjective sense of health status (OR=3.111, 95% CI, 1.591-6.085). Conclusion Continuing vocational training and career management, psychological support programs, and intensive physical health services are needed to improve the mental health of this population.

Jeon, Bong-Hee; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Na-Ri; Lee, Chang-In; Kwak, Young-Sook; Park, Joon-Hyuk; Chung, Jaehwan; Chong, Hanul; Jwa, Eun-Kyung; Bae, Min-Ho; Kim, Sanghee; Yoo, Bora; Lee, Jun-Hwa; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Yang, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Soo

2009-01-01

115

Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Cell Cycle Related Protein Expression in Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinomas of Korean Patients with Clinicopathologic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) has recently been characterized as a distinct subset with a favorable prognosis. The prevalence and clinicopathologic significance of HPV-related TSCC in Koreans are not well known. Methods HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) accompanied by p53, p16, pRb, and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining were performed on 89 resection cases of TSCC from 2000 through 2010. Results HPV was detected by ISH in 59 of 89 cases (66.3%). HPV-positive TSCCs were more common in younger ages (p=0.005), and tumor sizes were smaller in the HPV-positive compared to the HPV-negative group (p=0.040). Positive HPV staining was significantly correlated with p16 expression (p<0.001), pRb inactivation (p=0.003), and cyclin D1 down-regulation (p<0.001) but not with p53 expression (p=0.334). Seventeen cases that showed p16-immunopositivity with HPV-negativity by ISH were retested by HPV typing; HPV DNA was not detected in all cases. There was no significant difference between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients either in the disease-specific survival (DSS, p=0.857) or overall survival (p=0.910). Furthermore, pRb-inactivated cases showed better DSS (p=0.023), and p53-positive cases showed worse DSS (p=0.001). Conclusions Although high HPV prevalence was noted, it was not correlated with histopathologic findings or survival benefit. In addition to p53 expression, pRb inactivation along with p16 overexpression and down-regulation of cyclin D1 are thought to be important pathogenetic steps for developing TSCCs.

Lee, Miji; Kim, Sung Bae; Lee, Sang-wook; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

2013-01-01

116

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in adults with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non- communicable diseases continues to rise globally, and recent studies suggest that metabolic syndrome (MS) may add to this burden by contributing to the development of CKD. Given that reports on the prevalence of CKD in patients with MS in this environment are scanty, this study was undertaken with the sole aim of determining the prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). A total of 240 consenting adults (18-70 years) attending the general out- patient clinic of the General Hospital Okrika for various ailments were studied. Subjects were screened for MS as per the above- mentioned criteria. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined with Modification of Diet for Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and CKD was defined as eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 and Epi info version 4.06d; P <0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 88 males and 152 females were screened for MS by both criteria. Eighty- four (35.0%) of 240 subjects had MS as defined by NCEP ATP III, while 85 (35.4%) had MS as defined by the IDF. The subjects were predominantly females, and mean age was between 54.74 ± 15.30 and 55.60 ± 14.81 years. Four of the 84 (4.8%) subjects with MS by NCEP ATP III definition had CKD while three of the 85 (3.5%) subjects with MS by IDF definition had CKD. Among subjects without MS by either definition, the prevalence of CKD was four of 140 (2.9%). Although the prevalence of CKD was higher among subjects with MS by ATP III compared with those with MS as defined by IDF and subjects without MS, the differences were not statistically significant (X2 = 0.14; P = 0.710). A comparison of MS subjects without CKD and those with CKD did not show any significant difference in age, waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile (P > 0.05). CKD was more common in subjects with MS compared with those without, although the difference was not statistically significant. The prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS in our study population did not differ significantly when the different MS definitions were employed. PMID:21912024

Emem-Chioma, P C; Siminialayi, I M; Wokoma, F S

2011-09-01

117

The prevalence and risk factors of vertebral fractures in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with an increase in fracture risk, there is no data regarding the prevalence of vertebral fractures or its risk factors for patients with T2DM in Korea. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited postmenopausal women with T2DM from 24 tertiary hospital diabetes clinics in Korea. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified on lateral spinal radiographs of thoracolumbar vertebrae by vertebral morphometry. Demographic and biochemical characteristics related to diabetes were obtained, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femoral neck, which was available in 752 (33.6 %) and 675 (30.1 %) patients, respectively, was also analyzed. Of the 2239 subjects recruited (mean age 63.9 years), a total of 970 (43.3 %) subjects had vertebral fractures. In the bivariate analysis, history of fragility fractures after 50 years of age, microalbuminuria, presence of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, cerebrovascular complications of cardiovascular disease), and presence of osteoporosis at the total hip were significantly associated with the presence of vertebral fractures, after adjusting for age. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of cardiovascular diseases in addition to advancing age and history of fragility fractures was significantly associated with increased odds of vertebral fractures. Vertebral fractures were highly prevalent in postmenopausal women with T2DM in this study conducted in Korea, and the presence of cardiovascular disease, in addition to older age and history of fragility fractures, was significantly associated with the presence of vertebral fractures. PMID:23076296

Chung, Dong Jin; Choi, Hyung Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Lim, Sung Kil; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Shin, Chan Soo

2013-03-01

118

Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Body image perception, weight control attempts during the past one year, various health behaviors, history of chronic diseases, and socioeconomic status were surveyed. Results Underweight women had a higher rate of weight control attempts than underweight men (25.4% vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001). Among underweight men, subjects with the highest physical activity level (odds ratio [OR], 7.75), subjects with physician-diagnosed history of chronic diseases (OR, 7.70), and subjects with non-manual jobs or other jobs (OR, 6.22; 12.39 with reference to manual workers) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Among underweight women, subjects who did not perceive themselves as thin (OR, 4.71), subjects with the highest household income level (OR, 2.61), and unmarried subjects (OR, 2.08) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Conclusion This study shows that numbers of underweight Korean adults have tried to control weight, especially women. Seeing that there are gender differences in factors related to weight control attempts in underweight adults, gender should be considered in helping underweight adults to maintain a healthy weight.

Choi, O Jin Ee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

2013-01-01

119

A comparison of the Ghent and revised Ghent nosologies for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome in an adult Korean population.  

PubMed

Recently, a revised Ghent nosology has been established for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) that puts more weight on the aortic root aneurysm and ectopia lentis. We compared the application of the Ghent and revised Ghent nosologies in adult Korean patients for whom there is suspicion of MFS. From January 1995 to June 2010, we enrolled 106 patients older than 20 years for whom there was suspicion of MFS, and who had undergone genetic analysis of the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Of 106 patients, 86 patients (81%) fulfilled the criteria of the Ghent nosology, and 84 patients (79%) met the criteria of the revised Ghent nosology. The two patients who met the Ghent nosology criteria, but not the criteria of the revised Ghent nosology were diagnosed with Loeys-Dietz syndrome and MASS phenotype. The level of agreement between both nosologies was very high (? = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 1.0). Marfan-like syndromes were diagnosed in 30% (6/20 patients) with negative Ghent and revised Ghent criteria and no FBN1 mutations. These results suggest that adult Korean patients who fulfill the old Ghent criteria almost all fulfill the new criteria for the diagnosis of MFS. PMID:22162372

Yang, Jeong Hoon; Han, Hyejin; Jang, Shin Yi; Moon, Ju Ryoung; Sung, Kiick; Chung, Tae-Young; Lee, Heung Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Duk-Kyung

2012-05-01

120

The Anatomy of the Superficial Temporal Artery in Adult Koreans Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Angiogram: Clinical Research  

PubMed Central

Objective The increased use of bypass surgery in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases requires a better understanding of the superficial temporal artery (STA) anatomy. This study is to describe the gross anatomy of STA in adult Korean population with respect to cranial surgery and to provide basic anatomic data for bypass surgery. Methods The study evaluated retrospectively 35 patients who visited the neurosurgery department at a single institution. For each patient, both the left and right STA (70 vessels) were evaluated by a 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiogramfor diameter and anatomic relationships to external landmarks. Results Of 70 STAs, 69 had a bifurcation. Among these, 57 (82.6%) were above the superior margin of the zygomatic arch. The STA bifurcation was 53.2 ± 5.9 mm posterior to the keyhole, 9.5 ± 5.3 mm anterior to the posterior margin of condylar process of the mandible, and 21.7 ± 15.8 mm superior to the superior margin of the zygomatic arch. The inner diameter of the STA was 1.8 ± 0.5 mm at the superior margin of the zygomatic arch, and 1.4 ± 0.4 mm and 1.4 ± 0.5 mm for frontal and parietal branches, respectively. The 75.7% of frontal and 66.7% of parietal branches were suitable for microvascular anastomosis. Conclusion This present study demonstrated the STA in Korean adults, which may benefit the clinician in dealing with the surgical procedures related to this STA.

Kim, Byung Soo; Jung, Young Jin; Chang, Chul Hoon

2013-01-01

121

Clinical and Radiographic Features of Adult-onset Ankylosing Spondylitis in Korean Patients: Comparisons between Males and Females  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and radiographic features and gender differences in Korean patients with adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. Multicenter cross-sectional studies were conducted in the rheumatology clinics of 13 Korean tertiary referral hospitals. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis according to the modified New York criteria. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features were evaluated and disease activities were assessed using the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index. Five hundred and five patients were recruited. The male to female ratio was 6.1:1. Average age at symptom onset was 25.4±8.9 yr and average disease duration was 9.6±6.8 yr. Males manifested symptoms at a significantly earlier age. HLA-B27 was more frequently positive in males. Hips were more commonly affected in males, and knees in females. When spinal mobility was measured using tragus-to-wall distance and the modified Schober's test, females had significantly better results. Radiographic spinal changes, including bamboo spine and syndesmophytes, were more common in males after adjustment of confounding factors. In conclusion, we observed significant gender differences in radiographic spinal involvement as well as other clinical manifestations among Korea patients with adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. These findings may influence the timing of the diagnosis and the choice of treatment.

Jung, Young-Ok; Kim, Inje; Kim, Suho; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Han Jung; Park, Won; Kwon, Seoung Ryul; Jeong, Jae Cheon; Lee, Yun Jong; Ryu, Hee Jung; Park, Young Bae; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, You-Hyun; Seo, Young Il; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Hong, Yeon-Sik; Baek, Han Joo; Choi, Hyo Jin; Kang, Hyo-Jong; Lee, Chan-Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyon

2010-01-01

122

Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution among high-risk Korean women for prospecting the strategy of vaccine development  

PubMed Central

We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the distribution of high-risk HPV genotypes among 2,308 high-risk Korean women to predict how much the current prophylactic HPV vaccines might affect the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. HPV DNA was detected in 939 women (40.7%) but only one-third of women were positive for HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, the genotypes used for developing the HPV vaccines. Thus, the development of area-specific HPV vaccines based on dominant HPV genotypes in our country is needed for preventing HPV infection and the development of premalignant lesions in the cervix of Korean women.

2010-01-01

123

Relationships between serum total bilirubin levels and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsMetabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with insulin resistance in all parts of its natural history, which is accompanied by oxidative stress. Bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and cytoprotectant. The current study was performed to identify the major predictors of the total bilirubin level and to assess the relationships between the total bilirubin levels and MS in Korean

S. H. Choi; K. E. Yun; H. J. Choi

124

Prevalence of Obesity in Korean Adolescents and its Relationship with the Weekly Frequency of the Physical Education Classes  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the prevalence of obesity among Korean adolescents and to determine the relationship of obesity prevalence with weekly frequency of physical education (PE) classes. In 2009, 72,399 students from grades 7 to 12 participated in the fifth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) project. Body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of PE classes attended were assessed by the KYRBWS- V. BMI was computed to classify the participants as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. The association between the frequency of PE classes and BMI were examined using one-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis. The differences in the weekly frequency of PE classes and the BMI values among both the boys and girls were significant (p < 0.001). A post-hoc test showed that underweight boys and girls attended the PE classes more frequently (p < 0.001), and overweight girls attended these classes less frequently (p < 0.01) than the other groups did; moreover, obese boys and girls, compared to boys and girls in the other groups, attended less number of PE classes per week while at school (p < 0.05). Besides, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) for normal-weight vs. underweight boys attending 1 PE class, 2 PE classes, and ? 3 PE classes per week were 1.168 (1.011-1.349, p = 0.035), 1.621 (1.450-1.812, p < 0.001), and 3.023 (2.704-3.381, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those for boys who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) of normal-weight vs. obese boys attending ? 3 PE classes attended across normal vs. obese boys was 0.862 (0.762-0.974, p = 0.017), compared with those of boys who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) for normal-weight vs. underweight girls who attended 2 PE classes and ? 3 PE classes per week were 1.235 (1.131-1.349, p < 0.001) and 2.238 (2.048-2.446, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) of for normal-weight vs. overweight girls who attended ? 3 PE classes per week were 0.886 (0.787- 0.997, p = 0.045) and 0.772 (0.679-0.878, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) for normal-weight vs. obese girls who attended 2 PE classes and ? 3 PE classes per week were 0.788 (0.675-0.919, p = 0.002) and 0.709 (0.599-0.838, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend the PE class. Increase in the frequency of PE classes should be considered in any attempt for curbing weight-related problems in Korean adolescents. Key points Increase in the frequency of PE classes is a factor that should be considered to improve weight status

So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong-Jun; Swearingin, Brenda; Baek, Seong-Ik; Rhi, Soung-Yob; Webb, Daniel; Fuller, Tiffany M.

2011-01-01

125

Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in an Adult Iranian Population  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays the importance of oral health to life quality is not obvious to anyone in our world. Oral lesions can interfere with daily social activities in involved patients through impacts on mastication, swallowing and speech and symptoms like xerostomia, halitosis or dysesthesia. Objectives To assess the prevalence and types of oral lesions in a general population in Rasht, Northern Province of Iran. Patients and Methods 1581 people aged > 30 years old who were inhabitant of Rasht, Iran, enrolled in a cross-sectional study. For each individual a detailed questionnaire based on the world health organization (WHO) guidelines in order to diagnosis of the lesions was filled and it contained all the required data. Participants were divided into two groups with and without oral mucosal lesions and oral mucosal lesions were divided into two groups with and without. Demographic characteristics and clinical information including age, sex, smoking (cigarette and tobacco), opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene were collected and compared between these two groups. Results The prevalence of mucosal lesions in our study was 19.4%. Our data demonstrated higher prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in males and young adults (30-40 years). The most common mucosal lesion among our participants was Fissured tongue(4%), followed by Fordyce granules(2.8%), geographic tongue(2.6%) , Pigmentation(2.5%), Candida(1.8%), Smoker Plate(1.6%), lingual Varices(1.5%), Petechiae(1.4%) and lingual labial(1.4%) . Leukoplakia was observed only in two people (0.1%).No case of malignant lesions was detected. No statistically significant difference was confirmed between the two groups regarding smoking, opium consumption, medication and oral and dental hygiene. Conclusions Our data has provided baseline information about epidemiologic aspects of oral mucosal lesions which can be valuable in organized national program targeting on oral health and hygiene in the society.

Mansour Ghanaei, Fariborz; Joukar, Farahnaz; Rabiei, Maryam; Dadashzadeh, Alireza; Kord Valeshabad, Ali

2013-01-01

126

Prevalence of eating disorders in adults with celiac disease.  

PubMed

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V; Siniscalchi, M; Zingone, F; Bucci, C; Tortora, R; Iovino, P; Ciacci, C

2013-01-01

127

Prevalence and predictors for periodontitis among adults in China, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although the interrelationship between poor oral health and chronic diseases is well established, few related studies are available in China. In this study, the prevalence of severe periodontitis and its association with chronic diseases among adults in China have been explored. Design During China's 2010 Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance (CCDRFS) survey among adults aged 18 and older, 3 out of 162 surveillance points and the entire sample from each point (600×3=1,800 subjects) were selected as pilot study sites in which oral examination was performed. Basic demographic information, chronic diseases status, and results of oral examination were collected from 2010 CCDRFS data. A standard oral examination was conducted by trained staff. Periodontitis was defined as moderate (4–5 mm pockets) or severe (?6 mm pockets). Chronic disease status was determined by using standard methods and criteria. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to identify the independent association of various factors with severe periodontitis. Results Of 1,800 subjects, 1,728 subjects (96%) provided complete information. The prevalence of severe periodontitis was 1.9% (32/1,728) (95% CI=1.2–2.5). In multivariate model, participants with diabetes were 2.4 times (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.1–5.6) more likely to have severe periodontitis. Being male was significantly associated with severe periodontitis (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.6–7.7). Living in a rural area was related to an increased chance of having severe periodontitis (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0– 4.9). Attainment of at least 6 years of education was inversely associated with severe periodontitis (OR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1–0.8). Conclusions According to this pilot project, prevalence of severe periodontitis was low. Control measures should be particularly emphasized for high-risk groups such as less educated people (<6 years of education), people living in rural areas, men, and diabetes patients. Population-based studies, including oral examination by trained staff, are feasible and should be done in order to understand the burden of periodontitis and to provide an effective response to this key oral health issue.

Zhang, Qi; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Chunxiao; Shen, Tao; Yang, Yang; Chotivichien, Saipin; Wang, Linhong

2014-01-01

128

Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male?=?1,994; female?=?1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 ?g/L in men and 3.7 ?g/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved.

2014-01-01

129

Average Volume of Alcohol Consumed, Drinking Patterns, and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Controversial results have been reported on the relationship between alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of average volume of alcohol consumed and drinking patterns with MetS and its components. Methods This study was conducted as a baseline survey for the Dong-gu Study of adults aged 50 years or older. Drinking patterns were assessed using a structured interview, and average volume of alcohol consumed was calculated. MetS was defined according to the updated version of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Results Compared with individuals who never drank, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in men who consumed 2.1 to 4.0 drinks/day (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.17–2.00) and greater than 4.0 drinks/day (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.23–2.14), whereas no significant association was observed in women. Significant dose-response relationships between average volume of alcohol consumed and all metabolic components were observed in men. A usual quantity of 5 to 6 drinks/drinking day (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19–2.09), 7 or more drinks/drinking day (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.45–2.44), and binge drinking on at least 1 occasion/week (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01–1.76) were associated with a significantly higher OR for prevalence of MetS in men; however, none of these drinking patterns were associated with MetS in women. Conclusions Unhealthy drinking patterns such as high usual quantity and binge drinking were significantly associated with MetS, suggesting that the effect of alcohol consumption on MetS should be considered in the context of drinking pattern, particularly in men.

Shin, Min-Ho; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Bok-Hee; Lee, Young-Hoon

2013-01-01

130

Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult populations is not known. To document its prevalence and distribution and to determine the factors associated with it, a random sample of the adult population of Busselton, Western Australia, was studied. Spirometric function, bronchial responsiveness to histamine, and atopic responses to skin prick tests were measured. Respiratory symptoms were determined by questionnaire. Data

A J Woolcock; J K Peat; C M Salome; K Yan; S D Anderson; R E Schoeffel; G McCowage; T Killalea

1987-01-01

131

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem…

Melville, Craig A.; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jill; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Jackson, Alison; Finlayson, Janet; Mantry, Dipali

2008-01-01

132

Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in South Korean adolescent and young adult twins.  

PubMed

Recent molecular genetic studies provide suggestive evidence for sexual dimorphism in genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, only a few twin studies have addressed the question of sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to variation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to estimate genetic and environmental influences on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in South Korean twins, with a special emphasis on sex difference. In total, 751 adolescent and young adult twin pairs (ages: 13-23 years) completed a Korean version of the 30 items of the Maudsley Obsessional - Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) through a mail survey. A sum of the answers for the 30 items was calculated to represent a total score for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (hereafter, the MOCIT). Males had significantly higher variance of the MOCIT than did females. In males, monozygotic (MZ) twin correlation was significantly higher than dizygotic (DZ) twin correlations (.56 vs. .24), whereas in females, MZ and DZ twin correlations were not significantly different from each other (.39 vs. .36). The general sex-limitation model was applied to the twin data. The results of model-fitting analyses indicated that the unstandardized genetic variance as well as heritability estimate (53% vs. 41%) for the MOCIT was higher in males than in females. However, shared environmental influences did not attain statistical significance perhaps due to insufficient statistical power. PMID:18498209

Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk

2008-06-01

133

Self-rated mental health in socio-structural contexts: an examination with Korean American older adults.  

PubMed

Objectives: Following the socio-structural framework of health, the study examined the role of social/interpersonal and environmental/neighborhood factors in predicting self-rated mental health (SRMH) in Korean American older adults. Method: Using the survey data from 420 older Korean Americans (mean age = 71.6, SD = 7.59), multivariate models of SRMH was estimated with sets of predictors: (1) background information (demographic characteristics and chronic conditions), (2) mental health symptom measures (depressive symptoms and anxiety), (3) social/interpersonal factors (social network and filial satisfaction), and (4) environmental/neighborhood factors (neighborhood safety and residential satisfaction). Results: Social/interpersonal and environmental/neighborhood factors were found to make a significant contribution to the predictive model even after controlling for background information and mental health symptom measures. Those with higher levels of filial satisfaction and more favorable perceptions of neighborhood safety were likely to have positive ratings of SRMH. Conclusion: Findings supported the importance of considering socio-structural contexts in the assessment of SRMH and provided implications for mental health services for the target population. PMID:24456222

Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri

2014-08-01

134

Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: Prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ? 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. PMID:24929722

Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2014-09-01

135

Increased prevalence of malignancy in adult mitochondrial disorders  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: there are indications that patients with a mitochondrial disorder (MID) develop malignomas or benign tumors more frequently than the general population. The aims of the study were to find out if the prevalence of tumors is actually increased in MID-patients and which of the malignomas or benign tumors are the most frequent. Methods: The charts of MID-patients were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of malign or benign tumors. MID was diagnosed according to the modified Walker-criteria. Results: Among the 475 MID-patients screened for tumors, at least a single malignoma was found in 65 patients (13.7%), and at least a single benign tumor in 35 patients (7.4%). Among those with malignancy, 22 were men and 43 women. Among those with a malignancy, 1 had definite MID, 9 probable MID, and 55 possible MID. The most common of the malignancies was breast cancer, followed by dermatological, gynecological, and gastrointestinal malignancies. The most frequent of the benign tumors was lipoma, followed by pituitary adenoma, meningeomas, carcinoids, and suprarenal adenomas. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of malignancies and of benign tumors was markedly increased. The female preponderance was explained by the frequent maternal inheritance of MIDs. Conclusions: Adult patients with a MID, particularly females, carry an increased risk to develop a malignancy or a benign tumor. Since malignancy is an important determinant for their outcome, these patients should be more accurately screened for neoplasms, not to overlook the point, at which an effective treatment can no longer be provided.

Finsterer, J; Krexner, E

2013-01-01

136

The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the\\u000a present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population\\u000a aged 18–64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate

Martina de ZwaanBarbara; Barbara Gruß; Astrid Müller; Holmer Graap; Alexandra Martin; Heide Glaesmer; Anja Hilbert; Alexandra Philipsen

137

Prevalence, views, and impact of advance directives among older adults.  

PubMed

This article reviews the literature on advance directives among U.S. older adults published from 2008 through 2013, with a focus on advance directive prevalence, implications of advance directives on patient care, and impact of interventions to increase advance directive completion. Advance directive completion varies by demographic characteristics and is affected by patient attitudes toward advance directives and end-of-life care. Patients with advance directives are less likely to receive feeding tubes, experience burdensome transitions between nursing homes and hospitals, and die in the hospital. Advance directive completion increases when health care providers ask culturally sensitive questions and educate patients about advance directives, but better documentation and communication of advance directives are needed to ensure adherence to these measures. Despite increasing advance directive completion as patients move from community to nursing homes to hospice, advance directives are often insufficiently detailed and current for health care professionals to be confident they are acting in accordance with what patients would choose for themselves. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 40(7), 44-50.]. PMID:24640958

Kossman, Debra A

2014-07-01

138

Relationships of Mental Disorders and Weight Status in the Korean Adult Population  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between weight status and mental disorders, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. A total of nationally representative 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 yr was interviewed in face-to-face household survey. Response rate was 81.7%. Mental disorders were diagnosed using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). The subjects reported their heights and weights. After adjusting for age and gender, the lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had a significant association with only the underweight group (odds ratio [OR], 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.38). The association between underweight and depressive disorder was the strongest for subjects with a high education level (OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.2-2.56), subjects with a married/cohabiting status (OR, 1.94, 95% CI, 1.17-3.22) and smokers (OR, 2.58, 95% CI, 1.33-4.98). There was no significant association between obesity and depressive disorder in Korea. But there was a significant association between the underweight group and depressive disorder. The relationship between obesity and mental disorder in a Korean population was different from that in a Western population. These results suggest that the differences of traditional cultures and races might have an important effect on the associations between the weight status and mental disorders.

Sunwoo, Young-Kyung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jin-Yeong; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

2011-01-01

139

Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Diseases in America Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America (Based ... Total Population ? 40 142,648,393 All Vision Impairment 4,195,966 Blindness 1,288,275 Low ...

140

Depressive Symptoms Among Urban Hispanic Older Adults in Miami: Prevalence and Sociodemographic Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents a 35%?prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of mostly Cuban older adults residing in a low-income, urban Miami neighborhood. This rate is comparable to, or higher than, prevalence rates reported by most other population-based samples of U.S. older adults. Logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived financial strain was the only sociodemographic factor associated

Tatiana Perrino; Scott C. Brown; Craig A. Mason; José Szapocznik

2008-01-01

141

Estimated Number of Korean Adults with Back Pain and Population-Based Associated Factors of Back Pain : Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective We estimated the number of Korean adults with back pain and evaluated population-based associated factors of back pain from a representative sample data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods The number of Korean adults who experienced back pain (experienced patients), those who experienced back pain lasting for three or more months during the past year (chronic patients), and those who were currently suffering from back pain (current patients) were estimated by analyzing the data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007 using surveyfreq procedure of the SAS statistical package. Population-based odds ratios for being experienced, chronic, and current patient according to demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and occupation), and lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) were estimated using surveylogistic procedure. Results It was estimated that there were 5,554,256 (proportion, 15.4%; 95% CI, 4,809,466 - 6,299,046) experienced patients, 2,060,829 (5.7%; 1,557,413-2,564,246) chronic patients, and 3,084,188 (8.5%; 2,600,197 - 3,568,179) current patients among 36,107,225 Korean adults aged 20-89 years in 2007. Each of explanatory variables was significantly associated with at least one of the response variables for back pain. Conclusion Based on our study results, further efforts to investigate epidemiology of back pain, to evaluate associated factors, and to improve treatment outcomes are needed.

Jhun, Hyung-Joon

2009-01-01

142

Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

2011-01-01

143

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

2006-01-01

144

Prevalence of chronic benign pain disorder among adults: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review epidemiological studies concerning chronic benign pain among adults are discussed. To this end, studies focusing on chronic pain, reporting prevalences at a population or primary health care level, including subjects aged between 18 and 75 years have been collected and analyzed. Focus of analysis was on research methods, definitions of chronic benign pain used, and reported prevalences.

PETER F. M. VERHAAK; JAN J. KERSSENS; Joost Dekker; MARJOLIJN J. SORBI; JOZIEN M. BENSING

1998-01-01

145

Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

2013-01-01

146

Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

2005-01-01

147

Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga’s decomposition method. Results Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35–49 in men and aged 25–39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25–29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. Conclusions The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy.

2014-01-01

148

Prevalence and incidence of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a large managed care population.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: To estimate longitudinal trends in prevalence and incidence rates of adult ADHD 2006-2009. Research design and methods: Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) electronic medical records were analyzed to assess prevalence and incidence rates for adult ADHD. Trends over time were estimated and compared using three case definitions (ADHD diagnosis only [DX], ADHD DX and ?2 FDA-approved ADHD prescriptions [DX?+?RX], and ADHD DX and ?1 behavioral therapy visit [DX?+?BT]). Main outcome measures: Prevalence and incidence rates of adult ADHD. Results: Prevalence ranged from 151 (DX?+?RX) to 312 (DX) cases per 100,000 members in 2006, increasing to 239 (DX?+?RX) and 415 (DX) cases in 2009. Prevalence based on DX?+?BT declined from 185 in 2006 to 94 cases per 100,000 in 2009. In 2006, incidence ranged from 15 (DX?+?BT) to 68 (DX) cases per 100,000 person-years. Incidence rates remained stable throughout the study period. Stratified analyses based on DX?+?RX revealed only slight variations by gender, but sharp differences by age, with younger adults demonstrating a higher prevalence overall as well as dramatic increases over the study period. Prevalence was highest among Caucasians, increasing substantially across all race groups over time. Limitations: A limitation of this study is that incidence rates may not be representative of new cases if diagnoses existed prior to enrollment in KPSC. Similarly, prevalence rates may be affected if patients sought care outside of the health plan. Conclusions: Adult ADHD prevalence in this managed care organization appears low, but showed increasing prevalence and incidence rates over time. PMID:24597796

Knight, Tara K; Kawatkar, Aniket; Hodgkins, Paul; Moss, Robert; Chu, Li-Hao; Sikirica, Vanja; Erder, M Haim; Nichol, Michael B

2014-07-01

149

Prevalence and demographic correlates of childhood maltreatment in an adult community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study had two aims: (1) to determine the prevalence of five categories of retrospectively reported childhood maltreatment in an adult community sample and (2) to examine relationships between three theoretically and practically chosen demographic variables and childhood maltreatment.Method: Participants were a representative sample of 967 adult men and women in the metropolitan Memphis, Tennessee area. They completed a

Christine D Scher; David R Forde; John R McQuaid; Murray B Stein

2004-01-01

150

Prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults: Effect of age, caffeine consumption and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine the prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults and to assess the effect of age, caffeine and exercise. Fasciculations were studied with ultrasonography in 58 healthy adults in various age categories. Questionnaires were used to determine effect of caffeine and regular exercise on the presence of fasciculations. Finally, we tested the effect of strenuous

Jiske Fermont; Ilse M. P. Arts; Sebastiaan Overeem; Bert U. Kleine; H. Jurgen Schelhaas; Machiel J. Zwarts

2010-01-01

151

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

152

Residential Segregation and Injection Drug Use Prevalence Among Black Adults in US Metropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We analyzed the relations of two 1990 dimensions of racial residential segregation (isolation and concentration) with 1998 injection drug use prevalence among Black adult residents of 93 large US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Methods. We estimated injection drug use prevalence among Black adults in each MSA by analyzing 3 databases documenting injection drug users’ encounters with the health care system. Multiple linear regression methods were used to investigate the relationship of isolation and concentration to the natural logarithm of Black adult injection drug use prevalence, controlling for possible confounders. Results. The median injection drug use prevalence was 1983 per 100000 Black adults (interquartile range: 1422 to 2759 per 100000). The median isolation index was 0.48 (range: 0.05 to 0.84): in half the MSAs studied, the average Black resident inhabited a census tract where 48% or more of the residents were Black. The multiple regression model indicates that an increase of 0.50 in the isolation index was associated with a 23% increase in injection drug use prevalence among Black adults. Concentration was unrelated to the outcome. Conclusions. Residential isolation is positively related to Black injection drug use prevalence in MSAs. Research into the pathways linking isolation to injection drug use is needed.

Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Risa

2007-01-01

153

Genetic and environmental covariations among obsessive-compulsive symptoms, neuroticism, and extraversion in South Korean adolescent and young adult twins.  

PubMed

A growing literature suggests that personality traits may be endophenotype markers for psychiatric illnesses. Although the phenotypic relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and high neuroticism and low extraversion have been well documented, underlying genetic and environmental contributions to these associations have not been explored previously. Five hundred and twenty-four monozygoitc (MZ) and 228 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of adolescent and young adult twins (aged 13-24 years) drawn from the South Korean Twin Registry completed the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Neuroticism and Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Scale by mail. The total score of MOCI (MOCIT) was significantly and positively correlated with Neuroticism (r = .44), but only weakly and negatively related to Extraversion (r = -.10). A trivariate Cholesky model was applied to the data. The additive genetic correlations in the best-fitting model were .51 between Neuroticism and MOCIT and -.17 between Extraversion and MOCIT, suggesting that additive genetic factors that lead to high neuroticism and low extraversion overlap with those genetic factors influencing high OC symptoms. These findings add to the cumulative evidence of the shared genetic etiology for the associations between a personality profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion and mental illnesses. PMID:19335184

Hur, Yoon-Mi

2009-04-01

154

Prevalence of Major Chronic Conditions among Older Chinese Adults: The Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1  

PubMed Central

Background The likely corresponding increase in prevalence of chronic disease will be a major challenge for the health care system. Few nationwide epidemiological studies include a large enough sample of older adults to provide estimates of chronic conditions in the older adult population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of eight common chronic health conditions and examine socioeconomic inequalities in the diseases among older adults in China. Method Data are from SAGE-China Wave 1, including 13,157 people aged 50-plus years. Respondents were asked if they had been diagnosed with any of the following chronic medical conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, stroke, diabetes, depression, chronic lung disease and hypertension. A set of validated symptom-based questions and related diagnostic algorithms were also used to estimate disease prevalence for angina, arthritis, asthma and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the probability of developing chronic conditions in relation to sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, urban/rural setting and household wealth level. Results Fifty percent of respondents reported having one of the selected chronic conditions, 18.9% two conditions, 5.8% three conditions, and 1.4% reported having four or more chronic conditions. Self-reported prevalence was generated for angina (8%), arthritis (22%), asthma (2%), stroke (3%), diabetes (7%), depression (0.3%), chronic lung disease (8%) and hypertension (27%). The symptom-based prevalence of angina, arthritis, asthma and depression was 10%, 20%, 4% and 2%, respectively. Conclusion This study provides the best available prevalence estimates for major chronic health conditions among older Chinese adults. Findings from this study indicated that major chronic conditions were common, so prevention and early intervention targeting adults aged 50 years and older should be prioritized.

Kowal, Paul; Jiang, Yong; Yu, Min; Li, Xinjian; Zheng, Yang; Xu, Jiying

2013-01-01

155

Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

156

Channels of Health Communications Used Among Korean and Asian Indian Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Healthy People 2010, health communication is an important tool to reduce health disparities. Communication channels in which people prefer to receive health information may differ by race\\/ethnicity. One of the main challenges in designing an effective health communication program is to identify the most trusted and most often used channels of health information by Asian older adults. The

Ji Seon Lee

2010-01-01

157

Prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Background Mongolia is changing lifestyle, unhealthy habits, increase of air pollution, increasing life expectancy have led to an up rise of chronic respiratory diseases. Over 10 years ago, the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Mongolia were in the lower range reported from previous studies. Objective The main aim of the survey is to know the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population of Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia and their risk factors. Methods Total of approximately 1,200 adults aged 20 years and over were planned to be randomly selected. The questionnaire was developed on the basis of WHO Protocol for Assessment of Prevalence of Major Respiratory Diseases and modified by local risk factors assessment and by other international survey approach including Global Initiative for Asthma and European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Results Prevalence of current wheezer in all age group was 15.7% (95% CI: 14.7-16.8). Age and sex segregated distribution of current wheezer were defined among male and female and prevalence was 14.5% (95% CI: 13.3-16.2) in male and female 16.6% (95% CI: 15.2-18.3) respectively. Prevalence of diagnosed asthma among adults was 4.7% (95% CI: 4.3-5.6) in all age group, 3% (95% CI: 2.4-3.7) in male and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8-7.9) in female. Prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 14.6% in all age group. 28.4% out of subjects with allergic rhinitis has current asthma, while 11.6% of subjects without allergic rhinitis has asthma (p < 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence of asthma increased for one decade in Ulaanbaatar. Prevalence of diagnosed asthma is approximately 5% and current wheezer is approximately 15% in adults of population, which is close to other Asia and European countries. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma.

Dashdemberel, Sarangerel; Logii, Narantsetseg; Nakae, Kimihiro; Chigusa, Yuichi; Ohhira, Shuji; Ito, Clyde; Sagara, Hironori; Makino, Sohei

2014-01-01

158

Magnesium Intake and its Relevance with Antioxidant Capacity in Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a study reported that magnesium played a part in the attack of chronic diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes,\\u000a metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. However, there are not even enough studies to evaluate magnesium intakes. Therefore,\\u000a in this study, we evaluated the magnesium intakes of 500 healthy adults. In addition, by selecting 50 targets, we examined\\u000a the correlation between magnesium intake

Yun-Jung Bae; Mi-Kyeong Choi

159

Association between Low-level Mercury Exposure and Neurobehavioral Functions in Korean Adults Living in a Coastal City  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between low-level mercury exposure and neurobehavioral functions in adults living in coastal regions of Korea. Methods We selected 172 adults aged 20-65 years living in a city in the coastal region of Korea. A sociodemographic survey was conducted, mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were measured, and the associations according to computerized neurobehavioral tests were determined using univariate analysis. After adjustment for associated variables, a multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. Results The geometric mean mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were 5.41 µg/L (range, 0.00-15.84 µg/L), 1.17 µg/g-creatinine (range, 0.00-32.86 µg/g-creatinine), and 1.37 mg/kg (range, 0.42-6.56 mg/kg), respectively. Variables that were associated with simple reaction time according to the neurobehavioral test results were age and urine mercury level. Variables associated with choice reaction time were the recent use of Korean traditional medicine and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the right-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, smoking behavior, education level, monthly household income, and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the left-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, education level, and urine mercury level. After adjustment for associated variables, there was no significant association between urine mercury level and simple reaction time (?=25.96; p=0.47), choice reaction time (?=50.37; p=0.32), or the number of left-hand finger taps (?=-1.54; p=0.21). However, urine mercury level was significantly associated with the number of right-hand finger taps (?=-3.86; p=0.01). Conclusions We found no evidence that low-level mercury exposure in adults is associated with deficits in neurobehavioral functions. A longer follow-up study is required to confirm this conclusion.

Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hong, Young-Seoub; You, Chang-Hun

2013-01-01

160

Prevalence of Increased Albumin Excretion Rate in Young Saudi Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Albuminuria is an important risk predictor of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate amongst a subgroup of young Saudi army\\/navy recruits. Methods: 2,000 Saudi military recruits were tested for microalbuminuria by dipstick and 24-hour urine collection for quantitative evaluation. Results: In the whole

H. Abo-Zenah; A. El-Benayan; A. M. El Nahas

2008-01-01

161

Prevalence of stuttering and cluttering in adults with mental handicaps.  

PubMed

A survey (involving questionnaire, screening and assessment procedures) of 793 adults with mental handicaps revealed that 6.3% of the population had ideopathic dysfluencies. Issues in the differential diagnosis between stuttering, cluttering and other dysfluency are considered, and the contaminating factors involved in this diagnosis discussed. PMID:2144592

Stansfield, J

1990-08-01

162

Localized Resectable Genitourinary Sarcoma in Adult Korean Patients: Experiences at a Single Center  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of localized resectable genitourinary sarcomas in adults. Materials and Methods Between September, 1996 and November, 2008, 18 consecutive cases of adults (12 men and 6 women; median age 48.8 years) who were treated for primary genitourinary sarcomas were identified. The following variables were analyzed: patient age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, primary organ, tumor histology, size, necrosis, Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) grade, and surgical margin positivity. Recurrence-free survival and disease-specific survival were the study end-points. Results The most common presenting symptom was a palpable mass (six cases, 33.3%), the most common site was the kidney (six cases, 33.3%), and the most common histological subtype was leiomyosarcoma (eight patients, 44.4%). Complete resection with negative surgical margins was achieved in 13 patients (72.2%). The median follow-up period was 49.9 months (range 6.4 to 147.6). The recurrence-free survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 81.6%, 66.5%, and 66.5%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival only associated significantly with ASA score (p=0.018). The disease-specific survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 88.9%, 76.2%, and 67.7%, respectively. Disease-specific survival was associated significantly only with FNCLCC grade (p=0.042). Conclusion Although genitourinary sarcomas in adults are a rare group of tumors with a poor prognosis, some patients may have a favorable prognosis. Our findings suggest that FNCLCC grade is the most important prognostic factor for these patients.

Cho, Sung Yong; Moon, Kyung Chul; Cheong, Min Su; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

2011-01-01

163

Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Visceral Obesity in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance. Research Design and Methods A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation) was <5 Hounsfield Units. Results In subjects with diabetes (n?=?282), 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OH)D. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0–6.2)]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D was observed in the high HOMA-IR (?2.5) group [n?=?207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4–10.3)], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5) group [n?=?592, OR 0.8 (0.3–1.9)]. Conclusions Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance.

Seo, Ji A.; Eun, Chai Ryoung; Cho, Hyunjoo; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Yim, Hyung Joon; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

2013-01-01

164

Pertussis seroprevalence in korean adolescents and adults using anti-pertussis toxin immunoglobulin g.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate age-specific seroprevalence of pertussis in Korea and to formulate a strategy to prevent and reduce the incidence of pertussis. Residual serum samples of healthy adolescents and adults 11 yr of age or older were collected between July 2012 and December 2012, and anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG titers were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. We compared the mean anti-PT IgG titers and seroprevalence of pertussis of the six age groups: 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and ? 61 yr. A total of 1,192 subjects were enrolled. The mean anti-PT IgG titer and pertussis seroprevalence were 35.53 ± 62.91 EU/mL and 41.4%, respectively. The mean anti-PT IgG titers and seroprevalence were not significantly different between the age groups. However, the seroprevalence in individuals 51 yr of age or older was significantly higher than in individuals younger than 51 yr (46.5% vs 39.1%, P = 0.017). Based on these results, a new pertussis prevention strategy is necessary for older adults. PMID:24851020

Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Bae, E Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Park, Yeon-Joon; Ma, Sang Hyuk

2014-05-01

165

Prevalence and outcomes of comorbid metabolic and cardiovascular conditions in middle- and older-age adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate age group differences in the prevalence and outcomes of three common and often comorbid metabolic conditions (i.e., obesity, hypertension, and diabetes) and heart disease. Design: Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: 9825 adults aged 51 to 61 years (middle-age) in 1992, and 7370 adults aged 70 years and over (older-age) in 1993. Measurements: Two-year dichotomous

Neil B. Oldridge; Timothy E. Stump; Faryle K. Nothwehr; Daniel O. Clark

2001-01-01

166

Antigay Behaviors Among Young AdultsPrevalence, Patterns, and Motivators in a Noncriminal Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first empirical research into prevalence rates of and motivations for antigay harassment and violence by noncriminal young adults. In an anonymous survey of 484 young adults, 1 in 10 admitted physical violence or threats against presumed homosexuals, and another 24% acknowledged name-calling. Factor analyses revealed four motivational themes: peer dynamics, antigay ideology, thrill-seeking, and perceived self-defense. Compared

KAREN FRANKLIN

2000-01-01

167

Wheat-Induced Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Report of 6 Cases  

PubMed Central

Wheat is a common cause of food allergy. Wheat-induced anaphylaxis (WIA) and wheat-dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) are severe forms of immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated allergic reaction to wheat protein. As the diagnosis of WIA or WDEIA is not easy because of the risk of oral challenge, identification of specific IgE of various wheat proteins is helpful for diagnosis. In Korea, there are only a few reports on WIA in adults. We report six cases of WIA diagnosed on the basis of clinical history and specific IgE of wheat proteins or provocation test. For immunologic evaluation of severe wheat allergy including WIA and WDEIA, it is important to measure specific IgE to each component of wheat including gluten and ?-5 gliadin not just measuring wheat-specific IgE.

Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon

2013-01-01

168

Distribution of Abdominal Obesity and Fitness Level in Overweight and Obese Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio), and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.045, P = 0.499), whereas VAT (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (r = 0.214, P = 0.001) remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (? = 0.204, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (? = 0.163, P = 0.008) but not with SAT (? = 0.097, P = 0.111). Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults.

Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Duk-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won; Jeon, Justin Y.

2014-01-01

169

Prevalence of GERD symptoms in a representative Israeli adult population.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in the general population is lower in Asian than Western countries. Data are lacking for countries in the Middle East. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms among Israeli Jews. A questionnaire including 8 specific questions for GERD symptoms was administered by telephone interview to a representative sample of the population. One thousand two hundred twenty-one of 1839 individuals were successfully contacted and 981 had valid, complete data. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. Over the previous year 34.8% of the respondents reported suffering any GERD symptom. Of these 11.6% reported retrosternal burning, 11.7% retrosternal pain, 19.0% an acid taste in the mouth, and 17.5% reflux of gastric content. In all, 6.5%, 5.2%, 10.4%, and 7.9%, respectively, suffered these symptoms at least once a week, and 2.0%, 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively, defined their symptoms as frequent and severe. Male sex (P=0.01) and a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (P<0.0001) contributed significantly to the severity of upper GI reflux-like symptoms. In conclusion, GERD symptoms are common among Israeli Jews. The symptoms are generally of mild-to-moderate severity and are significantly associated with lower functional GI disorders. PMID:17450026

Sperber, Ami D; Halpern, Zamir; Shvartzman, Pesach; Friger, Michael; Freud, Tami; Neville, Anat; Fich, Alex

2007-01-01

170

Prevalence of Trial of Snus Products Among Adult Smokers  

PubMed Central

A 2008 survey assessed the proportion of smokers in 8 geographic areas who reported trying snus. In test markets, 10% of smokers had tried snus in the past year. Among young adult men, the trial rate was 29%. Trial was more likely among Whites than among minorities, among respondents with lower education than among those with higher education, and among those without immediate plans to quit smoking than among those intending to quit in the next 30 days. The association between trial and low cessation motivation is an important target for research.

McCausland, Kristen; Curry, Laurel; Cullen, Jennifer

2011-01-01

171

Pancreatic Cyst Prevalence and the Risk of Mucin-Producing Adenocarcinoma in United States Adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The presence of a pancreatic cyst often prompts concern, although the rate of malignant transformation to mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is not known. We aimed to determine the prevalence rate of mucin-producing adenocarcinoma in US adults with pancreatic cysts. METHODS This retrospective, population-based cross-sectional study calculated the annual number of mucin-producing adenocarcinomas using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER 18) database and the 2010 United States census. The overall prevalence rate of cysts in the population was found using data from large cross-sectional imaging studies of incidental cyst prevalence. Prevalence rates were then calculated by dividing the annual number of mucin-producing adenocarcinomas by the cyst prevalence rate. RESULTS Between 2005 and 2009, 1,137 mucin-producing adenocarcinomas were estimated to be found annually in a United States adult population of 137,154,960. The total number of pancreas cysts, given a cyst prevalence rate of 2.5%, was 3,428,874. Therefore, the prevalence of mucin-producing adenocarcinoma arising in patients with pancreatic cysts was 33.2 per 100,000 (95% CI: 21.6–44.0). The prevalence rate was 32.8 per 100,000 (95% CI: 21.6–44.0) in women and 33.5 per 100,000 (95% CI: 22.2–44.8) in men. As expected, the rate of malignant transformation increased linearly with advancing age (highest 38.6 per 100,000 in 80- to 84-year old men). CONCLUSIONS Malignant transformation of pancreatic cysts into mucin-producing adenocarcinoma in US adults is a very rare event. Current clinical guidelines and resource allocation for pancreatic cyst disease should be reconsidered given these findings.

Gardner, Timothy B.; Glass, Lisa M.; Smith, Kerrington D.; Ripple, Gregory H.; Barth, Richard J.; Klibansky, David A.; Colacchio, Thomas A.; Tsapakos, Michael J.; Suriawinata, Arief A.; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Pipas, J. Marc; Gordon, Stuart R.

2014-01-01

172

Economic Burden and Epidemiology of Pneumonia in Korean Adults Aged over 50 Years  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to estimate the direct medical costs and epidemiology of pneumonia in adults of Korea. We conducted a multi-center, retrospective, observational study and collected data targeting for community-acquired pneumonia patients ( ? 50 yr) from 11 hospitals. Costs attributable to the treatment of pneumonia were estimated by reviewing resource utilization and epidemiology data (distribution of pathogen, hospital length of stay, overall outcome) were also collected. A total 693 patients were included; average 70.1 ( ± 10.5) aged, 57.3% male and average 1.16 CURB-65 (confusion, blood urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age > 65 yr) scored. The pathogen was identified in the 32.9% (228 patients); Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 22.4% (51 patients) of identified pathogens. The hospital mortality was 3.2% (especially, for S. pneumoniae was 5.9%) and average length of stay was 9 days. The mean total cost for the treatment of pneumonia was US dollar (USD) 1,782 (SD: USD 1,501). Compared to the cost of all caused pneumonia, that of pneumococcal pneumonia was higher, USD 2,049 ( ± USD 1,919), but not statistically significant. Charge of hospitalization accounted the greatest part of total medical costs. The economic burden of pneumonia was high in Korea, and the prevention of pneumonia should be considered as effective strategy.

Yoo, Kwang Ha; Yoo, Chul Gyu; Kim, Se Kyu; Jung, Ji Ye; Lee, Myung Goo; Uh, Soo Taek; Shim, Tae Sun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Shim, Jae Jeong; Lee, Heung Bum; Chung, Chi Ryang; Kang, Kyung Woo

2013-01-01

173

Characteristics and Prevalence of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA).  

PubMed

Diabetes, one of the most commonly seen metabolic disorders, is affecting a major area of population in many developing as well as most of the developed countries and is becoming an alarming concern for the rising cost of the healthcare system. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes which is less recognized and underdiagnosed type of diabetes which appears to have characteristics of both type 1 (autoimmune in nature) and type 2 diabetes (adult age at onset and initial response to oral hypoglycemic agents). An epidemiological study was carried out on 500 patients in the western region of India. Various parameters such as age at onset, duration of diabetes, gender, basal metabolic index (BMI), type of diabetes, family history, HbA1c levels, cholesterol levels, and current treatment regimen were evaluated and correlated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, diagnostic markers for LADA, namely, GAD autoantibodies and C-peptide levels, were determined for 80 patients selected from the epidemiological study. Some of the results obtained were found to be consistent with the literature whereas some results were found to be contradictory to the existing data. PMID:22577577

Brahmkshatriya, Priyanka P; Mehta, Anita A; Saboo, Banshi D; Goyal, Ramesh K

2012-01-01

174

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study.

Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

2012-01-01

175

Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The presentation and causes of adult meningitis in South Africa have changed substantially as a result of HIV. Knowledge of aetiology and laboratory findings in patients presenting with meningitis are important in guiding management. We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town. METHODS: Patients undergoing lumbar

Joseph N Jarvis; Graeme Meintjes; Anthony Williams; Yolande Brown; Tom Crede; Thomas S Harrison

2010-01-01

176

Prevalence and Demographic Correlates of Childhood Maltreatment in an Adult Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study had two aims: (1) to determine the prevalence of five categories of retrospectively reported childhood maltreatment in an adult community sample and (2) to examine relationships between three theoretically and practically chosen demographic variables and childhood maltreatment. Method: Participants were a representative sample…

Scher, Christine D.; Forde, David R.; McQuaid, John R.; Stein, Murray B.

2004-01-01

177

Adult Sexual Assault: Prevalence, Symptomatology, and Sex Differences in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse

Diana M. Elliott; Doris S. Mok; John Brierel

2004-01-01

178

A prevalence study of suicide ideation among older adults in Hong Kong SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective The objective of this paper is to ascertain estimates of the prevalence, and associated risk factors for, suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method The study was conducted as part of the General Household Survey (GHS), using face to face interviews of ethnic Chinese people aged 60 or above living in the community. Elders living

Paul S. F. Yip; Iris Chi; Helen Chiu; Kwan Chi Wai; Yeates Conwell; Eric Caine

2003-01-01

179

Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…

Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

2003-01-01

180

Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: Implications for clinical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on the prevalence of the DSM-IV symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 720 adults applying for or renewing their driver's licenses in central Massachusetts (ages 17-84 years). Symptoms were assessed using two self- report rating scales: One for current symptoms and a second for retrospective recall of child hood symptoms (ages

K. Murphy; R. A. Barkley

1996-01-01

181

Prevalence and Types of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aggressive behaviours represent major obstacles to the integration into society of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and pose significant management issues for carers. Methods: The present study assessed the prevalence and severity of five types of aggressive behaviours in 3165 adult men and women with ID receiving services…

Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Lachapelle, Y.; Brunet, A.; Morin, D.; Roy, M. -E.

2006-01-01

182

Intake of Dietary Magnesium and the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among U.S. Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Limited data suggest that people with the metabolic syndrome have lower intakes or circulating concentrations of magnesium than those who do not have the syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between dietary intake of magnesium and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults.Research Methods and Procedures: We

Earl S. Ford; Chaoyang Li; Lisa C. McGuire; Ali H. Mokdad; Simin Liu

2007-01-01

183

The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

2005-01-01

184

Hand Eczema in Swedish Adults – Changes in Prevalence between 1983 and 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand eczema is the most frequent occupational skin disease. Our aim was to study changes in its prevalence in Swedish adults. Cross-sectional studies were performed in 1983 and 1996. Random samples from the population of Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 20–65 y, were drawn from the population register. Data were collected with a postal questionnaire, which was identical in the two studies.

Birgitta Meding; Bengt Järvholm

2002-01-01

185

Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level. Citation: Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050.

Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M.; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

2013-01-01

186

E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison.  

PubMed

Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ?18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ?18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors. PMID:24680203

Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

2014-07-01

187

Prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults: Effect of age, caffeine consumption and exercise.  

PubMed

Our objective was to determine the prevalence and distribution of fasciculations in healthy adults and to assess the effect of age, caffeine and exercise. Fasciculations were studied with ultrasonography in 58 healthy adults in various age categories. Questionnaires were used to determine effect of caffeine and regular exercise on the presence of fasciculations. Finally, we tested the effect of strenuous exercise on fasciculations in 10 healthy adults. Twenty-five subjects (43%) showed fasciculations on ultrasonography, mostly in the abductor hallucis longus muscle. Fasciculations were only sporadically encountered in muscle groups above the knee. Subjects with fasciculations were significantly older than those without. Caffeine and regular physical exercise did not influence the prevalence of fasciculations. However, strenuous physical exercise caused a temporary increase in fasciculations, but only in lower leg muscles. Fasciculations above the knee should raise suspicion and may warrant further investigation. PMID:19533451

Fermont, Jiske; Arts, Ilse M P; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Kleine, Bert U; Schelhaas, H Jurgen; Zwarts, Machiel J

2010-01-01

188

Prevalence of Anemia among Adults with Newly Diagnosed HIV/AIDS in China  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of anemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients in China has not been well characterized. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of anemia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Methods One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in China were selected during 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected to measure hemoglobin levels. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. Factors associated with the presence of anemia were analysed by logistic regression. Results Among the 1948 patients, 75.8% were male. Median age was 40 years (range: 18–80 years). The overall prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected patients was 51.9% (51.5% among men, 53.2% among women). The prevalences of mild anemia, of moderate anemia, of severe anemia were 32.4%, 17.0%, and 2.5%, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was higher among ethnic minority patients than among the Han patients (70.9% versus 45.9%). The prevalence of anemia increased with increasing age (49.6%, 53.5% and 60.1% among patients who were 18–39, 40–59, and ?60 years of age respectively) and with decreasing CD4 count (14.0%, 22.4%, 50.7%, and 74.6% among patients with CD4 count of ?350, 200–349, 50–199, and <50 cells/mm3 respectively). The logistic regression analysis showed that older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. Conclusions Anemia is highly prevalent among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, but severe anemia is less prevalent in this population. Older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity are associated with an increased risk of anemia.

Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Zhenyan; Lu, Hongzhou; Wang, Jiangrong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Zheng, Yufang

2013-01-01

189

Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The prevalence of Huntington's disease (HD) in the UK is uncertain. Recently, it has been suggested that the prevalence may be substantially greater than previously reported. This study was undertaken to estimate the overall UK prevalence in adults diagnosed with HD, using data from primary care. Methods The electronic medical records of patients aged 21?years or more, with recorded diagnoses of HD, were retrieved from the UK's General Practice Research Database. Prevalence was estimated from the number of persons with recorded diagnoses of HD, on 1 July each year, between 1990 and 2010. This number was divided by the total number of persons registered with participating general practices on that same date. These data were also used to estimate both age specific prevalence and prevalence in various regions of the UK. Results A total of 1136 patients diagnosed with HD, aged 21?years or more, were identified from the database. The estimated prevalence (expressed per 100?000 population) rose from 5.4 (95% CI 3.8 to 7.5) in 1990 to 12.3 (95% CI 11.2 to 13.5) in 2010. Although an increased prevalence was observed within every age group, the most dramatic was in older patients. Age specific prevalence was highest in the 51–60?year age range (15.8 95% CI 9.0 to 22.3). The prevalence of adult HD was lowest in the London region (5.4 (95% CI 3.0 to 8.9)) and highest in the North East of England (18.3 (95% CI 8.6 to 34.6)) and Scotland (16.1 (95% CI 10.8 to 22.9)). Conclusions The prevalence of diagnosed HD is clearly substantially higher in the UK than suggested from previous studies. By extrapolation to the UK as a whole, it is estimated that there are more than 5700 people, aged 21?years or more, with HD. There has also been a surprising doubling of the HD population between 1990 and 2010. Many factors may have caused this increase, including more accurate diagnoses, better and more available therapies and an improved life expectancy, even with HD. There also appears to be a greater willingness to register a diagnosis of HD in patients’ electronic medical records. Such a high prevalence of HD requires more ingenuity and responsiveness in its care. How to appropriately care for, and respond to, so many individuals and families coping with the exigencies of HD demands our greatest resolve and imagination.

Evans, Stephen JW; Douglas, Ian; Rawlins, Michael D; Wexler, Nancy S; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Smeeth, Liam

2013-01-01

190

Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Obesity in Pennsylvania Adults, 1995-2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examined trends in the prevalence and sociodemographic distributions of diabetes and the associations of diabetes with obesity over time in adult Pennsylvanians from 1995 through 2010. Methods We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data collected from 1995 through 2010. Diabetes prevalence was assessed by self-report of physician diagnosis. Obesity was assessed by body mass index computed from self-report of height and weight. State-level data for diabetes and associated obesity prevalence from 1995 through 2010 were collected for each year. Data on sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race, income, education) and 1 known disease risk factor (obesity) were also collected. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between diabetes, sociodemographic factors, and obesity. Results Diabetes prevalence in Pennsylvania, which increased from 5.6% in 1995 to 10.5% in 2010, followed national trends but exceeded the national prevalence each year by approximately 0.6 percentage points for 12 of the 16 years. The increase in prevalence was not equal across all socioeconomic groups. Obesity became a more dominant risk factor for diabetes during these 16 years. Conclusion The burden of diabetes and obesity in Pennsylvania is substantial and increasing. Program managers and policy makers in Pennsylvania should consider these trends when allocating limited resources and designing programs for reducing diabetes-related illness. Other states may consider similar studies to monitor the prevalence of diabetes and determine whether disparities are changing and whether programs and resources should also shift.

Lengerich, Eugene J.; Camacho, Fabian; Gallant, Nancy R.; Wray, Linda A.; Ahern, Frank; Bogdan, Greg; Weinberg, Gene; Ulbrecht, Jan S.

2014-01-01

191

Prevalence and Trends of Adult Obesity in the US, 1999-2012  

PubMed Central

Aim. To provide national estimates of obesity among US adults aged 20 years and older in 2011-2012 and track its trends from 1999 to 2012. Methods. Measured weight/height from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2012 waves was used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and prevalence measures. Piecewise logistic regressions were conducted to test the differential trends before and after 2010. Results. In 2011-2012, the age-adjusted prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ? 25) was 71.1% (95% CI: 68.0%–74.2%) among men and 65.5% (61.8%–69.3%) among women, and the prevalence of obesity (BMI ? 30) was 33.3% (30.5%–36.2%) among men and 35.8% (32.3%–39.4%) among women. From 1990–2000 to 2009-2010, the prevalence of overweight and obesity combined, obesity, grades 2 and 3 obesity combined (BMI ? 35), and grade 3 obesity (BMI ? 40) increased by 7.2%, 17.8%, 17.6%, and 33.0%, respectively. Compared to 2009-2010, most gender- and race/ethnicity-specific prevalence measures remained unchanged or slightly decreased in 2011-2012. No significant difference in trends among prevalence measures was found before and after 2010. Conclusions. Concurrent evidence on the leveling off of obesity in the US is thin. Given its high prevalence and profound socioeconomic consequences, close monitoring of the trend is warranted.

2014-01-01

192

Prevalence of selected clinical problems in older adults with autism and intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Background Originally described as a disorder of childhood, evidence now demonstrates the lifelong nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite the increase of the population over age 65, older adults with ASD remain a scarcely explored subpopulation. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of clinically relevant behaviors and medical problems in a sample of US adults aged 30 to 59 with ASD and intellectual disability (ID), in comparison to those with ID only. Methods A cross-sectional study, with both an exploratory and replication analysis, was conducted using National Core Indicators (NCI) multi-state surveys from 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011. There were 4,989 and 4,261 adults aged 30–59 with ID examined from the 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011 samples, respectively. The two consecutive annual samples consisted of 438 (9%) and 298 (7%) individuals with ASD and ID. Variables were chosen from the NCI data as outcomes, including medication use for behavior problems, severe or aggressive behavior problems and selected medical conditions. Results No age-associated disparities were observed between adults with ASD and ID versus adults with ID only in either sample. For the 2009 to 2010 sample, the prevalence of support needed to manage self-injurious, disruptive and destructive behavior in subjects with ASD and ID ranged from 40 to 60%. Similarly, the prevalence estimates of self-injurious, disruptive and destructive behavior were each almost double in adults with ASD and ID relative to those with ID only. These results were replicated in the 2010 to 2011 sample. Conclusions The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for research on the nature and treatment of severe behavior problems in the rapidly increasing population of older adults with ASD. They also suggest the importance of developing policies that expand our capacity to care for these individuals.

2013-01-01

193

The prevalence of disorders causing disability in young adult males in Turkey between 2009-2011  

PubMed Central

Objective: Disability is one of the significant problems that the public faces as regards social aspects, economics, public health and politics. Our aim was to review the prevalence of diseases causing disabilities in young adult men who are declared “unfit for military service” in Turkey after medical examination. Methods: We reviewed the prevalence of diseases among 113,175 young adult men who were referred for medical examination between 2009 and 2011. Results: Prevalence of unfitness for military service was 5.56% in 2009, 6.74% in 2010 and 6.77% in 2011. Leading causes for young adult men to be rejected from military service was intellectual disability 6.88, hearing loss 3.71, epilepsy 1.59, schizophrenia 1.54 and diabetes mellitus 1.47 per thousand people. Conclusion: Screening for the prevalence of disability conditions is an important data source for policies to be developed. Supporting such survey with community based studies in different populations in future shall be beneficial for improvement of policies in social and health fields.

Kocak, Necmettin; Turker, Turker; Aydin, Ibrahim; Istanbulluoglu, Hakan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Kilic, Selim

2013-01-01

194

The Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Our understanding of the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) in older adults with heart failure (HF) in a nationally-representative sample is limited. OBJECTIVES We used a national probability sample to determine the prevalence of CI in older adults with HF. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 wave of the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study linked to 2002–04 Medicare administrative claims SETTING United States, community-dwelling PARTICIPANTS 6,189 respondents ? 67 years old. MEASUREMENTS An algorithm was developed using a combination of self- and proxy-report of a heart problem and the presence of ? 1 Medicare claim in administrative files using standard HF diagnostic codes. On the basis of the algorithm, 3 categories were created to characterize the likelihood of a HF diagnosis: 1) High or Moderate Probability of HF; 2) Low Probability of HF; and 3) Not a HF case. Cognitive function was assessed using a screening measure of cognitive function or by proxy rating. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates of CI were calculated for the high-moderate probability HF group, the low probability HF group, and the non-HF cases. RESULTS The prevalence of CI consistent with dementia in older adults with HF was 15%; while the prevalence of mild CI was 24%. The odds of dementiain those with HF was significantly increased, even after adjustment for age, education level, net worth and prior stroke (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.14 – 2.02). CONCLUSION CI is common in older adults with HF and is independently associated with an increased risk for dementia. A cognitive assessment should be routinely incorporated into HF-focused models of care.

Gure, Tanya R.; Blaum, Caroline S.; Giordani, Bruno; Koelling, Todd M.; Galecki, Andrzej; Pressler, Susan J.; Hummel, Scott L.; Langa, Kenneth M.

2012-01-01

195

Prevalence of myelinated retinal nerve fibres in adult Indians: the Central India Eye and Medical Study.  

PubMed

Purpose:  To determine the prevalence of myelinated retinal nerve fibers in the adult Indian population. Methods:  The Central India Eye and Medical Study performed in rural Central India included 4711 participants aged 30+ years. The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic and medical examination. Results:  Readable fundus photographs were available for 8645 eyes of 4485 (95.2%) subjects. Myelinated retinal nerve fibers were detected in 52 eyes (46 subjects) with a prevalence rate of 0.58?±?0.08 per 100 eyes [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42, 0.74] and 1.03?±?0.15 per 100 subjects (95%CI: 0.73, 1.32). Prevalence of myelinated retinal nerve fibers was significantly associated hyperopic refractive error (p?=?0.008; OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.07, 1.59). It was not significantly associated with age (p?=?0.11), best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; p?=?0.33), intraocular pressure (p?=?0.09), amount of nuclear cataract (p?=?0.93), optic disc area (p?=?0.60), presence of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy (p?=?0.62), and early age-related macular degeneration (p?=?0.53). Conclusions:  Myelinated retinal nerve fibers are present in about 10 out of 1000 adult Indians in rural Central India, with a higher prevalence in hyperopic eyes. Prevalence of myelinated retinal nerve fibers was not associated with age, visual acuity, glaucoma and macular degeneration. PMID:23834732

Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Khare, Anshu; Bhate, Karishma; Agarwal, Shubhra; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra

2014-05-01

196

Evidence for population level declines in adult HIV prevalence in Kenya.  

PubMed

The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Kenya has been tracked through annual sentinel surveillance in antenatal clinics since 1990. The system started with 13 sites and now has over 35. Behaviours have been measured through national Demographic and Health Surveys in 1993, 1998, and 2003. The surveillance data indicate that prevalence has declined substantially starting in 1998 in five of the original 13 sites and starting in 2000 in another four sites. No decline is evident in the other five original sites although the 2004 estimate is the lowest recorded. Nationally, adult prevalence has declined from 10% in the late 1990s to under 7% today. Surveys indicate that both age at first sex and use of condoms are rising and that the percentage of adults with multiple partners is falling. It is clear that HIV prevalence is now declining in Kenya in a pattern similar to that seen in Uganda but seven or eight years later. Although the coverage of preventive interventions has expanded rapidly since 2000 this expansion was too late to account for the beginnings of the decline in prevalence. More work is needed to understand fully the causes of this decline, but it is encouraging to see Kenya join the small list of countries experiencing significant declines in HIV prevalence. PMID:16581755

Cheluget, B; Baltazar, G; Orege, P; Ibrahim, M; Marum, L H; Stover, J

2006-04-01

197

The Next Generation of Users: Prevalence and Longitudinal Patterns of Tobacco Use Among US Young Adults.  

PubMed

Objectives. We monitored the prevalence and patterns of use of the array of tobacco products available to young adults, who are at risk for initiation and progression to established tobacco use. Methods. We used data from waves 1 to 3 of GfK's KnowledgePanel (2011-2012), a nationally representative cohort of young adults aged 18 to 34 years (n?=?2144). We examined prevalence and patterns of tobacco product use over time, associated demographics, and state-level tobacco policy. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine predictors of initiation of cigarettes as well as noncombustible and other combustible products. Results. The prevalence of ever tobacco use rose from 57.28% at wave 1 to 67.43% at wave 3. Use of multiple products was the most common pattern (66.39% of tobacco users by wave 3). Predictors of initiation differed by product type and included age, race/ethnicity, policy, and use of other tobacco products. Conclusions. Tobacco use is high among young adults and many are using multiple products. Efforts to implement policy and educate young adults about the risks associated with new and emerging products are critical to prevent increased initiation of tobacco use. PMID:24922152

Richardson, Amanda; Williams, Valerie; Rath, Jessica; Villanti, Andrea C; Vallone, Donna

2014-08-01

198

Prevalence and Correlates of Prescription Drug Misuse among Socially Active Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Prescription drug misuse represents an emerging global drug trend. Data indicate that young adults are misusing prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is critical, particularly for those engaged in social scenes known to accommodate drug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of lifetime and recent prescription drug misuse among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results In a diverse sample of 1,207 young adults, 44.1% reported lifetime prescription drug misuse, and 20.3% reported misuse during the past three months. Stimulants were the most common class of drug respondents misused within the past six months (16.7%), followed by pain killers (16.5%) and sedatives (14.5%). While no gender or sexual orientation differences in misuse prevalence existed, Black youth reported the lowest prevalence of misuse. In multivariate analyses, increased age was associated with lower odds of recent misuse, females report lower odds of recent use, and Black, Asian, and Latino individuals had lower odds of recent misuse than Whites. These odds varied by prescription drug type. Negative binomial regression analyses indicate that, among prescription drug misusers, women misuse prescription drugs less frequently. Younger individuals more frequently misuse stimulants and older individuals more frequently misuse sedatives. Racial variation existed with frequency of use across classes. Conclusions This study illustrates the need for health promotion efforts targeting prescription drug misuse among young adults who are highly socially active. Future research should focus on motivations for and factors associated with prescription drug misuse within youth cultures. Further research may provide a fuller sense of how to reduce the impact of prescription drug misuse for nations whose prescription drug problem lags behind that of the U.S.

Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

2012-01-01

199

Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010.  

PubMed

This study estimated the prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population, with data from the 2009 and 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycle. Estimates were derived from a sample of 3,742 adults aged 30 years and older, of the civilian non-institutionalized population, having 1 or more natural teeth. Attachment loss (AL) and probing depth (PD) were measured at 6 sites per tooth on all teeth (except the third molars). Over 47% of the sample, representing 64.7 million adults, had periodontitis, distributed as 8.7%, 30.0%, and 8.5% with mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis, respectively. For adults aged 65 years and older, 64% had either moderate or severe periodontitis. Eighty-six and 40.9% had 1 or more teeth with AL ? 3 mm and PD ? 4 mm, respectively. With respect to extent of disease, 56% and 18% of the adult population had 5% or more periodontal sites with ? 3 mm AL and ? 4 mm PD, respectively. Periodontitis was highest in men, Mexican Americans, adults with less than a high school education, adults below 100% Federal Poverty Levels (FPL), and current smokers. This survey has provided direct evidence for a high burden of periodontitis in the adult U.S. population. PMID:22935673

Eke, P I; Dye, B A; Wei, L; Thornton-Evans, G O; Genco, R J

2012-10-01

200

Prevalence and correlates of childhood sexual abuse in adults consulting for sexual problems.  

PubMed

The main objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in individuals consulting for sexual therapy and to explore the association between a history of childhood sexual abuse and psychological and couple functioning. A sample of 218 adults receiving sex therapy completed questionnaires assessing depressive and anxious symptomatology, as well as dyadic adjustment. Prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was high in women (56%) and men (37%), and clients with a history of childhood sexual abuse were more likely to report psychological and relationship problems. Findings should aware clinicians of the need to assess sexual trauma and related outcomes. PMID:24127985

Berthelot, Nicolas; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Goulet, Michel; Bergeron, Sophie

2014-01-01

201

The High Prevalence of Symptomatic Degenerative Lumbar Osteoarthritis in Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45 years. Lumbar osteoarthritis is epidemic in Beijing and will become a more severe problem in aging society. Different populations have different features that require targeted interventions. Level of Evidence: 2

Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao

2014-01-01

202

Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies.

2012-01-01

203

The Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Adults: Findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to examine the association between circulating vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the associations between depressive symptoms and various sociodemographic factors. Data on serum 25(OH)D levels, sociodemographic factors, and information on depressive symptoms were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1 2010. A total of 3,570 Koreans aged ?20 years were included in the statistical analysis. Subjects with depressive symptoms had lower serum levels of 25(OH)D (41.6±16.2 nmol/L) than those without (44.3±16.2 nmol/L; P-value<0.05; effect size?=?0.17). In a logistic regression analysis, the 25(OH)D sufficiency group (?50 nmol/L) revealed fewer depressive symptoms (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53–0.97; P-value?=?0.032) after adjusting for multiple factors. In addition, females (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.55–5.11; P-value<0.001), problematic alcohol users (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.63–3.34; P-value<0.001), current smokers (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02–1.99; P-value?=?0.036), and subjects who experienced weight loss (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.30–2.44; P-value<0.001) were more likely to answer “yes” on question for depressive symptoms. In conclusion, low serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with an increased risk for depression symptoms in Korean adults. In addition, several sociodemographic factors were related to the depressive symptoms. Our results provide insight into the relationships among vitamin D status, sociodemographic factors, and depression in the Korean population.

Chung, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Yoonsu; Choi, Sumi; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-01-01

204

Prevalence of Obesity Among Children and\\/or Grandchildren of Adult Bariatric Surgery Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Clinical experience suggests that some adults who undergo bariatric surgery have children who are obese. Childhood obesity\\u000a is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This study examined the prevalence of obesity among children\\u000a and grandchildren (?12 years of age) of adult bariatric surgery patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients in a prospective database of morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery between

Jean J. Bao; Vikas Desai; Katherine Kaufer Christoffel; Patrick Smith-Ray; Alex P. Nagle

2009-01-01

205

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms “prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria” or “overweight and obesity in Nigeria.” In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%–35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%–22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders.

Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

2013-01-01

206

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Filipino adults aged 20 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using data collected from 4,541 adults aged 20 years and over covered in the Fifth National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. The metabolic variables ana- lyzed were: total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. In addition, measurements of obesity such as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)

Celeste C Tanchoco; Arsenia J Cruz RND; Charmaine A Duante; Augusto D Litonjua

207

Increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among Spanish adults, 1987–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To study the trend in the prevalence of obesity and overweight in Spanish men and women 25–64 y of age between 1987 and 1997.DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys of representative samples of the non-institutionalized population in Spain in 1987, 1995 and 1997.SUBJECTS: 14,676 and 7004 adults aged 25–64 who were representative of the Spanish population in 1987 and 1995\\/1997.MEASURES: Body mass

JL Gutiérrez-Fisac; JL Banegas Banegas; F Rodríguez Artalejo; E Regidor

2000-01-01

208

Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Distress Among Working Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of mental distress and its correlates among working Ethiopian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 2,180 individuals (1,316 men and 864 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of participants. Mental distress was assessed using the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ). Logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: The prevalence of mental distress in the study sample was 17.7% (25.9% in women and 12.4% in men). Younger participants (age ?24 years) had the highest prevalence of mental distress (35.5% in women and 16.7% in men). The odds of mental distress was 2.47-fold higher among women as compared with men (OR=2.47, 95% CI 1.97-3.09). Participants reporting excellent health status had a 50% reduced odds of mental distress (OR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.38-0.59); and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a slight increased odds of mental distress (OR=1.26; 95%CI: 1.00-1.67). Conclusion: A high prevalence of mental distress was observed among working adults in Ethiopia. Our findings suggest that the workforce institutions should provide targeted prevention and intervention programs to improve the mental health state of their employees. National mental health policy that clearly outlines and addresses mental distress among working adults is also warranted.

Gelaye, Bizu; Lemma, Seblewengel; Deyassa, Negussie; Bahretibeb, Yonas; Tesfaye, Markos; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

2012-01-01

209

Prevalence of asthma control among adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article were to estimate the prevalence of asthma control and describe the characteristics of at least well-controlled (ALWC) versus not well-controlled (NWC) asthmatics. Data were obtained from the European National Health and Wellness Survey, an internet-based, cross-sectional study of 37,476 adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Analysis was limited to 2,337 respondents who

P. Demoly; P. Paggiaro; V. Plaza; S. C. Bolge; H. Kannan; B. Sohier; L. Adamek

2009-01-01

210

Body Mass Index and Prevalence of Skin Diseases in Adults with Untreated Coeliac Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with immune-mediated skin diseases such as dermatitis herpetiformis and others. The objective of the study was to investigate the relation of body mass index (BMI), as an index of absorptive status, with the prevalence of skin diseases in adults with untreated CD. Methods: Anthropometry, gastro-intestinal symptoms, nutritional indices and immune-mediated skin diseases (dermatitis herpetiformis,

F. Zingone; C. Bucci; R. Tortora; A. Santonicola; C. Cappello; M. D. Franzese; V. Passananti; C. Ciacci

2009-01-01

211

Overactive Bladder Syndrome among Community-Dwelling Adults in Taiwan: Prevalence, Correlates, Perception, and Treatment Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We investigated the prevalence, correlates, perception of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and doctor-consultation behavior among community adults. Subjects and Methods: This urological survey was part of a government-supported health utilization project conducted in Matsu, Taiwan. Participants (n = 1,827) completed a questionnaire collecting information on OAB, which was defined as urgency with either frequency or nocturia. Results: The age-adjusted

Hong-Jeng Yu; Cheng-Ying Liu; Kuang-Lug Lee; Wei-Chia Lee; Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen

2006-01-01

212

Prevalence of hypertransaminasemia in adult celiac patients and effect of gluten-free diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia and the effect of gluten-free diet (GFD) were evaluated in 158 consecutive adult celiac patients, 127 women and 31 men, aged 18 to 68 years (mean, 32). At diagnosis, 67 patients (42%) had raised aspartate and\\/or alanine transaminase levels (AST and ALT; mean, 47 IU\\/L, range, 30 to 190; and 61 IU\\/L, range, 25 to 470,

Maria Teresa Bardella; Mirella Fraquelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Nicoletta Molteni; Paolo Bianchi; Dario Conte

1995-01-01

213

High prevalence of glucose intolerance even among young adults in south India  

PubMed Central

India is experiencing an epidemic of type 2 diabetes (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2,218 young adults (aged 26-32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in South India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969-1973 in Vellore and nearby villages. Family history, socio-economic status, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed for diagnosis (WHO recommendations). Insulin resistance and secretion were derived from plasma insulin concentrations. Median BMI was 20.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 DM and IGT was higher in urban than in rural subjects (3.7% vs 2.1%, p=0.02; 18.9% vs 14.3%, p=0.002 respectively), while prevalence of IFG was similar in urban and rural populations (3.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.04). Type 2 DM, IGT, IFG or higher insulin resistance and increment were associated with higher socio-economic status (more household possessions) and higher percentage body fat, body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Insulin increment was lower in men with higher alcohol consumption. Our data suggest high levels of glucose intolerance in young rural and urban adults highlighting an urgent need for preventive action to avert a public health catastrophe in India.

Raghupathy, Palany; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Geethanjali, Finney S.; Leary, Samantha D.; Saperia, Julia; Priya, G; Rajaratnam, Abel; Richard, Joseph

2012-01-01

214

Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial.

Estevez, Natalia; Eich-Hochli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

2014-01-01

215

High prevalence of periodontitis in non-elderly obese Japanese adults.  

PubMed

Summary: Objectives: Several recent reports have indicated a high prevalence of periodontitis in obese subjects, but the results have not been consistent. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in non-elderly obese Japanese adults and to explore the relationship between obesity and periodontitis.Methods: Ninety-five obese subjects (BMI ? 25; males: 44, females: 51) and 102 subjects with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25; males: 66, females: 36) were enrolled from April 1997 to March 1999 in the study. All subjects were aged 25-40 years old. The status of periodontitis was evaluated based on the intraoral community periodontal index (CPI) codes of the WHO, and the numbers of present teeth, untreated decayed teeth, missing teeth, and filled teeth were also examined.Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in obese subjects, and particularly in females, compared to controls, whereas the numbers of present teeth, decayed teeth, missing teeth and filled teeth did not differ significantly between the obese subjects and the controls for both males and females. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that obesity was significantly related to periodontitis.Conclusion: A high prevalence of periodontitis was found in non-elderly Japanese obese subjects, and particularly in obese female adults. Correlation analysis also suggested that obesity carries a high risk for development of periodontitis. PMID:24345696

Katagiri, Sayaka; Nitta, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Toshiyuki; Izumi, Yuichi; Kanazawa, Masao; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Miyauchi, Takashi; Nakamura, Naoto; Kanamura, Narisato; Ando, Yuichi; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Inoue, Shuji

2010-01-01

216

Metabolic syndrome prevalence according to ATP III and IDF criteria and related factors in Turkish adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and the risk factors affecting MS. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was evaluated according to certain quintet age groups, altitude, location and demographic features. Material and methods This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 24 provinces from the 7 regions of Turkey. A total of 4309 adults from 7 regions participated in the study (1947 males, 45.2%). Results The mean age of participants was 47 ±14 years. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found as 36.6% according to ATP III and 44.0% according to IDF. The MS rate was found to be higher in females compared to males in both groups (p < 0.01). According to both criteria, MS prevalence was found to be higher in subjects who lived in coastal regions when evaluated according to altitude and in subjects who lived in district centers when evaluated according to location. The MS risk is 1.62-fold higher in females compared to males. Metabolic syndrome risk increases as age increases and is highest in the 61-65 age group. Metabolic syndrome risk increases 2.75-fold in the overweight compared to normal weighing subjects and 7.80-fold in the obese. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found to be high in Turkey according to both criteria. Metabolic syndrome prevalence increases as age and body mass index (BMI) increase. Age, female gender and obesity are independent risk factors for MS development.

Bayram, Fahri; Gedik, Vedia; Kaya, Ahmet; Karaman, Ahmet; Demir, Ozgur; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Kocer, Derya; Coskun, Ramazan

2013-01-01

217

Prevalence of hyperglycemia among adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in China  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hyperglycemia among HIV-infected persons who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Methods Two thousand and six newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients from 10 provinces and municipalities in China were selected during 2009 to 2010. After an overnight fast, serum samples were collected to measure glucose concentrations. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. Factors associated with the presence of diabetes were analysed by logistic regression. Results Among the 2006 patients, 75.67% were male. Median age was 40 years (range: 18–86 years). 19.99% had hyperglycemia, 9.47% had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 10.52% had diabetes. The prevalences of hyperglycemia, of IFG and of diabetes were 21.54%, 10.28% and 11.27% among men and 15.16%, 6.97% and 8.20% among women, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes increased with increasing age (7.00%, 13.36% and 21.21% among patients who were 18–40, 40–60, and ?60 years of age respectively) and with decreasing CD4 count (6.74%, 8.45%, 9.69%, and 12.66% among patients with CD4 count of ?350, 200–350, 50–200, and?prevalence of diabetes was higher among ethnic minority patients than among the Han patients (14.37% versus 9.24%). The logistic analysis showed that older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is highly prevalent among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity are associated with increased risk of diabetes. All newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS individuals should be routinely evaluated for hyperglycemia.

2013-01-01

218

Reference Equations for the Six-Minute Walk Distance in Healthy Korean Adults, Aged 22-59 Years  

PubMed Central

Background The six-minute walk test has been widely used in people with chronic cardiopulmonary disorders as an outcome assessment with regards to therapeutic or prognostic determinants. This study was undertaken to determine the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in a sample of healthy Koreans and to create a reference equation. We also compared the 6MWD of our cohort with previously published equations. Methods Two hundred fifty-nine healthy subjects (95 males) aged 22-59 years performed two walking tests using a standardized protocol. 6MWD was defined as the greatest distance achieved from the two tests. The effect of anthropometrics on the 6MWD was also investigated. Results The average 6MWD was 598.5±57.92 m, with significantly longer distances by males (628.9±59.51 m) than females (580.9±47.80 m) (p<0.001). Age, height, weight, and body mass index were significantly correlated with 6MWD in univariate analysis. Stepwise multiple regression showed height to be single independent predictor of 6MWD (r2=0.205, p<0.001). The reference equations derived in Caucasian and North African populations tend to overestimate the distance walked by Korean subjects, while Asian equations underestimate it. Conclusion The average 6MWD in these Korean populations was 600 m. The regression equation revealed that individual's height was the most significant predictor of distance, explaining 20.5% of the distance variance.

Kim, Ah Lim; Kwon, Jae Choon; Park, In; Kim, Ji Na; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Bi Na; Yu, Sung Ken; Lee, Byung Ki

2014-01-01

219

Prevalence and correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults from a French community sample.  

PubMed

Validated tools are lacking in languages such as French to diagnose attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The Adult ADHD Symptoms Self-Report (ASRS) was filled out by 1171 parents of 900 school-aged youths in the context of the Children and Parents With ADHD and Related Disorders study. Prevalence estimates based on three scoring methods are compared (6-item screener, all 18 items, or the screener followed by the 12 remaining items). On the basis of the recommended and more conservative scoring method, the overall prevalence of ADHD symptoms is estimated to be 2.99%, without significant group differences between sexes or between younger and older adults. Potential correlates of ADHD symptoms were also examined in their relatives (children, brothers/sisters, uncles/aunts, and parents) as follows: birth order, level of education, body mass index categories, enuresis, suicide attempts, depression, and learning disabilities. Adults can be screened for ADHD symptoms using the ASRS; negative long-term outcomes should be assessed in patients' relatives too. PMID:24647218

Caci, Hervé M; Morin, Alexandre J S; Tran, Antoine

2014-04-01

220

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among Korean American nonsmokers in California.  

PubMed

Information about the extent and patterns of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among Korean Americans is sparse, despite the population's having one of the highest male smoking rates. This paper estimates the prevalence of ETS exposure among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and identifies demographic and other characteristics associated with exposure. Data were collected during 2001-2002 from telephone interviews (in English or Korean) with 2,328 nonsmoking Korean American adults. ETS was encountered by 31% of respondents during a typical day. Exposure was most common in "other locations," where 24% of respondents were exposed, compared with 6% at home and 9% at work. Among those exposed, the greatest dose of exposure occurred at work (6 cigarettes/day) and at home (5 cigarettes/day). Women were four times more likely than men to be exposed to ETS at home (8% vs. 2%, respectively). For both men and women, the odds of exposure were greater among those who were younger, who were unmarried, and whose friends smoked. Additionally, traditional men and bicultural women had greater odds of ETS exposure than those who were more acculturated. Women who were married to smokers, had no children at home, consumed more alcohol, and had no home smoking ban also had greater likelihood of exposure. The results indicate the need for a complete ban of smoking in workplaces and in private homes to prevent exposure, particularly for women whose husbands smoke. PMID:18418789

Hughes, Suzanne C; Corcos, Isabel A; Hofstetter, Richard C; Hovell, Melbourne F; Irvin, Veronica L

2008-04-01

221

Smoking prevalence and correlates among Chinese and Filipino-American adults: Findings from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe report prevalence rates and correlates of cigarette smoking among a population-based sample of Chinese- and Filipino-American adults together with rates found in other racial\\/ethnic groups in California.

Annette E. Maxwell; Coen A. Bernaards; William J. McCarthy

2005-01-01

222

Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli in Korean Nationwide Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance group hospitals in 2003: continued prevalence of VIM-producing Pseudomonas spp. and increase of IMP-producing Acinetobacter spp.  

PubMed

Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were prevalent in Korean hospitals. In this study, the prevalence and presence of MBL-producing isolates among imipenem-nonsusceptible and imipenem-susceptible isolates, respectively, were screened. The genetic and phenotypic characteristics of MBL-producing isolates were determined. Among imipenem-nonsusceptible isolates, 52 (11.1%) of 467 Pseudomonas spp. were blaVIM-like allele-positive, and 33 (15.1%) of 218 Acinetobacter spp. were either blaVIM- or blaIMP-like allele-positive. One blaVIM-like allele-positive isolate of Acinetobacter spp. was detected among 84 imipenem-susceptible Acinetobacter isolates. The minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates of imipenem was higher (>128 microg/mL) for Pseudomonas spp. than Acinetobacter spp. (16 microg/mL), although both had blaVIM-like allele. The source of MBL-producing isolates was mostly the sputum and urine of patients in the intensive care unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis suggested the intra- and inter-hospital spread of MBL-producing strains at some hospitals. In conclusion, blaVIM-like allele-positive P. aeruginosa remained highly prevalent, and the proportion of blaIMP-like allele-positive Acinetobacter spp. has increased significantly in most Korean hospitals. PMID:15380278

Lee, Kyungwon; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Shin, Bo-Moon; Kim, Jin Ju; Kang, Jung Oak; Jang, Sook Jin; Yong, Dongeun; Chong, Yunsop

2004-09-01

223

Prevalence, Course, and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depression in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: (1) To describe the prevalence and prospective course of insomnia in a representative young-adult sample and (2) to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between insomnia and depression. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Community of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Representative stratified population sample. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: The Zurich Study prospectively assessed psychiatric, physical, and sleep symptoms in a community sample of young adults (n = 591) with 6 interviews spanning 20 years. We distinguished 4 duration-based subtypes of insomnia: 1-month insomnia associated with significant distress, 2- to 3-week insomnia, recurrent brief insomnia, and occasional brief insomnia. The annual prevalence of 1-month insomnia increased gradually over time, with a cumulative prevalence rate of 20% and a greater than 2-fold risk among women. In 40% of subjects, insomnia developed into more chronic forms over time. Insomnia either with or without comorbid depression was highly stable over time. Insomnia lasting 2 weeks or longer predicted major depressive episodes and major depressive disorder at subsequent interviews; 17% to 50% of subjects with insomnia lasting 2 weeks or longer developed a major depressive episode in a later interview. “Pure” insomnia and “pure” depression were not longitudinally related to each other, whereas insomnia comorbid with depression was longitudinally related to both. Conclusions: This longitudinal study confirms the persistent nature of insomnia and the increased risk of subsequent depression among individuals with insomnia. The data support a spectrum of insomnia (defined by duration and frequency) comorbid with, rather than secondary to, depression. Citation: Buysse DJ; Angst J; Gamma A; Ajdacic V; Eich D; Rössler W. Prevalence, Course, and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depression in Young Adults. SLEEP 2008;31(4):473-480.

Buysse, Daniel J.; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Eich, Dominique; Rossler, Wulf

2008-01-01

224

The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status), Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373). Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013), ethnicity (p = 0.001), religion (p = 0.002), schooling (p = 0.020), educational level (p = 0.016), marital status (p = 0.001) and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj

2009-01-01

225

Prevalence of asthma and risk factors among Chinese, Malay, and Indian adults in Singapore.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--The prevalence and morbidity of asthma vary greatly among different ethnic communities and geographical locations, but the roles of environmental and genetic factors are not fully understood. The differences in prevalence of adult asthma among Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in Singapore were examined, and the extent to which these could be explained by personal and environmental factors were investigated. METHODS--A stratified disproportionate random sample (n = 2868) of Chinese (n = 1018), Malays (n = 967), and Indians (n = 883) of both sexes was drawn from households in five public housing estates, and an interviewer administered questionnaire was used to determine cumulative and current prevalence of "physician diagnosed asthma" (symptoms with a physician diagnosis of asthma). RESULTS--Lifetime cumulative prevalence (standardised to the general population) of "physician diagnosed asthma" was 4.7% in men and 4.3% in women; 12 month period prevalences were 2.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Cumulative prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in Indians (6.6%) and Malays (6.0%) than in Chinese (3.0%); period prevalences of asthma were 4.5% in Indians, 3.3% in Malays, and 0.9% in Chinese. Ownership of cats or dogs was more frequent in Malays (15.4%) and Indians (11.2%) than in Chinese (8.8%). Rugs and carpets were also more frequently used by Malays (52.2%) and Indians (40.7%) than by Chinese (8.9%). Current smoking prevalences were higher in Malays (27.3%) than in Indians (19.4%) and Chinese (23.0%). Malays and Indians did not have higher rates of atopy (11.1% and 15.2%, respectively) than Chinese (15.4%). Adjustment for these factors in multivariate analyses reduced the greater odds of asthma in Malays and Indians, but not to a significant extent. CONCLUSIONS--There are ethnic differences in the prevalence of asthma in Singapore which are not entirely explained by differences in smoking, atopy, or other risk factors. Other unmeasured environmental factors or genetic influences are likely to account for residual differences in the prevalence of asthma.

Ng, T. P.; Hui, K. P.; Tan, W. C.

1994-01-01

226

National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2%) in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4%) in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9%) in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1%) in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6%) and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%). Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set targets for obesity prevalence as requested at the United Nations high-level meeting on Prevention and Control of NCDs.

2012-01-01

227

High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

PubMed Central

The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease.

McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

1998-01-01

228

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in diabetic adult out-patients in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The number of adults with diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide, particularly in Asia and Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, renal complications of diabetes may go unrecognized due to limited diagnostic resources. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among adult diabetics in sub-Saharan Africa has not been well described. Methods This study was conducted at the diabetes mellitus clinic of Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total 369 consecutive adult diabetic patients were enrolled and interviewed. Each patient provided a urine sample for microalbuminuria and proteinuria and a blood sample for serum creatinine level. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Cockroft-Gault equation. CKD was staged according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes system. Results A total of 309 (83.7%) study participants had CKD; 295 (80.0%) had significant albuminuria and 91 (24.7%) had eGFR?prevalent among adult diabetic outpatients attending our clinic in Tanzania, but is usually undiagnosed. Nearly ¼ of patients had an eGFR low enough to require dose adjustment of diabetic medications. More diagnostic resources are needed for CKD screening among adults in Tanzania in order to slow progression and prevent complications.

2013-01-01

229

The prevalence and epidemiology of genetic renal disease amongst adults with chronic kidney disease in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background There are an established and growing number of Mendelian genetic causes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, though estimates of prevalence have been speculative. The CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD) registry enables partial clarification of this through the study of adults with CKD receiving nephrology care throughout Queensland, Australia. Methods Data from the first 2,935 patients consented to the CKD.QLD registry across five sites was analysed, with a comparison between those with and without Genetic Renal Disease (GRD). Prevalence of GRD amongst those with diagnosed CKD, the general population, and commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) was calculated using the CKD.QLD registry, national census data and extracted Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation (ANZDATA) registry report data respectively. Results Patients with GRD constituted 9.8% of this Australian adult CKD cohort (287/2935). This was lower than in local incident RRT cohorts (2006–2011: 9.8% vs 11.3%, x2?=?0.014). Cases of adult CKD GRD were more likely to be female (54.0% vs 45.6%; x2?=?0.007), younger (mean 52.6 yrs vs 69.3 yrs, p?adult CKD population in specialty renal practice is similar to past estimations. GRD is a significant cause for CKD and for RRT commencement, presenting opportunities for ongoing longitudinal study, directed therapeutics and clinical service redesign.

2014-01-01

230

High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy  

PubMed Central

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees.

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2013-01-01

231

High prevalence of chronic non-communicable conditions among adult refugees: implications for practice and policy.  

PubMed

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2012-10-01

232

Population-based pace study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in adults.  

PubMed

Primary headache prevalence in the adult Italian general population has been little studied so far. This is an observational, cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in a subject sample that was representative of the city of Parma's general population >or=age 18. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. Headache past-year prevalence decreases with age, both in men and in women. After 60, the likelihood of suffering from headache is low. In more than 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and, therefore, it is not very likely for people to develop headache at an advanced age (>50 years). This is the first population-based study conducted in Italy on a sample aged >or=18 since the publication of the IHS diagnostic criteria in 1988. PMID:20464607

Torelli, Paola; Abrignani, G; Berzieri, L; Castellini, P; Ferrante, T; Lambru, G; Latte, L; Russo, M; Zani, S; Manzoni, G C

2010-06-01

233

Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial.

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

2014-01-01

234

The Prevalence, Incidence, and Factors Predictive of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Profound Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are no previous studies of the prevalence and incidence of mental ill-health in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Method: In this population-based prospective cohort study, adults with profound intellectual disabilities underwent psychiatric assessment (n = 184), with further assessment after 2 years (n = 131).…

Cooper, Sally-Ann; Smiley, Elita; Finlayson, Janet; Jackson, Alison; Allan, Linda; Williamson, Andrew; Mantry, Dipali; Morrison, Jillian

2007-01-01

235

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

2008-01-01

236

Prevalence of coronary heart disease among Tehran adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.  

PubMed

This study is the first report on the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its associated risk factors in adult residents of Tehran. Standard supine ECG data were collected for 5984 men and women aged > or = 30 years and coded by Minnesota criteria. All major cardiovascular risk factors were also measured. Based on Rose angina, self-reported history of CHD or ECG-defined CHD, the aged-adjusted prevalence of CHD was 21.8% (22.3% in women and 18.8% in men). Variables independently associated with CHD were female sex, age, systolic blood pressure, 2-hour postprandial glucose, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. PMID:19469439

Hadaegh, F; Harati, H; Ghanbarian, A; Azizi, F

2009-01-01

237

Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

2014-01-01

238

High Prevalence of Stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease in Older Adults Despite Normal Serum Creatinine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Serum creatinine is commonly used to diagnose chronic kidney disease (CKD), but may underestimate CKD in older adults when compared with using glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). The magnitude of this underestimation is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE Using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, to describe both the prevalence and the magnitude of underestimation of stage 3 CKD (GFR 30–59 ml/min/1.73 m2), as well as ideal serum creatinine cutoff values to diagnose stage 3 CKD among Americans ?65 years of age. DESIGN Cross-sectional. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3,406 participants ?65 years of age from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). MEASUREMENTS Serum creatinine levels were used to determine eGFR from the MDRD equation. Information on clinical conditions was self-reported. RESULTS Overall, 36.1% of older adults in the US have stage 3 or greater CKD as defined by eGFR values. Among older adults with stage 3 CKD, 80.6% had creatinine values ?1.5 mg/dl, and 38.6% had creatinine values ?1.2 mg/dl. Optimal cutoff values for serum creatinine in the diagnosis of stage 3 CKD in older adults were ?1.3 mg/dl for men and ?1.0 mg/dl for women, regardless of the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, or congestive heart failure. CONCLUSION Use of serum creatinine underestimates the presence of advanced (stage 3 or greater) CKD among older adults in the US. Automated eGFR reporting may improve the accuracy of risk stratification for older adults with CKD.

Vargas, Roberto B.; Kermah, Dulcie; Nissenson, Allen R.; Norris, Keith C.

2008-01-01

239

Assessing the WHO 50% Prevalence Threshold in School-Aged Children as Indication for Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Adults in Central Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is recommended in adults by the World Health Organization when prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children (SAC) is ? 50%. This study ascertained the value of this threshold in predicting prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma hematobium (SH) infection in adults in central Nigeria. We evaluated urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence in 1,164 adults: 659 adults in 12 communities where mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 26.6% and 505 adults in 7 communities where the mean hematuria among SAC in 2008 was 70.4%. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of adults in prevalence of hematuria, prevalence of SH eggs, or intensity of infections. We conclude that, in this setting, the SAC threshold is not useful for treatment decisions in adults. Given the increased risk of subtle morbidity or urogenital schistosomiasis as a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), more liberal treatment of adults with praziquantel is warranted.

Evans, Darin S.; King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Adamani, William; Alphonsus, Kal; Sambo, Yohanna; Miri, Emmanual S.; Goshit, Danjuma; Ogah, Gladys; Richards, Frank O.

2013-01-01

240

BMI status in Swedish children and young adults in relation to caries prevalence.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity are increasing as health problems at global level. Dental caries and obesity are both multifactorial diseases and are associated with dietary habits. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body weight status and caries prevalence in an unselected population followed from pre-school years to young adulthood. The present investigation was designed as a longitudinal analysis of the association between overweight/obesity and dental caries in one population at 3, 6, 15 and 20 years of age. The result shows that adolescents (15 years) and young adults (20 years) who are overweight/obese had a statistically significantly higher caries prevalence than normal-weight young people. At 6 years of age, the odds (OR) of having caries among obese children are 2.5 times higher than the odds for caries among six-year-old children of normal weight (p = 0.04). At 3 years of age, no association between overweight/obesity and caries was found. To conclude, overweight and obese adolescents and young adults had more caries than normal-weight individuals. The present study emphasises the need for multidisciplinary approaches to change the lifestyle factors causing both overweight/obesity and dental caries. PMID:21591594

Alm, Anita; Isaksson, Helen; Fåhraeus, Christina; Koch, Göran; Andersson-Gäre, Boel; Nilsson, Mats; Birkhed, Dowen; Wendts, Lill-Kari

2011-01-01

241

Prevalence and risk factors for work related asthma in young adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the prevalence and predictors of work related asthma in young adults from the general population. Methods A total of 1922 subjects randomly selected from a birth cohort 1978/79 in Brazil, aged 23–25 years, completed a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, and underwent spirometry, bronchial challenge test with methacholine, and skin prick test. For subjects presenting with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, workplace exposure and its relationship with symptoms were assessed by a specific questionnaire and individualised job description to define cases of work related asthma. Results The prevalence of work related asthma was 4.2% (81 cases): 1.5% (29 cases) were classified as aggravated asthma and 2.7% (52 cases) as occupational asthma. Work related asthma was associated with atopy and education. Lower educational level (1–8 years of schooling) was associated with work related asthma (odds ratio 7.06, 95% CI 3.25 to 15.33). There was no association between work related asthma and smoking, gender, or symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion The prevalence of work related asthma was high (4.2%), and was associated with low schooling, probably because of low socioeconomic level. The disease may therefore be a consequence of poverty.

Caldeira, R D; Bettiol, H; Barbieri, M A; Terra-Filho, J; Garcia, C A; Vianna, E O

2006-01-01

242

Pneumococci in the African Meningitis Belt: Meningitis Incidence and Carriage Prevalence in Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The development of optimal vaccination strategies for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines requires serotype-specific data on disease incidence and carriage prevalence. This information is lacking for the African meningitis belt. Methods We conducted hospital-based surveillance of acute bacterial meningitis in an urban and rural population of Burkina Faso during 2007–09. Cerebrospinal fluid was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction for species and serotype. In 2008, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from a representative population sample (1 month to 39 years; N?=?519) and additional oropharyngeal swabs from 145 participants. Swabs were evaluated by culture. Results Annual pneumococcal meningitis incidence rates were highest among <6-month-old (58/100,000) and 15- to 19-year-old persons (15/100,000). Annual serotype 1 incidence was around 5/100,000 in all age groups. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence in nasopharyngeal swabs was 63% among <5-year-old children and 22% among ?5-year-old persons, but adding oropharyngeal to nasopharyngeal swabs increased the estimated carriage prevalence by 60%. Serotype 1 showed high propensity for invasive disease, particularly among persons aged ?5 years. Conclusions Serotype 1 causes the majority of cases with a relatively constant age-specific incidence. Pneumococcal carriage is common in all age groups including adults. Vaccination programs in this region may need to include older target age groups for optimal impact on disease burden.

Mueller, Judith E.; Yaro, Seydou; Ouedraogo, Macaire S.; Levina, Natalia; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Tall, Haoua; Idohou, Regina S.; Sanou, Oumarou; Kroman, Sita S.; Drabo, Aly; Nacro, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; van der Linden, Mark; Gessner, Bradford D.

2012-01-01

243

Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

Work, T. M.; Smith, M. R.

1996-01-01

244

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program.

Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

2014-01-01

245

The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>?0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between ?0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population.

Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

2014-01-01

246

Impact of scoring algorithm on physical activity prevalence estimates in Australian adults.  

PubMed

Public health recommendations for physical activity are operationalised by defining thresholds for frequency (sessions/week), duration (min/week), or volume (MET-min/week). This study compared estimates of meeting physical activity recommendations when scoring algorithms varied in specifications for frequency and duration but were comparable in volume. Data were obtained from 13,105 Australian adult respondents to the 2006 Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey (ERASS). Prevalence estimates were calculated using algorithms defined by (i) frequency only (?5 sessions/week); (ii) duration only (?150 min/week); (iii) duration only when minutes of vigorous activity were weighted by 2 (?150 weighted-min/week); (iv) frequency and duration (?5 sessions/week, ?150 min/week); (v) volume only (?600 MET-min/week); and (vi) volume and frequency (?600 MET-min/week, ?5 sessions/week). The proportion of adults who met recommendations operationalised without a frequency requirement was twice the proportions obtained for algorithms with frequency requirements. Volume or duration-based algorithms yielded higher estimates for men than women, and for the younger age groups (<35 years) than the older groups, with the opposite observation for frequency-based algorithms. Consistent for all algorithms, people classified at the highest educational attainment had the highest prevalence of meeting recommendations. Agreement in achieving 600 MET-min/week when activities were categorised using activity-specific MET values versus median MET values was 98.3%. Prevalence rates based on 600 MET-min/week were similar to 150 weighted-min/week. In conclusion, varying frequency and duration requirements of scoring algorithms can yield different population estimates and patterns by population subgroup of physical activity for a health benefit. PMID:20594908

Mealing, Nicole M; Bowles, Heather R; Merom, Dafna; Bauman, Adrian

2011-01-01

247

Prevalence of prehypertension and associated cardiovascular risk profiles among prediabetic Omani adults  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of prediabetes and prehypertension has been demonstrated in several studies especially for primary prevention of CVD. A recent community based cross-sectional study revealed that 40.9 percent Omani adults are prediabetics. This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of prehypertension and associated cardiovascular risk profiles in prediabetics. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report on this subject. Methods The study included 327 confirmed pre-diabetic Omani adults, who were analysed for their demographic, metabolic and behavioral characteristics. These characteristics were compared between the three different blood pressure groups to determine the CVD risk factors. Univariate and step-wise multiple logistic regression methods were used to carry out the analysis of the data. Results In this study, the prevalence of prehypertension was 54.1 percent. Males were at higher risk of developing prehypertension as compared to females (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.38; P < 0.01). The individuals with higher BMI have two fold more risk of developing prehypertension (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26, 4.02; P < 0.01). The increased level of OGT enhanced the risk of developing prehypertension (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50; P < 0.01). Conclusion A high prevalence of prehypertension (54.1%) exists in this study population. The major determinants of prehypertension in these prediabetic subjects were male gender, increasing dysglycemia and BMI. Appropriate intervention strategies have been suggested.

Ganguly, Shyam Sundar; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed Ali; Bhargava, Kamlesh; Duttagupta, Kalyan Kanti

2008-01-01

248

High prevalence of interatrial septal aneurysm in young adults who were born preterm.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The cardiovascular vulnerability of young adults who were born preterm was first acknowledged over a decade ago. Aims: (1) To examine the echocardiographic characteristics of a group of young adults born preterm with an extremely low birthweight (<1000?g; ex-ELBW) in comparison with healthy controls born at term (C); (2) to identify a correlation between the potential echocardiographic abnormalities detected in ex-ELBW and their anthropometric parameters, age, presence of respiratory distress, patency of ductus arteriosus, length of stay in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Methods: Thirty-seven ex-ELBW (11 males, 26 females; mean age: 22.2?±?1.8 years) were compared with 37?C (11 males, 26 females). Both groups underwent standard mono- and bi-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram with color Doppler. Results: No statistically significant differences were detected between the two groups regarding mono-dimensional echocardiography or Doppler measurements (p?=?ns). Conversely, a statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of interatrial septal aneurysm (ASA) in ex-ELBW compared to C (p?=?0.0016). A significant association was likewise observed between ASA and the presence of both respiratory distress at birth (p?prevalence of ASA was detected in ex-ELBW subjects compared to C, underlining a probable correlation with respiratory distress and patent ductus arteriosus. In view of the association between ASA and stroke in young adults devoid of other cerebrovascular risk factors, this unexpected observation suggests that all ex-preterm subjects should undergo transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiographic examination with the aim of detecting this potentially emboligenic cardiac abnormality. PMID:24093211

Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Fanos, Vassilios; Puddu, Melania; Cadeddu, Christian; Cadeddu, Fabio; Saba, Luca; Cugusi, Lucia; Mercuro, Giuseppe

2014-07-01

249

High prevalence of coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes among healthy adults in northern and northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Prehypertension and prediabetes are major risk factors of cardiovascular disease, and their combined presence may result in more serious cardiovascular outcomes than expected with either prehypertension or prediabetes alone. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes, and the associated risk profiles in a Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 3,595 men and 4,593 women aged 18 years and older was performed between 2008 and 2010. Prehypertension and prediabetes were diagnosed using the guidelines from the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on prevention, detection, and treatment of high blood pressure and American Diabetes Association, respectively. Prehypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mmHg, and prediabetes was defined as a fasting blood glucose of 5.6-6.9 mmol/L. Results The prevalence of coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes was 11.0%. Men had a higher prevalence of coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes than women (14.2% vs. 8.4%; P < 0.0001). This prevalence increased with age and body mass index, and was the lowest among Mongolian-Chinese (5.1%). A multivariate analysis showed that ?-glutamyltransferase and uric acid were significantly and positively correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, and total cholesterol, and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects with prehypertension and prediabetes. Conclusions There is a large proportion of Chinese adults with coexisting prehypertension and prediabetes. Thus, there is a need for more efforts that implement public health programs that target the earlier stages of hypertension and diabetes.

2011-01-01

250

The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4) aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4%) of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97) and high household wealth index (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.29–2.66) amongst men. Conclusion Public health policies and programs to preserve active commuting in HCMC and to promote time spent in recreational physical activity in both genders and across all age groups, but especially among young adults, will be critical in any comprehensive national plan to tackle inactivity. Clear and consistent national recommendations about how much physical activity Vietnamese people need for preventing and managing non-communicable diseases should also be part of this population-wide promotional effort.

Trinh, Oanh TH; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Dibley, Michael J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian E

2008-01-01

251

Blood lead is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: an analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008  

PubMed Central

Background Although an association between low-level environmental heavy metal exposure and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been hypothesized, little research on this topic has been conducted on a population-wide level. Methods We analyzed MS status and whole blood lead, mercury, cadmium, manganese, and creatinine-adjusted urine arsenic concentrations in 1,405 subjects, ? 20 years of age, who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008. Results Various demographic and biochemical parameters were associated with MS and blood heavy metal status. After adjusting for these variables, lead was the only heavy metal that was significantly associated with MS. Lead concentrations in subjects with MS were significantly higher than those in subjects without MS (p?=?0.015). The prevalence of MS and a moderate/high risk for cardiovascular disease, as determined by Framingham risk score, also increased significantly according to the logarithmic transformation of the lead quartile (p?prevalence of MS is associated with higher blood lead levels in the Korean population.

2013-01-01

252

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sissay, M.M., Uggla, A. and Waller, P.J., XXXX. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia Tropical Animal Health and Production, XXXX. A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern\\u000a Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this

Menkir M. Sissay; Arvid Uggla; Peter J. Waller

2008-01-01

253

Prevalence Rates of Gambling Problems in Montreal, Canada: A Look at Old Adults and the Role of Passion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to determine the prevalence rate of gambling problems in senior citizens (55 years\\u000a and older). A community-dwelling sample composed of 810 old adults living in the greater Montreal area in the Province of\\u000a Quebec completed the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R). Results revealed that the 12-month prevalence rate was 1.2%\\u000a for pathological gambling

Frédérick Philippe; Robert J. Vallerand

2007-01-01

254

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data. A.A. Arif, G.L. Delclos, E.S. Lee, S.R. Tortolero, L.W. Whitehead. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma has been on the increase in the USA and worldwide. To understand the worsening epidemiological trends of asthma, this study analysed the data

A. A. Arif; G. L. Delclos; E. S. Lee; S. R. Tortolero; L. W. Whitehead

2003-01-01

255

Self-reported Snoring and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-aged and Older Adults: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods In total, 7330 community-dwelling subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study were included in the analysis. Common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and plaque were evaluated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Snoring status was evaluated using a structured interview. Results Snorers had a significantly greater average CCA-IMT than non-snorers (0.726 vs 0.713 mm; P < 0.001), after adjusting for age and gender. The odds ratios (OR) for high CCA-IMT (fifth quintile) were significantly higher for snorers than for non-snorers in multivariate-adjusted analysis (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–1.42). However, there was no significant relationship between snoring and carotid plaques. Conclusions Our data suggest that self-reported snoring is significantly associated with increased IMT, but not with the presence of plaques. These findings suggest that early screening and intervention for snoring in the general population are needed to prevent adverse cardiovascular events.

Lee, Young-Hoon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho

2014-01-01

256

Self-reported Snoring and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-aged and Older Adults: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Background: We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.Methods: In total, 7330 community-dwelling subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study were included in the analysis. Common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and plaque were evaluated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Snoring status was evaluated using a structured interview.Results: Snorers had a significantly greater average CCA-IMT than non-snorers (0.726 vs 0.713 mm; P < 0.001), after adjusting for age and gender. The odds ratios (OR) for high CCA-IMT (fifth quintile) were significantly higher for snorers than for non-snorers in multivariate-adjusted analysis (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.42). However, there was no significant relationship between snoring and carotid plaques.Conclusions: Our data suggest that self-reported snoring is significantly associated with increased IMT, but not with the presence of plaques. These findings suggest that early screening and intervention for snoring in the general population are needed to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:24727753

Lee, Young-Hoon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho

2014-07-01

257

Bone Mineral Density and Food-frequency in Korean Adults: The 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. Methods We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. Results After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Conclusion Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively.

Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Noh, Hyoung; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki; Park, Yong-Soon

2012-01-01

258

Changing Patterns of Bacterial Strains in Adults and Children With Otitis Media in Korean Tertiary Care Centers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Otitis media (OM) is an infectious disease that affects all age brackets. Aural discharge is a typical symptom, occurring in all subtypes of OM. We have compared the identity and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from aural discharges of adults and children with various types of OM, including acute OM (AOM), OM with effusion (OME), chronic OM (COM), and cholesteatomatous OM (CSOM). Methods The study involved 2,833 patients who visited five tertiary hospitals between January 2001 and December 2010 and were diagnosed with AOM, OME, COM, or CSOM. The patients were divided into a pediatric group and an adult group, and the distribution of cultured bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity were compared in the two groups. Results Bacterial detection rates were higher in adults than in children with OME and COM (P=0.000 each). The majority of the bacteria cultured from patients with AOM and OME bacteria were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics (P=0.002) and had higher antibiotic sensitivity (P=0.001) than were bacteria cultured from adults. The majority of bacteria culture from patients with COM and CSOM were MSSA and pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher in adults than in children, and more strains of bacteria isolated from adults were sensitive to the antibiotics septrin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Conclusion Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics and had higher antibiotic sensitivity than did bacteria cultured from adults.

Lee, Jun Seok; Kim, Myung Gu; Hong, Seok Min; Na, Se Young; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh

2014-01-01

259

Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Malaysia. Continuous and more comprehensive anti-smoking policy measures are needed in order to further prevent the increasing prevalence of smoking among Malaysian men, particularly those who are younger, of Malay ethnicity, less educated, reside in rural residential area and with lower socio-economic status.

2013-01-01

260

Adult sexual assault: prevalence, symptomatology, and sex differences in the general population.  

PubMed

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse was especially common among sexually assaulted men and women (61 and 59%, respectively). ASA victims were more symptomatic than their nonassaulted cohorts on all scales of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI; J. Briere, 1995), despite an average of 14 years having passed since the assault. Assaulted men reported greater symptomatology than assaulted women, whereas nonassaulted men reported less symptomatology than nonassaulted women. PMID:15253092

Elliott, Diana M; Mok, Doris S; Briere, John

2004-06-01

261

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed.

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

262

Prevalence and risk factors of the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood leukemia.  

PubMed

We evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in young adults surviving childhood leukemia. During the years 2007 to 2008, assessment of MS was proposed to all adults included in the Leucémie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent program, a French prospective multicentric cohort of leukemia survivors. Among 220 eligible patients, 184 (83.6%) had complete evaluation. Median age at evaluation and follow-up duration were 21.2 and 15.4 years. Overall prevalence of MS was 9.2% (95% confidence interval, 5.5-14.4). There was no association of MS with sex, age at diagnosis, leukemia subtype, steroid therapy, and central nervous system irradiation. Patients were stratified according to 4 therapeutic modalities: chemotherapy alone (n = 97), chemotherapy and central nervous system irradiation (n = 27), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) without (n = 17) or with (n = 43) total body irradiation (TBI). MS occurred in 5.2%, 11.1%, 5.9%, and 18.6% of them, respectively. The higher risk observed in the HSCT-TBI group was significant in univariate and in multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, P = .03). HSCT with TBI was associated with a higher rate of hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 4.5, P = .004), low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 2.5, P = .02), and elevated fasting glucose (OR = 6.1, P = .04) So, TBI is a major risk factor for MS. Further studies are warranted to explain this feature. PMID:21278355

Oudin, Claire; Simeoni, Marie-Claude; Sirvent, Nicolas; Contet, Audrey; Begu-Le Coroller, Audrey; Bordigoni, Pierre; Curtillet, Catherine; Poirée, Maryline; Thuret, Isabelle; Play, Barbara; Massot, Mara Carazza; Chastagner, Pascal; Chambost, Hervé; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard

2011-04-28

263

Features and prevalence of patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who request treatment for cocaine use disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize those patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who ask for treatment of cocaine use disorders; to estimate the prevalence of probable adult ADHD among these patients. This is a cross-sectional and multi-center study performed at outpatient resources of 12 addiction treatment centers in Spain. Participants were treatment-seeking primary cocaine abusers recruited consecutively at one center

José Pérez de los Cobos; Núria Siñol; Carmen Puerta; Vanessa Cantillano; Cristina López Zurita; Joan Trujols

2011-01-01

264

Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code ?10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure.

Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2014-01-01

265

Prevalence of sapovirus infection among infant and adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Aim This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in patient with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. Background Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting both children and adult individuals. There isn't enough data about prevalence and genotypes of sapovirus infection in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Patients and methods A total of 42 fecal samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis from May to July 2009. RT nested- PCR was performed for screening. To genotype the sapovirus isolates, some positive samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by sequencing of fragments of viral capsid gene region. Results Sapovirus was detected in 5 of 42 stool specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis. Sapovirus detected in this study was clustered into only one distinct genogroup I/2. Sapovirus GI/2 was predominant. Conclusion Our results show that among the studied viruses responsible for this disease, sapovirus was a major viral isolate virus.

Romani, Sara; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Bozorgi, Sajad Majidizadeh; Zali, Narges; Jadali, Farzaneh

2012-01-01

266

Projecting the demographic consequences of adult HIV prevalence trends: the Spectrum Projection Package.  

PubMed

This paper describes the software package Spectrum, which is a modular program that is used to examine the consequences of current trends and future program interventions in reproductive health. It is used to determine the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the number of people living with HIV/AIDS by age and sex, the number of AIDS deaths, and the number of orphans as a result of AIDS, as well as other demographic indicators of interest, such as life expectancy and <5 mortality. The core of Spectrum is a demographic projection model called DemProj, which projects the population by age and sex. Other modules interact with the demographic projection. The HIV/AIDS projections are added to the demographic projections using a module called AIDS Impact Model. This module uses the projection of adult HIV prevalence over time, which is prepared using the Estimation and Projection Package model or the projection workbook. It also requires assumptions about the epidemiology of HIV, including the ratio of female:male prevalence, the distribution of infection by age, the distribution of the time from infection until AIDS death, and the effect of HIV on fertility. PMID:15249694

Stover, J

2004-08-01

267

Projecting the demographic consequences of adult HIV prevalence trends: the Spectrum Projection Package  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the software package Spectrum, which is a modular program that is used to examine the consequences of current trends and future program interventions in reproductive health. It is used to determine the consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, including the number of people living with HIV/AIDS by age and sex, the number of AIDS deaths, and the number of orphans as a result of AIDS, as well as other demographic indicators of interest, such as life expectancy and <5 mortality. The core of Spectrum is a demographic projection model called DemProj, which projects the population by age and sex. Other modules interact with the demographic projection. The HIV/AIDS projections are added to the demographic projections using a module called AIDS Impact Model. This module uses the projection of adult HIV prevalence over time, which is prepared using the Estimation and Projection Package model or the projection workbook. It also requires assumptions about the epidemiology of HIV, including the ratio of female:male prevalence, the distribution of infection by age, the distribution of the time from infection until AIDS death, and the effect of HIV on fertility.

Stover, J

2004-01-01

268

Prevalence and Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Adults and Children in Mangalore, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-limited countries. Among the bacterial pathogens, diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) are most frequently implicated in cases of epidemic and endemic diarrhea worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of DEC in stool specimens from patients with acute diarrhea using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: Escherichia coli stool samples were collected from 115 hospitalized children and adults with acute diarrhea in Mangalore, a coastal city, in southern India. PCR amplification of eae, bfp, stx, ehx genes were used for detection of enteropathogenic (EPEC) and shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), lt and st genes were used for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and astA gene for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). Results: During the 24 month study period, of the 115 stool samples, DEC type was detected in 20 (17.4%) using the PCR method. The most prevalent DEC was atypical EPEC accounting for 12 (10.4%) cases followed by 4 cases of EAEC (3.4%) and 4 of STEC (3.4%). No ETEC strains were isolated from any of the examined stool samples. Conclusion: This study suggests that the atypical EPEC are the newly emerging group among DEC stains in Southern India. Further studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiology and virulence properties of atypical EPEC strains.

Shetty, Veena A; Kumar, Sanath H; Shetty, Avinash K; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

2012-01-01

269

Falls among Adult Patients Hospitalized in the United States: Prevalence and Trends  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide normative data on fall prevalence in US hospitals by unit type and to determine the 27-month secular trend in falls prior to the implementation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) rule which does not reimburse hospitals for care related to injury resulting from hospital falls. Methods We used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) collected between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2008 to estimate prevalence and secular trends of falls occurring in adult medical, medical-surgical and surgical nursing units. More than 88 million patient days (pd) of observation were contributed from 6,100 medical, surgical, and medical-surgical nursing units in 1,263 hospitals across the United States. Results A total of 315,817 falls occurred (rate=3.56 falls/1,000 pd) during the study period, of which 82,332 (26.1%) resulted in an injury (rate=0.93/1,000 pd). Both total fall and injurious fall rates were highest in medical units (fall rate=4.03/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=1.08/1,000 pd) and lowest in surgery units (fall rate=2.76/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=0.67/1,000 pd). Falls (0.4% decrease/quarter, p<0.0001) and injurious falls (1% decrease per quarter, p<0.0001) both decreased over the 27-month study. Conclusions In this large sample, fall and injurious fall prevalence varied by nursing unit type in US hospitals. Over the 27 month study, there was a small, but statistically significant, decrease in falls (p<0.0001) and injurious falls (p<0.0001).

Bouldin, Erin D.; Andresen, Elena M.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Simon, Michael; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Shorr, Ronald I.

2012-01-01

270

National Prevalence of PTSD Among Sexually Revictimized Adolescent, College, and Adult Household-Residing Women  

PubMed Central

Context Despite empirical links between sexual revictimization (i.e., experiencing two or more sexual assaults) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no epidemiological studies document the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD. Establishing estimates is essential to determine the scope, public health impact, and psychiatric sequelae of sexual revictimization. Objective Estimate the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD among three national female samples (adolescent, college, adult household probability). Design Surveys were used to collect data from The National Women’s Study – Replication (2006; college) as well as household probability samples from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (2005) and the National Women’s Study-Replication (2006; household probability). Setting Households and college campuses across the U.S. Participants 1,763 adolescent girls, 2,000 college women, and 3,001 household-residing adult women. Main Outcomes Behaviorally specific questions assessed unwanted sexual acts occurring over the lifespan due to use of force, threat of force, or incapacitation via drug or alcohol use. PTSD was assessed with a module validated against the criterion standard, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results 52.7% of victimized adolescents, 50.0% of victimized college women, and 58.8% of victimized household-residing women reported sexual revictimization. Current PTSD was reported by 20.0% of revictimized adolescents, 40.0% of revictimized college women, and 27.2% of revictimized household-residing women. Compared to non-victims, odds of meeting past 6-month PTSD were 4.3–8.2 times higher for revictimized respondents and 2.4–3.5 times higher for single victims. Conclusions Population prevalence estimates suggest that 769,000 adolescent girls, 625,000 college women, and 13.4 million women in US households reported sexual revictimization. Further, 154,000 sexually revictimized adolescents, 250,000 sexually revictimized college women, and 3.6 million sexually revictimized household women met criteria for past 6-month PTSD. Findings highlight the importance of screening for sexual revictimization and PTSD in pediatric, college, and primary care settings.

Walsh, Kate; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

2012-01-01

271

Prevalence and risk factors for oncogenic HPV infections in high-risk mid-adult women  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology of high-risk (hr) HPV infections in mid-adult women with new sex partners is undefined. Methods We analyzed baseline data from 518 25–65 year old female online daters. Women were mailed questionnaires and kits for self-collecting vaginal specimens for PCR-based hrHPV testing. Risk factors for infection were identified using Poisson regression models to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs). Results The prevalence of hrHPV infection was 35.9%. In multivariate analysis restricted to sexually active women, the likelihood of hrHPV infection was associated with abnormal Pap test history (PR=1.42, 95% CI:1.10–1.84), lifetime number of sex partners >14 (relative to 1–4; PR=2.13, 95% CI:1.13–4.02 for 15–24 partners and PR=1.91, 95% CI:1.00–3.64 for ?25 partners), male partners with ?1 concurrent partnership (PR=1.34, 95% CI:1.05–1.71) and male partners whom the subject met online (PR=1.39, 95% CI:1.08–1.79). Age was inversely associated with infection only in women who were sexually inactive (PR=0.67 per 5-year age difference, adjusted for Pap history and lifetime number of partners). Compared to sexually inactive women, the likelihood of infection increased with increasing risk level, (from low-risk to high-risk partners) (p<.0001 by trend test). In multivariate analysis, infection with multiple versus single hrHPV types was inversely associated with ever having been pregnant (PR=0.64, 95% CI:0.46–0.90) and recent consistent condom use (PR=0.56, 95% CI:0.32–0.97), and positively associated with genital wart history (PR=1.43, 95% CI:1.03–1.99). Conclusions Measures of both cumulative and recent sexual history were associated with prevalent hrHPV infection in this high-risk cohort of mid-adult women.

Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Xi, Long Fu; Lee, Shu-Kuang; O'Reilly, Sandra F.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Koutsky, Laura A.

2012-01-01

272

Prevalence and changes of untreated isolated systolic hypertension among non-Hispanic black adults in the United States.  

PubMed

Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is a growing health concern in the United States (US) black population. The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH has not been fully investigated in non-Hispanic blacks. Cross-sectional data on 4625 non-Hispanic blacks aged ?18 years were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010, representing a probability sample of the US civilian noninstitutionalized black population. The 6-year prevalence of ISH and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conducting weighted frequency and logistic procedures. The prevalence of untreated ISH was 11.2% among non-Hispanic black adults in 1999-2010. Individuals who received lower education (high school or below) had higher prevalence of untreated ISH than those with higher education (12.8% (95% CI: 11.3-14.2%) vs. 9.0% (95% CI: 7.5-10.6%)). The prevalence of untreated ISH was higher in young men than in young women (4.3% (95% CI: 3.3-5.4%) vs. 1.8% (95% CI: 0.9-2.7%)), and higher in middle-aged adults with lower education than in middle-aged adults with higher education (14.1% (95% CI: 11.4-16.7%) vs. 7.7% (95% CI: 5.5-9.8%)). Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 decreased for old individuals (27.7% vs. 40.8%), old men (24.4% vs. 40.0%) and old individuals who received higher education (21.4% vs. 40.7%). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in old blacks, and significant reduction of the prevalence in this group suggests that public health interventions, lifestyle modifications or health awareness are in the right direction. PMID:24621464

Liu, Xuefeng; Tsilimingras, Dennis; Paul, Timir K

2014-07-01

273

Serum zinc concentration is inversely associated with insulin resistance but not related with metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic korean adults.  

PubMed

Although zinc was known to be associated with insulin metabolism and diabetes, the relationship of serum zinc concentration with insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) was not well investigated in general population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationships of serum zinc concentration with IR and MetS in a nondiabetic adult population. This cross-sectional study included 656 men and 825 women who were nondiabetic adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010. Serum zinc concentration and metabolic parameters were measured. IR was estimated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2). MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Serum zinc concentration was negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) in men (r?=?-0.104, P?=?0.008), but not in women. After adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, the inverse correlation was significant in both men and women (B?=?-0.262, SE?=?0.060 for men, and B?=?-0.129, SE?=?0.052 for women). However, serum zinc concentration was not different between the groups with and without MetS (P?=?0.752 for men and P?=?0.371 for women). In conclusion, serum zinc concentration was inversely associated with IR but not related to MetS in nondiabetic adult population. PMID:24943234

Ahn, Bang-In; Kim, Moon Jong; Koo, Hyung Suk; Seo, Namkyung; Joo, Nam-Seok; Kim, Young-Sang

2014-08-01

274

Serum Lipid Concentrations, Prevalence of Dyslipidemia, and Percentage Eligible for Pharmacological Treatment of Korean Children and Adolescents; Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Dyslipidemia is one of the important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Thus, to know the prevalence of dyslipidemia is the 1st step to make guidelines of screening and management plan. Although, American Academy of Pediatrics updated the guidelines for lipid in childhood, Asian study is rare. Methods The authors aimed to make a reference of each serum lipid level of Korean children and adolescents (2,363 subjects aged 10 to 18 years) from the data of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007–2009). Results The mean serum concentrations for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were 158 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, and 49 mg/dL, respectively. The 95th percentile values for TC, LDL-C, and TG were 203 mg/dL, 129 mg/dL, and 185 mg/dL, respectively. The 5th percentile value for HDL-C was 36 mg/dL. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, high TG, and low HDL-C was 6.5%, 4.7%, 10.1%, and 7.1%, respectively. Considering the risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, approximately 0.41% of the subjects were potentially eligible for pharmacological treatment. Conclusions This information may be useful in not only Korean but also Asian planning programs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease through lipid control from childhood.

Yang, Seung; Hwang, Jin Soon; Park, Hong Kyu; Lee, Hae Sang; Kim, Hae Soon; Kim, Eun Young; Lim, Jung Sub

2012-01-01

275

Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in young adults: prevalence, characteristics, predictors with coronary computed tomography angiography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and predictors of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in young adults. The study also evaluated predictors of cardiac events. We retrospectively enrolled 914 self-referred asymptomatic subjects under the age of 45 (552 men, 362 women) who had undergone both coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and coronary artery calcium scoring. Two radiologists analyzed plaque composition and degree of stenosis. For all subjects, we evaluated clinical risk factors and investigated cardiac events. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis was found in 86 subjects (9.4 %). Among them, 64 subjects (74.4 %) had a single coronary artery plaque. On analysis of individual segments, the most common type of plaque was non-calcified plaque (NCP) (58 %), which was found in 63 subjects (6.9 %). Significant coronary artery stenosis was found in 9 subjects (0.1 %). Predictors of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were age, male gender, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Male gender, diabetes mellitus, and amount of smoking were independent predictors of NCP. High low density lipoprotein cholesterol and calcium scores were also significant predictors of stenosis. Myocardial infarction developed in 1 subject, unstable angina in 2, stable angina in 1, and death in 1 (2.45 cardiac events per 1,000 person-years of follow-up). Multivariate analysis revealed hazard ratios of 2.2 for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, 49.17 for NCP, and 105.58 for significant stenosis. The prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic young adults is not negligible. CCTA has the potential to enhance risk stratification and prediction for coronary artery disease in asymptomatic young adults. PMID:23111407

Jin, Kwang Nam; Chun, Eun Ju; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Jeong A; Lee, Min Su; Choi, Sang Il

2012-12-01

276

Prevalence and Associations of Incomplete Posterior Vitreous Detachment in Adult Chinese: The Beijing Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine prevalence and associations of incomplete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Incomplete PVD was differentiated into type 1 (shallow PVD with circular perifoveal vitreous attachment), type 2 (PVD reaching fovea but not foveola), type 3 (shallow PVD with pinpoint vitreous attachment at the foveola), and type 4 (PVD completely detached from the macula, attached to the optic disc). Results An incomplete PVD was detected in 3948 eyes (prevalence: 60.5±0.6%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 59.3%,61.7%) of 2198 subjects (67.1±0.8%;95%CI: 65.6%,68.7%). Type 1 PVD was seen in 3090 (78.3%) eyes, type 2 PVD in 504 (12.8%) eyes, type 3 PVD in 70 (1.8%) eyes, and type 4 PVD in 284 (7.2%) eyes. Prevalence of incomplete PVD was associated with younger age (P<0.001;OR:0.91), male gender (P<0.001;OR:0.64), rural region of habitation (P<0.001;OR:0.49), larger corneal diameter (P?=?0.04;OR:0.91), better best corrected visual acuity (P?=?0.02;OR:0.41), and hyperopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:1.15). The type of incomplete PVD was associated with higher age (P<0.001), urban region of habitation (P<0.001), myopic refractive error (P?=?0.001), thinner cornea (P?=?0.005), and better best corrected visual acuity (P?=?0.056). Conclusions In adult Chinese in Greater Beijing, prevalence of an incomplete PVD (detected in 67.1% subjects) was associated with younger age, male gender, rural region of habitation, larger corneal diameter, better best corrected visual acuity and hyperopic refractive error.

Shao, Lei; Xu, Liang; You, Qi Sheng; Wang, Ya Xing; Chen, Chang Xi; Yang, Hua; Zhou, Jin Qiong; Jonas, Jost B.; Wei, Wen Bin

2013-01-01

277

PREVALENCE OF PERSISTENT COUGH AND PHLEGM IN YOUNG ADULTS IN RELATION TO LONG-TERM AMBIENT SULFUR OXIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

In early 1976, a survey of persistent cough and plegm (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 micrograms per cubic meter. Corresponding m...

278

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

279

Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

2010-01-01

280

A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability, 2003-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research regarding the prevalence of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with intellectual disability in adults was reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the qualities of sampling and diagnostic methodology, which have been identified as needs in two recent reviews. Sixteen articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2009…

Buckles, Jason; Luckasson, Ruth; Keefe, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

281

The prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A lot of empirical studies have been conducted to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the prevalence and odds ratios of depression and anxiety in Chinese adults with cancer compared with those without. Methods The three most comprehensive computerized Chinese academic databases-CNKI, Wangfang and Vip databases-were systematically screened through September 2012. PubMed and Web of Science (SCIE) were also searched from their inception until September 2012 without language restrictions, and an internet search was also used. Case–control studies assessing the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer were analyzed. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors. The non-weighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were all calculated. Results Seventeen eligible studies with a total of 3497 subjects were included. The prevalence of depression and anxiety were significantly higher in adults with cancer compared with those without (Depression: 54.90% vs. 17.50%, OR?=?7.85, 95% CI?=?5.56-11.07, P?=?0.000; Anxiety: 49.69% vs. 18.37%, OR?=?6.46, 95% CI?=?4.36-9.55, P?=?0.000), the same situation was also observed in subgroup of control groups, assessment methods and cancer types. Although no difference of depression was observed in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis compared with self-report, the OR of anxiety in adults with cancer compared with those without was higher in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis (OR?=?8.42, 95% CI?=?4.83-14.70) than self-reports (OR?=?5.83, 95% CI?=?3.64-9.34). The ORs of depression and anxiety in cancer patients compared with disease group (Depression: OR?=?6.03, 95% CI?=?4.23-8.61; Anxiety: OR?=?4.40, 95% CI?=?3.05-6.36) were lower than in those compared with normal group (Depression: OR?=?13.58, 95% CI?=?6.26-29.46; Anxiety: OR?=?15.47, 95% CI?=?10.00-23.95). Conclusions We identified high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. The findings support that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adults with cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings.

2013-01-01

282

Prevalence of asthma control among adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK.  

PubMed

The objectives of this article were to estimate the prevalence of asthma control and describe the characteristics of at least well-controlled (ALWC) versus not well-controlled (NWC) asthmatics. Data were obtained from the European National Health and Wellness Survey, an internet-based, cross-sectional study of 37,476 adults in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK. Analysis was limited to 2,337 respondents who self-reported a physician diagnosis. Based on the Asthma Control Test (ACT), respondents were grouped as ALWC (ACT ?20) and NWC (ACT ?19). The prevalence of diagnosed asthma across five countries was estimated to be 5.8% (14 million extrapolated for the European Union population). Of these, 50.4% (7.1 million) were NWC. Compared with ALWC, NWC were older (15.8 versus 15.0%; p<0.001), less likely to be college educated (28.7 versus 36.3%; p<0.001) and more likely to be obese (30.0 versus 22.7%; p<0.001), experience depression (28.0 versus 18.7%; p<0.001) and smoke (34.7 versus 25.0%; p<0.001). The NWC had more occasions of contact with healthcare providers and were more likely to use controller and rescue medications, but with less adherence. A substantial portion of asthmatics are NWC. However, the proportion of NWC asthmatics found in this study was less than in previously reported. Patients and physicians need to be educated on the importance of asthma control and adherence to treatments. PMID:20956130

Demoly, P; Paggiaro, P; Plaza, V; Bolge, S C; Kannan, H; Sohier, B; Adamek, L

2009-06-01

283

Vertebral Bone Marrow Fat Associated With Lower Trabecular BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fracture in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Bone marrow fat (BMF) and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray energy absorptiometry (DXA) are negatively correlated. However, little is known about the association of BMF with fracture or with separate trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationships between vertebral BMF, BMD by quantitative computed tomography, and fracture in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik cohort. Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measures included vertebral BMF (L1–L4) measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, quantitative computed tomography and DXA scans of the hip and spine, and DXA vertebral fracture assessments. Previous clinical fracture was determined from medical records. Results: In 257 participants without recent bone-active medication use, mean age was 79 (SD 3.1) years. Mean BMF was 53.5% ± 8.1% in men and 55.0% ± 8.4% in women. Those with prevalent vertebral fracture (21 men, 32 women) had higher mean BMF in models adjusted for BMD. In separate models by sex, the difference was statistically significant only in men (57.3% vs 52.8%, P = 0.02). BMF was associated with lower trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) at the spine (?10.5% difference for each 1 SD increase in BMF, P < 0.01), total hip, and femoral neck, but not with cortical vBMD, in women. In men, BMF was marginally associated with trabecular spine vBMD (?6.1%, P = 0.05). Total hip and spine areal BMD (aBMD) were negatively correlated with BMF in women only. Conclusion: Higher marrow fat correlated with lower trabecular, but not cortical, BMD in older women but not men. Higher marrow fat was associated with prevalent vertebral fracture in men, even after adjustment for BMD.

Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hue, Trisha F.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Oskarsdottir, Diana; Shet, Keerthi; Palermo, Lisa; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Li, Xiaojuan

2013-01-01

284

Regular Exercise Is Associated with a Reduction in the Risk of NAFLD and Decreased Liver Enzymes in Individuals with NAFLD Independent of Obesity in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluated the association of regular physical exercise with the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver enzymes in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 72,359 healthy Korean adults without diabetes who participated in a comprehensive health check-up. Subjects who have been exercising regularly (more than 3 times per week, at least for 30 minutes each time and for consecutive 3 month) were categorized into exercise group. All subjects were categorized into deciles based on their body mass index (BMI) and we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for having NAFLD according to exercise regularity in each decile. The diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography findings. Individuals with NAFLD (n?=?19,921) were analyzed separately to evaluate ORs for having elevated liver enzymes based on regularity of exercise. The risk for NAFLD was significantly reduced in exercise group with age- and sex-adjusted ORs of 0.53–0.72 for all BMI deciles except at BMI categories of <19.6 and 20.7–21.6 kg/m2. While no difference was seen in BMI between subjects in exercise and non-exercise group across the BMI deciles, the values of body fat percentage and metabolic risk factors differed. Among NAFLD patients, subjects in exercise group had a lower risk for having elevated liver enzymes with multivariable adjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.99, for AST) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.67–0.81, for ALT) than did subjects in non-exercise group. Conclusions/Significance Regular exercise was associated with a reduced risk for having NAFLD and decreased liver enzymes in patients with NAFLD, and this relationship was also independent of obesity.

Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Park, Cheol Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Sun Woo; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, Moon Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Won-Young

2012-01-01

285

The Changing Prevalence of Myopia in Young Adults: A 13Year Series of Population-Based Prevalence Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To determine the changing prevalence of myopia during the years 1990 through 2002 among the 16- to 22-year age group and identify possible risk factors. METHODS. A retrospective study, based on 13 repeated preva- lence surveys conducted over a 13-year period. The study subjects were all Israeli nationals belonging to the 16- to 22- year age group from the

Yosefa Bar Dayan; Avi Levin; Yair Morad; Itamar Grotto; Rachel Ben-David; Avishai Goldberg; Erez Onn; Isaac Avni; Yehezkel Levi; Oren Gil Benyamini

286

Korean adolescents' smoking behavior and its correlation with psychological variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of the study were to explore the prevalence of smoking behavior among Korean adolescents, reveal the factors affecting their smoking behavior, and identify a possible correlation between smoking behavior and psychological variables. A total of 1335 adolescents, randomly selected from junior high and high schools in Seoul, was surveyed. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to assess adolescents' smoking

Young-Ho Kim

2005-01-01

287

Community-based colorectal cancer intervention in underserved Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information

Grace X. Ma; Steve Shive; Yin Tan; Wanzhen Gao; Joanne Rhee; Micah Park; Jaesool Kim; Jamil I. Toubbeh

2009-01-01

288

Prevalence and seasonal incidence of larval and adult cestode infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A study on the prevalence and seasonal incidence of cestode parasite infections of sheep and goats was carried out in eastern Ethiopia for 2 years (May 2003-April 2005). During this period, viscera including liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and the gastro-intestinal tract were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at four abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga. At the abattoirs the abdominal, thoracic and pelvic cavities as well as the muscle surfaces of all animals were visually examined for the presence of larval (cystic) stages of cestode parasites. The viscera were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University and were examined for larval and adult cestodes following standard procedures. The most prevalent metacestodes (larval cestodes) were Cysticercus ovis (Taenia ovis), Cysticercus tenuicollis (T. hydatigena) and hydatid cysts (Echinococcus granulosus). In sheep, the overall prevalence was 26% for C. ovis, 79% for C. tenuicollis, and 68% for hydatid cysts. Similarly, for goats, the corresponding prevalence was 22%, 53% and 65%, respectively. The difference between sheep and goats in prevalence of C. tenuicollis was significant. The high prevalence of hydatid cysts in both sheep and goats indicates that cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is a public health problem in these regions which requires implementation of control measures, including public health education, strict meat inspection and control of stray dogs. The results of the survey also implies that infections of small ruminants with these metacestodes are responsible for condemnation of substantial quantities of affected organs and muscles and therefore of direct economic importance. Intestinal infections with adult tapeworms of Moniezia expansa, Avitellina centripunctata and Stilesia globipunctata, and bile duct infections with Stilesia hepatica were also common in both sheep and goats. In sheep, the overall prevalence of these tapeworms were 61%, 20%, 24% and 39%, respectively. Similarly, the overall prevalence of these parasites in goats was 53%, 21%, 27% and 36%, respectively. PMID:18575964

Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

2008-08-01

289

The Prevalence of Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in Adult Asians: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is higher in Asians than Europeans and Africans, with over 80% of PACG worldwide in Asia. Previous estimates of PACG were based largely on early studies, mostly using inappropriate case definitions. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of PACG in adult Asian populations and to quantify its association with age, gender, and region. Methods All primary reports of population-based studies that reported the prevalence of PACG in adult Asian populations were identified. PACG case definition was compatible with the ISGEO definition. Twenty-nine population-based studies were included. The overall pooled prevalence estimates were calculated using a random effect model, and ethnicity-, age- and gender-specific pooled prevalence estimates were also calculated. Results The overall pooled prevalence of PACG in those of adult Asians was 0.75% (95% CI, 0.58, 0.96). Ethnicity-specific pooled prevalence estimates were 0.97% (0.22, 4.27) in Middle East group, 0.66% (0.23, 1.86) in South East Asia group, 0.46% (0.32, 0.64) in India group, 1.10% (0.85, 1.44) in China group, and 1.19% (0.35, 3.98) in Japan group, respectively. Age-specific prevalence was 0.21% (0.12, 0.37) for those 40–49 years, 0.54% (0.34, 0.85) for those 50–59 years, 1.26% (0.93, 1.71) for those 60–69 years, and 2.32% (1.74, 3.08) for those 70 years or above. The overall female to male ratio of the PACG prevalence was 1.51?1 (95% CI 1.01, 2.28). Conclusions PACG affects approximately 0.75% adult Asians, increasing double per decade, and 60% of cases being female. The prevalence rates vary greatly by ethnic region.

Wei, Rui-Li

2014-01-01

290

Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6%) were males, 84 (32.4%) were farmers, and 111 (42.9%) were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents). Seventeen (6.6%) had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2%) had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1%) undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5%) had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6%) claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI) among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6%) had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5%) had a BMI ? 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P < 0.05), while no relationship existed between age and BMI or between gender and hypertension (P > 0.05). Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI ? 25 had at least a three times greater likelihood of developing hypertension than those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 0.007–0.056, P = 0.011). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in this study population and we recommend scaling up primary prevention efforts to reduce this in Nigerian communities.

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Akinwusi, PO; Adebimpe, WO; Isawumi, MA; Hassan, MB; Olowe, OA; Makanjuola, OB; Alebiosu, CO; Adewole, TA

2013-01-01

291

Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.  

PubMed

To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males. PMID:19795199

Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

2010-11-01

292

North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant health study.

2012-01-01

293

Prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm in young adults in relation to long-term ambient sulfur oxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

In early 1976, a survey of persistent co gh and plegma (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 ug/mT. Corresponding mean suspended sulfate levels had been 5, 7, 8, and 14 g/mT No intercommunity exposure gradient of total suspended particulates or suspended nitrates was observed. In mothers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was 4.2% in the high-exposure community and about 2.0% in all other communities. In smoking mothers, PCP prevalence was 21.8% in the high-exposure community and about 15.0% elsewhere. In fathers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was about 8.0% in the high-exposure community and averaged about 3.0% elsewhere. In smoking fathers, PCP prevalence was less strongly associated with sulfur oxide exposure. PCP prevalence rates estimated in a categorical logistic regression model were qualitatively consistent with the prevalences presented above.

Chapman, R.S.; Calafiore, D.C.; Hasselblad, V.

1985-01-01

294

Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults aged 19 years and older in Basrah, Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background Six of the top ten countries in the world with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus are in the Middle East. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Southern Iraq. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, simple random study screened 5,445 persons aged 19–94 years in Basrah, with glycated hemoglobin measured in 88.3% of the population and fasting plasma glucose in 18.7%. Body mass index and other demographic parameters were also measured. Results Of the 5,445 persons screened, 8.7% had already been diagnosed with diabetes and 11% were found by screening to have undiscovered diabetes, giving an age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes of 19.7%, with 55.7% of those with diabetes being previously undiagnosed. In addition, 29.1% of the screened population had prediabetes, giving a prevalence of dysglycemia of 48.8%, with only 51.2% of the persons screened being normoglycemic. The prevalence of diabetes in both sexes peaked at age 46–60 years. Diabetes was slightly more prevalent in females than in males, and about 70.3% of diabetic individuals had a body mass index ?25 kg/m2. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Iraq, is very high, affecting one in five adults. The epidemic of diabetes will result in strain on the financial resources of health care systems.

Mansour, Abbas Ali; Al-Maliky, Ahmed A; Kasem, Bashar; Jabar, Abdulsatar; Mosbeh, Khalid Abdulabass

2014-01-01

295

Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Coinfections in an Adult HIV Centre Population in Gaborone, Botswana  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected adults at an HIV center in Gaborone, Botswana. A retrospective review was performed of charts of currently active HIV-infected adult patients in the Family Model Clinic (FMC) of the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Center of Excellence (BCOE) in Gaborone, Botswana, for the results of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C IgG tests performed between January 1, 2005 and December 15, 2009. Of 308 active FMC patients, 266 underwent HBsAg serology testing within the period of study. The HBsAg coinfection prevalence was 5.3% (14/266); 2 of 252 patients had at least one positive antihepatitis C IgG serology, a 0.8% prevalence. Hepatitis B coinfection is relatively common in HIV-infected adults at our center in Botswana, whereas hepatitis C coinfection is rare. In this setting, where the diagnosis of hepatitis B coinfection with HIV has implications for choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy and prevention of perinatal hepatitis B transmission, broader sampling to establish the true population prevalence of hepatitis B coinfection and the desirability of adding screening to HIV management should be considered. These findings provide little justification for adding hepatitis C coinfection screening to the management of HIV infection in Botswana.

Patel, Premal; Davis, Stephanie; Tolle, Michael; Mabikwa, Vincent; Anabwani, Gabriel

2011-01-01

296

Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009  

PubMed Central

We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9?kg/m2) and II (BMI ?30?kg/m2) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6?kg/m2 in men and 22.8?kg/m2 in women in 1991 to 23.3?kg/m2 and 24.4?kg/m2 in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0?kg/m2, P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991–2009.

Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

2014-01-01

297

Efficacy and Safety of Sustained-Release Recombinant Human Growth Hormone in Korean Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Purpose The administration of recombinant human growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency has been known to improve metabolic impairment and quality of life. Patients, however, have to tolerate daily injections of growth hormone. The efficacy, safety, and compliance of weekly administered sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH, Declage™) supplement in patients with growth hormone deficiency were evaluated. Materials and Methods This trial is 12-week prospective, single-arm, open-label trial. Men and women aged ?20 years with diagnosed growth hormone deficiency (caused by pituitary tumor, trauma and other pituitary diseases) were eligible for this study. Each subject was given 2 mg (6 IU) of SR-rhGH once a week, subcutaneously for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety at baseline and within 30 days after the 12th injection were assessed and compared. Score of Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA score) for quality of life and serum IGF-1 level. Results The IGF-1 level of 108.67±74.03 ng/mL was increased to 129.01±68.37 ng/mL (p=0.0111) and the AGHDA QoL score was decreased from 9.80±6.51 to 7.55±5.76 (p<0.0001) at week 12 compared with those at baseline. Adverse events included pain, swelling, erythema, and warmth sensation at the administration site, but many adverse events gradually disappeared during the investigation. Conclusion Weekly administered SR-rhGH for 12 weeks effectively increased IGF-1 level and improved the quality of life in patients with GH deficiency without serious adverse events.

Kim, Youngsook; Hong, Jae Won; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Sung-Woon; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jin Hwa; Kim, Byung-Joon

2014-01-01

298

Is subjective hyperhidrosis assessment sufficient enough? prevalence of hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults. Additionally, this work aimed at comparing the subjective and objective (gravimetric) method of hyperhidrosis assessment. Healthy medical students, volunteering to take part in this study, were included. The participants filled out a questionnaire assessing the occurrence and subjective intensity of hyperhidrosis in different areas of the body. Additionally, the students were subjected to gravimetric assessment in four localizations: the face, palms, axillae and abdomino-lumbar area. Two hundred and fifty-three students (102 males and 151 females, mean age 24.3 ± 3.21 years) were included in the study. Forty-two (16.7%) participants declared that they suffer from hyperhidrosis. Out of the 42 students declaring any type of hyperhidrosis, only 20 (47.6%) exceeded the gravimetric reference values. From among the students that exceeded the normative values for palmar hyperhidrosis, only 10 (55.6%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. In the group of students that exceeded the normative values for axillary hyperhidrosis, 16 (39%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. Subjectively declared hyperhidrosis incidence may significantly exceed the real-life occurrence of this disease. Basing studies solely on data gathered from questionnaires, may lead to false results. It is imperative, when assessing patients suffering from hyperhidrosis, to use both objective and subjective methods of evaluation. PMID:23915355

Stefaniak, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Idestal, Anette; Royton, Anders; Abi-Khalil, Christian

2013-10-01

299

Susceptibility to diphtheria in adults: prevalence and relationship to gender and social variables.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of diphtheria have drawn attention to the re-emergence of this disease. This study investigated susceptibility to diphtheria in north-east Germany and its relationship to gender and social factors. A study population of 4275 individuals recruited for the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) was available for analysis. IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin were determined by ELISA and were used to define susceptibility to diphtheria (i.e., IgG titres < 0.1 IU/mL). The prevalence of susceptibility to diphtheria was 32.4%. Multivariate analysis revealed 45% increased odds of women being susceptible to diphtheria. Women who had not received diphtheria toxoid vaccination during the previous 10 years had four-fold increased odds of being susceptible to diphtheria toxin compared with unvaccinated men. None of the social factors investigated was associated with susceptibility status. It was concluded that a high proportion of middle-aged adults was susceptible to diphtheria. Women lacked seroprotection more often than men, which might be explained, in part, by gender-specific immune responses following vaccination. There is a need for information campaigns to improve public awareness of these problems. PMID:16961631

Völzke, H; Kloker, K M; Kramer, A; Guertler, L; Dören, M; Baumeister, S E; Hoffmann, W; John, U

2006-10-01

300

Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Adults with Klinefelter Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms among adolescents and adults with Klinefelter syndrome (XXY). Methods Individuals (n=310) aged 14–75 years with self-reported XXY were recruited from regional and national support networks to complete a web-based survey. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Perceived consequences (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire), perceived stigma (Perceived Social Stigmatization Scale), and coping (Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised) were also measured and evaluated as correlates of depressive symptoms. Results 68.8% of the study participants reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms as indicated by a CES-D score ?16. The use of emotion-focused coping strategies (p<0.01), perceptions of stigmatization (p<0.01), perceived negative consequences of XXY (p<0.01), and the importance of having children in the future (p<0.05) were all significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Individuals with XXY may be at increased risk for depression. Routine screening for depressive symptoms and appropriate referral and evaluation may be warranted.

Turriff, Amy; Levy, Howard P.; Biesecker, Barbara

2011-01-01

301

Prevalence of coeliac disease among adult patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism in jordan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. Of 87 seropositive patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, 39 had positive histological findings of coeliac disease (44.8%). Extrapolating from these findings the overall rate of coeliac disease among autoimmune hypothyroidism patients was estimated to be 5.7%. In multivariate logistic regression coeliac disease was significantly associated with older age (> 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia. PMID:24932934

Farahid, O H; Khawaja, N; Shennak, M M; Batieha, A; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

2014-01-01

302

The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.  

PubMed

Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients. PMID:24924526

He, Li; Tang, Suqin; Yu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Xie, Qiuyuan; Wang, Jianping

2014-10-30

303

Socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity prevalence in South Africa: a decomposition analysis.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

2014-03-01

304

Intercontinental differences in overweight of adopted Koreans in the United States and Europe.  

PubMed

A greater proportion of the United States (US) population is overweight or obese (with BMI over 25kg/m(2)) relative to all Western European populations, and it might be expected that migrants to either the US or Western Europe would develop patterns of overweight and obesity that reflect this difference. This paper examines the effects of obesogenic environments on Asians by reporting differences in rates of overweight (which is taken to include obesity in this analysis) among 261 adult South Koreans, which had been adopted in early-life into white middle class families living in the US and in Western European Nations. Data collected during an international adoption survey carried out for the Korean government in 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of overweight of adopted Koreans raised in the US significantly exceeds the level among adopted Koreans in Europe by 11.3%. These intercontinental differences are statistically significant after controlling for sex, current age, age of adoption, and education. This paper supports the view that life-style factors are more detrimental for the weight status of people in the US than in Western Europe. PMID:23044048

Ulijaszek, Stanley; Schwekendiek, Daniel

2013-07-01

305

The prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension in adult populations from the Han, Uygur and Kazakh ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. To estimate the current prevalence and epidemiology of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) among adult populations from different ethnic groups in Xinjiang province and to further establish a theoretical basis for developing personalized therapeutic strategies for hypertensive populations. Methods. To analyze the prevalence and risk factors of ISH in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang province, a cluster sampling method was adopted to conduct a cross-sectional study on people aged 35 years and older from the Han, Uygur and Kazakh populations in the Urumqi, Kelamayi, Hetian, Zhaosu, Fukang, Tulufan and Fuhai. Results. A total of 14,618 adults were surveyed with a response rate of 88.80%. The overall prevalence of ISH was 11.95% (men: 10.84% vs women: 12.92%); the prevalence of ISH in women was significantly higher (?(2) = 15.06, p = 0.00) than that in men. The prevalence varied significantly with age (?(2) = 822.71, p = 0.00) and increased in the elderly (?(2) = 769.59, p = 0.00). A logistic regression analysis revealed that age, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for ISH; patients with hypertension combined with obesity or diabetes are at a high risk of ISH. Conclusions. The prevalence of ISH in Xinjiang is higher than average and exhibits a gender difference. There is a trend of increased prevalence with increasing age. Populations with obesity, diabetes or dyslipidemia, and patients who have hypertension combined with obesity and/or diabetes, should be aware of early preventive interventions. PMID:24070221

Liu, Fen; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Zhen, Yu-Jian; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Chen, Bang-Dang; Huang, Ying; Shan, Chun-Fang; Gao, Xiao-Ming

2014-06-01

306

Prevalence and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Human Coronavirus OC43 among Adult Patients with Acute Respiratory Infections in Beijing, 2012  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence, epidemiology and genetic diversity of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) among adult patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Beijing,five hundred and fifty-nine nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from adult patients with ARI in Beijing. The prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection among these patients was assessed using two different OneStep reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. The epidemiological profiles of the patients with HCoV-OC43 infection were described. Partial S and N genes of HCoV-OC43 circulating strains were sequenced followed by phylogenetic analysis and amino acid alignment. Our results showed that the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection was 12.52% (95% CI: 9.78–15.26%), and the epidemic peak occurred in autumn. Fifty partial S and 40 partial N fragments were obtained from these patients. Phylogenetic analysis based on neighbour-joining method showed that at least three distinct clusters (A, B, C/D) of HCoV-OC43 strains were circulating among adult patients with ARI in Beijing. In addition, some novel unique clusters (UNT) of HCoV-OC43 were found in the S- and N-based phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, consensus amino acids substitutes for each cluster were also found after alignment of partial S or N sequence coding region in this study. In conclusion, we herein describe the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 among adult patients and provide substantial evidence for the genetic diversity of HCoV-OC43 circulating in Beijing.

Wang, Yanqun; Zhao, Yanjie; Wang, Wen; Lou, Yongliang; Tan, Wenjie

2014-01-01

307

Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ? 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564.

Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

2010-01-01

308

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) adults in New Jersey, 2000-2001.  

PubMed

Using polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 529 Ixodes scapularis Say adults collected from 16 of New Jersey's 21 counties for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Overall, 261 (49.3%) were positive. B. burgdorferi was detected in ticks obtained from each county and from 53 of the 58 (93.1%) municipalities surveyed. The observed statewide prevalence in New Jersey is similar to those reported from other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states. PMID:14680126

Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Hung, Robert W; Puelle, Rose S; Markowski, Daniel; Chomsky, Martin S

2003-07-01

309

Prevalence of obesity in adolescent and young adult patients with and without schizophrenia and in relationship to antipsychotic medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of obesity in inpatients of a German psychiatric rehabilitation center for adolescents and young adults (mean age 19.5 years) is assessed and set into relationship to diagnosis and medication regimen. In a cross-sectional naturalistic study body weights and heights of 151 inpatients, 109 of whom presented with ICD-10 schizophrenia spectrum disorders, were measured for the calculation of body

Frank M. Theisen; André Linden; Frank Geller; Helmut Schäfer; Matthias Martin; Helmut Remschmidt; Johannes Hebebrand

2001-01-01

310

Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

2008-01-01

311

Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007  

PubMed Central

Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated.

2011-01-01

312

Prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers in New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers. Design: Analysis of internet purchasing in data from a population based telephone survey of New Jersey households. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with internet cigarette purchasing, adjusting for year, demographic, and smoking behaviour variables. Participants: 3447 current cigarette smokers pooled from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002. Main outcome measures: Ever purchasing tobacco and usually buying cigarettes via the internet. Results: Among all current cigarette smokers, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet increased from 1.1% in 2000 to 6.7% in 2002 and usually buying cigarettes via the internet increased from 0.8% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2002. Among current cigarette smokers with internet access, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet was higher among those who reported smoking 31 or more cigarettes per day (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 10.2) and those without a past year quit attempt (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0). Usually purchasing cigarettes via the internet was higher among those aged 45–64 years (adjusted OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.1) and who reported having their first cigarette ? 30 minutes after waking (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2). Conclusions: Although higher prices are known to reduce the demand for cigarettes, internet cigarette purchasing is likely to weaken this effect, particularly among heavy, more dependent smokers who are less interested in quitting.

Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C; Staniewska, D

2004-01-01

313

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented.

2013-01-01

314

Estimating the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use among Black and White Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas over Time (1992-2002): Estimation Methods and Prevalence Trends  

PubMed Central

No adequate data exist on patterns of injection drug use (IDU) prevalence over time within racial/ethnic groups in U.S. geographic areas. The absence of such prevalence data limits our understanding of the causes and consequences of IDU and hampers planning efforts for IDU-related interventions. Here, we (1) describe a method of estimating IDU prevalence among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adult residents of 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually over an 11-year period (1992–2002); (2) validate the resulting prevalence estimates; and (3) document temporal trends in these prevalence estimates. IDU prevalence estimates for Black adults were calculated in several steps: we (1) created estimates of the proportion of injectors who were Black in each MSA and year by analyzing databases documenting injectors’ encounters with the healthcare system; (2) multiplied the resulting proportions by previously calculated estimates of the total number of injectors in each MSA and year (Brady et al., 2008); (3) divided the result by the number of Black adults living in each MSA each year; and (4) validated the resulting estimates by correlating them cross-sectionally with theoretically related constructs (Black- and White-specific prevalences of drug-related mortality and of mortality from hepatitis C). We used parallel methods to estimate and validate White IDU prevalence. We analyzed trends in the resulting racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence estimates using measures of central tendency and hierarchical linear models (HLM). Black IDU prevalence declined from a median of 279 injectors per 10,000 adults in 1992 to 156 injectors per 10,000 adults in 2002. IDU prevalence for White adults remained relatively flat over time (median values ranged between 86 and 97 injectors per 10,000 adults). HLM analyses described similar trends and suggest that declines in Black IDU prevalence decelerated over time. Both sets of IDU estimates correlated cross-sectionally adequately with validators, suggesting that they have acceptable convergent validity (range for Black IDU prevalence validation: 0.27 < r < 0.61; range for White IDU prevalence: 0.38 < r < 0.80). These data give insight, for the first time, into IDU prevalence trends among Black adults and White adults in large U.S. MSAs. The decline seen here for Black adults may partially explain recent reductions in newly reported cases of IDU-related HIV evident in surveillance data on this population. Declining Black IDU prevalence may have been produced by (1) high AIDS-related mortality rates among Black injectors in the 1990s, rates lowered by the advent of HAART; (2) reduced IDU incidence among Black drug users; and/or (3) MSA-level social processes (e.g., diminishing residential segregation). The stability of IDU prevalence among White adults between 1992 and 2002 may be a function of lower AIDS-related mortality rates in this population; relative stability (and perhaps increases in some MSAs) in initiating IDU among White drug users; and social processes. Future research should investigate the extent to which these racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence trends (1) explain, and are explained by, recent trends in IDU-related health outcomes, and (2) are determined by MSA-level social processes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9304-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Gostnell, Karla; Flom, Peter L.

2008-01-01

315

Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Simmons D, McKenzie A, Eaton S, Cox N, Khan MA, Shaw J, Zimmet P. Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia.

316

The prevalence and clinical associations of mood instability in adults living in England: results from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007.  

PubMed

Mood instability is underinvestigated but potentially clinically important. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of mood instability in adults living in England and test whether it is important in explaining the extent of symptoms of common mental disorders, suicidality and healthcare use. An analysis of data from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey 2007, a household survey of private households in England (N=7403), was completed. The prevalence of mood instability was 13.9%. In univariate analysis it was strongly associated with socio-demographic and clinical variables. In regression modelling mood instability was independently associated with non-psychotic psychopathology, increasing the odds by 9.89. It was also linked with suicidal ideas (odds ratios (OR): 2.04) but not suicidal acts, and associated with being in receipt of medication, counselling or therapy for mental health problems (OR: 1.88), independent of a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Mood instability is relatively common in the adult population, occurs frequently in common mental disorders and appears to be an important symptom in its own right. It is associated with two important measures in psychiatry, namely suicidal thinking and healthcare service use. It warrants more widespread recognition and further research is required to understand if, when and how to intervene. PMID:23062775

Marwaha, Steven; Parsons, Nick; Flanagan, Sarah; Broome, Matthew

2013-02-28

317

Disparity in Prevalence of Self-Reported Visual Impairment in Older Adults Among US Race-Ethnic Subgroups  

PubMed Central

Purpose Prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the United States (US) has not been carefully examined by race-ethnic subgroups. This study examines self-reported VI prevalence in race-ethnic subgroups using data representative of the US population age ?45 years. Methods The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a population-based multipurpose and multistage area probability annual survey of the US civilian non-institutionalized population conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Data from a total of 122,649 participants age ?45 years from the pooled 1999–2006 National Health Interview Surveys was used; VI prevalence was based on two questions asked to participants, “Do you have any trouble seeing, even when wearing glasses or contact lenses?” (some VI), and “Are you blind or unable to see at all?” (severe VI). Results For middle-aged adults age 45–64 years, race/ethnic groups with high age-adjusted rates of any self-reported VI (some or severe VI) include Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and those reporting mixed race/ethnicity. Among older adults age ?65 years, understudied race/ethnic groups with high age-adjusted rates of any self-reported VI include Native Americans, Chinese Americans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Central/South Americans, and those reporting mixed race/ethnicity. Among older adults with severe VI, race/ethnic groups with VI prevalence include Filipino, Chinese Americans, Dominicans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and those reporting mixed race/ethnicity. Conclusions Among understudied US race-ethnic groups, older Native Americans, Chinese Americans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Central/South Americans generally have high rates of self-reported VI suggesting further targeted epidemiologic and intervention studies may be warranted.

Lam, Byron L.; Lee, David J.; Zheng, D. Diane; Davila, Evelyn P.; Christ, Sharon L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.

2014-01-01

318

Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 - 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (?18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n?=?271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] ?=?1.08 [0.98?1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98?1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n?=?153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.

deCastro, B. Rey

2014-01-01

319

Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293) for this study. Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ?40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < ?0.5 D) 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1), high-myopia (SE < ?5.0 D) 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2), hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D) 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7), astigmatism (cylinder < ?0.5 D) 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2), and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D) 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1). The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001). There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001). Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95) and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49). The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia. Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously reported association between myopia, hyperopia, and nuclear opacity.

Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Srinivas, Marmamula; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

2009-01-01

320

Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to

E Gouws; V Mishra; T B Fowler

2008-01-01

321

Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

2013-01-01

322

The efficacy and safety study of dietary supplement PURIAM110 on non-insulin taking Korean adults in the stage of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multicenter trial-pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has already become a threat to the nation and the individual due to its high prevalence rates and high medical expenses. Therefore, preventing diabetes at an earlier stage is very important. Despite advances in antidiabetic agents, we have not yet achieved any satisfying results in treating diabetes. Among various treatments, medicinal herbs and supplements for diabetes are reported to show generally good efficacy and safety data. In particular, PURIAM110, a compound from orange fruits and mulberry leaves, is supposed to prevent the progress of type II diabetes mellitus and improve diabetic symptoms. This is the first reported pilot study about the protective effect of the orange fruits and mulberry leaves mixture against pre-diabetes on Korean adults. Based on these positive results of herb-derived components, extended studies of dietary supplements have to be done to suggest confirmative evidences. Methods/Design The efficacy and safety study of PURIAM110 is a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, and multi-center clinical trial. A total of 45 subjects will participate in this study for 6 weeks. Discussion The present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of PURIAM110 for pre-diabetes, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). In addition, PURIAM110 can be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for diabetes patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN44779824

2011-01-01

323

Prevalence of weight-loss strategies and use of substances for weight-loss among adults: a population study.  

PubMed

This paper concerns a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with adults living in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. It aims to determine the prevalence of weight-loss practices and use of substances for weight-loss during the 12 months preceding the interview. The prevalence of weight-loss attempts was 26.6%. Although dietary control and regular physical exercise were the most commonly used strategies, the prevalence of the combined use of these methods was only 36% for individuals trying to lose weight. The prevalence of use of substances for weight-loss was 12.8% (48.4% of those who tried to lose weight). The use of dietary control and substances was more common among women, while men practiced physical exercise with greater frequency. Teas were the most frequently used substances for weight-loss. Multivariate analysis identified being female, excess weight and self-perception of excess weight as major associated factors for the use of substances for weight-loss. Finally, we found that, although weight-loss attempts are common, the majority of obese individuals do not make attempts to lose weight and only a minority follows the recommended practices. PMID:22892964

Machado, Eduardo Coelho; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas da; Silveira, Vera Maria Freitas da

2012-08-01

324

Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI). Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2%) were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249). However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7%) than men (9%), p < 0.001, among respondents with high socio-economic status (29.2%) as compared to those with medium (14.3%) and low socio-economic status (11.3%), p value for trend < 0.001, and among respondents with light intensity activities (26.0%), p value for trend < 0.001. Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities.

2011-01-01

325

Prevalence and treatment of pain in older adults in nursing homes and other long-term care institutions: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The high prevalence of pain in older adults and its impact in this age group make it a public health issue, yet few studies of pain relief focus on older adults. Residents of long-term care facilities have more cognitive impairment than their community-living counterparts and may have difficulty reporting the presence and severity of pain. This systematic literature review

Patricia L. Fox; Parminder Raina; Alejandro R. Jadad

326

How can older people's mental health services in the UK respond to the escalating prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – There is growing statistical and research evidence to suggest that the prevalence of alcohol misuse is increasing among older adults in the UK. This has been an under-recognised problem, but is now a source of increasing concern for health and social care providers. Older adults with mental health problems have increased vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and this

Maureen Rakshi; Ian Wilson; Simon Burrow; Mark Holland

2011-01-01

327

Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in Asian adults: a systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease, affecting approximately 2% of women and 4% of men residing in Western communities. No systematically reviewed data are available about the prevalence of this disease in Asia, the most heavily populated continent. Methods PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from 1993 to May 2012 that reported the prevalence of OSA diagnosed via sleep monitoring and the prevalence of patients at risk for OSA as assessed by symptomatology and/or sleep questionnaires. We have also searched abstract database of major pulmonary and sleep scientific societies for relevant abstracts presented from 2010 to 2012. The following inclusion criteria were used: articles published in English, age???18 years, ??100 participants in studies using sleep monitoring for the diagnosis of OSA, ??300 participants in studies using questionnaires to detect patients at high risk for OSA. Exclusion criteria: duplicate publications, studies reporting the prevalence of central sleep apnea only, hospital based studies as well as studies assessing OSA prevalence among patients with resistant arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure and in patients with concomitant neurological disease. Results Twenty four articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, covering 47,957 subjects (26,042 men and 21,915 women) and four relevant abstracts were noted. OSA prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 97.3%. Male gender, older age, a higher BMI and waist to hip ratio, greater neck circumference, arterial hypertension, smoking, snoring and daytime sleepiness were associated with OSA. Sample size, difference between the populations studied and the fact that some works included patients with a high pre-test probability of OSA explain the difference in prevalence rates. Conclusion This systematic review highlights the lack of data regarding the prevalence of OSA in Asians. Only a few studies provide an approximate estimate of the OSA burden in some Asian communities.

2013-01-01

328

Behavioural Addictions in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from a Prevalence Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender\\u000a and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in\\u000a order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise\\u000a Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and

Corrado Villella; Giovanni Martinotti; Marco Di Nicola; Maria Cassano; Giuseppe La Torre; Maria Daniela Gliubizzi; Immacolata Messeri; Filippo Petruccelli; Pietro Bria; Luigi Janiri; Gianluigi Conte

2011-01-01

329

Prevalence of Adult Problem and Pathological Gambling between 2000 and 2005: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Excessive gambling is a prominent Public Health problem with high prevalence rates in many countries. Substance abuse and\\u000a other co-morbidities often constitute a major health hazard for the person which gambles with a loss of material and social\\u000a resources, as well as being a major concern for his or her significant others. The present study updates and extends prevalence\\u000a data

Stephanie Stucki; Margret Rihs-Middel

2007-01-01

330

Molecular epidemiology of Korean porcine sapeloviruses.  

PubMed

To evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine sapeloviruses (PSVs) in Korea, a total of 100 diarrhea fecal samples from pigs were analyzed by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays with primer pairs specific for the VP1 gene. Overall, 34 % of the diarrhea samples tested positive for PSV, and a high proportion of infections occurred along with a variety of other enteric viruses and bacteria. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 genes revealed pronounced genetic diversities between PSVs from Korean and elsewhere. Our results indicate that PSV infections are very common in Korean pigs with diarrhea. The infecting strains are genetically diverse. PMID:24232913

Son, Kyu-Yeol; Kim, Deok-Song; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Kwon, Hyoung-Jun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Ryu, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Mun-Il; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

2014-05-01

331

Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

1998-01-01

332

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

2008-01-01

333

Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

2005-01-01

334

Prevalence and risk factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescents and young adults in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.\\u000a Objective  To estimate the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescent and young adults in Poland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  3 687 men (48.2%) and women (51.8%), median age 23 (interquartile range 19–20 years) participated in a survey via a ”pop-up\\u000a window-which appeared on two popular Polish internet portals during one month. Questions concerning their body image, exercise\\u000a behaviour, education level and use

Dominik Racho?; Leszek Pokrywka; Krystyna Suchecka-Racho?

2006-01-01

335

Prevalence and associated risk factors of sleep-disordered breathing symptoms in young and middle-aged Pakistani employed adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported sleep-disordered breathing (SDB symptoms and its\\u000a associated risk factors in Pakistani employed adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Full-time employees (n?=?3470) of a medical university were evaluated. Self-administered questionnaire elicited information about demographic data,\\u000a symptoms of SDB, smoking and alcohol use, presence of nasal congestion, family history of snoring, and included the Epworth

Syed Fayyaz Hussain; Yona Keich Cloonan; Muhammad Islam; Mohammad Hossein Rahbar

2010-01-01

336

Self-transcendence, spiritual perspective, and sense of purpose in family caregiving relationships: a mediated model of depression symptoms in Korean older adults.  

PubMed

Objectives: This study used structural equation modeling to test the mediated model of late-life depression to understand the mechanisms that account for the direct and indirect effects of spiritual variables and purpose in life on depression within the context of Korean family caregiving relationships. Method: A secondary analysis study design used data from a study that tested a theory of family interdependence of 157 Korean elder-family caregiver dyads in Seoul, Korea. Results: Both caregivers' and elders' self-transcendence was positively related to their own sense of purpose in life. However, only elders' spiritual perspective was related to purpose in life. Also, elders' purpose in life was positively associated with caregivers' purpose in life. Furthermore, there was a strong negative relationship between elders' purpose in life and their depressive symptoms, but there was not a significant negative relationship between caregivers' purpose in life and elders' depressive symptoms. Last, elders' purpose in life mediated the negative effects of elders' self-transcendence and spiritual perspective and of caregivers' self-transcendence and purpose in life on elders' depression. Conclusion: The findings suggest that purpose in life for both the caregiver and elder played an important role in elders' depression. Self-transcendence also was related to decreased depression in elders. It is suggested that more attention be given to caregiver and elder purpose in life in developing interventions to reduce or avoid elder depression in Korean elders. PMID:24697304

Kim, Suk-Sun; Hayward, R David; Reed, Pamela G

2014-09-01

337

Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3.8–35.3% and 9.8% respectively. TSP was significantly associated with: concurrent musculoskeletal pain; growth and physical; lifestyle and social; backpack; postural; psychological; and environmental factors. Risk factors identified for TSP in adolescents included age (being older) and poorer mental health. Conclusion TSP is a common condition in the general population. While there is some evidence for biopsychosocial associations it is limited and further prospectively designed research is required to inform prevention and management strategies.

Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

2009-01-01

338

Status of Cardiovascular Health in US Adults: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2008  

PubMed Central

Background The American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals define a new concept, “cardiovascular (CV) health”; however, current prevalence estimates of the status of CV health in U.S. adults according to age, sex and race/ethnicity have not been published. Methods and Results We included 14,515 adults (?20 years) from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Participants were stratified by young (20-39 years), middle (40-64 years), and older ages (65+ years). CV health behaviors (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking) and CV health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking) were defined as poor, intermediate, or ideal. Less than 1% of adults exhibited ideal CV health for all 7 metrics. For CV health behaviors, non-smoking was most prevalent (range:60.2-90.4%) while ideal Healthy Diet Score was least prevalent (range:0.2-2.6%) across groups. Prevalence of ideal BMI (range:36.5-45.3%) and ideal physical activity levels (range:50.2-58.8%) were higher in young adults compared to middle or older ages. Ideal total cholesterol (range:23.7-36.2%), blood pressure (range:11.9-16.3%) and fasting blood glucose (range:31.2-42.9%) were lower in older adults compared with young and middle age adults.Prevalence of poor CV health factors was lowest in young age but higher at middle and older ages. Prevalence estimates by age and sex were consistent across race/ethnic groups. Conclusions These prevalence estimates of CV health represent a starting point from which effectiveness of efforts to promote CV health and prevent CV disease can be monitored and compared in U.S. adult populations.

Shay, Christina M.; Ning, Hongyan; Allen, Norrina B.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

2014-01-01

339

Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in older adults with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in this group. To identify the associations of sarcopenia, logistic regression analyses were performed with patient characteristics, mobility, physical activity, intake of energy and proteins, body mass index (BMI) and levels of CRP, albumin and vitamin D in serum. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.3% in the total group. In the age group 50-64 years prevalence was 12.7%. Sarcopenia was positively associated with mobility impairment and inflammation and negatively with BMI. The next thing to do is collecting longitudinal data to study the relation between sarcopenia and negative outcomes in older people with ID. PMID:22750356

Bastiaanse, Luc P; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Echteld, Michael A; Evenhuis, Heleen M

2012-01-01

340

Prevalence and patterns of morbidity among adults in Germany. Results of the German telephone health interview survey German Health Update (GEDA) 2009.  

PubMed

To describe the prevalence and patterns of morbidity among adults in Germany, we collected self-reported information on 22 chronic health conditions in a nationally representative health survey among 21,262 participants (51.5% women, aged 18-100 years). Age- and sex-specific prevalences were calculated for single health conditions, disease categories, the most prevalent disease dyads and triads, and for multimorbidity defined by condition count. In both sexes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic back pain, obesity, and osteoarthritis were the most prevalent single health conditions and significantly increased with age. Cardiometabolic and musculoskeletal conditions were the two most prevalent disease categories in all age and sex groups. The most prevalent disease category dyads and triads included combinations between cardiometabolic conditions, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disease, depression, sensory limitations, and cancer. The prevalence and magnitude of multimorbidity strongly increased with age in both sexes. Among German adults, the prevalence of chronic health conditions varies greatly by age and sex. In contrast, patterns of morbidity and comorbidity differ according to age, but are highly consistent between men and women. The predominant role of cardiometabolic conditions in all groups underlines the need for preventive efforts. The co-occurrence of chronic health conditions among older is highly prevalent and this calls for tailoring health care towards specific disease combinations. PMID:22441528

Fuchs, J; Busch, M; Lange, C; Scheidt-Nave, C

2012-04-01

341

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural Sub-District of South India  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002. Methods Survey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) were eligible for sputum examination by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; two sputum samples were collected from each eligible person. Persons with one or both sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were labeled suffering from PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct for bias introduced by incompleteness of data. In six clusters, registered persons were also screened by X-ray chest. Persons with any abnormal shadow on X-ray were eligible for sputum examination in addition to those with symptoms and ATT. Multiplication factor calculated as ratio of prevalence while using both screening tools to prevalence using symptoms screening alone was applied to entire study population to estimate prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray. Results Of 71,874 residents ?15 years of age, 63,362 (88.2%) were screened for symptoms and ATT. Of them, 5120 (8.1%) - 4681 (7.4%) with symptoms and an additional 439 (0.7%) with ATT were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimen were collected from 4850 (94.7%) and early morning sputum specimens from 4719 (92.2%). Using symptom screening alone, prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ?15 years of age was 83 (CI: 57–109), 152 (CI: 108–197) and 196 (CI :145–246) per 100,000 population respectively. Prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray was 108 (CI: 82–134), 198 (CI: 153–243) and 254 (CI: 204–301) respectively. Conclusion Observed prevalence suggests further strengthening of TB control program.

Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Prahlad; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Singh, Sanjay; Narasimhaiah, Somashekar; Joshi, Malathi V.; Gupta, Joydev; Lakshminarayana; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Velu, Magesh; Papkianathan, Suganthi; Babu, Suseendra; Krishna, Hemalatha

2012-01-01

342

Low serum magnesium concentrations are associated with a high prevalence of premature ventricular complexes in obese adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) predict cardiovascular mortality among several adult populations. Increased arrhythmia prevalence has been reported during controlled magnesium (Mg) depletion studies in adults. We thus hypothesized that serum magnesium (sMg) concentrations are inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in adults at high cardiovascular risk. Methods Anthropometric, demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed in 750 Cree adults, aged > 18 yrs, who participated in an age-stratified, cross-sectional health survey in Quebec, Canada. Holter electrocardiograms recorded heart rate variability and cardiac arrhythmias for two consecutive hours. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between sMg and PVC. Results PVC prevalence in adults with hypomagnesemia (sMg ? 0.70 mmol/L) was more than twice that of adults without hypomagnesemia (50% vs. 21%, p = 0.015); results were similar when adults with cardiovascular disease history were excluded. All hypomagnesemic adults with PVC had type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Prevalence of PVC declined across the sMg concentration gradient in adults with T2DM only (p < 0.001 for linear trend). In multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex, community, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, kidney disease, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering drug use, and blood docosahexaenoic acid concentrations, the odds ratio of PVC among T2DM subjects with sMg > 0.70 mmol/L was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.06-0.98) p = 0.046 compared to those with sMg ? 0.70 mmol/L. Conclusions sMg concentrations were inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in patients with T2DM in a dose response manner, indicating that suboptimal sMg may be a contributor to arrhythmias among patients with T2DM.

2012-01-01

343

Prevalence of insulin resistance and its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults over 35 years old  

PubMed Central

Aims To estimate the prevalence of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and to study its relationship with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults. Methods This cross-sectional study was comprised of 227 men and 990 women undergoing routine health check-up. The prevalence of insulin resistance was estimated using diagnostic criteria previously employed in Asian and other populations. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate associations of HOMA-IR with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to evaluate associations of hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-Cholesterolemia, and hypertension with varying HOMA-IR values. Results Approximately 25.1% of men (HOMA-IR ? 1.56) and 21.5% of women (HOMA-IR ?1.64) were classified as having insulin resistance. HOMA-IR values were statistically significantly and positively associated with body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and serum triglycerides. The values were inversely correlated with HDL-Cholesterol. When compared with those whose HOMA-IR values were within the lowest quartile (<0.45), men with HOMA-IR values in the highest quartile (?1.58) had higher risks of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR=2.83), low HDL-Cholesterolemia (adjusted OR=2.79), and hypertension (adjusted OR=2.76). Similar associations were observed among women. Conclusion Insulin resistance, as determined using HOMA-IR, was positively associated with selected cardiovascular disease risk factors among Thai adults.

Do, Hau D.; Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Williams, Michelle A.

2010-01-01

344

Prevalence and comorbidity of major internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents and adults presenting to substance abuse treatment  

PubMed Central

As the field follows recommendations to introduce standardized assessments on substance, mental and behavioral problems, a consistent picture has emerged that co-occurring disorders are common, that there is heterogeneity in the type of disorder, and that the pattern varies by age. This paper examines the prevalence of self-reported substance use and mental health problems, the pattern of comorbidity, and how both vary by age among people presenting to substance abuse treatment. Data are from 4,939 adolescents and 1,958 adults presenting to substance abuse treatment in multi-site studies who were assessed with the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) and categorized into five age groups: age <15, 15-17, 18-25, 26-39, and 40+. Two thirds of clients had a co-occurring mental problem in the year prior to treatment admission. Across all ages, clients self-reporting criteria for past-year substance dependence were more likely than those who did not to have other co-occurring mental health problems (odd ratios of 2.9 to 8.8). The prevalence and patterns of co-occurring mental health problems however varied by age. Young adults (age 18-25) were found to be most vulnerable to co-occurring problems.

Chan, Ya-Fen; Dennis, Michael L.; Funk, Rodney R.

2008-01-01

345

High Prevalence of Genital Mycoplasmas among Sexually Active Young Adults with Urethritis or Cervicitis Symptoms in La Crosse, Wisconsin  

PubMed Central

Sexually active young adults in the small college town of La Crosse, Wisconsin, were evaluated for conventional sexually transmitted pathogens and tested for infections with mycoplasmas. The prevalence in 65 symptomatic men or women and 137 healthy volunteers (67 men and 70 women) was compared. Urine specimens from both cohorts were tested by ligase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In addition, the urethral or cervical swabs from the symptomatic subjects were tested by PCR for Mycoplasma genitalium and cultured for Mycoplasma hominis and the ureaplasmas. The results confirmed a relatively low prevalence of gonorrhea among symptomatic men (12%) and chlamydia among symptomatic men (15%) and normal women (3%). In contrast, infections with mycoplasmas, especially the ureaplasmas (57%), were common and the organisms were the only potential sexually transmitted pathogen detected in 40 (62%) symptomatic subjects. Because of the high prevalence, we also evaluated urethral swabs from an additional 25 normal female volunteers and recovered ureaplasmas from 4 (16%) subjects. Additionally, the participants rarely used protection during sexual intercourse and some symptomatic subjects apparently acquired their infections despite using condoms regularly. The findings demonstrate a strong association between abnormal urogenital findings and detection of myoplasmas, particularly ureaplasmas, and suggest the infections will remain common.

Schlicht, Michael J.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Sartin, Jeffrey S.; Karpinsky, Patricia; Callister, Steven M.; Agger, William A.

2004-01-01

346

Prevalence and Perceived Preventability of Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events - A Population-Based Survey of 7099 Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and often preventable among inpatients, but self-reported ADEs have not been investigated in a representative sample of the general public. The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-month prevalence of self-reported ADEs among the adult general public, and the perceived preventability of 2 ADE categories: adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a postal survey was sent in October 2010 to a random sample of 13 931 Swedish residents aged ?18 years. Self-reported ADEs experienced during the past month included ADRs, STEs, drug dependence, drug intoxications and morbidity due to drug-related untreated indication. ADEs could be associated with prescription, non-prescription or herbal drugs. The respondents estimated whether ADRs and STEs could have been prevented. ADE prevalences in age groups (18–44, 45–64, or ?65 years) were compared. Results Of 7099 respondents (response rate 51.0%), ADEs were reported by 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 18.5–20.3%), and the prevalence did not differ by age group (p>0.05). The prevalences of self-reported ADRs, STEs, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indications were 7.8% (7.2–8.4%), 7.6% (7.0–8.2%) and 8.1% (7.5–8.7%), respectively. The prevalence of self-reported drug dependence was 2.2% (1.9–2.6%), and drug intoxications 0.2% (0.1–0.3%). The respondents considered 19.2% (14.8–23.6%) of ADRs and STEs preventable. Although reported drugs varied between ADE categories, most ADEs were attributable to commonly dispensed drugs. Drugs reported for all and preventable events were similar. Conclusions One-fifth of the adult general public across age groups reported ADEs during the past month, indicating a need for prevention strategies beyond hospitalised patients. For this, the underlying causes of ADEs should increasingly be investigated. The high burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from widely used drugs across care settings supports redesigning a safer healthcare system to adequately tackle the problem.

Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hagg, Staffan

2013-01-01

347

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its influencing factors among the Chinese adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2009  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its influencing factors among the Chinese adults. Methods Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2009, which was a cross-sectional and partially nationally representative study including a total of 7488 Chinese adults (age ? 18 years). Results The overall age-standardized prevalence estimates of the MS were 21.3% (95%confidence interval (CI): 20.4%–22.2%), 18.2% (95%CI: 17.3%–19.1%) and 10.5% (95%CI: 9.8%–11.2%) based on definitions of revised NCEP ATPIII, IDF and CDS criteria, respectively. Individuals who were women (compared to men: odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% CI=1.16–1.61), 40 years or older (compared to less than 40 years old: OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.37–3.34 for 40–59 years; OR = 4.41, 95%CI = 3.68–5.29 for 60 years or older), overweight/obese (compared to normal weight: OR=4.32, 95%CI=3.77–4.95 for overweight; OR=11.24, 95%CI=9.53–13.26 for obese), and living in urban area (compared to living in rural area: OR=1.27, 95%CI=1.12–1.43) were more likely to have a higher prevalence estimate of MS. In addition, frequency of alcohol consumption and cigarette intake were also found to be significantly associated with probability of MS. Conclusions Our results suggest an urgent need to develop national strategies for the prevention, detection, treatment and control of obesity and MS in China.

Xi, Bo; He, Dan; Hu, Yuehua; Zhou, Donghao

2014-01-01

348

Prevalence and Correlates of Pica among Adults with Intellectual Disability in Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased knowledge of complex behaviors such as pica is needed to improve the support and services in the community for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Though the prevalence of pica has been documented extensively in institutionalized settings, few studies have explored its etiology. The aim of this study is to explore the…

Ashworth, Melody; Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.

2008-01-01

349

Metabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Prevalence in Young Adults at 3 Land-Grant Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study examines metabolic syndrome (MetS) among college students at 3 geographically distinct US campuses. Participants: Undergraduates ("N" = 360; 68% women), 18 to 24 years of age, were recruited at each public university in January and February 2011. MetS prevalence was evaluated in 83% ("n" = 299)…

Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Dent, Amanda; Carey, Gale B.

2014-01-01

350

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

2012-01-01

351

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among United States Adults 1999-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of hypertension and blood pressure control are critically important for reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes. We analyzed the trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States in the period 1999-2004. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 database. Blood pressure information on 14 653 individuals (4749 in

Kwok Leung Ong; Bernard M. Y. Cheung; Yu Bun Man; Chu Pak Lau; Karen S. L. Lam

2010-01-01

352

The prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse in an acute adult inpatient population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse in a series of admissions to a general psychiatric hospital was estimated. One hundred and twenty subjects were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Case notes were examined to determine previous documented disclosure, diagnosis, and rates of admission and deliberate self harm. Forty-six percent reported a history of childhood sexual abuse by

Catherine J. Wurr; Ian M. Partridge

1996-01-01

353

Prevalence and risk of migraine headaches in adult fragile X premutation carriers.  

PubMed

FMR1 premutation carriers are common in the general population (1/130-260 females and 1/250-810 males) and can be affected by fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, anxiety, depression, hypertension, sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, and hypothyroidism. Here we report the results of a pilot study to assess the prevalence and risk of migraine in FMR1 premutation carriers. Three hundred fifteen carriers (203 females; 112 males) and 154 controls (83 females; 71 males) were seen sequentially as part of a family study. A standardized medical history, physical examination and confirmation of diagnosis of migraine headaches were performed by a physician. The prevalence of migraine was 54.2% in female carriers (mean age/SD: 49.60/13.73) and 26.79% in male carriers (mean age/SD: 59.94/14.27). This prevalence was higher compared to female (25.3%; mean age/SD: 47.60/15.21; p =? 0.0001) and male controls (15.5%; mean age/SD; 53.88/13.31; p =? 0.0406) who underwent the same protocol and were confirmed to be negative for the FMR1 mutation by DNA testing. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of migraine headaches in FMR1 premutation carriers is likely related to the mitochondrial abnormalities that have recently been reported. Screening for migraine should be considered when evaluating FMR1 premutation carriers in the future. PMID:23373759

Au, J; Akins, R S; Berkowitz-Sutherland, L; Tang, H-T; Chen, Y; Boyd, A; Tassone, F; Nguyen, D V; Hagerman, R

2013-12-01

354

Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009-2010)  

PubMed Central

Background Estimating the prevalence of hardcore smoking and identifying linked factors is fundamental to improve planning and implementation of effective tobacco control measures. Given the paucity of data on that topic, we aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a representative, cross-sectional, household based survey conducted in Poland between 2009 and 2010. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations of socio-demographic and smoking related variables with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Results The prevalence of hardcore smoking was 10.0% (13.0% among men and 7.3% among women) in the whole population of Poland at age 26 years and above. Hardcore smokers constitute 39.9% (41.6% among men and 37.7% among women) of all daily smokers in analyzed age frame. Being older, having started smoking at earlier ages, living in large cities (in women only), being less aware of negative health effects of smoking, having less restrictions on smoking at home was associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker. Educational attainment and economic activity were not associated with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Conclusions High prevalence of hardcore smokers may be a grand challenge for curbing non-communicable diseases epidemic in Poland. Our findings should urge policy makers to consider hardcore smoking issues while planning and implementing tobacco control policies. Prevention of smoking uptake, education programs, and strengthening cessation services appeared to be the top priorities.

2014-01-01

355

Dientamoeba fragilis is more prevalent than Giardia duodenalis in children and adults attending a day care centre in Central Italy.  

PubMed

Giardia duodenalis is a well recognised enteropathogen, while Dientamoeba fragilis is rarely detected and consequently it is not recognised as an important human pathogen. In 2002-2003, a survey has been carried out on enteroparasites in faecal samples of outpatients attending a day care centre in the town of Perugia (Central Italy). To improve the detection level, at least three samples from each patient were collected at different days and within two hours from defecation. The coproparasitological examination has been carried out by direct microscopic examination, faecal concentration, and Giemsa and modified Ziehl-Nielsen stainings of faecal smears. The genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolates were determined by PCR of the beta-giardin gene. Of 1,989 enrolled people (966 children, 1,023 adults), 165 persons (8.3%; 153 adults, 15.0%; 12 children, 1.2%), were positive for parasites, but only 1 12 adults (73.2% of those infected) and eight children (66.7% of those infected) harboured D. fragilis and G. duodenalis. Both the Assemblages A and B were detected in 18 G. duodenalis isolates examined at the beta-giardin gene. The higher prevalence of D. fragilis infections than that of G. duodenalis is probably related to the method used, a procedure, which is rarely followed in laboratories for the diagnosis of enteric parasites. These epidemiological data suggest that when faecal samples are examined after a period of time and without Giemsa staining, most D. fragilis infections goes undetected. PMID:15991830

Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L; Fonzo, G; Lalle, M; Cacciò, S M; Pozio, E

2005-06-01

356

Prevalence of poor self-rated health and associated risk factors among older adults in Cali, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH) has beeen considered an important marker of quality of life and an independent predictor of mortality in older adults. Objective: To determine the prevalence of poor SRH and identify risk factors associated with poor SRH among older adults residing in the Commune 18 of the city of Cali, Colombia, in 2009. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study with a single-stage cluster sampling design. Sample included 314 persons aged 60 and older. The dependent variable, SRH was dichotomized into good (excellent, very good, good) and poor (fair, poor). Independent variables were sociodemographic, biological, mental, functional and geriatric syndromes. Logistic regression was used for multivariate statistical modeling. Results: Overall, 40.1% reported poor SRH (women 42.9%, men 35.0%). Factors independently associated with poor SRH were diabetes mellitus, depression, fear of falling and frailty syndrome (frail and pre-frail vs. non-frail). Widowed men reported poorer health than married men while other marital status (single/separated/divorced) was associated with better self-rated health in women. Conclusion: Potential modifiable factors such as depression and frailty syndrome are important determinants for poor SRH in Colombian older adults.

Zapata-Ossa, Helmer de J; Cubides-Munevar, Angela M; Curcio, Carmen L; Villegas, Juan de D; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

2013-01-01

357

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in New Zealand Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among M?ori and Non-M?ori  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Examine the distribution of symptoms and risk factors, and estimate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among M?ori and non-M?ori New Zealanders. Design: Mail-out survey to a stratified random sample from the electoral roll of 10,000 people aged 30-59 y, and overnight MESAM IV monitoring during sleep of a similarly aged stratified random sample of 364 people from the Wellington electoral roll. Setting: Nationwide survey of OSA symptoms (71% response rate) and regional home-based measurement of respiratory disturbance index (RDI, 4% oxygen desaturations/h of sleep, plus bursts of snoring or ? 10/min increase in heart rate). Participants: Sample designs aimed for equal numbers of M?ori and non-M?ori participants, men and women, and participants in each decade of age. Interventions: N/A Measurements and results: M?ori were more likely than non-M?ori to report OSAS risk factors and symptoms. After controlling for sex and age, M?ori were 4.3 times more likely to have RDI ? 15 (95% CI = 1.3–13.9). Ethnicity was not an independent risk factor after controlling for body mass index (BMI) and neck circumference. The prevalence of OSAS (RDI ? 5 and ESS > 10) was conservatively estimated to be 4.4% for M?ori men, 4.1% for non-M?ori men, 2.0% for M?ori women, and 0.7% for non-M?ori women. Conclusions: The national survey and the regional monitoring study indicate a higher prevalence of OSA among M?ori and among men. The higher prevalence among M?ori appears to be attributable to recognized risk factors, notably body habitus. In addition to increased prevention and treatment services, strategies are needed to reduce ethnic disparities in OSAS prevalence. Citation: Mihaere KM; Harris R; Gander PH; Reid PM; Purdie G; Robson B; Neill A. Obstructive sleep apnea in New Zealand adults: prevalence and risk factors among m?ori and non-m?ori. SLEEP 2009;32(7):949-956.

Mihaere, Kara M.; Harris, Ricci; Gander, Philippa H.; Reid, Papaarangi M.; Purdie, Gordon; Robson, Bridget; Neill, Alister

2009-01-01

358

Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution determined by the cyclic-catcher melting temperature analysis in Korean medical checkup population.  

PubMed

Although cytology screening has reduced the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer significantly, its usefulness is limited to samples from the site of the lesion, resulting in its low sensitivity and unsuitability for use in medical checkups. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection using genotype distribution and to analyze the correlation of the HPV DNA test results with cytological results. We also evaluated the benefits of quantitative information obtained from cyclic-catcher melting temperature analysis (CMTA) in screening for cervical cancer. We performed cyclic-CMTA using Anyplex™ II HPV28 Detection in combination with cervical cytology for 2,181 subjects. The following HPV positivity types were detected using cyclic-CMTA and HPV positivity was found to increase together with the severity of the cytology results: (1) For 419 HPV positive specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 18.1% of normal specimens, 78.3% of ASCUS, and all of LSIL and HSIL; (2) high-risk HPV DNAs were detected in 63.3% of normal (N=547), 65.9% of ASCUS (N=41), 76.9% of LSIL (N=13), and 88.9% of HSIL (N=9) among total detected HPV DNA regardless multiple detection; (3) multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 4.8% of normal specimens (N=2,146), 52.2% of ASCUS (N=23), 57.1% of LSIL (N=7), and 40.0% of HSIL (N=5). In addition, a high level of viral DNA was observed using cyclic-CMTA in all specimens beyond the LSIL stage according to cytology, while only 6% of specimens with normal cytology showed a correlation with viral quantitation by cyclic-CMTA. The combination of HPV genotyping with a quantitative assay and cytology will allow for a more accurate diagnosis of cervical cancer. PMID:24037659

Kim, Yun-Jee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Paik, Soon-Young

2013-10-01

359

Prevalence of vocal fry in young adult male American english speakers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed. PMID:24315658

Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne

2014-03-01

360

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural SubDistrict of South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002.MethodsSurvey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB

Vineet K. Chadha; Prahlad Kumar; Sharada M. Anjinappa; Sanjay Singh; Somashekar Narasimhaiah; Malathi V. Joshi; Joydev Gupta; Lakshminarayana; Jitendra Ramchandra; Magesh Velu; Suganthi Papkianathan; Suseendra Babu; Hemalatha Krishna

2012-01-01

361

High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

362

Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.  

PubMed

Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (<18 years old) students. The scores of all of these scales were significantly correlated. The strong correlation among different addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours. PMID:20559694

Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

2011-06-01

363

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption and awareness of milk intolerancein ltaly?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 308 healthy Italian adults ( I 92 females, I I 6 males; mean age 29.2 yr) were examined using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. Two geographical groups were formed according to the birth places of the probands' grandparents: 208 subjects from northern Italy (mainly from the regions of Piemonte, Lombardia,

G Roberto Burgio; Gebhard Flatz; Cristiana Barbera; Rosario Patan; Attilio Boner; Cinzia Cajozzo; Sibylle D Flaiz

364

Adult Recall of Parental Alienation in a Community Sample: Prevalence and Associations With Psychological Maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred fifty-three adults working in a New York child welfare agency agreed to complete anonymous research packets containing, among other measures, 6 existing scales of psychological maltreatment and a single item about exposure to parental alienation as a child. Results revealed that one fourth of the full sample reported some exposure to parental alienation, which itself was associated with

Amy J. L. Baker

2009-01-01

365

Prevalence of Premilitary Adult Sexual Victimization and Aggression in a Navy Basic Trainee Sample.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. Navy recruits (n = 3,776) were surveyed for premilitary histories of adult sexual assault. They were administered an instrument designed to estimate rates for experiences as victims (women) and perpetrators (men) of attempted and completed rape, sinc...

L. L. Merrill C. E. Newell J. S. Mimer L. K. Hervig S. R. Gold

1997-01-01

366

Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. METHODS: Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national

Fikru Tesfaye; Peter Byass; Stig Wall

2009-01-01

367

Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ?18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (?2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance.

Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Leger, D.

2012-01-01

368

Prevalence, awareness and risk factors of hypertension in a large cohort of Iranian adult population  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable variation in hypertension prevalence and awareness, and their correlates, across different geographic locations and ethnic groups. We performed this cross-sectional analysis on data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). Methods Enrollment in this study occurred in 2004–2008, and included 50,045 healthy subjects from Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ?140, a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ?90, a prior diagnosis of hypertension, or the use of antihypertensive drugs. Potential correlates of hypertension and its awareness were analyzed by logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, BMI, place of residence, literacy, ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, black and green tea consumption and wealth score. Results Of the total cohort participants, 21,350 (42.7%) were hypertensive. Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, using the 2001 WHO standard world population, was 41.8% (95%CI: 38.3%–45.2%). Hypertension was directly associated with female sex, increased BMI, Turkmen ethnicity, and lack of physical activity, and inversely associated with drinking black tea and wealth score. Among hypertensive subjects, 46.2% were aware of their disease, 17.6% were receiving antihypertensive medication, and 32.1% of the treated subjects had controlled hypertension. Hypertension awareness was greater among women, the elderly, overweight and obese subjects, and those with a higher wealth score. Conclusions Hypertension is highly prevalent in rural Iran, many of the affected individuals are unaware of their disease, and the rate of control by antihypertensive medications is low. Increasing hypertension awareness and access to health services, especially among less privileged residents are recommended.

MALEKZADEH, Masoud M.; ETEMADI, Arash; KAMANGAR, Farin; KHADEMI, Hooman; GOLOZAR, Asieh; ISLAMI, Farhad; POURSHAMS, Akram; POUSTCHI, Hossein; NAVABAKHSH, Behrouz; NAEMI, Mohammad; PHAROAH, Paul D.; ABNET, Christian C.; BRENNAN, Paul; BOFFETTA, Paolo; DAWSEY, Sanford M.; ESTEGHAMATI, Alireza; MALEKZADEH, Reza

2013-01-01

369

Prevalence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder among cocaine abusers seeking treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 281 cocaine abusers seeking treatment were assessed for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Structured assessments included the SCID for DSM-IV, a SCID-like module for ADHD, and a pattern of drug use questionnaire. The sample consisted of 82% men, 67% African-Americans, 19% Hispanics, and 14% Caucasians identified at several treatment sites. Average age was 33.7±.4 years. Twelve percent

Frances Rudnick Levin; Suzette M Evans; Herbert D Kleber

1998-01-01

370

Comorbidity of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder: prevalence and clinical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity\\u000a with lifetime bipolar disorder, and the influence of this comorbidity on various demographic and clinical variables in patients.\\u000a Patients (n = 159) with a previous diagnosis of bipolar disorder (79 female, 80 male) were included in this study. All patients were\\u000a interviewed for the

Lut Tamam; Gonca Karakus; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

2008-01-01

371

Irritable bowel syndrome in adults over 35 years in Shiraz, southern Iran: prevalence and associated factors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was to determine the prevalence of IBS and describe the associated factors including demographic, life style and health-seeking behaviors in Shiraz city, southern Iran. METHODS: From April to September 2004, 1978 subjects aged > 35 years old completed a validated and reliable questionnaire on IBS. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of IBS was 10.9%, higher in females, in 35-44 years old age group and among subjects eating fast food (14.1%) but was lower in those taking more fruits and vegetables (10.5%). The occurrence of anxiety, nightmare and restlessness was also significantly higher in subjects with IBS. It had an association with psychological distress and recurrent headaches but not with drinking tea/coffee, smoking or physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: In our area, IBS was correlated with gender, age, psychological distress, recurrent headaches and consumption of fast foods that necessitate health planning programs by health policy makers.

Khademolhosseini, Farnaz; Mehrabani, Davood; Nejabat, Marzieh; Beheshti, Mahmood; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Mirahmadizadeh, Alireza; Salehi, Moosa; Zare, Najaf; Saberi-Firoozi, Mehdi

2011-01-01

372

Posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder comorbidity in homeless adults: Prevalence, correlates, and sex differences.  

PubMed

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are highly prevalent in homeless populations, and rates are typically greater among males. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common co-occurring condition among individuals with SUDs; however, little attention has been directed to examining this comorbidity in homeless populations. Although some studies indicate considerable sex differences among individuals with PTSD, it has also been suggested that sex differences in PTSD rates diminish in populations with severe SUDs. This cross-sectional study investigated SUD-PTSD comorbidity and its associations with indicators of psychosocial functioning in a sample of 500 homeless individuals from Canada. Sex-related patterns of SUD, PTSD, and their comorbidity were also examined. Males and females had similar SUD prevalence rates, but the rates of PTSD and PTSD-SUD comorbidity were higher in females. PTSD and sex were found to have significant main effects on suicidality, psychological distress, somatic symptoms, and incarceration among individuals with SUD. Sex also moderated the association of PTSD with suicide risk and psychological distress. Our results contradict assumptions that sex differences in PTSD rates attenuate in samples with severe SUDs. Organizations providing SUD treatment for homeless people should address PTSD as an integrated part of their services. SUD and integrated treatment programs may benefit from sex-specific components. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23915373

Torchalla, Iris; Strehlau, Verena; Li, Kathy; Aube Linden, Isabelle; Noel, Francois; Krausz, Michael

2014-06-01

373