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1

Prevalence and Characteristics of Glaucoma among Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma in the population of the rural Korean town, Sangju. Methods Residents of Sangju aged greater than 50 years old were included in this study. Participants completed an interview examining their medical and ophthalmic history Information was collected on the participants' uncorrected and best corrected vision scores, slit lamp examination results, angle width measurements using the Van Herick technique, gonioscopy if the angle width was less than 1 / 4 angle, intraocular pressure (IOP) assessed with the Goldmann applanation tonometry, optic disc examination results, and a visual field test results using frequency-doubling perimetry in cases in which glaucoma was suspected. Glaucoma was diagnosed according to the criteria described by the International Society for Geographic and Epidemiological Ophthalmology. Results 1,118 residents aged greater than 50 years were examined initially from a population of 2,984 people. Of these, 671 subjects (60%) participated in this study. The prevalence of glaucoma was determined to be 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-4.8). Open-angle glaucoma with low IOP was determined to be the most common form with a prevalence rate as high as 2.5% (95% CI, 1.8-3.7). Additionally, primary angle closure glaucoma was determined to have a prevalence rate of 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1-0.9). Open-angle glaucoma with low IOP accounted for 94.4% of the open-angle glaucoma cases. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma among the population of rural Sangju was 3.4%, and open-angle glaucoma with low IOP was the most common form accounting for 94.4% of the total number of cases.

Kim, Ji Hyun; Kang, Sung Yong; Kim, Na Rae; Lee, Eun Suk; Hong, Samin; Seong, Gong Je; Hong, Young Jae

2011-01-01

2

Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ? 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ? 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (? = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population.

Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

2013-01-01

3

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korean Children: Inverse Relation to Socioeconomic Status Despite a Uniformly High Prevalence in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in US adults was shown to be inversely correlated with the socioeconomic status of the family during childhood, and it was suggested that this was additional evidence of transmission occurring in childhood. The present study of H. pylori infection was conducted in South Korea, which has emerged as a developed country in the last

Hoda M. Malaty; Jong G. Kim; Soon D. Kim; David Y. Graham

4

Normal weight obesity in Korean adults.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: A better way to define obesity is in terms of the percentage of body fat (BF). Subjects with normal weight, but excess BF are vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of subjects having normal weight obesity (NWO) using optimal cut-offs of the BF percentage reflecting risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Korean adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the Korean population conducted in 2009-2010. PARTICIPANTS: We surveyed 5313 men and 6904 women aged 20 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: We investigated the relations between the BF percentage (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and obesity-related risk factors for CVD (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia) in Korean adults. NWO was defined as the combination of a normal body mass index (BMI; 18·5-22·9 kg/m(2) in Asian subjects) and BF percentages above the determined cut-off values. RESULTS: There were strong and graded associations of increasing BF percentages with the prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cut-off values (defined as being overweight) in men and women were 20·6% and 33·4% BF, respectively, and the second cut-off values (defined as obesity) were 25·7% and 36·0% BF. Thirty-two per cent of normal weight adults had BF percentages greater than or equal to the overweight or obesity cut-offs (NWO). Subjects with NWO had a lower appendicular skeletal muscle mass, a more atherogenic lipid profile and greater insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity can be defined as 26% BF or greater in Korean men and 36% BF or greater in Korean women. There was a high prevalence of clustering of cardiometabolic abnormalities among subjects with NWO. PMID:23362933

Kim, Mee Kyoung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Song, Ki-Ho; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong-Moon

2013-01-31

5

Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

Kim, Eunhyun

2010-01-01

6

Are Food Constituents Relevant to the Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Young Adults? - A Rome III Based Prevalence Study of the Korean Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is prevalent in general population. This study investigates the prevalence of IBS in medical college students in Korea as well as the influence of dietary habits and nutritional intake on IBS. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 319 students (239 males and 80 females, age 22.3 ± 2.5 years) from the 6 grade levels of the Medical College in Korea. All students filled out a self-reported questionnaire for ROME III criteria. They also completed a questionnaire to validate dietary habits and food frequency in Korean. Results The overall prevalence of IBS was 29.2% without correlation to age, body mass index and grade level in Medical School. However, the prevalence was significantly higher in females than males (33/80 vs 60/239, P = 0.007). There were no significant differences between the IBS-group and the non-IBS group in aspect of nutrition. Not only the diet habits, but also the daily nutritional intake, and even the breakdown into the 12 micronutrients, yielded no significant differences between the 2 groups. Conclusions Twenty-nine percent of the medical college students have IBS with a greater prevalence in females. The dietary habits and nutritional intake of the students might not be associated with IBS.

Jung, Hyun Joo; Moon, Won; Park, Seun Ja; Kim, Hyung Hun; Noh, Eun Ji; Lee, Gyu Jin; Kim, Joo Hoon; Kim, Dong Gyu

2011-01-01

7

Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with…

Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

1995-01-01

8

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive\\u000a measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they\\u000a were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In general, who is a happy

Myoung So Kim; Hye Won Kim; Kyeong Ho Cha; Jeeyoung Lim

2007-01-01

9

Prevalence of Korean cats with natural feline coronavirus infections  

PubMed Central

Background Feline coronavirus is comprised of two pathogenic biotypes consisting of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV), which are both divided into two serotypes. To examine the prevalence of Korean cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV) type I and II, fecal samples were obtained from 212 cats (107 pet and 105 feral) in 2009. Results Fourteen cats were FCoV-positive, including infections with type I FCoV (n = 8), type II FCoV (n = 4), and types I and II co-infection (n = 2). Low seroprevalences (13.7%, 29/212) of FCoV were identified in chronically ill cats (19.3%, 16/83) and healthy cats (10.1%, 13/129). Conclusions Although the prevalence of FCoV infection was not high in comparison to other countries, there was a higher prevalence of type I FCoV in Korean felines. The prevalence of FCoV antigen and antibody in Korean cats are expected to gradually increase due to the rising numbers of stray and companion cats.

2011-01-01

10

Cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents: prevalence and correlates.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to explore its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. As part of the Korean Institute for Health and Social Affairs' Adolescent Health Survey, 5,209 eighth graders and 4,677 eleventh graders from 70 junior and senior high schools completed a self-administered questionnaire during school hours in 1989. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45% (15.43% of boys and 1.28% of girls). Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Based on logistic regression analyses, perceived peer use was most strongly associated with smoking status (OR = 9.97 for boys; and 68.27 for girls). Academic stress, grade, and type of school were also associated with smoking status for both boys and girls. In addition, mother's smoking, birth order, and urbanity were associated with smoking status for boys. Implications of the results for prevention efforts to inhibit the onset of cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents are discussed. PMID:7484347

Juon, H S; Shin, Y; Nam, J J

1995-01-01

11

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Diseases in Korean Americans and Native Koreans Undergoing Screening Endoscopy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims In South Korea, health check-ups are readily accessible to the public. We aimed to compare the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (GI) and lower GI diseases in Korean Americans and native Koreans to determine differences and risk factors. Methods In total, 1,942 subjects who visited Gangnam Severance Hospital from July 2008 to November 2010 for a health check-up were enrolled. Basic characteristics and laboratory data for the subjects were collected. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy were performed. In total, 940 Korean Americans (group 1) and 1,002 native Koreans (group 2) were enrolled. Results The overall prevalence of GI diseases for each group (group 1 vs group 2) were as follows: reflux esophagitis (RE) (9.65% vs 7.9%), gastric ulcer (2.8% vs 3.4%), duodenal ulcer (2.3% vs 3.6%), gastric cancer (0.4% vs 0.3%), colorectal polyp (35.9% vs 35.6%), colorectal cancer (0.5% vs 0.5%), and hemorrhoids (29.4% vs 21.3%). The prevalence of hemorrhoids was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p=0.001). In the multivariable analysis of group 1, male sex, age over 50 years, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia predicted colorectal polyps. Male sex and high fasting glucose levels were associated with RE. Conclusions Our study showed that the prevalence of GI diseases (except hemorrhoids) in Korean Americans was similar to that observed in native Koreans. Therefore, the Korean guidelines for upper and lower screening endoscopy may be applicable to Korean Americans.

Baik, Su Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Oh, Cho Rong; Lee, Jung Hyun; Jo, Wan Jae; Kim, Hye Kyoung; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Min Jung

2013-01-01

12

Prevalence of urinary incontinence in Korean women: results of a National Health Interview Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We determined the prevalence and types of urinary incontinence (UI) in Korean women and analyzed their attitude toward treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This national survey was conducted as part of the Korean National Health Interview Survey to evaluate the prevalence of UI\\u000a in Korean women between April and June 2005. In 13,345 Korean households, 13,484 women aged 19 years or older were interviewed

Kyu-Sung Lee; Hyun Hwan Sung; Selee Na; Myung-Soo Choo

2008-01-01

13

Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) cohort study is performing an ongoing large-scale prospective multicenter investigation to discover the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in Korean patients. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes among those registered in the KNDP cohort within the past 4 years. Methods This study was performed between June 2006 and September 2009 at 13 university hospitals and included 4,265 KNDP cohort participants. Among the participants, the crude prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular diseases of those checked for diabetes-related complications was determined, and the adjusted standard prevalence and standardization of the general population prevalence ratio (SPR) was estimated based on the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) population demographics. Results Among the KNDP registrants, 43.2% had hypertension, 34.8% had dyslipidemia, 10.8% had macrovascular disease, and 16.7% had microvascular disease. The SPR of the KNDP registrants was significantly higher than that of the KNHANES subjects after adjusting for demographics in the KNHANES 2005 population. However, with the exception of cardiovascular disease in females, the standardized prevalence for the most complicated items in the survey was significantly higher than that in the KNHANES subjects. Conclusion The prevalence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease were significantly higher in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes than in the normal population. However, no significant difference was noted in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in females.

Rhee, Sang Youl; Chon, Suk; Kwon, Mi Kwang; Park, Ie Byung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyoung Woo; Koh, Kyung Soo; Kim, Doo Man; Baik, Sei Hyun; Lee, Kwan Woo; Nam, Moon Suk; Park, Yong Soo; Woo, Jeong-taek

2011-01-01

14

Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California.  

PubMed

This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women's life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F

2012-11-01

15

Smoking on Both Sides of the Pacific: Home Smoking Restrictions and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Korean Adults and Children in Seoul and California  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study, informed by ecological frameworks, compared the prevalence, predictors, and association of home smoking restrictions with secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) between Koreans in Seoul, South Korea, and Korean Americans in California, United States. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was drawn from telephone interviews with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2,830) during 2001–02. Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Results: Koreans, compared with Korean Americans, had significantly fewer complete home smoking bans, 19% (95% CI: 16–23) versus 66% (95% CI: 64–68), and were more likely to not have a home smoking restriction, 64% (95% CI: 60–69) versus 5% (95% CI: 4–6). Home smoking restrictions were associated with lower home SHSe; however, the impact was consistently larger among Korean Americans. Households with more SHSe sources were less likely to have the strongest home smoking restrictions, where the difference in complete bans among Korean Americans versus Koreans was largely among those at low risk of SHSe, 82% (95% CI: 76–86) versus 36% (95% CI: 17–57), while high-risk Korean American and Koreans had similar low probabilities, 10% (95% CI: 7–13) versus 7% (95% CI: 3–13). Conclusions: Consistent with ecological frameworks, exposure to California’s antismoking policy and culture was associated with stronger home smoking restrictions and improved effectiveness. Interventions tailored to Korean and Korean American SHSe profiles are needed. Behavioral interventions specifically for high-risk Korean Americans and stronger policy controls for Koreans may be effective at rapidly expanding home smoking restrictions.

Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Park, Haeryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Irvin, Veronica L.; Lee, Jooeun; Juon, Hee-Soon; Latkin, Carl; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2010-01-01

16

Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010).  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for the dairy and carbohydrate pattern whereas sodium (P for trend < 0.0001) intake was decreased for this pattern. In conclusion, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern may be associated with a reduced risk of hypertension whereas the western pattern may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among Korean adults. PMID:23766884

Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung; Kim, Yuri

2013-06-03

17

Acculturation and manifestation of depressive symptoms among Korean-American older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the role of acculturation in manifestation of depressive symptoms among 230 Korean-American older adults (M age?=?69.8, SD?=?7.05) in Florida. Given the cultural emphasis on modesty and self-effacement in the traditional Korean society, we hypothesized that older Korean-Americans who were less acculturated to American culture, when compared to the more acculturated ones, would be more likely to

Y. Jang; G. Kim; D. Chiriboga

2005-01-01

18

Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

2008-01-01

19

Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

2008-01-01

20

CROSS-LANGUAGE SPEECH PERCEPTION IN ADULTS: DISCRIMINATION OF KOREAN VOICELESS STOPS BY ENGLISH SPEAKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the ways in which three classes of alveolar stops in Korean (voiceless 'tense' unaspirated \\/t*\\/, voiceless iax' slightly aspirated \\/t\\/, and voiceless heavily aspirated \\/t \\/) present different degrees of perceptual difficulty to adult English and Korean listeners. Results show that the \\/t\\/-\\/tV contrast presented the greatest difficulty in perceptual discriminability for the Amer- ican listeners (61%

Sarah J. Shin

21

Redeeming Immigrant Parents: How Korean American Emerging Adults Reinterpret Their Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean American youth experience immigration-related parent-child challenges including language barriers, parent-child conflicts, and generational cultural divides. Using grounded theory methods, this article examines the ways in which 18 Korean American college-enrolled emerging adults retrospectively made sense out of their experiences of…

Kang, Hyeyoung; Okazaki, Sumie; Abelmann, Nancy; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Lan, Shanshan

2010-01-01

22

What and When Korean American Older Adults Want to Know About Serious Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this exploratory study was to describe disclosure preferences about serious illness among Korean American older adults. Three focus groups (N = 6, 8, and 9) were conducted with Korean Americans age 65+ from two senior centers and a primary care practice in NYC. Six themes were identified: (1) Disclosure allows patients to make decisions and preparations, (2)

Cathy S. Berkman; Eunjeong Ko

2010-01-01

23

Prevalence of Disc Degeneration in Asymptomatic Korean Subjects. Part 1 : Lumbar Spine  

PubMed Central

Objective Asymptomatic patients show high degeneration prevalence at lumbar disc in previous literatures. Unfortunately, there are few Korean data, so the authors attempted to analyze the prevalence of disc degeneration in highly selective asymptomatic Korean subjects using MRI. Methods We performed 3 T MRI sagittal scans from T12 to S1 on 102 asymptomatic subjects (50 men and 52 women) who visited our hospital between the ages of 14 and 82 years (mean age 46.3 years). All images were read independently by three observers (two neurosurgeons and one neuroradiologist) who were not given any information about the subjects. We classified grading for lumbar disc herniation (HN), annular fissure (AF), and nucleus degeneration (ND), using disc degeneration classification. Results The prevalence of HN, AF, and ND were 81.4%, 76.1%, and 75.8% respectively. Almost all levels showed an age-related proportional tendency with some exceptions. Conclusion In asymptomatic Korean subjects, the abnormal findings showed high prevalence of AF, ND, and extrusion. Especially in young ages, the authors found that bulging, protrusion, and AF showed high prevalence at L4/5 and L5/S1. And ND showed high prevalence at L5/S1. So, all lumbar disc degenerations are not pathologic, especially in children and adolescents.

Lee, Tae Hoon; Lim, Soo Mee

2013-01-01

24

Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented.

Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

2011-01-01

25

Prevalence of Disc Degeneration in Asymptomatic Korean Subjects. Part 2 : Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Objective Similar to back pain, neck pain has recently shown to have increasing prevalence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in identifying the causes of neck pain. However, MRI shows not only pathological lesions but also physiological changes at the same time, and there are few Korean data. The authors have attempted to analyze the prevalence of disc degeneration in highly selective asymptomatic Korean subjects using MRI. Methods We performed 3 T MRI sagittal scans from C2 to T1 on 102 asymptomatic subjects (50 men and 52 women) who visited our hospital between the ages of 14 and 82 years (mean age 46.3 years). All images were read independently by three observers (two neurosurgeons and one neuroradiologist) who were not given any information about the subjects. We classified grading for cervical disc herniation (HN), annular fissure (AF), and nucleus degeneration (ND), using disc degeneration classification. Results The prevalence of HN, AF, and ND were 81.0%, 85.9%, and 95.4%, respectively. High prevalence of HN, AF, and ND was shown compared to previous literature. Conclusion In asymptomatic Korean subjects, the abnormal findings of 3 T MRI showed a high prevalence in HN, AF, and ND. Several factors might play important roles in these results, such as population-specific characters, MRI field strength, and disc degeneration grading system.

Lee, Tae Hoon; Lim, Soo Mee

2013-01-01

26

Development of self-concept scale for Korean-American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive self-concept scale based on multidimensional theory for Korean-American adults aged 18 years and above. The developed instrument included 48 items in six subscales: physical, emotional, family, social, academic and work. Responses from 103 Korean-American adults were recorded on the newly developed instrument drawing questions from the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale,

Jihee Hong

2006-01-01

27

Situated Learning and Identity Development in a Korean Older Adults’ Computer Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated learning theory understands learning to be a sociocultural activity, and individuals experience identity development as they participate in communities of practice. The purpose of this study was to understand how Korean older adults’ computer learning in a classroom is a situated activity and how this learning influences older adults’ identities. Eleven sessions of an intermediate course for older adults

Young Sek Kim; Sharan B. Merriam

2010-01-01

28

Blood Cadmium and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Cadmium is a nephrotoxicant at high exposure levels. Few studies have evaluated the role of cadmium in kidney function at low-exposure levels. Objective: We evaluated the association of blood cadmium with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the Korean adult population. Methods: We evaluated 1,909 adults ? 20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had blood cadmium determinations. eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results: Blood cadmium geometric means were 1.57 ?g/L for men and 1.49 ?g/L for women. The difference in eGFR levels that compared participants in the highest versus lowest cadmium tertiles, after multivariable adjustment, was –1.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): –3.55, –0.16] mL/min per 1.73 m2 in women and 0.67 (–1.16, 2.50) mL/min per 1.73 m2 in men. Among men, the association between blood cadmium and eGFR was modified by blood lead levels (p-value for interaction = 0.048). The fully adjusted differences in eGFR levels for a 2-fold increase in blood cadmium levels were –1.14 (–3.35, 1.07) and 1.84 (0.54, 3.14) mL/min per 1.73 m2 in men with blood lead levels below and above the median (2.75 ?g/dL), respectively. Conclusion: Elevated blood cadmium levels were associated with lower eGFR in women, which supports the role of cadmium as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. In men, there was no overall association, although elevated blood cadmium levels were associated with higher eGFR levels in men with high blood lead levels and nonstatistically associated with lower eGFR levels in men with low blood lead levels.

Hwangbo, Young; Weaver, Virginia M.; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Lee, Byung-Kook

2011-01-01

29

Increasing Incidence of Hepatitis A in Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis A infection is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Lifelong protective antibodies are present after infection. The number of cases of adult hepatitis A has progressively been increasing during the last several decades in Korea. In addition, the pattern of age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HAV has changed with economic growth. The prevalence

Yoon Jun Kim; Hyo-Suk Lee

2010-01-01

30

Prevalence of birth defects in Korean livebirths, 2005-2006.  

PubMed

We investigated the livebirths prevalence and occurrence pattern of birth defects in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was done in 2,348 medical institutions around the nation, the birth defect prevalence of livebirths in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of livebirths in Korea was 883,184 from 2005-2006, and 25,335 cases of birth defects were notified to our study, equivalent to a prevalence of 286.9 per 10,000 livebirths. Anomalies of the circulatory system were the most common defects, accounting for 43.4% of birth defects with a prevalence of 124.5 per 10,000 livebirths. It was followed by the musculoskeletal system anomalies, the digestive system anomalies, and the urinary system anomalies. The five major birth defects based on the ranking of prevalence were atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, hydronephrosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and cleft lip/palate. Birth defects in livebirths were associated with a high proportion of low birthweight, prematurity, multiple births and advanced maternal age. The prevalence of birth defects in Korea is similar to or lower than those reported in developed countries. Our study suggests baseline data to explain the current status of birth defects and to establish a registry system of birth defects in Korea. PMID:23091323

Kim, Min-A; Yee, Nan Hee; Choi, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jung Yun; Seo, Kyung

2012-10-02

31

Association between alcohol intake amount and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean rural male population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate alcohol consumption is known to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, few studies reported that long-term alcohol drinking may increase the prevalence of central obesity, and cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between metabolic syndrome, nutritional factors and alcohol intake amount in Korean male rural population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis on data from

Mi Young Lee; Min Young Kim; Song Yi Kim; Jae Hyun Kim; Bo Hwan Kim; Jang Yel Shin; Young Goo Shin; Jin Ha Yun; So Yeon Ryu; Tae Yong Lee; Sang Baek Koh; Choon Hee Chung

2010-01-01

32

Prevalence of overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, and lower urinary tract symptoms: results of Korean EPIC study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Despite growing interest in overactive bladder (OAB), urinary incontinence (UI), and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS),\\u000a there is no epidemiologic study on the prevalence in general population of Korea. This survey was aimed at estimating the\\u000a prevalence of OAB, UI, and other LUTS among Korean men and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Population-based cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between May and September 2006 using

Young-Suk Lee; Kyu-Sung Lee; Jae Hun Jung; Deok Hyun Han; Seung-June Oh; Ju Tae Seo; Jeong Gu Lee; Hye Sook Park; Myung-Soo Choo

2011-01-01

33

Geographical difference in the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension in middle-aged men and women in Korea: the Korean Health and Genome Study.  

PubMed

To compare geographical difference in the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in between urban (Ansan) and rural (Ansung) Korean adults aged 40-69 years, 4351 men and 4604 women enrolled in the Korean Health and Genome Study were analysed. Information was collected regarding gender, alcohol intake, smoking status, household income, occupation, and years of education by trained interviewers. Eligible subjects included untreated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. ISH was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg and diastolic BP <90 mmHg. The overall age-adjusted prevalence of ISH was 4.1%. The prevalence of ISH in Ansung (5.7%) was higher than in Ansan (2.5%, P < 0.05). Also it increased with increments of age, from 1.0 to 12.8% in Ansung (P < 0.05) and from 0.3 to 13.0% in Ansan (P < 0.05). In those with body mass index (BMI) > or = 30.0 kg/m2 in Ansung, the prevalence of ISH in women was twice as much as in men. The prevalence of ISH in obese men and women with a waist-hip ratio > or =1.0 and > or = 0.85, respectively, was more than that of nonobese men and women in both areas. In Korea, because of industrialization, the age distribution was skewed and the Korean population in rural areas is more aged. ISH will become a truly major health problem in rural area, because ISH is related to age, BMI and waist-hip ratio. Therefore, the Korean government will be required to institute different policies in the hypertension management to target populations in rural and urban areas. PMID:15988539

Kim, B G; Park, J T; Ahn, Y; Kimm, K; Shin, C

2005-11-01

34

Redeeming Immigrant Parents: How Korean American Emerging Adults Reinterpret Their Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean American youth experience immigration-related parent-child challenges including language barriers, parent-child conflicts, and generational cultural divides. Using grounded theory methods, this article examines the ways in which 18 Korean American college-enrolled emerging adults retrospectively made sense out of their experiences of immigrant family hardships. Of those who narrated childhood hardship, over half narrated positive change in which they reinterpreted their

Hyeyoung Kang; Sumie Okazaki; Nancy Abelmann; Chu Kim-Prieto; Shanshan Lan

2010-01-01

35

Factors Affecting the Use of Dietary Supplements by Korean Adults: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the use of dietary supplements among adult Korean consumers, including associations involving sociodemographic variables, lifestyle characteristics, health-related factors, and dietary supplement use. The data were derived from the 2005 third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination data among 4,775 adults (1,983 men and 2,792 women) regarding medical examinations and diet. In general, 21.8% of the male and 32.0%

Jung-Sug Lee; Jeongseon Kim

2009-01-01

36

Elder respect among young adults: A cross-cultural study of Americans and Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little research on the way in which the young respect the elderly, let alone on the issue of cross-cultural differences in elder respect. This study, comparing young adults in the United States and young Korean adults in East Asia, explores the specific behavioral forms of elder respect that are cross-culturally equivalent and other forms that are culture

Kyu-taik Sung

2004-01-01

37

Dietary supplement use by South Korean adults: Data from the national complementary and alternative medicine use survey (NCAMUS) in 2006  

PubMed Central

There has been little data on the prevalence of supplement use and the characteristics of the dietary supplement users in the Republic of Korea. This study presents the prevalence and the details of any dietary supplement use and the characteristics of the adults who use dietary supplements in the Republic of Korea. Between May 18 and June 16, 2006, nationwide and population-weighted personal interviews with 6,201 adult aged from 30 to 69 years were conducted and the final sample consisted of 3,000 people with a 49.8% response rate. We examined the prevalence and details of the use of dietary supplements and the characteristics of those who use the dietary supplement among adults. About sixty two percent of adults had taken any dietary supplement during the previous 12-month period in 2006. The most commonly reported dietary supplement was ginseng, followed by multivitamins, glucosamine, probiotics, and vitamin C. Female (versus male), an older age group, a higher family income, those living in metropolitan cities, those with marital experience, those with a higher level of education, and those having medical problems had a greater likelihood of reporting the use of any dietary supplements. The particular relationships differed depending on the type of supplement. The most Korean adults took one more dietary supplement and the dietary supplement users had different demographic and health characteristics compared to those of the nonusers. Research on diet supplements by the medical community is needed in the future.

Hwang, Seung-Sik; Lee, Jeong-Seop; Song, Chan-Hee; Ock, Chan-Myung

2010-01-01

38

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A and Associated Socioeconomic Factors in Young Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims An epidemiologic shift of hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence is expected due to an improvement in socioeconomic status in young adults in Korea. We investigated the age-specific seroprevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with HAV seropositivity in young, healthy Korean adults. Methods Between March 2009 and February 2010, a total of 5,051 persons from 20 to 49 years of age presenting for a health check-up were included and responded to a questionaire. The seroprevalence of HAV was investigated by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-HAV. A total of 984 pairs of cases and age- and sex-matched controls were analyzed for associated socioeconomic factors. Results The prevalence of seropositive HAV was 6.2% in the 20 to 29 age range, 33.1% in the 30 to 39 range and 82.4% in the 40 to 49 range (p<0.001). There were no significant differences in any group according to gender. A multivariate analysis for paired cases indicated that HAV seropositivity was significantly higher in the low monthly income (below five million won, approximately 4,300 dollars) group and the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-positive group (odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.14; p<0.001; OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.19-1.76; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions HAV seropositivity in young adults presenting for a health checkup appears to be decreasing, and the prevalence was significantly higher in the low monthly income group and the H. pylori-positive group.

Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Donghee; Lim, Seon Hee; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Young Sun; Yang, Sun Young; Yang, Jong In; Cho, Sang-Heon

2011-01-01

39

Application of scanning electron microscopy in assessing the prevalence of some Setaria species in Korean cattle.  

PubMed

The numbers of individual Setaria species in the peritoneal cavities of Korean cattle were estimated. The worms were tentatively identified under light microscopy, and then precisely classified by SEM on the basis of unique features at the anterior and posterior ends of the adult worms. The positive rate of Setaria species was 34.2% out of 1,074 Korean cattle surveyed; that of S. digitata was 25.1%, S. marshalli 2.9% and both species 6.2%, respectively. Out of a total of 1,254 worms collected, 66.8% were female and 19.1% were male S. digitata; 9.2% were female and 5.0% were male S. marshalli, respectively. The average length of S. marshalli was somewhat longer than that of S. digitata. S. marshalli was documented for the first time in Korea. PMID:8167102

Rhee, J K; Choi, E Y; Park, B K; Jang, B G

1994-03-01

40

Prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in traditional Korean string instrument players.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in players of a variety of traditional Korean classical instruments: gayageum, geomungo, ajaeng, and haegeum. A large percentage of these musicians suffer from musculoskeletal pain of various body parts. However, there has been no research regarding the extent of musculoskeletal disorders in players of these instruments. Through a focus group interview, a questionnaire was developed to investigate musculoskeletal disorders. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: demographic factors, performance factors, musculoskeletal disorder symptoms, and musculoskeletal disorder experiences. Eighty-six expert players participated in this survey. The data from the survey were analyzed by correlation analysis and chi-squared analysis. Musculoskeletal disorders symptoms and severe pain were reported in the neck, shoulder, back and knee. These problems were statistically related to height for players of the gayageum and geomungo. In addition, the musculoskeletal disorder experience of geomungo players was correlated with age and career length. The symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in traditional Korean music players were reported as being mostly observed in the neck, shoulder, back, and knee. In addition, these symptoms were related to various demographic factors such as age, height, career length, and hobby styles. The results of this study can be used as preliminary data for developing guidelines to prevent traditional Korean musical instrument players from developing musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:23247878

Kim, Jung-Yong; Kim, Mi-Sook; Min, Seung-Nam; Cho, Young-Jin; Choi, Junhyeok

2012-12-01

41

Gender differences on the MMPI across American and Korean adult and adolescent normative samples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether gender differences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) items are comparable across 2 distinctive cultural samples: Americans and Koreans. Using large, representative adult and adolescent samples from both cultures, we found that the American samples were associated with a higher proportion of items with gender differences than the Korean samples. The American adult sample produced gender differences on a higher proportion of items than did the American adolescent sample, but no such age difference was found between the Korean samples. Despite these differences between cultures and between age groups, content dimensions underlying items with gender differences were very similar across cultures and age groups, centering on stereotypical gender interests, behaviors, and emotions. PMID:23410238

Han, Kyunghee; Park, Hyung In; Weed, Nathan C; Lim, Jeeyoung; Johnson, Adam; Joles, Christopher

2013-01-01

42

Prevalence and cardiovascular disease risk of the metabolic syndrome using National Cholesterol Education Program and International Diabetes Federation definitions in the Korean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions and to contrast the association between the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome using both definitions in the Korean population, we used data from the 2001 Korean Nation Health and Nutrition Survey, which is a nationally

Kyung Mook Choi; Seon Mee Kim; Yeong-Eun Kim; Dong Seop Choi; Sei Hyun Baik; Juneyoung Lee

2007-01-01

43

The Past and Present Cultural Experiences of Adopted Korean American Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a mixed-method approach to examine the past and present cultural life experiences of Korean adult adoptees. Open-ended responses across four developmental periods (childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood) were qualitatively analyzed and categorized into seven categories of cultural activities. We then quantitatively investigated the relationship between these domains and ethnic identity. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with

Sueyoung L. Song; Richard M. Lee

2009-01-01

44

Factors affecting shared decision making at end of life in korean adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting shared decision making among Korean adults. Attitudes toward advance directives and withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment explained 45.0% of shared decision making, suggesting that these 2 factors influence shared decision making in end-of-life care. PMID:24121697

Kae-Hwa, Jo; Gyeong-Ju, An

45

A Retrospective Cohort Study on Obesity and Hypertension Risk among Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective cohort of adult Korean males and females was conducted to eval- uate the influence of obesity on the development of hypertension and to determine the level of the body mass index at which the risk of hypertension significantly in- creases. The subjects of this study were 1,467 men and 944 women aged 20 to 75 yr who were

Sung-Hee Lee; Young-Sik Kim; Sung Sunwoo; Bong-Yul Huh

2005-01-01

46

Association between urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults: a population-based cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic phenolic compound to which the general public may be exposed via consumer products and environmental contamination. We assessed the association between urinary BPA concentration and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional study included Korean adult participants (n=1210) aged 40-69 years and was based on the 2009 Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey. Demographic characteristics and medical history of type 2 diabetes were collected from the participants by questionnaire, and BPA levels were determined by analysis of urine samples. The mean age of the participants was 53.4 years and 41.6% were men; the prevalence of type 2 diabetes differed according to demographic characteristics. The geometric mean urinary BPA levels of participants with and without type 2 diabetes were 2.03 and 2.40ng/mL, respectively. Among BPA quartiles, no clear association was found between BPA levels and type 2 diabetes. Although the adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes was slightly increased for participants in the upper BPA quartile, the association was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that a high body BPA burden may not be associated with an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. PMID:22921714

Kim, Kisok; Park, Hyejin

2012-08-24

47

Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: Results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.  

PubMed

Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated. PMID:23374980

Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

2013-01-29

48

Gender differences in three dimensional gait analysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The research hypothesis was that healthy adults would walk differently according to their gender when walked barefoot at their comfortable speed. The aim of this study was to prove the hypothesis in healthy Korean adults.Design. Between-gender statistical comparisons of the gait analysis data including spatiotemporal, three-dimensional joint kinematic and kinetic data.Background. There have been few attempts to identify the

S. H. Cho; J. M. Park; O. Y. Kwon

2004-01-01

49

Role of Children in End-of-Life Treatment Planning Among Korean American Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make

Eunjeong Ko; Cathy S. Berkman

2010-01-01

50

Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role…

Kim, Brian Byung Joo

2011-01-01

51

Cultural Relevance of Adult Attachment: Rasch Modeling of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships in a Korean Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the cultural relevance of adult attachment within a Korean sample (N = 390) using Rasch rating scale modeling. The psychometric properties of scores from the Korean version of the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships, comprised of two subscales of Anxiety (self) and Avoidance (other), were assessed. Results obtained from…

Lee, Young-Sun; Grossman, Jennifer; Krishnan, Anita

2008-01-01

52

Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ? 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes.

Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

2011-01-01

53

Prevalence and seroprevalence of low-risk human papillomavirus in Korean women.  

PubMed

Little is known about the prevalence and seroprevalence of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and the risk factors for HPV infection in Korean women. We determined the prevalence of low-risk HPV among 902 women aged 20-59 yr and the seroprevalence of low-risk HPV subtypes 6 and 11 among 1,094 women aged 9-59 yr in the general population. Genital low-risk HPV DNA was assessed by liquid hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibody titers against HPV 6 and 11 were measured by a multiplexed competitive luminex technique. The prevalence of genital low-risk HPV was 4.9%. It reached its highest peak of 10.3% at 20-29 yr of age and a second peak of 3.2% at 50-59 yr of age. The seroprevalence of HPV 6 or 11 was 9.4%. It reached its highest peak of 12.7% at 25-29 yr of age and a second peak of 12.3% at 50-59 yr of age. In multivariable analysis, the number of lifetime sexual partners and past history of sexually transmitted diseases were associated with the seroprevalence but not prevalence of HPV. It is suggested that younger women should receive prophylactic HPV vaccination before they become sexually active and exposed to HPV in their 20s. This study provides baseline data for developing HPV vaccination programs and monitoring vaccine efficacy in Korea. PMID:22876060

Kim, Min-A; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Bo Wook; Chay, Doobyung; Park, Dong Choon; Kim, Seok Mo; Kang, Eun-Suk; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Chi-Heum; Shin, Hai-Rim; Seo, Kyung

2012-07-25

54

Prevalence and Seroprevalence of Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Korean Women  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the prevalence and seroprevalence of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and the risk factors for HPV infection in Korean women. We determined the prevalence of low-risk HPV among 902 women aged 20-59 yr and the seroprevalence of low-risk HPV subtypes 6 and 11 among 1,094 women aged 9-59 yr in the general population. Genital low-risk HPV DNA was assessed by liquid hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibody titers against HPV 6 and 11 were measured by a multiplexed competitive luminex technique. The prevalence of genital low-risk HPV was 4.9%. It reached its highest peak of 10.3% at 20-29 yr of age and a second peak of 3.2% at 50-59 yr of age. The seroprevalence of HPV 6 or 11 was 9.4%. It reached its highest peak of 12.7% at 25-29 yr of age and a second peak of 12.3% at 50-59 yr of age. In multivariable analysis, the number of lifetime sexual partners and past history of sexually transmitted diseases were associated with the seroprevalence but not prevalence of HPV. It is suggested that younger women should receive prophylactic HPV vaccination before they become sexually active and exposed to HPV in their 20s. This study provides baseline data for developing HPV vaccination programs and monitoring vaccine efficacy in Korea.

Kim, Min-A; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Bo Wook; Chay, Doobyung; Park, Dong Choon; Kim, Seok Mo; Kang, Eun-Suk; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Chi-Heum; Shin, Hai-Rim

2012-01-01

55

Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.  

PubMed

Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

2010-01-01

56

Employment is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women based on the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between employment status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adult Korean women after stratification by menopause status. METHODS: We examined the relationship between employment status and the prevalence of MetS in 5,256 Korean women (3,141 premenopausal women and 2,115 postmenopausal women) who participated in the 2007-2009 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. Employment status was classified as unemployed, employed part time, and employed full time based on a self-reported questionnaire. A modified Asian criterion based on a harmonized definition of MetS was adopted. Sampling weights were used to take the complex sampling method into account. RESULTS: The prevalences of MetS in the unemployed group, part-time employment group, and full-time employment group were 14.5%, 11.8%, and 12.7% in premenopausal women and 54.9%, 44.0%, and 41.8% in postmenopausal women, respectively. Compared with the unemployed group, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for MetS in the part-time and full-time employment groups were 0.79 (0.52-1.22) and 0.80 (0.56-1.16) in premenopausal women and 0.67 (0.46-0.97) and 0.66 (0.51-0.84) in postmenopausal women, respectively, after adjusting for covariates such as age, inflammatory marker, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle factors. CONCLUSIONS: Employment seems to be significantly related to a lower prevalence of MetS in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. However, there may not have been adequate statistical power to detect relations in premenopausal women. Further research is warranted to clarify the menopause-specific relationship between employment status and MetS risk. PMID:23760431

Kang, Hee-Taik; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Jong-Koo; Linton, John A; Lee, Yong-Jae

2013-06-10

57

Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure.

Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2013-01-01

58

A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

59

Prevalence of Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction and Its Risk Factors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Population-based studies for olfactory dysfunction are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction and its risk factors in the Korean general population. Methods The data were obtained from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized population all around the country (n?=?10,533). All interviewees underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, endoscopic examination and blood/urine tests. Whether sense of smell has been normal or abnormal during the last 3 months was asked. Complete olfaction data were obtained from 7,306 participants and the participants were divided into normosmic and hyposmic group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results The weighted prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction was 4.5%. Its increased prevalence was significantly associated with the increasing age for both men and women. In the multivariate analyses, low income (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?1.43, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]?=?1.01–2.03), habitual exposure to air pollutants (adjusted OR?=?2.18, CI?=?1.33–3.55), a history of hepatitis B (adjusted OR?=?3.10, CI?=?1.25–7.68), rhinitis (adjusted OR?=?1.78, CI?=?1.26–2.51) and chronic sinusitis (adjusted OR?=?14.55, CI?=?10.06–21.05) were risk factors of olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion Our population-based study showed that olfactory dysfunction was quite prevalent and several risk factors were associated with impaired sense of smell. Given its prevalence, further researches for its prevention and management are required.

Lee, Woo Hyun; Wee, Jee Hye; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun

2013-01-01

60

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from three latitudinal regions of the Korean Peninsula.  

PubMed

A large-scale survey was conducted to investigate the infection status of fresh water fishes with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by latitudinal levels of the Korean peninsula. A total of 4,071 freshwater fishes were collected from 3 regions, i.e., northern (Gangwon-do: 1,543 fish), middle (Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1,167 fish), and southern areas (Jeollanam-do, Ulsan-si, and Gyeongsangnam-do: 1,361 fish). Each fish was examined by the artificial digestion method from 2003 to 2010. In northern areas, only 11 (0.7%) fish of 2 species, Pungtungia herzi and Squalidus japonicus coreanus from Hantan-gang, Cheolwon-gun, Gangwon-do were infected with av. 2.6 CsMc. In middle areas, 149 (12.8%) fish were infected with av. 164 CsMc. In southern areas, 538 (39.5%) fish were infected with av. 159 CsMc. In the analysis of endemicity in 3 regions with an index fish, P. herzi, 9 (6.2%) of 146 P. herzi from northern areas were infected with av. 2.8 CsMc. In middle areas, 34 (31.8%) of 107 P. herzi were infected with av. 215 CsMc, and in southern areas, 158 (92.9%) of 170 P. herzi were infected with av. 409 CsMc. From these results, it has been confirmed that the infection status of fish with CsMc is obviously different among the 3 latitudinal regions of the Korean peninsula with higher prevalence and burden in southern regions. PMID:22355206

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Eom, Keeseon; Seok, Won-Seok; Lee, Taejoon

2011-12-16

61

Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in normal Korean adults.  

PubMed

Korea is a region abundant in foods containing iodine such as seaweed and fish. An adequate amount of iodine consumption is extremely important as both a deficiency and excess of iodine can result in health problems. This study was undertaken to assess the iodine nutritional status of normal Korean adults who consume seaweed and fish, and to determine the relationship between the dietary iodine intake and the urinary excretion of iodine. The dietary assessment of iodine using a food frequency questionnaire and a urinary iodine excretion examination were carried out in 278 healthy adults. The iodide selective electrode (ISE) method was used to determine urinary iodine excretion. The average usual iodine intake of Korean adults was 479 micrograms per day (ranging from 61 micrograms to 4086 micrograms). There was no significant difference in sex or age. The major food sources of dietary iodine included seaweed (66%), milk and dairy products (11%), and fish (9%). The contribution of seaweed to the total iodine intake tended to increase with age while the contribution of milk decreased. The average urinary excretion of iodine was 674 micrograms/g creatinine and there was no significant difference in sex or age. The dietary iodine intake was positively correlated with the urinary excretion of iodine (gamma = 0.60, p < 0.01). The study data indicated that the iodine intake and excretion of Koreans depends mostly on the amount of seaweed consumption like sea tangle and sea mustard. As well, the current iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion by Koreans seems to be higher than in other countries. PMID:9752802

Kim, J Y; Moon, S J; Kim, K R; Sohn, C Y; Oh, J J

1998-08-01

62

Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.  

PubMed

It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively. PMID:23714934

Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

2013-05-01

63

Acculturation and BMI among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the association between acculturation and BMI among Asian Americans using multiple measures of acculturation. Data of 847 Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese recruited for a health education program in Maryland during 2009 to 2010 were used. Acculturation was measured by the short version of Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) and its individual components. Height and weight were measured by trained staff. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between acculturation and BMI. After adjusting for age, gender, education, income, marital status, and ethnicity, SL-ASIA (? = 0.71, SE = 0.28), having education in the US (? = 0.56, SE = 0.28), younger age of arrival (0-5 years: ? = 3.32, SE = 0.76, 6-10 years: ? = 1.55, SE = 0.78), self identified as Americans (? = 1.51, SE = 0.77) and equal preference of Asian/American food in restaurants (? = 0.92, SE = 0.28) were significantly associated with increased BMI. The association between acculturation and BMI was stronger among men than women, strongest among Chinese and weakest among Vietnamese. Acculturation was moderately associated with increased BMI among Asian Americans and this association varied by measures of acculturation. The association of acculturation and BMI was moderated by sex and ethnicity groups. PMID:21922164

Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon; Lee, Sunmin

2012-06-01

64

Effect of lifestyles on the blood mercury level in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is widely distributed in the environment and oral exposure is a main route in the general population. In this study, we estimated the dietary intake of Hg and its relationship with blood Hg levels in Korean adults. The study subjects were recruited from three different districts (rural: 189, coastal: 208 and urban: 184). We used a general questionnaire to collect information about demographic factors, lifestyles and diet. Dietary habits were studied using the 24-h recall method. The estimation of Hg intake was performed using the database of Hg contents in 128 Korean foods based on the previous studies. Blood Hg was analyzed using Direct Mercury Analyzer with the gold-amalgam method. Daily intake of Hg by diet was estimated at 13.57 ?g (0.22 ?g/kg body weight). The geometric mean Hg concentration in whole blood was 3.92 ?g/L. Blood Hg level and Hg intake by diet was higher in coastal areas than in urban or rural areas, respectively. Blood Hg level correlated with the intake of Hg consumed from diet. Seafood was highly responsible and account for 75.6% of total dietary Hg intake. In this study, blood Hg concentrations were found to be significantly affected by sex, age, individual lifestyles and especially the amount of seafood intake, which might play an important role in determining blood Hg levels in Korean adults. PMID:23155199

Kim, N-Y; Ahn, S-J; Ryu, D-Y; Choi, B-S; Kim, H; Yu, I-J; Park, J-D

2012-11-15

65

Stressors, Social Support, Religious Practice, and General Well-Being among Korean Adult Immigrants.  

PubMed

Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues. PMID:24066632

Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

2013-10-01

66

Negative effects of alcohol consumption and tobacco use on bone formation markers in young Korean adult males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in young Korean adult males. A total of 463 healthy adult males 20 to 26 years of age participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated for anthropometric characteristics, amount of alcohol consumption, smoking status, and nutrient

Mi-Hyun Kim; Yoon-Sok Chung; Chung-Ja Sung

2007-01-01

67

Low cholesterol is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases: a dynamic cohort study in Korean adults.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the association of single serum total cholesterol (TC) measurement with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) deaths in Korean adults. The study subjects were taken from the multi-site collaborative dynamic prospective cohort for epidemiologic investigation on cancer risk in residents nearby nuclear power plants in Korea. A total of 12,740 adults aged 40 to 69 yr who underwent a mass screening examination were followed up from 1993 to 2008. Occurring CVD deaths were confirmed by the death certificates in the National Statistical Office, Korea. Groups with the lowest group having TC < 160 mg/dL as well as the highest group having >= 240 mg/dL were associated with higher CVD mortality in Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusting for age, sex, smoking and drinking status, body mass index, level of blood pressure, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The distribution of adjusted hazard ratios showed the U-shaped curve. Based on the results of this study, caution should be taken in prescribing statins for primary prevention among people at low cardiovascular risk in Korean adults. PMID:22219615

Bae, Jong-Myon; Yang, Yeong-Ja; Li, Zhong-Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

2011-12-19

68

Low Cholesterol is Associated with Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases: A Dynamic Cohort Study in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the association of single serum total cholesterol (TC) measurement with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) deaths in Korean adults. The study subjects were taken from the multi-site collaborative dynamic prospective cohort for epidemiologic investigation on cancer risk in residents nearby nuclear power plants in Korea. A total of 12,740 adults aged 40 to 69 yr who underwent a mass screening examination were followed up from 1993 to 2008. Occurring CVD deaths were confirmed by the death certificates in the National Statistical Office, Korea. Groups with the lowest group having TC < 160 mg/dL as well as the highest group having >= 240 mg/dL were associated with higher CVD mortality in Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusting for age, sex, smoking and drinking status, body mass index, level of blood pressure, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The distribution of adjusted hazard ratios showed the U-shaped curve. Based on the results of this study, caution should be taken in prescribing statins for primary prevention among people at low cardiovascular risk in Korean adults.

Bae, Jong-Myon; Yang, Yeong-Ja; Li, Zhong-Min

2012-01-01

69

Social network types and well-being among South Korean older adults.  

PubMed

Objective: The social networks of older individuals reflect personal life history and cultural factors. Despite these two sources of variation, four similar network types have been identified in Europe, North America, Japan, and China: namely 'restricted', 'family', 'friend', and 'diverse'. This study identified the social network types of Korean older adults and examined differential associations of the network types with well-being. Method: The analysis used data from the 2008 wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA: N = 4251, age range 65-108). We used a two-step cluster analytical approach to identify network types from seven indicators of network structure and function. Regression models determined associations between network types and well-being outcomes, including life satisfaction and depressive symptomatology. Results: Cluster analysis of indicators of network structure and function revealed four types, including the restricted, friend, and diverse types. Instead of a family type, we found a couple-focused type. The young-old (age 65-74) were more likely to be in the couple-focused type and more of the oldest old (age 85+) belonged to the restricted type. Compared with the restricted network, older adults in all other networks were more likely to report higher life satisfaction and lower depressive symptomatology. Discussion: Life course and cohort-related factors contribute to similarities across societies in network types and their associations with well-being. Korean-specific life course and socio-historical factors, however, may contribute to our unique findings about network types. PMID:23741987

Park, Sojung; Smith, Jacqui; Dunkle, Ruth E

2013-06-01

70

Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes among Korean Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a worldwide health-care burden. Prevalence rates vary and the distribution of genotypes depends on geographical location. Here, the recent prevalence of HCV infections and distribution of HCV genotypes among Korean blood donors were studied. Methods Between February 2005 and December 2009, a total of 11,064,532 donors were screened for anti-HCV and 11,412,690 donors were screened for HCV RNA. HCV genotyping was conducted for 748 blood donors with HCV RNA by using the line probe assay (VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 Assay, Bayer Healthcare, USA) after amplification of the 5'-untranslated and core regions of the genome. Results The anti-HCV prevalence was 0.16% (17,250/11,064,532). HCV RNA was detected in 959 out of the 11,412,690 donors (8.4/100,000). HCV RNA was more prevalent among women, donors who resided at harbor sites, and first-time donors. In addition, the prevalence of HCV RNA increased with age. The genotypes of 740 out of the 748 tested donors (98.9%) were identified. HCV genotype 1b (47.7%) and 2a/2c (35.0%) were dominant. Genotypes 2 (7.6%), 2b (2.3%), 3a (1.6%), 1a (1.3%), 1 (0.9%), 2v (0.5%), 1v (0.1%), and 3 (0.1%) were also identified. Genotype 4a/4c/4d (0.1%) was detected for the first time in one Korean blood donor. Conclusions The distribution of HCV genotypes in Korea has not changed remarkably, with the exception of genotype 4a/4c/4d. A periodic study to monitor the prevalence of HCV infections and the distribution of HCV genotypes is required to identify emerging genotypes in Korea.

Park, Yoon Mee; Seo, Young Ik; Lee, Jae Sook; Lee, Ja Young

2012-01-01

71

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with alanine aminotransferase in clozapine-treated Korean patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Widely ranging prevalence rates for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients taking clozapine have been reported on the basis of various criteria, and most studies have been carried out in non-Asian countries. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of MetS in Korean patients using three commonly applied criteria with two waist-circumference cutoff values. The indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR) was estimated using data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES, 2007) to compare the prevalence of MetS in patients with that in the general population. In addition, we also examined whether serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase levels serve as biochemical markers for the identification of MetS. We reviewed the electromedical records of patients with schizophrenia who had taken clozapine as the sole antipsychotic for 3 months or more. The prevalence of MetS ranged from 34.5 to 46.9%, and the ISPR ranged from 2.4 to 2.8, given the three definitions of MetS and the two waist-circumference cutoff points for women. The ISPR for MetS among those aged 18-30 years was the highest and decreased with age in both men and women. After adjusting for age, patients with normal serum ALT levels who were in the top third were significantly more likely to have MetS compared with those who were in the bottom third. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum ALT levels and use of antidepressants were significantly related to the presence of MetS. Korean patients with schizophrenia who were receiving clozapine as the sole antipsychotic showed a high prevalence of MetS. Although we found substantial differences in the prevalence according to criteria, the ISPR indicated significantly higher rates of MetS in this group than in the general population. In the general population, younger patients had a much higher risk for MetS than older patients. Elevated levels of serum ALT that were in the normal range were associated with the presence of MetS, which suggests the possibility of using serum ALT level as an early indicator for MetS in patients treated with clozapine. PMID:23211493

Lee, N Y; Roh, M S; Kim, S H; Jung, D C; Yu, H Y; Sung, K H; Chung, I W; Youn, T; Kang, U G; Ahn, Y M; Kim, Y S

2013-03-01

72

Meal skipping relates to food choice, understanding of nutrition labeling, and prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the differences in food choice, nutrition labeling perceptions, and prevalence of obesity due to meal skipping in Korean elementary school children. A national survey was performed in 2010 to collect data on food intake frequency, understanding of nutrition labeling, and body mass index from 2,335 fifth grade students in 118 elementary schools selected from 16 metropolitan local governments by stratified cluster sampling. The data were analyzed using the SAS 9.1 and SUDAAN 10.0 packages. Students who consumed three meals for 6-7 days during the past week were classified into the regular meal eating (RM) group (n = 1,476) and those who did not were placed into the meal skipping (MS) group (n = 859). The daily intake frequency of fruits, vegetables, kimchi, and milk was significantly lower in the MS group compared to that in the RM group (P < 0.001), whereas the daily intake frequency of soft drinks and instant noodles (ramyeon) was significantly higher in the MS group than that in the RM group (P < 0.05). The MS group demonstrated a significantly lower degree of understanding with regard to nutrition labeling and high calorie foods containing low nutritional value than that in the RM group. The distribution of obesity based on the percentile criteria using the Korean growth chart was different between the MS and RM groups. The MS group (8.97%) had a higher percentage of obese subjects than that in the RM group (5.38%). In conclusion, meal skipping was related to poor food choice, low perception of nutrition labeling, and a high prevalence of obesity in Korean fifth grade children. PMID:22977687

Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Na-Rae; Lee, Jung-Sug; Choi, Young-Sun; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chung, Hae Rang; Kwon, Sehyug; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Soon-Kyu; Kang, Myung-Hee

2012-08-31

73

Prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in Korean adolescents: association with age, season and parental vitamin D status.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adolescents and to determine parent-adolescent association in vitamin D status. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2009. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured using 125I-labelled RIA kits. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents was defined as 25(OH)D level <27·5 nmol/l, and 25(OH)D levels between 27·5 and <50 nmol/l were considered insufficient. For the parents, vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/l. SUBJECTS: The study population consisted of 2062 adolescents (1095 boys, 967 girls; aged 10-18 years) and their parents (1005 fathers, 1341 mothers). RESULTS: Overall, 13·4 % of adolescents (boys 11·7 %, girls 15·4 %) were 25(OH)D deficient, 54·7 % were 25(OH)D insufficient. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased with age (P < 0·0001). Parental vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in vitamin D-deficient adolescents than in non-deficient adolescents (all P < 0·0001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, predictors for vitamin D deficiency were senior high school students (OR = 3·45-4·33), winter/spring season (OR = 3·18-5·11/5·35-7·36) and parental vitamin D deficiency (OR = 1·78-4·88; all P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among healthy Korean adolescents and the parent-offspring association warrants vitamin D screening for family members of deficient individuals. PMID:23098327

Kim, Shin Hye; Oh, Min Kyung; Namgung, Ran; Park, Mi Jung

2012-10-26

74

Sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health of Korean older adults with hypertension: effect of an empowerment intervention.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an 8-week empowerment intervention on sedentary behavior, physical activity, and psychological health in Korean older adults with hypertension. Using a quasi-experimental design, older adults participated in either an experimental group (n = 27) or control group (n = 21). The experimental group received an empowerment intervention including lifestyle modification education, group discussion, and exercise training for 8 weeks, and the control group received standard hypertension education. After 8 weeks, participants in the experimental group had significantly decreased sedentary behavior, increased physical activity, increased self-efficacy for physical activity, and increased perceived health (p < 0.05). However, no significant group difference was found for depression. Findings from this study suggest that empowerment interventions may be more effective than standard education in decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and perceived health in Korean older adults with hypertension. PMID:23293986

Chang, Ae Kyung; Fritschi, Cynthia; Kim, Mi Ja

2013-01-08

75

Smoking in Adults in Sri Lanka: Prevalence and Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire was administered to 1565 adults to identify the prevalence of smoking and to assess respondents' attitudes toward smoking. Of men 41% were yearly smokers, 27.8% were monthly smokers and 21% were daily smokers. The corresponding figures for women were 3.4%, 2% and 0.6% respectively. Higher prevalence rates were observed among less educated, middle-aged men who were from underprivileged

B. Perera; P. Fonseka; R. Ekanayake; E. Lelwala

2005-01-01

76

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Working Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria among working East African adults. Design. This cross-sectional study of 1,935 individuals (1,171 men and 764 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization. Results. According to ATP III and IDF definitions, the overall prevalence of MetS was 12.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Using ATP III criteria, the prevalence of MetS was 10.0% in men and 16.2% in women. Application of the IDF criteria resulted in a MetS prevalence of 14.0% in men and 24.0% in women. The most common MetS components among women were reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (23.2%) and abdominal obesity (19.6%); whilst reduced HDL-C concentrations (23.4%) and high blood pressure (21.8%) were most common among men. Conclusion. MetS and its individual components are prevalent among an apparently healthy working population in Ethiopia. These findings indicate the need for evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs; and more robust efforts directed towards the screening, diagnosis and management of MetS and its components among Ethiopian adults.

Tran, A.; Gelaye, B.; Girma, B.; Lemma, S.; Berhane, Y.; Bekele, T.; Khali, A.; Williams, M. A.

2011-01-01

77

Dairy product intake is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in korean adults: anseong and ansan cohort of the korean genome and epidemiology study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans. PMID:24133353

Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-Il; Oh, Sang Woo

2013-09-25

78

Dairy Product Intake Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Anseong and Ansan Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dairy product intake and the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among middle-aged Koreans. We examined 7,240 adults aged 40-69 yr without MetS at baseline over a 45.5-month follow-up period. They were taken from the Anseong and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Dairy product intake including milk, yogurt, and cheese was assessed with food frequency questionnaire. At the follow-up, the incidence of MetS was 17.1%. The incidences of MetS components were as follows: low HDL cholesterol (16.2%), abdominal obesity (14.0%), hypertriglyceridemia (13.8%), hyperglycemia (13.3%), and hypertension (13.1%). Adjusting for potential confounders, dairy product consumption frequency was inversely associated with the risk of MetS and abdominal obesity. Hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) for dairy product consumption more than 7 times/week compared to never was 0.75 (0.64-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for MetS and 0.73 (0.61-0.88, P for trend < 0.001) for abdominal obesity. HR for milk intake was 0.79 for MetS and 0.82 for abdominal obesity. The results of this study suggest that daily intake of dairy products protects against the development of MetS, particularly abdominal obesity, in middle-aged Koreans.

Shin, Hyehyung; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Cho-il

2013-01-01

79

Perceived Neighborhood Environment Affecting Physical and Mental Health: A Study with Korean American Older Adults in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how subjective perceptions of the neighborhood environment (e.g., perceived ethnic density, safety, social\\u000a cohesion, and satisfaction) influenced the physical and mental health of Korean American older adults. Using data from 420\\u000a residents of the New York City metropolitan area (M\\u000a age = 71.6, SD = 7.59), health perceptions and depressive symptoms were estimated with hierarchical regression models entered\\u000a in the order

Soonhee Roh; Yuri Jang; David A. Chiriboga; Kyung Hwa Kwag; Sunhee Cho; Kunsook Bernstein

80

The Nature and Prevalence of Learning Deficiencies among Adult Inmates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine the nature and prevalence of learning deficiencies among adult inmates in U.S. correctional institutions, a sample of subjects was drawn from three institutions in each of the states of Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington. One male maximum security, one male medium security, and one women's prison were selected in each of…

Bell, Raymond; And Others

81

Soft-tissue thickness of South Korean adults with normal facial profiles  

PubMed Central

Objective To standardize the facial soft-tissue characteristics of South Korean adults according to gender by measuring the soft-tissue thickness of young men and women with normal facial profiles by using three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models. Methods Computed tomographic images of 22 men aged 20 - 27 years and 18 women aged 20 - 26 years with normal facial profiles were obtained. The hard and soft tissues were three-dimensionally reconstructed by using Mimics software. The soft-tissue thickness was measured from the underlying bony surface at bilateral (frontal eminence, supraorbital, suborbital, inferior malar, lateral orbit, zygomatic arch, supraglenoid, gonion, supraM2, occlusal line, and subM2) and midline (supraglabella, glabella, nasion, rhinion, mid-philtrum, supradentale, infradentale, supramentale, mental eminence, and menton) landmarks. Results The men showed significantly thicker soft tissue at the supraglabella, nasion, rhinion, mid-philtrum, supradentale, and supraglenoid points. In the women, the soft tissue was significantly thicker at the lateral orbit, inferior malar, and gonion points. Conclusions The soft-tissue thickness in different facial areas varies according to gender. Orthodontists should use a different therapeutic approach for each gender.

2013-01-01

82

Dietary flavan-3-ols intake and metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Flavan-3-ols are a subclass of flavonoids found in a variety of foods including teas. The effects of flavan-3-ols on the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been investigated, generally focusing on tea catechins or individual flavan-3-ol rich foods, but there is little information on dietary flavan-3-ols intake and risk of MetS in population-based studies. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between dietary flavan-3-ols intake and the risk of MetS in Korean adults. Subjects comprised 1,827 men and 2,918 women aged 20-69 years whose data was included in the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This survey was conducted between January 2008 and December 2008. Total flavan-3-ols intakes were calculated from 24-hour dietary recalls using a flavonoids database. Thirty percent of the male subjects and 24% of the female subjects were reported as having MetS. In the female subjects, flavan3-ols intake was inversely associated with the risk of MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.91, P for trend = 0.384). The main food source of flavan-3-ols was green tea followed by apples and grapes. Among MetS components, flavan3-ols intake was inversely associated with the risk of high blood pressure after adjusting for potential confounders (5th vs. 1st quintile, OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90, P for trend = 0.005). No significant association between flavan-3-ols intake and risk of MetS was found in the male subjects. After stratified analysis by obesity (BMI ? 25 or BMI < 25), however, flavan3-ols intake was inversely related to the risk of hypertension in non-obese men. These results suggest that dietary flavan-3-ols intake may have beneficial effects on MetS risk by reducing the risk of hypertension. The effects of flavan-3-ols intake dependent on obesity need further investigation.

Yang, Yoon Jung; Kim, You Jin; Yang, Yoon Kyoung; Kim, Ji Yeon

2012-01-01

83

The relationship between metabolic conditions and prevalence of periodontal disease in rural Korean elderly.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the duration and number of components of metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease among rural elderly in Korea over 60 years old. This longitudinal study consisted of 399 participants who underwent regular health examinations at Seongju-gun Public Health Center from 2000 to 2007. The components of metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia) were evaluated from clinical records of Seongju-gun Public Health Center, which were recorded from 2000 to 2007, and periodontal examination by Community Periodontal Index, recorded from 2006 to 2007. Participants suffering from longer durations of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were more likely to have periodontal disease. Individuals with a greater number of metabolic syndrome components were more likely to have periodontal disease. Older rural Koreans with components of metabolic syndrome have unmet periodontal treatment needs. Medical and dental professionals need to coordinated systemic and oral care for these people. PMID:24075494

Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Wook; Choi, Youn-Hee; Mechant, Anwar T; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Hee-Kyung

2013-09-08

84

A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.

Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

2011-01-01

85

A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

2011-10-28

86

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adult Malaysians: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 4428 adults (18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were

W. N. Mohamud; K. I. Musa; A. S. Khir; A. A. Ismail; I.S. Ismail; K. A. Kadir; N. A. Kamaruddin; N. A. Yaacob; N. Mustafa; O. Ali; S. H. Isa; W. M. Bebakar

2011-01-01

87

Prevalence of asthma in adults in Busselton, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate whether the prevalence of asthma in adults increased over a nine year interval. DESIGN--Serial cross sectional studies of the population with a protocol that included both subjective and objective measurements. SETTING--Busselton, Western Australia. SUBJECTS--A random sample of 553 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1981, and of 1028 subjects aged 18-55 years in 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Respiratory symptoms measured

J. K. Peat; M. Haby; J. Spijker; G. Berry; A. J. Woolcock

1992-01-01

88

The impact of health-related quality of life on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Korean older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Korean older adults and to provide evidence for nursing intervention with respect to health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data from adults 60 and older obtained through the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009) were used. Self-report questionnaires assessed suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D) scores. Survey logistic regression was used to reflect the complex survey design. Among the sample of 4,506 individuals, 27.3% had thought about and 1.7% had attempted suicide. Older adults with EQ-5D index scores <0.7 had a 9.1-fold greater odds ratio for suicidal ideation than those with scores of 1 (denotes completely healthy status) (95% confidence interval [CI] [5.3, 15.8]). For suicide attempts, older adults with EQ-5D index scores <0.7 had a 3.4-fold greater odds ratio (95% CI [1.3, 8.9]) than those with index scores of 0.8 to 1. Decreased HRQoL strongly affected suicidal ideation, regardless of disease status. Due to its comprehensiveness and simplicity, the EQ-5D may be useful for identifying older individuals in nursing homes at risk of attempting suicide. PMID:23066679

Kim, Jong-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Won

2012-10-15

89

Assessment of airway length of Korean adults and children for otolaryngology and ophthalmic surgery using a fiberoptic bronchoscope  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge regarding normal upper airway anatomy is essential for airway management and is required to prevent malpositioning of endotracheal tubes. We evaluated the length of the upper airway in Korean children and adults who had no abnormality of the upper airway using a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Methods Eighty seven patients aged 5 to 81 years undergoing noninvasive elective surgery were included in this study. After induction of anesthesia was complete, we measured the distance from the upper incisor to various components of the upper airway by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Results In adults, the mean length between the upper incisor and midtrachea was found to be 21.8 ± 1.8 cm in males and 19.9 ± 1.3 cm in females, while the mean length of the trachea was 10.1 ± 1.3 cm in males and 10.3 ± 1.6 cm in females. The length between the upper incisor and midtrachea (IT) were correlated with height both in children (IT [cm] = 2.531 + 0.109 × height [cm]) and adults (IT [cm] = 0.167 + 0.127 × height [cm]), which shows that they differ from the western standard (length of tube [cm] = 5 + 0.1 × height [cm]). Conclusions In adults and children, the length from the incisor to the midtrachea was significantly different when compared with western standards. Therefore, re-evaluation of the proper and precise depth of endotracheal tube in Koreans should be considered.

Pak, Hae Jin; Hong, Boo Hwi

2010-01-01

90

Assessing the Prevalence of Recurrent Neck and Shoulder Pain in Korean High School Male Students: A Cross-sectional Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Neck and shoulder pain (NSP) is fairly common in adolescents, which is associated with a high prevalence of NSP found during adulthood as well; therefore, its significance during adolescence should not be underestimated. We surveyed the prevalence of recurrent NSP, lifestyle, and risk factors in Korean high school students, and examined the influence of recurrent NSP on the quality of life. Methods Nine hundred thirty one male students (16-19 years old) from two academic high schools in Seoul were included in this study. The survey consisted of a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of recurrent NSP, with questions regarding having an occurrence more than once a week, characteristics of NSP, activity and lifestyle of the students, and the risk factors for recurrent NSP. A 36-item Short Form questionnaire was also examined. Results We found that 44.3% of the high school students surveyed had recurrent NSP (more than once a week) and the overall prevalence of NSP was 79.1%. The average sitting time was 10.2 ± 2.7 h/day. 59.0% did not sit straight, 14.7% used assisting devices during reading, and 11.9% answered that they stretched regularly. Found from their self assessed health, frequent fatigue and frequent depressed mood presented significant associations with the higher prevalence of recurrent NSP. Conclusions Korean high school students had a high prevalence of recurrent NSP. Clinical attention is needed for the prevention and resolution of recurrent NSP found in high school students.

Koh, Min Jung; Woo, Young Sun; Kang, Sung Hyun; Park, Sang Hoon; Chun, Hye Jung; Park, Eun Jung

2012-01-01

91

The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults. Methods A total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS. Results Midnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12) than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34) (P=0.001). Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ?100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4). Conclusion The results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS.

Jang, Yun-Mi; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

2012-01-01

92

HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

Kim, Chan Hyeong; Hyoun Choi, Sang; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

2008-08-01

93

Magnesium intake and its relevance with antioxidant capacity in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Recently, a study reported that magnesium played a part in the attack of chronic diseases, such as arteriosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension. However, there are not even enough studies to evaluate magnesium intakes. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the magnesium intakes of 500 healthy adults. In addition, by selecting 50 targets, we examined the correlation between magnesium intake and antioxidant capacity biomarkers. In the age group of 19-29, the daily magnesium intake was 276.3 mg for males and 232.1 mg for females. In the age group of 30-49, it was 305.1 mg and 246.5 mg, respectively. In the age group of 50-64, the magnesium intake was 294.4 mg for males and 245.7 mg for females. As for the age group of 19-29, the magnesium intake per 4,187 kJ of energy intake was 129.8 mg, which was significantly lower than the 164.6 mg by the age group of 30-49 and 172.4 mg by the age group of 50-64. The ratio of magnesium intake to the recommended intake was 82.1% for those in the age group of 19-29, 87.7% for those in 30-49, and 86.1% for those in 50-64. The rate of the subjects with magnesium intakes lower than the estimated average requirement was 55.3% in the age group of 19-29, 52.4% in 30-49, and 54.2% in 50-64. The magnesium intake from food groups were in the descending order of vegetables, cereals, and fish for the subjects in the age group of 19-29, and vegetables, cereals, and beverages for the subjects in the age groups of 30-49 and 50-64. The source food items of magnesium intake were in the descending order of Kimchi, tofu, rice, and coffee in the age group of 19-29, coffee, Kimchi, tofu, and rice in 30-49, and coffee, Kimchi, rice, and tofu in 50-64. From the 50 targets aged 19-29, significant correlation was not indicated among magnesium intake, serum magnesium, and antioxidant capacity biomarkers. In conclusion, the magnesium intake status of some Korean adults is unsatisfactory. And it is suggested that this low intake of magnesium has no correlation with antioxidant capacity. PMID:20978866

Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2010-10-27

94

Metabolic syndrome among Sri Lankan adults: prevalence, patterns and correlates  

PubMed Central

Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases the risk for Coronary Artery Disease, stroke and diabetes. MS is twice more common amongst South Asian immigrants in US compared to native Caucasians. There are no nationally representative studies on prevalence of MS from any of the South Asian countries. The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence of MS among Sri Lankan adults and investigates its relationships with socio-demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters. Data on MS and its associated details were obtained from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted between years 2005–2006. MS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable MS (0?=?absent, 1?=?present). The independent co-variants were: gender, age category, area of residence, ethnicity, level of education, income and physical activity. Sample size was 4,485 (Response rate–89.7%), 39.5% were males and mean age was 46.1?±?15.1?years. The crude prevalence of MS was 27.1% (95% CI: 25.8–28.5), and age-adjusted prevalence was 24.3% (95% CI: 23.0–25.6). Prevalence in males and females were 18.4% (95% CI: 16.5–20.3) and 28.3% (95% CI: 26.6–30.0) respectively (p?adults (34.8% [95% CI: 31.8–37.9]) had a significantly higher prevalence than rural adults (21.6% [95% CI: 20.2–23.0]). Among ethnic groups, the highest prevalence of MS was observed in Sri Lankan Moors (43.0% [95% CI: 37.2–48.9]). In all adults, MS was observed in those with the highest level of education and monthly household income. Prevalence of MS in the different physical activity categories of the IPAQ were; ‘inactive’–38.8% (95% CI 34.5-43.2), ‘moderately active’–33.5% (95% CI 30.9-36.1) and ‘active’–21.1% (95% CI 19.6-22.7). The results of the binary logistic regression analysis indicates that female gender (OR:1.7), increasing age, urban living (OR:1.7), Moor ethnicity (OR:2.6), secondary (OR:1.5) and tertiary levels of education (OR:2.3), monthly household income LKR 7,000–24,999 (OR:1.5) and >50,000 (OR:2.1), and physical inactivity (OR:1.6), all significantly increased risk of developing MS. MS is common among Sri Lankan adults affecting nearly one-fourth of the population. Female gender, increasing age, urban living, higher socio-economical status and physical inactivity were important associated factors.

2012-01-01

95

Prevalence and risk factors of distal radius and calcaneus bone mineral density in Korean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the prevalence and the related risk factors of low bone mineral density of the calcaneus and the distal radius, a community-based study was conducted in three rural areas of Korea. A total of 1420 women and 732 men aged 40 years and older participated in this study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and the potential risk factors for osteoporosis

Aesun Shin; Ji-Yeob Choi; Hye-Won Chung; Sue Kyung Park; Chan Soo Shin; Yoon-Ho Choi; Sung-Il Cho; Dae-Sung Kim; Dong-Il Kim; Kyoung-Mu Lee; Kyoung Ho Lee; Keun-Young Yoo; Daehee Kang

2004-01-01

96

Does prevalence of migraine and Raynaud's phenomenon also increase in Korean patients with proven variant angina?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The incidence of coronary artery spasm in oriental patients is higher than that in western patients. Oriental patients with variant angina (VA) frequently show normal or insignificant coronary artery stenosis by angiogram, compared with western patients. The prevalence of migraine and Raynaud's phenomenon in oriental patients with VA has not yet reported. Objective. We did a prospective study on

Kwang Kon Koh; Soon Hye Kim; Kee Hyoung Lee; Kye Sook Kwon; Eung Jin Kim; Soon Hee Baik; Sang Kyoon Cho; Sam Soo Kim; Chong Oon Park; June-Key Chung; Yong Hee Lee

1995-01-01

97

Educational Disparities in Distribution of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Quality of Care in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how educational status influences cardiovascular risk factors and care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Methods From Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV, we obtained survey results of 6,835 men and 9,067 women more than 30 years old. We performed multivariate logistic regression to compare cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes respective to educational status. Results There were disparities in cardiovascular risk factors by educational status. In men, impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride, and smoking were less frequently found in the highest educated group than in the middle educated group. In women, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, high blood pressure, high triglyceride, and metabolic syndrome among the highest educated group were significantly lower. The proportion of those with proper physical activity in the highest educated group was found to be less than that of the middle educated group, regardless of gender. For care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, disease recognition and treatment were lower among the lowest educated group in men, while these disparities were not shown in women. Instead, the lowest educated group in diabetic women received screening exams for eye and kidney complications less than the middle education group. In both genders, the high education group had a higher chance of receiving education about diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There were educational disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The disparities were found to be different by gender.

Yoon, Jae-Moon; Kim, Ji-Hye; Suh, Beom-Seok

2013-01-01

98

The prevalence of premature ejaculation and its clinical characteristics in Korean men according to different definitions.  

PubMed

This study compared the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) diagnosed by the PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) score, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). It examined the characteristics of males diagnosed with PE by each criterion. A questionnaire survey enrolled 2081 subjects from March to October, 2010. Stopwatch-recorded IELT was measured in 1035 of the 2081 subjects. We aimed to determine whether PE has an influence on the frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse, the degree of libido/erectile function and the satisfaction. These factors were evaluated according to different definitions of PE to assess whether the definition used yielded differences in the data. The prevalence of PE, based on a PEDT score of ?11, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded IELT of ?1 min was 11.3%, 19.5% and 3%, respectively. The prevalence of PE diagnoses based on PEDT score and self-reporting increased with age, but stopwatch-recorded IELT-based diagnoses did not. Males experiencing PE showed lower levels of libido, erectile function and frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse compared with non-PE males. PE males felt that they did not satisfy their partners in terms of the partners' sexual satisfaction and frequency of orgasm, in comparison with non-PE males. PE is a highly prevalent sexual dysfunction in males. Regardless of whether the PE diagnosis was made on the basis of self-reporting, PEDT score or stopwatch-recorded IELT, subjective symptoms were similar among PE males. PMID:22931761

Lee, S W; Lee, J H; Sung, H H; Park, H J; Park, J K; Choi, S K; Kam, S C

2012-08-30

99

What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD. Broad ADHD adds to that definition those

Stephen V. Faraone; Joseph Biederman

2005-01-01

100

Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution among high-risk Korean women for prospecting the strategy of vaccine development  

PubMed Central

We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the distribution of high-risk HPV genotypes among 2,308 high-risk Korean women to predict how much the current prophylactic HPV vaccines might affect the prevention of cervical cancer in Korea. HPV DNA was detected in 939 women (40.7%) but only one-third of women were positive for HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, the genotypes used for developing the HPV vaccines. Thus, the development of area-specific HPV vaccines based on dominant HPV genotypes in our country is needed for preventing HPV infection and the development of premalignant lesions in the cervix of Korean women.

2010-01-01

101

Colon transit time according to physical activity and characteristics in South Korean adults  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate factors contributing to the colon transit time (CTT), physical activity and characteristics were examined. METHODS: Forty-seven Korean adults (males, n = 23; females, n = 24) took a capsule containing 20 radio-opaque markers to measure the CTT. The subjects used an accelerometer to measure the physical activity and underwent a bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine the physical characteristics. Macro-nutrient was also surveyed. RESULTS: The mean total CTTs (TCTT) in the males and females were 8.8 and 24.7 h (P = 0.002), respectively. In the male subjects, the right CTT (3.5 ± 4.9 h vs 10.0 ± 11.6 h, P = 0.023) and recto-sigmoid CTT (4.4 ± 4.7 vs 13.6 ± 12.5 h, P = 0.004) were significantly shorter and the total energy expenditure (637.6 ± 44.3 kcal vs 464.3 ± 64.9 kcal, P = 0.003), total activity count (247?017 ± 75?022 count vs 178?014 ± 75?998 count, P = 0.003), energy expenditure of light intensity (148.5 ± 6.9 kcal vs 120.0 ± 16.8 kcal, P = 0.006), energy expenditure of moderate intensity (472.0 ± 36.2 kcal vs 281.4 ± 22.2 kcal, P < 0.001), fat intake (65.5 ± 23.3 g vs 51.2 ± 17.4 g, P = 0.010), and water consumption (1714.3 ± 329.4 g vs 1164.7 ± 263.6 g, P = 0.009) were significantly higher than in the female subjects. Regarding correlations, when adjusted for gender, fiber (r = -0.545, P < 0.001) and water intake (r = -0.257, P < 0.05) correlated significantly with the TCTT in all subjects. In addition, the body mass index (r = -0.424, P < 0.05) and fiber intake (r = -0.417, P < 0.05) in the males as well as the fiber intake (r = -0.655, P < 0.001) in the females showed significant correlations with the TCTT. CONCLUSION: The subjects showed significant gender differences in the TCTT, right CTT, and recto-sigmoid CTT. Furthermore, the intake of the fiber and water contributed to the CTT.

Cho, Kang Ok; Jo, Yun Ju; Song, Bong Kil; Oh, Jung Woo; Kim, Yeon Soo

2013-01-01

102

Prevalence of sleep disturbance and its relationship to pain in adults with chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the prevalence and relationship between sleep disturbance and chronic pain. Research questions were: (1) What is the prevalence of sleep disturbance in adults with chronic pain, and how does this prevalence compare with healthy and insomniac adults? (2) What is the relationship between sleep disturbance and chronic pain? (3) What is the relationship of patient characteristics to

Tracy Ann Call-Schmidt; Stephanie J Richardson

2003-01-01

103

Prevalence of clonorchiasis in patients with gastrointestinal disease: A Korean nationwide multicenter survey  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and the relation of the infection to hepatobiliary diseases in 26 hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Consecutive patients who had been admitted to the Division of Gastroenterology with gastrointestinal symptoms were enrolled from March to April 2005. Of those who had been diagnosed with clonorchiasis, epidemiology and correlation between infection and hepatobiliary diseases were surveyed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 3080 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, 396 (12.9%) had clonorchiasis and 1140 patients (37.2%) had a history of eating raw freshwater fish. Of those with a history of raw freshwater fish ingestion, 238 (20.9%) patients had clonorchiasis. Cholangiocarcinoma was more prevalent in C. sinensis-infected patients than non-infected patients [34/396 (8.6%) vs 145/2684 (5.4%), P = 0.015]. Cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis showed statistically significant positive cross-relation (P = 0.008). Choledocholithiasis, cholecystolithiasis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and biliary pancreatitis did not correlate with clonorchiasis. CONCLUSION: Infection rate of clonorchiasis was still high in patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Korea, and has not decreased very much during the last two decades. Cholangiocarcinoma was related to clonorchiasis, which suggested an etiological role for the parasite.

Kim, Ho Gak; Han, Jimin; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Cho, Kyu Hyun; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Jae Seon; Kim, Jin Bong; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyo; Kim, Jae Woo; Ryu, Ji Kon; Moon, Young-Soo; Moon, Jong Ho; Park, Sung Jae; Park, Chan Guk; Bang, Sung-Jo; Yang, Chang Heon; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Yoo, Byung Moo; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Dong Ki; Lee, Byung Seok; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Woo Jin; Cho, Chang Min; Joo, Young-Eun; Cheon, Gab Jin; Choi, Young Woo; Chung, Jae Bok; Yoon, Yong Bum

2009-01-01

104

Alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure in Korean adults aged 50 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of the association between alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure have reported conflicting results. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and carotid atherosclerosis by evaluating the effects of alcohol intake on carotid artery enlargement. METHODS: The study population consisted of 4302 community-dwelling Koreans (1577 men and 2725 women) aged 50 years and over. All the subjects

Young-Hoon Lee; Min-Ho Shin; Sun-Seog Kweon; Sung-Woo Choi; Hye-Yeon Kim; So-Yeon Ryu; Bok-Hee Kim; Jung-Ae Rhee; Jin-Su Choi

2009-01-01

105

The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Adult Native Speakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the comprehension of English restrictive relative clauses containing three universal factors (interruption, word order rearrangement, and parallel function) by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students at American universities studying English as a Second Language. The findings support the dominance of language universals in the course of…

Sadighi, Firooz

1994-01-01

106

Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety

Yuri Jang; David A. Chiriboga; Sumie Okazaki

2009-01-01

107

A preliminary investigation of early smoking initiation and nicotine dependence in Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have investigated the association between age at smoking initiation and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) in adulthood. The goal of this study was to develop the Korean version of FTND (FTND-K) and to examine the relationship between age at smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Methods: This investigation used data from 268 current smokers who visited the

Sang Min Park; Ki Young Son; Young Joon Lee; Hee-Choon S. Lee; Ji Ho Kang; Yeon Ji Lee; Yoon Jung Chang; Young Ho Yun

2004-01-01

108

Prevalence and factors associated with frailty among Peruvian older adults.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval "Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara") were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: (1) unintentional weight-loss, (2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), (3) self-reported exhaustion, and (4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-m walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Parodi, José F; Wong, Rebeca

2013-08-08

109

NATIONAL SURVEILLANCE DEFINITIONS FOR HYPERTENSION PREVALENCE AND CONTROL AMONG ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Background Clear and consistent definitions of hypertension and hypertension control are crucial to guide diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance. A variety of surveillance definitions are in frequent use, resulting in variation of reported hypertension prevalence and control, even when based on the same data set. Methods and Results To assess the variety of published surveillance definitions and rates, we performed a literature search for studies and reports that utilized NHANES data from at least as recent as the 2003-2004 survey cycle. We identified 19 studies that used various criteria for defining hypertension and hypertension control, as well as different parameters for age-adjustment and inclusion of subpopulations. This resulted in variation of reported age-standardized hypertension prevalence from 28.9% to 32.1% and hypertension control from 35.1% to 64%. We then assessed the effects of varying the definitions of hypertension and hypertension control, parameters for age-adjustment, and inclusion of subpopulations, on NHANES data both from 2007-2008 (n=5,645) and 2005-2008 (n=10,365). We propose standard surveillance definitions and age-adjustment parameters for hypertension and hypertension control. Utilizing our recommended approach with NHANES 2007-2008 data, the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension in the US was 29.8% (standard error 0.62%) and the rate of hypertension control was 45.8% (standard error 4.03%). Conclusions Surveillance definitions of hypertension and hypertension control vary in the literature. We present standard definitions of hypertension prevalence and control among adults and standard parameters for age-adjustment and population composition that will enable meaningful population comparisons and monitoring of trends.

Crim, Matthew Tyler; Yoon, Sung Sug (Sarah); Ortiz, Eduardo; Wall, Hilary K.; Schober, Susan; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sorlie, Paul; Keenan, Nora; Labarthe, Darwin; Hong, Yuling

2012-01-01

110

Survival of Korean Adult Cancer Patients by Stage at Diagnosis, 2006-2010: National Cancer Registry Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although the cancer stage at diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor for patients' survival, there are few population-based estimates of stage-specific survival outcome, especially in Asian countries. Our study aims to estimate stage-specific survival for Korean patients. Materials and Methods We analyzed the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database data on 626,506 adult patients aged ? 20 years, who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 with stomach, colorectal, liver, lung, breast, cervix, prostate, and thyroid cancers. Patients were followed up to December 2011, and the 5-year relative survival rates (RSRs) were calculated for gender and age group by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) stage at diagnosis. Results The 5-year RSRs for all localized-stage cancers, except for lung and liver, exceeded 90% with that for thyroid cancer being the highest at 100.4%. These values for distant stage liver, lung, and stomach cancers were very dismal at 2.5%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively, while it was 69.1% for thyroid cancer, and was in the range of 18.3-36.4% for colorectal, cervix, breast and prostate cancers. Overall, the 5-year RSRs for all cancer types decreased with aging across all the disease stages with exception of prostate cancer, which suggests biologic difference in these cancer types in a young age group. When compared with US SEER data, Korean patients had better stage-specific survival rates for stomach, colorectal, liver, and cervical cancers. Conclusion Korean cancer patients showed relatively favorable stage distribution and 5-year RSRs, which suggests potential contribution of the national cancer screening program.

Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jin-Soo

2013-01-01

111

Seroepidemiologic Survey of Varicella-Zoster Virus in Korean Adults Using Glycoprotein Enzyme Immuno Assay and Fluorescent Antibody to Membrane Antigen Test  

PubMed Central

Background Herpes zoster (HZ) occurs mainly in the elderly and Korea is rapidly becoming an aging society. Therefore, it is important to know the immune status against varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Korean adults to prevent the disease. Objective The aim of this study was to survey the immune status of Korean adults over 40 years of age against VZV. Methods Antibody titer was measured using a VaccZyme™ VZV glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay (gpEIA) (Binding Site, UK). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test was performed to measure the seropositive rate. Results HZ incidence in the 214 adults enrolled in this study was 10.3%. The gpEIA geometric mean titer (GMT) was 490 mIU/ml and 90.2% of the subjects had a protective level of gpEIA antibody titer against varicella. The average gpEIA GMT of adults who previously had HZ was 1,122 mIU/ml, which was higher than the average gpEIA GMT of 457 mIU/ml in adults who had not had HZ. The FAMA positive rate was 98.6%. Conclusion Most (90.2%) Korean adults ?40-years-of-age have a protective level of gpEIA antibody against varicella and 98.6% were FAMA seropositive. The GMT of gpEIA antibody was significantly increased with age, and was higher in adults with a history of HZ.

Kim, Yun Hwa; Hwang, Ji Young; Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Jin Hee; Lee, Tae Yoon; Choi, Jong Soo

2011-01-01

112

External cross-validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) models must be validated against a reference method in a representative population sample before they can be accepted as accurate and applicable. The purpose of this study was to compare the eight-electrode BIA method with DEXA as a reference method in the assessment of body composition in Korean adults and to investigate the predictive accuracy and applicability of the eight-electrode BIA model. A total of 174 apparently healthy adults participated. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. FM, %fat, and FFM were estimated by an eight-electrode BIA model and were measured by DEXA. Correlations between BIA_%fat and DEXA_%fat were 0.956 for men and 0.960 for women with a total error of 2.1%fat in men and 2.3%fat in women. The mean difference between BIA_%fat and DEXA_%fat was small but significant (P < 0.05), which resulted in an overestimation of 1.2 ± 2.2%fat (95% CI: -3.2-6.2%fat) in men and an underestimation of -2.0 ± 2.4%fat (95% CI: -2.3-7.1%fat) in women. In the Bland-Altman analysis, the %fat of 86.3% of men was accurately estimated and the %fat of 66.0% of women was accurately estimated to within 3.5%fat. The BIA had good agreement for prediction of %fat in Korean adults. However, the eight-electrode BIA had small, but systemic, errors of %fat in the predictive accuracy for individual estimation. The total errors led to an overestimation of %fat in lean men and an underestimation of %fat in obese women.

Kim, Hyeoijin; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Won; Park, Mira; Park, Hye Soon; Min, Sun-Seek; Han, Seung-Ho; Yee, Jae-Yong; Chung, Sochung

2011-01-01

113

Average Volume of Alcohol Consumed, Drinking Patterns, and Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Controversial results have been reported on the relationship between alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of average volume of alcohol consumed and drinking patterns with MetS and its components. Methods This study was conducted as a baseline survey for the Dong-gu Study of adults aged 50 years or older. Drinking patterns were assessed using a structured interview, and average volume of alcohol consumed was calculated. MetS was defined according to the updated version of the National Cholesterol Education Program. Results Compared with individuals who never drank, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of MetS was significantly higher in men who consumed 2.1 to 4.0 drinks/day (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.17–2.00) and greater than 4.0 drinks/day (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.23–2.14), whereas no significant association was observed in women. Significant dose-response relationships between average volume of alcohol consumed and all metabolic components were observed in men. A usual quantity of 5 to 6 drinks/drinking day (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19–2.09), 7 or more drinks/drinking day (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.45–2.44), and binge drinking on at least 1 occasion/week (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01–1.76) were associated with a significantly higher OR for prevalence of MetS in men; however, none of these drinking patterns were associated with MetS in women. Conclusions Unhealthy drinking patterns such as high usual quantity and binge drinking were significantly associated with MetS, suggesting that the effect of alcohol consumption on MetS should be considered in the context of drinking pattern, particularly in men.

Shin, Min-Ho; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Kim, Bok-Hee; Lee, Young-Hoon

2013-01-01

114

Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Gallbladder Polyps in Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between gallbladder (GB) polyps and metabolic syndrome. A total of 5,685 healthy subjects were included, and 485 of these subjects had GB polyps and 744 had metabolic syndrome. In this study, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to standards suggested by the AHA/NHLBI ATP III 2005, and abdominal obesity (? 90 cm in men and ? 85 cm in women for Korean) was diagnosed according to standards set forth by the Korean Society for Study of Obesity. Biphasic logistic regression adjusted for age and gender was used to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and GB polyps. Subjects who were male (OR, 1.493; 95% CI, 1.11-2.00) and hepatitis B suface Ag (HBsAg) positive (OR, 1.591; 95% CI, 1.06-2.38) were significantly more likely to have GB polyps. The metabolic syndrome group had a higher risk of GB polyps (OR, 1.315; 95% CI, 1.01-1.69) than the group without metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, subjects who were HBsAg positive and male appear to be associated with the risk of GB polyps. The presence of metabolic syndrome also appears to be associated with the risk of GB polyps in Koreans.

Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Hong Soo; Lee, Sang Hwa; Chun, Hye Jin; Kim, Sun Young; Choi, Yu Kyung; Ryu, Hee Jeong

2013-01-01

115

It's Others, Not the Police: Smoking, Reprimand, and Fines among Adults of Korean Descent in California  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assesses the association of immediate social and legal reprimand and current smoking status among Californians of Korean descent. Design Data were drawn from a population-based probability sample using a telephone survey conducted by bilingual, professional interviewers (N=2085). About 85.0% of eligible respondents completed interviews and 86.3% of participants preferred to be interviewed in Korean. Main Outcome Measure Smoking status was measured using CDC criteria, ever smoked 100 cigarettes and currently smoke every day or some days. Results and Conclusion Reports of immediate criticism by others in several settings was associated with non-smoking, but likelihood of immediate legal penalties was unrelated. Participants were far less likely to expect legal than social sanction. Results were replicated after controlling for reinforcers of smoking and ecologically relevant variables including models of smoking, primary group social support for smoking, acculturation, gender, acculturation by gender (male) interaction, age, and education. It may be efficacious to target public health interventions encouraging appropriate social sanctions of smoking in public among persons of Korean descent, and to encourage strict enforcement of legal penalties for smoking in public places.

Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne; Kang, Sunny

2009-01-01

116

Intellectual disability in homeless adults: a prevalence study.  

PubMed

There has been considerable recent interest in the health and associated socio-economic inequalities faced by adults with learning disabilities. A serious and so far under-reported aspect of this is homelessness. This study sought to determine the prevalence of intellectual disability in a homeless population. Fifty people registered at a general practice in north-east England for socially excluded groups, and staying in temporary accommodation for the homeless during 2006-7, were assessed for learning disability. Full-scale and verbal IQ scores for the group were significantly lower than would be expected in the general population, but there was no significant difference in performance IQ. Homeless people are significantly more likely to have an intellectual disability than the general population. The implications for practice and policy development are far reaching. Further work is required to confirm these findings and to explore the experience of homeless people with intellectual disability. PMID:19074937

Oakes, Peter M; Davies, Ros C

2008-12-01

117

Personal views about aging among Korean American older adults: the role of physical health, social network, and acculturation.  

PubMed

Given the importance of a positive attitude towards one's own aging, we examined its predictors in a sample of 230 Korean American older adults (M (age)?=?69.8 years, SD?=?7.05). Personal views about aging, measured with a subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), were regressed on demographic variables, physical health-related factors, and psychosocial attributes (social network and acculturation). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that better physical health conditions (fewer chronic conditions, less functional disability, and better vision) were associated with more positive personal views about aging. Other significant contributors included larger social networks and higher levels of acculturation. Findings suggest that personal views about aging among immigrant elderly populations can be enhanced by promoting physical health, social connectedness, and acculturation. Ways to maintain and improve positive attitudes about personal aging are discussed in a cultural context. PMID:22581472

Kim, Giyeon; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

2012-06-01

118

Immunogenicity and safety of Intanza (®) /IDflu (®) intradermal influenza vaccine in South Korean adults: A multicenter, randomized trial.  

PubMed

Intanza (®) /IDflu (®) (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is an intradermal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine developed as an alternative to intramuscular influenza vaccine. The objective of this study was to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of Intanza/IDflu in South Korean adults. In a phase IV multicenter trial, South Korean adults 18-59 y old (n = 120) and ? 60 y old (n = 120) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of Intanza/IDflu (9 µg for 18-59 y, 15 µg for ? 60 y) or trivalent intramuscular vaccine (Vaxigrip (®) 15 µg, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood was collected on pre-vaccination (day 0) and on day 21. Hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates were determined on day 21. Geometric mean titers, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were similar between the intradermal and intramuscular vaccines in both age groups for all three vaccine strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). Both vaccines met Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria for all three strains. Solicited systemic reactions of the intradermal groups were generally mild, transient, and similar to those of the intramuscular groups. Solicited injection site reactions were more frequent in the intradermal groups but were mostly mild, transient, and consisted mainly of pain, erythema, and pruritus. No treatment-related serious adverse events or other safety concerns were reported. These results confirm that Intanza/IDflu is an effective and well-tolerated alternative to IM influenza vaccination. (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ID: NCT01215669). PMID:23778938

Hoon Han, Sang; Hee Woo, Jun; Weber, Francoise; Joo Kim, Woo; Ran Peck, Kyong; Il Kim, Sang; Hwa Choi, Young; Myung Kim, June

2013-06-18

119

Mental health service use in a nationwide sample of Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  An understanding of the factors leading to the use of mental health services is important in improving access to mental health-care.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to assess the use of mental health services, determinants of use and barriers to use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were derived from a representative sample of the general population, aged 18–64 years. The Korean version of the

Seong Jin Cho; Jun Young Lee; Jin Pyo Hong; Hochang B. Lee; Maeng Je Cho; Bong Jin Hahm

2009-01-01

120

Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults.  

PubMed

Mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency could be linked to several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its correlates to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency was common in the US population, especially in certain minority groups. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2006 data were analyzed for vitamin D levels in adult participants (N = 4495). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations ?20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). The overall prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was 41.6%, with the highest rate seen in blacks (82.1%), followed by Hispanics (69.2%). Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common among those who had no college education, were obese, with a poor health status, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, or not consuming milk daily (all P < .001). Multivariate analyses showed that being from a non-white race, not college educated, obese, having low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, poor health, and no daily milk consumption were all significantly, independently associated with vitamin D deficiency (all P < .05). In summary, vitamin D deficiency was common in the US population, especially among blacks and Hispanics. Given that vitamin D deficiency is linked to some of the important risk factors of leading causes of death in the United States, it is important that health professionals are aware of this connection and offer dietary and other intervention strategies to correct vitamin D deficiency, especially in minority groups. PMID:21310306

Forrest, Kimberly Y Z; Stuhldreher, Wendy L

2011-01-01

121

Things Korean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

Chang, Roberta

122

The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the\\u000a present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population\\u000a aged 18–64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate

Martina de ZwaanBarbara; Barbara Gruß; Astrid Müller; Holmer Graap; Alexandra Martin; Heide Glaesmer; Anja Hilbert; Alexandra Philipsen

123

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with\\u000a the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level,\\u000a and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem behaviours compared with the whole\\u000a adult population with intellectual disabilities, compared with individually

Craig A. Melville; Sally-Ann Cooper; Jill Morrison; Elita Smiley; Linda Allan; Alison Jackson; Janet Finlayson; Dipali Mantry

2008-01-01

124

Prevalence of cigarette smoking among adult population in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is the strongest modifiable factor, which shortens the life span and deteriorates the quality of life. It increases the risk of development of cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases. The objective of the study was evaluation of the prevalence of cigarette smoking among the adult population of the Lublin Region, and investigation of the relationship between nicotinism and respondents? place of residence, and other selected socio-economic factors. Data concerning the cigarette smoking habit was obtained from 3,993 people - 2,447 females and 1,546 males; 23.0 percent of respondents in the study were smokers - 35.6 percent of males and 15.1 percent of females. The percentage of male smokers was similar in rural and urban areas. Urban females were smokers more often than those living in rural areas. A decrease was noted in the difference which has been observed to-date between the percentage of urban and rural female smokers. The highest percentage of smokers occurred among the population aged 41-50, while the lowest - among the youngest and the oldest respondents. The percentage of smoking farmers was lower than that of respondents performing non-agricultural occupations, also among rural inhabitants. Those who were occupationally active were smokers more frequently than those not engaged in occupational activity. The lowest percentage of smokers was noted among respondents who had the highest education level, while the highest percentage was observed among those who had vocational education. PMID:20684491

Panasiuk, Lech; Mierzecki, Artur; Wdowiak, Leszek; Paprzycki, Piotr; Lukas, Witold; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciej

2010-06-01

125

A retrospective cohort study on the association between periapical abscess, advanced periodontal disease, and the national oral health screening program among korean adults.  

PubMed

The National Oral Health Screening Program (NOHSP) is a general population-based program in Korea. The objective of this study was to assess the association between participation in the NOHSP and dental visit for periapical abscess (PA) and advanced periodontal disease (APD) among Korean adults. Data were obtained for subjects from the National Health Insurance database. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of 9358 randomly selected subjects who were between 40 and 64 years old in 2002. The outcomes of dental visit for PA or APD from the years 2003 to 2007 were compared between the screening and nonscreening groups. The nonscreening group had 19% higher risk of PA and 15% higher risk of APD. This study suggests that the NOHSP may decrease the risk of dental visit because of PA and APD by preventing the progress of lesion to the advanced stage among Korean adults. PMID:22186394

Ha, Jung-Eun; Jung, Se-Hwan; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Lee, Byoung-Jin; Bae, Kwang-Hak

2011-12-20

126

Complete Health: Prevalence and Predictors among U.S. Adults in 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 3,032 U.S. adults to operationalize, estimate the prevalence, and ascertain the epidemiology of complete health. Overall, 19 percent of adults were completely healthy, 18.8 percent were completely unhealthy, and 62.2 percent had a version of incomplete health. Completely healthy adults were likely to be young (age 25-34 years) or old…

Keyes, Corey L. M.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.

2002-01-01

127

Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in an onset cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Previous studies indicate a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to determine if newly diagnosed adults with type 1 diabetes already have an elevated rate of psychiatric disorders at the beginning of their physical illness. Methods The authors consecutively recruited 313 newly diagnosed, adult inpatients with type

Frank Petrak; Jochen Hardt; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Bernhard Kulzer; Axel Hirsch; Frieder Hentzelt; Katrin Borck; Frank Jacobi; Ulrich Tiber Egle; Sven Olaf Hoffmann

2003-01-01

128

Prevalent and novel mutations of the tyrosinase gene in Korean patients with tyrosinase-deficient oculocutaneous albinism.  

PubMed

We analyzed the tyrosinase (TYR) gene of 12 Korean patients with various types of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). We identified five different mutations in the TYR gene in 4 patients with severe OCA and in 2 patients with mild OCA, but found no mutations in the 6 patients with mild OCA phenotypes. Among the 5 mutations, a frameshift mutation, P310insC, was detected most frequently (allele frequency = 0.5), and the other mutations were found less frequently, two of which, L288delT and IVS2-7t-->a,-10(-)-11deltt, are novel. This study may provide valuable information for the molecular diagnosis of and accurate genetic counseling for OCA1 in Koreans and perhaps other Asian groups. PMID:9163730

Park, S K; Lee, K H; Park, K C; Lee, J S; Spritz, R A; Lee, S T

1997-04-30

129

Acculturation and health risk behaviors among Californians of Korean descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study examined the effects of acculturation on health behaviors among Korean-Americans in California compared to Koreans in Seoul.Methods. Telephone interviews were conducted with 2,830 Korean-American adults in California (completion rate exceeding 86%) and 500 Korean adults in Seoul (completion of about 50%).Results. Among Korean-Americans, acculturated women were more likely to smoke and drink while acculturated men were more

Yoon Ju Song; C. Richard Hofstetter; Melbourne F Hovell; Hee Young Paik; Hae Ryun Park; Jooeun Lee; Veronica Irvin

2004-01-01

130

A meta-analysis of the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults.  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the prevalence and influence factors of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults from 1987 to 2012. The study investigated 81 published papers on depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) or the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as a measuring tool through meta-analysis. A total of 88,417 Chinese older adults were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults was 23.6% (95% CI: 20.3-27.2%). The pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms was greater in women. In addition, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in married older adults was lower than in single adults (i.e., divorced, unmarried or widowed). Depressive morbidity with GDS-30 was significantly higher than with CES-D. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults presented a downward tendency with increasing educational level. Moreover, the prevalence of depressive symptoms gradually increased with the year of data collection. Significant differences were found in the measurement tools, gender, degree of education and marital status, but none in age. PMID:24001674

Li, Dan; Zhang, Da-Jun; Shao, Jing-Jin; Qi, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Lin

2013-08-13

131

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age,\\u000a sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated\\u000a the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The data of 7,801 adults aged 19

Bo-Eun Lee; Eun-Hee Ha

2011-01-01

132

Genetic and environmental covariations among obsessive-compulsive symptoms, neuroticism, and extraversion in South Korean adolescent and young adult twins.  

PubMed

A growing literature suggests that personality traits may be endophenotype markers for psychiatric illnesses. Although the phenotypic relationships between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and high neuroticism and low extraversion have been well documented, underlying genetic and environmental contributions to these associations have not been explored previously. Five hundred and twenty-four monozygoitc (MZ) and 228 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of adolescent and young adult twins (aged 13-24 years) drawn from the South Korean Twin Registry completed the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (MOCI) and the Neuroticism and Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Scale by mail. The total score of MOCI (MOCIT) was significantly and positively correlated with Neuroticism (r = .44), but only weakly and negatively related to Extraversion (r = -.10). A trivariate Cholesky model was applied to the data. The additive genetic correlations in the best-fitting model were .51 between Neuroticism and MOCIT and -.17 between Extraversion and MOCIT, suggesting that additive genetic factors that lead to high neuroticism and low extraversion overlap with those genetic factors influencing high OC symptoms. These findings add to the cumulative evidence of the shared genetic etiology for the associations between a personality profile of high neuroticism and low extraversion and mental illnesses. PMID:19335184

Hur, Yoon-Mi

2009-04-01

133

Prevalence of Snoring and Witnessed Apnea in Taiwanese Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a prevalent disorder that has a huge impact on the public. It has been proposed that Chinese populations have a higher incidence of SDB than Caucasians due to a narrow cranial base and flat mid-face structure. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of SDB in Taiwan. This study prospectively assesses the complaints of SDB and

Li-Pang Chuang; Shih-Chieh Hsu; Shih-Wei Lin; Wen-Shan Ko; Ning-Hung Chen; Ying-Huang Tsai

134

The prevalence and characteristics of complicated grief in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundComplicated grief is a prolongation of the normal grieving process with distinct characteristics. It impairs mental and physical health and can potentially greatly impact the quality of life of sufferers and their families. The prevalence and characteristics of complicated grief in the general population are currently unclear. The aims of the present study were therefore to evaluate the prevalence of

Rachel S. Newson; Paul A. Boelen; Karin Hek; Albert Hofman; Henning Tiemeier

2011-01-01

135

Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

2011-01-01

136

Compulsions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Prevalence, Phenomenology, and Comorbidity with Stereotypy and Self-Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of compulsions in 210 adults with severe/profound mental retardation was studied. Prevalences were as follows: stereotypy (60.9 percent), self-injury (46.6 percent), and compulsion (40 percent). The occurrence of compulsions was positively associated with the occurrence of stereotypy, self-injury, and stereotypy plus self-injury.…

Bodfish, James W.; And Others

1995-01-01

137

Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,…

van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

2009-01-01

138

The Prevalence of Fecal Incontinence in Community-Dwelling Adults: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Reported prevalence estimates for fecal incontinence among community-dwelling adults vary widely. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the studied prevalence of fecal incontinence in the community and explore the heterogeneity of study designs and sources of bias that may explain variability in estimates. METHODS: A predetermined search strategy was used to locate all studies published that reported the

Alexandra K. Macmillan; Arend E. H. Merrie; Roger J. Marshall; Bryan R. Parry

2004-01-01

139

Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

2005-01-01

140

Current cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults--United States, 2004-2010.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is among the most important modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among all adults aged ?18 years has decreased 42.4% since 1965, but declines in current smoking prevalence have slowed during the past 5 years (declining from 20.9% in 2005 to 19.3% in 2010) and did not meet the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective to reduce cigarette smoking among adults to ?12%. Targeted workplace tobacco control interventions have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke; therefore, CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2004-2010 to describe current cigarette smoking prevalence among currently working U.S. adults by industry and occupation. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, overall, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults was 19.6% and was highest among those with less than a high school education (28.4%), those with no health insurance (28.6%), those living below the federal poverty level (27.7%), and those aged 18-24 years (23.8%). Substantial differences in smoking prevalence were observed across industry and occupation groups. By industry, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults ranged from 9.7% in education services to 30.0% in mining; by occupation group, prevalence ranged from 8.7% in education, training, and library to 31.4% in construction and extraction. Although some progress has been made in reducing smoking prevalence among working adults, additional effective employer interventions need to be implemented, including health insurance coverage for cessation treatments, easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and smoke-free workplace policies. PMID:21956406

2011-09-30

141

Generational Differences in the Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were significant changes in health and lifestyle throughout the 20th century which may have changed temporal patterns of hearing impairment in adults. In this study, the authors aimed to assess the effect of birth cohort on the prevalence of hearing impairment in an adult population aged 45-94 years, using data collected between 1993 and 2008 from 3 cycles of

Weihai Zhan; Karen J. Cruickshanks; Barbara E. K. Klein; Ronald Klein; Guan-Hua Huang; James S. Pankow; Ronald E. Gangnon; Theodore S. Tweed

2010-01-01

142

Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2012-01-01

143

Prevalence of Diabetes Treatment Effect Modifiers: the External Validity of Trials to Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Potential treatment effect modifiers (TEMs) are specific diseases or conditions with a well-described mechanism for treatment effect modification. The prevalence of TEMs in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of pre-specified potential TEMs; (2) demonstrate the potential impact of TEMs in the older adult population using a simulated trial; (3) identify TEM combinations associated with number of hospitalizations to test construct validity. Methods Data are from the nationally-representative United States National Health and Examination Survey, 1999–2004: 8,646 Civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 45–64 or 65+ years, including 1,443 with DM. TEMs were anemia, congestive heart failure, liver inflammation, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dizziness, frequent mental distress, mobility difficulty, and visual impairment. A trial was simulated to examine prevalence of potential TEM impact. The cross-sectional association between TEM patterns and number of hospitalizations was estimated to assess construct validity. Results The prevalence of TEMs was substantial such that 19.0% (95%CI: 14.8–23.2) of middle-aged adults and 38.0% (95% CI: 33.4–42.5) of older adults had any two. A simulated trial with modest levels of interaction suggested the prevalence of TEMs could nullify treatment benefit in 3.9–27.2% of older adults with DM. Compared to having DM alone, hospitalization rate was increased by several combinations of TEMs with substantial prevalence. Conclusions We provide national benchmarks that can be used to evaluate TEM prevalence reported by clinical trials of DM, and correspondingly their external validity to older adults.

Weiss, Carlos O.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Leff, Bruce

2012-01-01

144

Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

145

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... all adults aged 20 and over by the direct method to the 2000 U.S. census population using ... Hispanic. NOTE: Estimates are age-adjusted by the direct method to the 2000 U.S. census population using ...

146

Prevalence of Major Chronic Conditions among Older Chinese Adults: The Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1  

PubMed Central

Background The likely corresponding increase in prevalence of chronic disease will be a major challenge for the health care system. Few nationwide epidemiological studies include a large enough sample of older adults to provide estimates of chronic conditions in the older adult population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of eight common chronic health conditions and examine socioeconomic inequalities in the diseases among older adults in China. Method Data are from SAGE-China Wave 1, including 13,157 people aged 50-plus years. Respondents were asked if they had been diagnosed with any of the following chronic medical conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, stroke, diabetes, depression, chronic lung disease and hypertension. A set of validated symptom-based questions and related diagnostic algorithms were also used to estimate disease prevalence for angina, arthritis, asthma and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the probability of developing chronic conditions in relation to sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, urban/rural setting and household wealth level. Results Fifty percent of respondents reported having one of the selected chronic conditions, 18.9% two conditions, 5.8% three conditions, and 1.4% reported having four or more chronic conditions. Self-reported prevalence was generated for angina (8%), arthritis (22%), asthma (2%), stroke (3%), diabetes (7%), depression (0.3%), chronic lung disease (8%) and hypertension (27%). The symptom-based prevalence of angina, arthritis, asthma and depression was 10%, 20%, 4% and 2%, respectively. Conclusion This study provides the best available prevalence estimates for major chronic health conditions among older Chinese adults. Findings from this study indicated that major chronic conditions were common, so prevention and early intervention targeting adults aged 50 years and older should be prioritized.

Kowal, Paul; Jiang, Yong; Yu, Min; Li, Xinjian; Zheng, Yang; Xu, Jiying

2013-01-01

147

Free Adult Internet Web Sites: How Prevalent Are Degrading Acts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russell (Dangerous relationships: Pornography, misogyny, and rape, 1988) argued that essential features of pornography were\\u000a the inclusion of more female than male nakedness and the portrayal of men in dominant roles. Utilizing a sample of 45 Internet\\u000a adult web sites, a content analysis was conducted to see if free and easily available Internet adult videos may generally\\u000a be described as

Stacy Gorman; Elizabeth Monk-Turner; Jennifer N. Fish

2010-01-01

148

Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Visceral Obesity in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance. Research Design and Methods A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation) was <5 Hounsfield Units. Results In subjects with diabetes (n?=?282), 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OH)D. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0–6.2)]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D was observed in the high HOMA-IR (?2.5) group [n?=?207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4–10.3)], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5) group [n?=?592, OR 0.8 (0.3–1.9)]. Conclusions Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance.

Seo, Ji A.; Eun, Chai Ryoung; Cho, Hyunjoo; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Yim, Hyung Joon; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

2013-01-01

149

A Morphometric Study on Cadaveric Aortic Arch and Its Major Branches in 25 Korean Adults : The Perspective of Endovascular Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the anatomic characteristics of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches to build a foundation toward performing endovascular surgery safely. Methods A total of 25 formalin fixed Korean adult cadavers were used. The authors investigated : anatomical variations of the AA and its major branches; curvature of the AA; distance from the mid-vertebrae line to the origin of the major branches; distances from the origin of the major branches of AA to the origin of its distal branches; and the angle of the three major branches, the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT), the left common carotid artery (LCCA) and the left subclavian artery (LSCA) arising from AA. Results The three major branches directly originated from AA in 21 (84%) of the cadavers. In two (8%) of remaining four cadavers, orifice of LCCA was slightly above the stem of BCT. In remaining two (8%) cadavers, the left vertebral artery (LVA) was directly originated from AA. Average angle of AA curvature to the coronal plane was 62.2 degrees. BCT originated 0.92 mm on the right of the mid-vertebrae line. LCCA and LSCA originated from 12.3 mm and 22.8 mm on the left of the mid-vertebrae line. Mean distance from the origin of the BCT to the origin of the RCCA was 32.5 mm. Mean distance from the origin of the LSCA to the origin of the LVA was 33.8 mm. Average angles at which the major branches arise from the AA were 65.3, 46.9 and 63.8 degrees. Conclusion This study may provides a basic anatomical information to catheterize AA and its branches for safely performing endovascular surgery.

Shin, Il-Young; Chung, Yong-Gu; Shin, Won-Han; Im, Soo-Bin; Hwang, Sun-Chul

2008-01-01

150

Decreasing Prevalence of the Full Metabolic Syndrome but a Persistently High Prevalence of Dyslipidemia among Adult Arabs  

PubMed Central

A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS) was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18–55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort), Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III) was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI) 33.5–37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5–89.7) and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3–35.7) of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Sabico, Shaun Louie B.; Chrousos, George P.

2010-01-01

151

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma in off-reserve Aboriginal children and adults in Canada.  

PubMed

Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation. PMID:23248805

Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

152

Obesity and colorectal adenomatous polyps: A cross-sectional study in Korean adults.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between obesity and the risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps. DESIGN AND METHOD: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,574 participants (818 males and 756 females), who had undergone colonoscopy for health examinations at the National Cancer Center hospital in South Korea from February to September 2009, were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps was 39.5% in males and 22.6% in females. In multiple logistic regression analysis, obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.16-2.48) and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.13-2.23) were significantly associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps in males, but not in females. In the subgroup analyses by age, obesity (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.32-3.89), and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.12-2.76) significantly increased a risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps in males aged <50 years, but not in males aged ?50 years. However, interaction terms were not significant between obesity and gender (P = 0.397) and between obesity and age (P = 0.531) in the overall analyses. CONCLUSION: Our findings should be explored in further research. PMID:23512944

Lee, Ji Young; Kwak, Sang Mi; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Jee, Sun Ha

2013-03-20

153

High Prevalence of Diabetes Among Indo-Guyanese Adults, Schenectady, New York  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Indo-Guyanese population is the largest immigrant minority population in Schenectady, New York. A clinic-based study in Schenectady and surveillance reports from Guyana found high diabetes prevalence and mortality among Guyanese of Indian descent. No community-based study has focused on diabetes among Indo-Guyanese immigrants in the United States. We sought information on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications in Indo-Guyanese adults in Schenectady and compared it with the prevalence among non-Hispanic white adults in Schenectady. Methods We administered a cross-sectional health survey at community venues in Schenectady in 2011. We identified diagnosed diabetes and its complications through self-reports by using a reliability-tested questionnaire. The final data set included 313 Indo-Guyanese and 327 non-Hispanic white adults aged 18 years or older. We compared the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and diabetes complications between Indo-Guyanese and non-Hispanic whites. Results Most Indo-Guyanese participants were born in Guyana, whereas most non-Hispanic whites were born in the United States. The crude prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among Indo-Guyanese participants and non-Hispanic whites was 30.3% and 16.1%, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence was 28.7% among Indo-Guyanese participants, significantly higher than that among non-Hispanic whites (14.5%, P < .001). Indo-Guyanese participants who had diabetes had a lower body mass index and were more likely to report poor or fair general health and eye or vision complications than non-Hispanic whites who had diabetes. Conclusion Our study confirms the higher prevalence of diabetes in Indo-Guyanese adults in Schenectady. The higher prevalence of complications suggests poor control of diabetes. Excess burden of diabetes in this population calls for further research and public health action.

Pratt, David S.; Sen, Kathryn A.; Buckenmeyer, Erin M.; Simao, Alexander; Back, Ephraim E.; Savadatti, Sanghamitra; Kahn, Jennifer L.; Hunt, Glynnis S.

2013-01-01

154

Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in an Adult Normal Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The vitamin D status of a general adult urban population was estimated between November and April in 1569 subjects selected\\u000a from 20 French cities grouped in nine geographical regions (between latitude 43° and 51° N). Major differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin\\u000a D (25(OH)D) concentration were found between regions, the lowest values being seen in the North and the greatest in the

M.-C. Chapuy; P. Preziosi; M. Maamer; S. Arnaud; P. Galan; S. Hercberg; P. J. Meunier

1997-01-01

155

Prevalence of anxiety disorders among adults seeking speech therapy for stuttering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the prevalence of anxiety disorders among adults seeking speech therapy for stuttering. Employing a matched case–control design, participants included 92 adults seeking treatment for stuttering, and 920 age- and gender-matched controls from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios for Diagnostic and Statistical

Lisa Iverach; Sue O’Brian; Mark Jones; Susan Block; Michelle Lincoln; Elisabeth Harrison; Sally Hewat; Ross G. Menzies; Ann Packman; Mark Onslow

2009-01-01

156

Racial\\/ethnic differences in prevalence and correlates of binge drinking among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study examines how the prevalence and correlates of binge drinking among older adults vary by race\\/ethnicity.Methods: Drawn from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, adults aged 60 and older (n?=?18,772) were selected. Binge drinking was measured dichotomously based on whether individuals reported consuming five or more drinks in a single day (four or more for females) in the

Ami N. Bryant; Giyeon Kim

2012-01-01

157

Prevalence, Predictors, and Prognostic Value of Renal Dysfunction in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Renal insufficiency in patients with ischemic heart disease and acquired heart failure is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. We studied the prevalence of renal dysfunction in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) and its relation to outcome. Methods and Results—A total of 1102 adult patients with congenital heart disease (age 36.014.2 years) attending our institution between 1999 and

Konstantinos Dimopoulos; Gerhard-Paul Diller; Evdokia Koltsida; Antonia Pijuan-Domenech; Sofia A. Papadopoulou; Sonya V. Babu-Narayan; Tushar V. Salukhe; Massimo F. Piepoli; Philip A. Poole-Wilson; Darrel P. Francis; Michael A. Gatzoulis

2010-01-01

158

Prevalence of celiac disease in argentina: screening of an adult population in the La Plata area  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Up to now, the epidemiological characteristic of celiac disease among adults in South America remains unknown. The present prospective screening was designed to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in adults from the general population in an urban area of Argentina.METHODS:Between January, 1998, and May, 2000, all couples attending a centralized laboratory for an obligatory prenuptial examination in the La

Juan C Gomez; Gisella S Selvaggio; Mart??n Viola; B Pizarro; G la Motta; S de Barrio; Roberto Castelletto; Raul Echeverr??a; Emilia Sugai; Horacio Vazquez; Eduardo Mauriño; Julio C Bai

2001-01-01

159

High prevalence of glucose intolerance even among young adults in south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is experiencing an epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2218 young adults (aged 26–32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in south India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969–1973 in Vellore and

Palany Raghupathy; Belavendra Antonisamy; Caroline H. D. Fall; Finney S. Geethanjali; Samantha D. Leary; Julia Saperia; G. Priya; Abel Rajaratnam; Joseph Richard

2007-01-01

160

Prevalence of Atopy and Pollinosis in the Adult Population of Switzerland (SAPALDIA Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swiss SAPALDIA study is a large multicenter cross-sectional study initiated in 1991 to evaluate the relationship between environment and respiratory symptoms and diseases in adults, and included subjects from eight areas in Switzerland with distinctive environmental characteristics. We present here prevalence data for atopy, pollinosis and atopic asthma obtained from a random sample of 8,357 adults (18–60 years) assessed

B. Wüthrich; C. Schindler; P. Leuenberger; U. Ackermann-Liebrich

1995-01-01

161

Characteristics and Prevalence of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA).  

PubMed

Diabetes, one of the most commonly seen metabolic disorders, is affecting a major area of population in many developing as well as most of the developed countries and is becoming an alarming concern for the rising cost of the healthcare system. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes which is less recognized and underdiagnosed type of diabetes which appears to have characteristics of both type 1 (autoimmune in nature) and type 2 diabetes (adult age at onset and initial response to oral hypoglycemic agents). An epidemiological study was carried out on 500 patients in the western region of India. Various parameters such as age at onset, duration of diabetes, gender, basal metabolic index (BMI), type of diabetes, family history, HbA1c levels, cholesterol levels, and current treatment regimen were evaluated and correlated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, diagnostic markers for LADA, namely, GAD autoantibodies and C-peptide levels, were determined for 80 patients selected from the epidemiological study. Some of the results obtained were found to be consistent with the literature whereas some results were found to be contradictory to the existing data. PMID:22577577

Brahmkshatriya, Priyanka P; Mehta, Anita A; Saboo, Banshi D; Goyal, Ramesh K

2012-04-08

162

Characteristics and Prevalence of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA)  

PubMed Central

Diabetes, one of the most commonly seen metabolic disorders, is affecting a major area of population in many developing as well as most of the developed countries and is becoming an alarming concern for the rising cost of the healthcare system. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes which is less recognized and underdiagnosed type of diabetes which appears to have characteristics of both type 1 (autoimmune in nature) and type 2 diabetes (adult age at onset and initial response to oral hypoglycemic agents). An epidemiological study was carried out on 500 patients in the western region of India. Various parameters such as age at onset, duration of diabetes, gender, basal metabolic index (BMI), type of diabetes, family history, HbA1c levels, cholesterol levels, and current treatment regimen were evaluated and correlated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, diagnostic markers for LADA, namely, GAD autoantibodies and C-peptide levels, were determined for 80 patients selected from the epidemiological study. Some of the results obtained were found to be consistent with the literature whereas some results were found to be contradictory to the existing data.

Brahmkshatriya, Priyanka P.; Mehta, Anita A.; Saboo, Banshi D.; Goyal, Ramesh K.

2012-01-01

163

Sociocultural Dynamics of ESL Learning (De)Motivation: An Activity Theory Analysis of Two Adult Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their…

Kim, Tae-Young

2011-01-01

164

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study.

Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

2012-01-01

165

Hand Eczema in Swedish Adults – Changes in Prevalence between 1983 and 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand eczema is the most frequent occupational skin disease. Our aim was to study changes in its prevalence in Swedish adults. Cross-sectional studies were performed in 1983 and 1996. Random samples from the population of Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 20–65 y, were drawn from the population register. Data were collected with a postal questionnaire, which was identical in the two studies.

Birgitta Meding; Bengt Järvholm

2002-01-01

166

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Dyslipidemia in the Adult Chinese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the prevalence, associated factors, awareness and control of dyslipidemia in Chinese living in Greater Beijing, we measured the serum cholesterol concentration in 3251 Chinese adults (age: 45 to 89 years) as participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2006. Additional information on treatment of dyslipidemia was obtained using a standard questionnaire. The mean concentrations of total, HDL cholesterol,

Shuang Wang; Liang Xu; Jost B. Jonas; Qi Sheng You; Ya Xing Wang; Hua Yang; Massimo Federici

2011-01-01

167

A prevalence study of suicide ideation among older adults in Hong Kong SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective The objective of this paper is to ascertain estimates of the prevalence, and associated risk factors for, suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method The study was conducted as part of the General Household Survey (GHS), using face to face interviews of ethnic Chinese people aged 60 or above living in the community. Elders living

Paul S. F. Yip; Iris Chi; Helen Chiu; Kwan Chi Wai; Yeates Conwell; Eric Caine

2003-01-01

168

The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

2005-01-01

169

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

Hove, Oddbjorn

2004-01-01

170

Adult Sexual Assault: Prevalence, Symptomatology, and Sex Differences in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse

Diana M. Elliott; Doris S. Mok; John Brierel

2004-01-01

171

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

Hove, Oddbjorn

2004-01-01

172

Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and…

Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

2003-01-01

173

Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: Implications for clinical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on the prevalence of the DSM-IV symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 720 adults applying for or renewing their driver's licenses in central Massachusetts (ages 17-84 years). Symptoms were assessed using two self- report rating scales: One for current symptoms and a second for retrospective recall of child hood symptoms (ages

K. Murphy; R. A. Barkley

1996-01-01

174

Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in a Rural Chinese Adult Population: The Handan Eye Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in a rural adult population in Northern China. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. A total of 5,105 subjects aged ?30 years were included in this analysis.

LiPing Jiang; YuanBo Liang; Bo Qiu; FengHua Wang; XinRong Duan; XiaoHui Yang; Wen Huang; NingLi Wang

2010-01-01

175

Hypertension prevalence and prescribing trends in older US adults: 1999-2004.  

PubMed

To describe hypertension trends in US adults aged 65 years and older using Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, a cross-sectional, nationally representative health examination survey from MCBS files between 1999 and 2004 was investigated. Overall, 62% of beneficiaries, or an estimated 20 million US adults aged 65 years and older, were hypertensive as extrapolated from MCBS data. From 1999 to 2004, the prevalence rate of hypertension increased from 59% to 65% (P<.001). Nonwhite persons and women had a higher prevalence of hypertension than whites and men. A history of diabetes mellitus, prior myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, or stroke was significantly associated with hypertension treatment. In addition, significant geographic variation in treatment was noted. There was a significant increase in hypertension prevalence in older Medicare beneficiaries from 1999 to 2004. Women, patients 85 years and older, and nonwhite patients were less likely to be treated with antihypertensive medications, and significant geographic variation existed in treatment. PMID:20167029

Aslam, Farhan; Haque, Attiya; Agostini, Joseph V; Wang, Yun; Foody, JoAnne M

2010-02-01

176

Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies.

2012-01-01

177

Prevalence and clinical features of Thought-Perception-Sensitivity Symptoms: results from a community survey of Korean high school students.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic research indicates that psychosis and depression most frequently develop during adolescence. Hence, an efficient strategy for improving youth mental health would be to focus on detection of early-stage psychosis and depression in adolescence. In this study, 1461 high school students were surveyed using self-report scales. Students who scored equal to or above the cut-off value on any of the scales and who agreed to a further examination proceeded to a second assessment, using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States along with self-reporting scales. The estimated prevalence of adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and of depression-spectrum disorders was 1.26 and 3.69% respectively. Compared with the normal group, experiences of bullying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were significantly higher in these two groups; the subjects at UHR for psychosis were found to have significantly lower academic performance and lower ratings on SCRS; and submissive behavior was more prevalent in the depression-spectrum group. Our results reveal several clinical features of adolescents at UHR for psychosis and with depression-spectrum disorder and underscore the importance of accurate assessment of and early appropriate care for these adolescents. PMID:22475525

Kang, Nam-In; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Oh, Keun-Young; Shim, Shi-Ha; Chung, Young-Chul

2012-04-03

178

Prevalence of falls and risk factors in adults with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (? 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past 12 months. The prevalence of falls increased with advancing age. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors for falls in the full sample and in subsamples. The risk factors for falls in adults with intellectual disability are being female, having arthritis, having a seizure disorder, taking more than 4 medications, using walking aids, and having difficulty lifting/carrying greater than 10 lb. PMID:23167484

Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2012-11-01

179

Association between executive function and physical performance in older Korean adults: Findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced executive function and physical performance are common age-related conditions. This study evaluated the associations between executive function and physical performance in a representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from a population-based sample of 629 men and women aged 65 or older and living in one typical city in Korea. Specific aspects of executive function were assessed

Yoonseok Huh; Eun Joo Yang; Seung Ah Lee; Jae-Young Lim; Ki Woong Kim; Nam-Jong Paik

2011-01-01

180

A Bi-National Comparative Study of Health Behaviors of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans in California.  

PubMed

Few studies have compared health behaviors of Koreans in their home country and Korean Americans. Using 2009 data from the Community Health Survey (South Korea) and the California Health Interview Survey (USA), we compared native Koreans and Korean Americans, grouped by level of acculturation, on prevalence of specific health behaviors and self-rated health, and conducted multiple logistic regression comparing the odds of these behaviors among the groups adjusted for demographic variables. While Korean Americans exhibit healthier behaviors than Koreans in some areas (e.g., reduced smoking and binge drinking in men, increased utilization of flu vaccinations), we also identified problem behaviors (e.g., increased body weight in Korean American men, uptake of alcohol drinking and smoking among Korean American women). Findings support the critical need for health promotion programs addressing these health behaviors to prevent future health problems among Korean Americans. PMID:22918692

Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

2012-08-24

181

Prevalence of Anemia among Adults with Newly Diagnosed HIV/AIDS in China  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of anemia among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients in China has not been well characterized. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of anemia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Methods One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in China were selected during 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected to measure hemoglobin levels. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. Factors associated with the presence of anemia were analysed by logistic regression. Results Among the 1948 patients, 75.8% were male. Median age was 40 years (range: 18–80 years). The overall prevalence of anemia among HIV-infected patients was 51.9% (51.5% among men, 53.2% among women). The prevalences of mild anemia, of moderate anemia, of severe anemia were 32.4%, 17.0%, and 2.5%, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was higher among ethnic minority patients than among the Han patients (70.9% versus 45.9%). The prevalence of anemia increased with increasing age (49.6%, 53.5% and 60.1% among patients who were 18–39, 40–59, and ?60 years of age respectively) and with decreasing CD4 count (14.0%, 22.4%, 50.7%, and 74.6% among patients with CD4 count of ?350, 200–349, 50–199, and <50 cells/mm3 respectively). The logistic regression analysis showed that older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. Conclusions Anemia is highly prevalent among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, but severe anemia is less prevalent in this population. Older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity are associated with an increased risk of anemia.

Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Zhenyan; Lu, Hongzhou; Wang, Jiangrong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Zheng, Yufang

2013-01-01

182

Prevalence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK based on diagnoses recorded in general practice records  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The prevalence of Huntington's disease (HD) in the UK is uncertain. Recently, it has been suggested that the prevalence may be substantially greater than previously reported. This study was undertaken to estimate the overall UK prevalence in adults diagnosed with HD, using data from primary care. Methods The electronic medical records of patients aged 21?years or more, with recorded diagnoses of HD, were retrieved from the UK's General Practice Research Database. Prevalence was estimated from the number of persons with recorded diagnoses of HD, on 1 July each year, between 1990 and 2010. This number was divided by the total number of persons registered with participating general practices on that same date. These data were also used to estimate both age specific prevalence and prevalence in various regions of the UK. Results A total of 1136 patients diagnosed with HD, aged 21?years or more, were identified from the database. The estimated prevalence (expressed per 100?000 population) rose from 5.4 (95% CI 3.8 to 7.5) in 1990 to 12.3 (95% CI 11.2 to 13.5) in 2010. Although an increased prevalence was observed within every age group, the most dramatic was in older patients. Age specific prevalence was highest in the 51–60?year age range (15.8 95% CI 9.0 to 22.3). The prevalence of adult HD was lowest in the London region (5.4 (95% CI 3.0 to 8.9)) and highest in the North East of England (18.3 (95% CI 8.6 to 34.6)) and Scotland (16.1 (95% CI 10.8 to 22.9)). Conclusions The prevalence of diagnosed HD is clearly substantially higher in the UK than suggested from previous studies. By extrapolation to the UK as a whole, it is estimated that there are more than 5700 people, aged 21?years or more, with HD. There has also been a surprising doubling of the HD population between 1990 and 2010. Many factors may have caused this increase, including more accurate diagnoses, better and more available therapies and an improved life expectancy, even with HD. There also appears to be a greater willingness to register a diagnosis of HD in patients’ electronic medical records. Such a high prevalence of HD requires more ingenuity and responsiveness in its care. How to appropriately care for, and respond to, so many individuals and families coping with the exigencies of HD demands our greatest resolve and imagination.

Evans, Stephen JW; Douglas, Ian; Rawlins, Michael D; Wexler, Nancy S; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Smeeth, Liam

2013-01-01

183

Adults with Down's syndrome: the prevalence of complications and health care in the community  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with Down's syndrome are predisposed to a variety of medical conditions which can impose an additional, but preventable, burden of secondary disability. Although there are guidelines for health checks and medical management of children with Down's syndrome, the needs of adults are relatively neglected. Aim To determine the prevalence of common medical problems in adults with Down's syndrome, and to assess current practice regarding medical surveillance of these patients. Design of study Detailed notes analysis. Setting Data were obtained from the primary care records of adults with Down's syndrome living in the Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead areas. Method Case notes were reviewed to obtain details regarding complications and to determine the frequency of medical surveillance of individuals with Down's syndrome. Results Complications such as hypothyroidism, coeliac disease, and obesity occur more frequently in adults with Down's syndrome than previous paediatric prevalence studies suggest. Surveillance of common complications that occur in individuals with Down's syndrome is infrequent. In this study, 48% of adults with Down's syndrome had not seen a doctor in the previous 12 months and 33% had not had a medical assessment in the previous 3 years. Conclusion Many individuals with Down's syndrome do not have access to regular healthcare checks, despite the high frequency of common medical complications in adult life. Debate regarding the practicality and relevance of introducing regular health checks is warranted.

Henderson, Alex; Lynch, Sally A; Wilkinson, Steve; Hunter, Morag

2007-01-01

184

The Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Our understanding of the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) in older adults with heart failure (HF) in a nationally-representative sample is limited. OBJECTIVES We used a national probability sample to determine the prevalence of CI in older adults with HF. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the 2004 wave of the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study linked to 2002–04 Medicare administrative claims SETTING United States, community-dwelling PARTICIPANTS 6,189 respondents ? 67 years old. MEASUREMENTS An algorithm was developed using a combination of self- and proxy-report of a heart problem and the presence of ? 1 Medicare claim in administrative files using standard HF diagnostic codes. On the basis of the algorithm, 3 categories were created to characterize the likelihood of a HF diagnosis: 1) High or Moderate Probability of HF; 2) Low Probability of HF; and 3) Not a HF case. Cognitive function was assessed using a screening measure of cognitive function or by proxy rating. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates of CI were calculated for the high-moderate probability HF group, the low probability HF group, and the non-HF cases. RESULTS The prevalence of CI consistent with dementia in older adults with HF was 15%; while the prevalence of mild CI was 24%. The odds of dementiain those with HF was significantly increased, even after adjustment for age, education level, net worth and prior stroke (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.14 – 2.02). CONCLUSION CI is common in older adults with HF and is independently associated with an increased risk for dementia. A cognitive assessment should be routinely incorporated into HF-focused models of care.

Gure, Tanya R.; Blaum, Caroline S.; Giordani, Bruno; Koelling, Todd M.; Galecki, Andrzej; Pressler, Susan J.; Hummel, Scott L.; Langa, Kenneth M.

2012-01-01

185

HIV infection in older adults in sub-Saharan Africa: extrapolating prevalence from existing data  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To quantify the number of cases and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among older adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We reviewed data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although in these surveys all female respondents are adults (i.e. people ??50 years of age) who were positive for HIV (HIV+), we extrapolated from data from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS on the estimated number of people living with HIV and on HIV infection prevalence among adults aged 15–49 years. Findings In 2007, approximately 3 million people aged ??50 years were living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of HIV infection in this group was 4.0%, compared with 5.0% among those aged 15–49 years. Of the approximately 21 million people in sub-Saharan Africa aged ??15 years that were HIV+, 14.3% were ??50 years old. Conclusion To better reflect the longer survival of people living with HIV and the ageing of the HIV+ population, indicators of the prevalence of HIV infection should be expanded to include people >?49 years of age. Little is known about comorbidity and sexual behaviour among HIV+ older adults or about the biological and cultural factors that increase the risk of transmission. HIV services need to be better targeted to respond to the growing needs of older adults living with HIV.

Cumming, Robert G

2010-01-01

186

Prevalence and Correlates of At-Risk Drinking Among Older Adults: The Project SHARE Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  At-risk drinking, excessive or potentially harmful alcohol use in combination with select comorbidities or medication use,\\u000a affects about 10% of elderly adults and is associated with higher mortality. Yet, our knowledge is incomplete regarding the\\u000a prevalence of different categories of at-risk drinking and their associations with patient demographics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  To examine the prevalence and correlates of different categories of at-risk drinking

Andrew J. Barnes; Alison A. Moore; Haiyong Xu; Alfonso Ang; Louise Tallen; Michelle Mirkin; Susan L. Ettner

2010-01-01

187

Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among adults in WHO South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is an understudied problem in South-East Asia. Information on SLT use among the adult population was collected from various available sources. SLT use prevalence varies among countries in the region. The prevalence of SLT use is known for all countries at national level in the region with the exception of Bhutan and DPR Korea. For Bhutan, data pertains to Thimphu only. There is no available data on SLT use for DPR Korea. Using all available data from Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, SLT use was found to be higher among males as compared to females; however, in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Thailand, SLT use was higher among females as compared to males. Among males, prevalence of SLT use varied from 51.4% in Myanmar to 1.1% in Thailand. Among females, the prevalence of SLT use varied from 27.9% in Bangladesh to 1.9% in Timor-Leste. The prevalence also varies in different parts of countries. For instance, the prevalence of current use of SLT in India ranges from 48.7% in Bihar to 4.5% in Himachal Pradesh. In Thailand, prevalence of current use of tobacco use varies from 0.8% in Bangkok to over 4% in the northern (4.1%) and northeastern (4.7%) region. Among all SLT products, betel quid was the most commonly used product in most countries including Bangladesh (24.3%) and Thailand (1.8%). However, Khaini (11.6%) chewing was practiced most commonly in India. Nearly 5% of the adult population used tobacco as dentifrice in Bangladesh and India. SLT is more commonly used in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. Questions from standard "Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS)" need to be integrated in routine health system surveys in respective countries to obtain standardized tobacco use data at regular intervals that will help in providing trends of SLT use in countries. PMID:23442396

Sinha, D N; Gupta, P C; Ray, Cecily; Singh, P K

188

APC-Modeling of Smoking Prevalence among US Adolescents and Yong Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association of age, period and cohort with the changing pattern of cigarette smoking among youth and young adults for better planning tobacco control in the United States. Methods Age-period-cohort analysis of the 1990-2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Results Rates of lifetime and 30-day smoking for adolescents fluctuated between 1990-96 before they declined; the same rates for young adults progressively increased until 2002 before declining. There were significant cohort effects on changes in the prevalence rates of cigarette smoking. Conclusions The cohort effects on smoking underscore the need for sustained tobacco control policies.

Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Feng; Stanton, Bonita; Zhan, Xun

2012-01-01

189

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms “prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria” or “overweight and obesity in Nigeria.” In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%–35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%–22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders.

Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

2013-01-01

190

Estimating Disability Prevalence Among Adults by Body Mass Index: 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities; however, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of disability among obese adults in the United States. Methods We analyzed pooled data from sample adult modules of the 2003–2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type, and obesity by using 30 questions that screened for activity limitations, vision and hearing impairment, and cognitive, movement, and emotional difficulties. We stratified disability prevalence by category of body mass index (BMI, measured as kg/m2): underweight, less than 18.5; normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9; overweight, 25.0 to 29.9; and obese, 30.0 or higher. Results Among the 25.3% of adult men and 24.6% of women in our pooled sample who were obese, 35.2% and 46.9%, respectively, reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of men and 26.8% women of normal weight reported a disability. Disability was much higher among obese women than among obese men (46.9% vs 35.2%, P < .001). Movement difficulties were the most common disabilities among obese men and women, affecting 25.3% of men and 37.9% of women. Conclusion This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in characterizing people by body mass index. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs.

Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Campbell, Vincent A.; Wethington, Holly R.

2012-01-01

191

Prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache among adults in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we investigated the prevalence of headache among adults in Jordan. The study was conducted from January 2007 to November\\u000a 2008. A sample of 4,836 participants were permitted to complete a self-conducted screening questionnaire. As much as 82.3%\\u000a of participants complained from headache at least once per year. 36.1% were tension-type headache and 59% of the participants\\u000a had other family

Karem H. Alzoubi; Nizar Mhaidat; Sayer Al azzam; Yousef Khader; Saad Salem; Hanin Issaifan; Rania Haddadin

2009-01-01

192

Sexual Media Use by Young Adults in Hong Kong: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of sexual media use, and factors associated with it, among Chinese young adults were studied in Hong Kong. Questions on use of sexual media were asked as part of a youth sexuality study conducted by the Family Planning Association in 1996. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 517 men and 447 women aged 18–27 years completed an anonymous structured

Mohsen Janghorbani; Tai Hing Lam

2003-01-01

193

High prevalence of incontinence among young adults with spina bifida: description, prediction and problem perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Cross-sectional study.Objectives:To study the prevalence of incontinence, problem perception and determinants of urinary and faecal incontinence in young adults with spina bifida.Setting:Nation-wide study in the Netherlands.Participants:A total of 179 of 350 invited patients participated, including 37 patients with spina bifida occulta and 142 with spina bifida aperta, of whom 119 had hydrocephalus; 41% were male and mean age was

M Verhoef; M Lurvink; H A Barf; M W M Post; F W A van Asbeck; R H J M Gooskens; A J H Prevo

2005-01-01

194

Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Distress Among Working Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of mental distress and its correlates among working Ethiopian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 2,180 individuals (1,316 men and 864 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of participants. Mental distress was assessed using the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ). Logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: The prevalence of mental distress in the study sample was 17.7% (25.9% in women and 12.4% in men). Younger participants (age ?24 years) had the highest prevalence of mental distress (35.5% in women and 16.7% in men). The odds of mental distress was 2.47-fold higher among women as compared with men (OR=2.47, 95% CI 1.97-3.09). Participants reporting excellent health status had a 50% reduced odds of mental distress (OR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.38-0.59); and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a slight increased odds of mental distress (OR=1.26; 95%CI: 1.00-1.67). Conclusion: A high prevalence of mental distress was observed among working adults in Ethiopia. Our findings suggest that the workforce institutions should provide targeted prevention and intervention programs to improve the mental health state of their employees. National mental health policy that clearly outlines and addresses mental distress among working adults is also warranted.

Gelaye, Bizu; Lemma, Seblewengel; Deyassa, Negussie; Bahretibeb, Yonas; Tesfaye, Markos; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

2012-01-01

195

Relationships between undernutrition prevalence among children and adult women at national and subnational level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The objective of this study is to analyze the relationships between undernutrition prevalence rates among children and adults, both at the level of countries and at the level of smaller geographical subunits within countries (districts, provinces). Results are considered of relevance for evaluation and proper usage of anthropometric information in poverty and food security assessment.Design:Anthropometric information on both children and

M Nubé

2005-01-01

196

First National Epidemiological Survey on the Prevalence of Obesity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greek Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To provide estimates of the prevalence of obesity, overweight and body fat distribution among the adult population of Greece. Design: Epidemiological, cross-sectional nationwide survey providing self-reported data. Subjects: A total of 17,341 men and women aged from 20 to 70 years and classified into five 10-year age groups participated. The selection was conducted by stratified sampling through household family

E. Kapantais; T. Tzotzas; I. Ioannidis; A. Mortoglou; S. Bakatselos; M. Kaklamanou; L. Lanaras; I. Kaklamanos

2006-01-01

197

Prevalence and Sociodemographic Variance of Type a Behavior in Finnish Preadolescents, Adolescents, and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and sociodemographic variance of Type A behavior was studied among 1,721 preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults in Finland. The AFMS questionnaire (Type A behavior questionnaire for the Finnish Multicenter Study), as self-rated and assessed by mothers, and the Hunter-Wolf A-B Rating Scale (HWolf) were used. There was considerable variation between measures: On the AFMS boys scored higher, whereas

Katri Räikkönen; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

1989-01-01

198

Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants.  

PubMed

To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report) in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%). For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices. PMID:22991115

González-López, José Rafael; Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de Los Ángeles; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

199

High prevalence of suspected HIV-associated dementia in adult Malawian HIV patients.  

PubMed

HIV-associated dementia (HAD) has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa, and there are no data available from Malawi. We used the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), a cross-cultural, simple and validated screening tool to study the prevalence of suspected HAD, defined as an IHDS score adult patients of a large urban antiretroviral (ART) clinic in Blantyre, Malawi. Use of the IHDS was feasible in our setting. The overall prevalence of suspected HAD was 14.0% (95% confidence interval 8.9-19.1%); there was no significant difference in prevalence between 134 patients on ART for at least six months and 45 patients not on ART (13.4% versus 15.6%; P = 0.722). Male gender and low education level were independent risk factors of suspected HAD. More knowledge of the value of the IHDS to predict ART outcomes is required. PMID:20498107

Patel, V N; Mungwira, R G; Tarumbiswa, T F; Heikinheimo, T; van Oosterhout, J J

2010-05-01

200

Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: Prevalence, sociodemographics and treatment patterns in the adult Israeli population  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and sociodemographics of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and to identify treatment patterns among GERD patients. METHODS: A telephone survey of a representative sample of the adult Israeli population was conducted. The questionnaire included detailed sociodemographics, history of GERD symptoms and the various treatments used. RESULTS: The survey included 2027 subjects. Twice weekly, once weekly and monthly GERD symptoms were reported by 8.4%, 12.5% and 21.5% of subjects, respectively. There was no difference in prevalence between men and woman; however, GERD symptoms were significantly more prevalent within the older age group and lower socioeconomic status. Among those reporting weekly symptoms, a quarter did not use any kind of therapy and another quarter used various traditional remedies (e.g. soda, milk, almonds, etc.). Antacids were used by 35.1%, H2 blockers by 13.2% and PPIs by 17.5%. CONCLUSION: We found that 12.5% of the adult Israeli population experience weekly GERD symptoms. GERD prevalence and sociodemographics are similar to those described in other Western countries, and treatment is still suboptimal.

Moshkowitz, Menachem; Horowitz, Noya; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin

2011-01-01

201

Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among adults in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine the up-to-date prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and their related influencing factors in adults in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008. A total of 5760 adults aged 18-79 years were selected from the general population. Data from a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, and blood sample were obtained. The prevalence of hypertension was 35.5% (41.8% in men, 30.9% in women) and increased with age in both sexes. The prevalence was similarly high in urban (35.6%) and in rural (34.9%) areas. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were independently associated with hypertension. Participants with diabetes and/or dyslipidemia had higher prevalence of hypertension than their counterparts. Among hypertensive patients, 42.5% were aware of the diagnosis, 35.9% received treatment, and 11.8% had hypertension control. Awareness and treatment of hypertension were low in men, young people, and rural residents. Control of hypertension was lower in older people and those with lower educational attainment. High waist circumference (central obesity) resulted in low control of hypertension (odds ratio = 0.45). Our findings underscore the urgent need to develop a comprehensive health strategy for the prevention, detection, and control of hypertension to avert the cardiovascular disease epidemic in Beijing. PMID:21967022

Cai, Li; Liu, Aiping; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shuping; Wang, Peiyu

2011-10-03

202

Prevalence of hyperglycemia among adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in China  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hyperglycemia among HIV-infected persons who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Methods Two thousand and six newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients from 10 provinces and municipalities in China were selected during 2009 to 2010. After an overnight fast, serum samples were collected to measure glucose concentrations. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. Factors associated with the presence of diabetes were analysed by logistic regression. Results Among the 2006 patients, 75.67% were male. Median age was 40 years (range: 18–86 years). 19.99% had hyperglycemia, 9.47% had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 10.52% had diabetes. The prevalences of hyperglycemia, of IFG and of diabetes were 21.54%, 10.28% and 11.27% among men and 15.16%, 6.97% and 8.20% among women, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes increased with increasing age (7.00%, 13.36% and 21.21% among patients who were 18–40, 40–60, and ?60 years of age respectively) and with decreasing CD4 count (6.74%, 8.45%, 9.69%, and 12.66% among patients with CD4 count of ?350, 200–350, 50–200, and?prevalence of diabetes was higher among ethnic minority patients than among the Han patients (14.37% versus 9.24%). The logistic analysis showed that older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is highly prevalent among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity are associated with increased risk of diabetes. All newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS individuals should be routinely evaluated for hyperglycemia.

2013-01-01

203

Prevalence of Multiple Chronic Conditions Among US Adults: Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, 2010  

PubMed Central

Preventing and ameliorating chronic conditions has long been a priority in the United States; however, the increasing recognition that people often have multiple chronic conditions (MCC) has added a layer of complexity with which to contend. The objective of this study was to present the prevalence of MCC and the most common MCC dyads/triads by selected demographic characteristics. We used respondent-reported data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to study the US adult civilian noninstitutionalized population aged 18 years or older (n = 27,157). We categorized adults as having 0 to 1, 2 to 3, or 4 or more of the following chronic conditions: hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, hepatitis, weak or failing kidneys, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or current asthma. We then generated descriptive estimates and tested for significant differences. Twenty-six percent of adults have MCC; the prevalence of MCC has increased from 21.8% in 2001 to 26.0% in 2010. The prevalence of MCC significantly increased with age, was significantly higher among women than men and among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults than Hispanic adults. The most common dyad identified was arthritis and hypertension, and the combination of arthritis, hypertension, and diabetes was the most common triad. The findings of this study contribute information to the field of MCC research. The NHIS can be used to identify population subgroups most likely to have MCC and potentially lead to clinical guidelines for people with more common MCC combinations.

Schiller, Jeannine S.

2013-01-01

204

High Prevalence of Microvascular Complications in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The implications of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients with type 1 diabetes are unknown, with respect to diabetes-related outcomes including glycemic control, lipids, microvascular complications, quality of life, and the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD). We identified CD in adults with type 1 diabetes and investigated the effect of a GFD on diabetes-related complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a case-control study conducted at a U.K. teaching hospital. Patients with type 1 diabetes aged >16 years (n = 1,000) were assessed for CD. HbA1c, lipid profile, quality of life, retinopathy stage, nephropathy stage, and degree of neuropathy before and after 1 year on a GFD were assessed. RESULTS The prevalence of CD was 33 per 1,000 subjects (3.3% [95% CI 2.3–4.6]). At diagnosis of CD, adult type 1 diabetic patients had worse glycemic control (8.2 vs. 7.5%, P = 0.05), lower total cholesterol (4.1 vs. 4.9, P = 0.014), lower HDL cholesterol (1.1 vs. 1.6, P = 0.017), and a higher prevalence of retinopathy (58.3 vs. 25%, P = 0.02), nephropathy (41.6 vs. 4.2%, P = 0.009), and peripheral neuropathy (41.6 vs. 16.6%, P = 0.11). There was no difference in quality of life (P > 0.1). After 1 year on a GFD, only the lipid profile improved overall, but in adherent individuals HbA1c and markers for nephropathy improved. CONCLUSIONS Adults with undetected CD and type 1 diabetes have worse glycemic control and a higher prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy. Treatment with a GFD for 1 year is safe in adults with type 1 diabetes and does not have a negative impact on the quality of life.

Leeds, John S.; Hopper, Andrew D.; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Tesfaye, Solomon; Sanders, David S.

2011-01-01

205

The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic  

PubMed Central

Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder). Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27), the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21), personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers); Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

2010-01-01

206

Association of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus in the South Korean general population according to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association of serum ferritin levels with metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population using data from the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 6311 adults older than 20 years who participated in the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination

Byung-Kook Lee; Yangho Kim; Young-Il Kim

2011-01-01

207

[Barotrauma in children and adults after flying. Prevalence and treatment with Otovent].  

PubMed

To prevent barotitis during descent in aviation, the ears have to be cleared several times by performing the Valsalva's manoeuvre. The manoeuvre is difficult for children to perform, and they are therefore at high risk of developing barotitis. The treatment of barotitis is either inflation by a Politzer balloon or myringotomy. An alternative treatment is autoinflation using the Otovent. This prophylaxis/treatment can be performed by the child with assistance from its parents as soon as or preferably before the descent has started. The prevalence of barotitis amongst 45 children and 49 adults in transit was found to be highest in children, 28%, compared with adults, 10%. Only 6% of the children with negative middle ear pressure after flight managed a successful Valsalva manoeuvre, whereas 33% could normalise the middle ear pressure by inflating the Otovent. In conclusion we recommend autoinflation using the Otovent set by children and adults who have problems clearing their ears during flight. PMID:9536635

Stangerup, S E; Tjernström, O; Harcourt, J; Klokker, M; Stokholm, J

1998-03-16

208

[Prevalence of overweight and associated factors in adults: a population survey in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 2007-2008].  

PubMed

Population studies in Brazil have shown an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult populations in all regions of the country. The objective was to estimate prevalence and identify risk factors associated with overweight among adults in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. The study included a cross-sectional population-based sample of 1,469 adults. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression, taking overweight (BMI > 25kg/m²) as the dependent variable. Prevalence of overweight was 46.9%, higher among women. Overweight tended to increase with age in both men and women. Overweight was associated with socioeconomic, demographic, and morbidity variables such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. The high prevalence of overweight in adults of both sexes suggests a public health problem. Control measures and prevention of health risks associated with excess weight are necessary. PMID:21603763

Lino, Marina Zago Ramos; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Siqueira, Kamile Santos

2011-04-01

209

National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2%) in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4%) in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9%) in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1%) in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6%) and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%). Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set targets for obesity prevalence as requested at the United Nations high-level meeting on Prevention and Control of NCDs.

2012-01-01

210

The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status), Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373). Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013), ethnicity (p = 0.001), religion (p = 0.002), schooling (p = 0.020), educational level (p = 0.016), marital status (p = 0.001) and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj

2009-01-01

211

Goodness-of-Fits of the Spirometric Reference Values for Koreans and USA Caucasians to Spirometry Data from Residents of a Region within Chungbuk Province  

PubMed Central

Background Korean regression models for spirometric reference values are different from those of Americans. Using spirometry results of Korean adults, goodness-of-fits of the Korean and the USA Caucasian regression models for forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were compared. Methods The number of study participants was 2,360 (1,124 males and 1,236 females). Spirometry was performed under the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. After excluding unsuitable participants, spirometric data for 729 individuals (105 males and 624 females) was included in the statistical analysis. The estimated FVC and FEV1 values were compared with those measured. Goodness-of-fits for Korean and USA Caucasian models were compared using an F-test. Results In males, the expected values of FVC and FEV1 using the Korean model were 12.5% and 5.7% greater than those measured, respectively. The corresponding values for the USA Caucasian model were 3.5% and 0.6%. In females, the difference in FVC and FEV1 were 13.5% and 7.7% for the Korean model, and 6.3% and 0.4% for the USA model, respectively. Goodness-of-fit for the Korean model regarding FVC was not good to the study population, but the Korean regression model for FEV1, and the USA Caucasian models for FVC and FEV1 showed good fits to the measured data. Conclusion These results suggest that the USA Caucasian model correlates better to the measured data than the Korean model. Using reference values derived from the Korean model can lead to an overestimation regarding the prevalence of abnormal lung function.

Eom, Sang Yong; Moon, Sun In; Yim, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Chul Ho; Kim, Guen Bae; Kim, Yong Dae; Kang, Jong Won; Choe, Kang Hyeon; Kim, Sung Jin; Choi, Byung Sun; Yu, Seung Do; Chang, Soung Hoon; Park, Jung Duck

2012-01-01

212

Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation.

Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.

2010-01-01

213

Prevalence and risk factors with overweight and obesity among Vietnamese adults: Caucasian and Asian cut-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with overweight\\/obesity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) using Caucasian and Asian cut-offs. Study design: A cross-sectional survey. Methods: In 2005, 1,971 adults aged 25-64 years in HCMC were randomly selected using a proportional to population size sampling method to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, measured by body

Nguyen D Nguyen; Philayrath Phongsavan; Michael J Dibley; Adrian E Bauman

2009-01-01

214

Prevalence of Behavior Disorder and Disturbance to Family and Staff in a Sample of Adult Day Health Care Clients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the prevalence of behavior disorders in a sample of residents (N=360) in adult day health care programs. Findings indicate relatively high rates of behavior disorders. Most prevalent were the affective disorders (seeking reassurance, depression, crying) and verbal-vocal agitation. Differences between formal and informal caregivers'…

Teresi, Jeanne A.; Holmes, Douglas; Dichter, Elizabeth; Koren, Mary Jane; Ramirez, Mildred; Fairchild, Susan

1997-01-01

215

Prevalence of hepatitis B infection in long-stay mentally handicapped adults.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in long-stay institutionalized mentally handicapped adults and to develop a vaccination programme for them. The study was carried out in 1994. The subjects were 171 mentally handicapped adults aged 37-76 (median age 56) with a median hospital stay of 30 years (range 6-47). Markers for infection were determined using ELISA. Seronegative patients were vaccinated using the standard schedule, and the titre of antiHBs reached was determined later. The prevalence of seropositive subjects was 81.3%. Seropositive subjects had a longer hospital stay (median stay of 32 years, range: 15-47) than seronegative ones (median stay of 15 years, range: 6-33). A total of 43.3% of the vaccinated subjects developed antiHBs antibodies (GMT: 135 IU/l). The high prevalence of HBV exposure is probably a legacy of a past era which is reflected in patients with prolonged institutionalisation in a closed regime. The need for immediate vaccination of mentally handicapped subjects is of the utmost importance, as it has been shown that the response to the vaccine worsens with age. PMID:11142500

Asensio, F; Bayas, J M; Bertran, M J; Asenjo, M A

2000-01-01

216

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety.

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

2012-01-01

217

A Population-Based Study on Bowel Habits in a Korean Community: Prevalence of Functional Constipation and Self-Reported Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of bowel habits have been conducted in Western countries. This study was conducted to estimate the epidemiology of constipation and the discrepancy between self-reported constipation and bowel habits in Koreans. Telephone interviews regarding bowel habits were conducted with a total of 1029 individuals in Korea, 15 years of age or older. Subjects were given a questionnaire which asked

Dae Won Jun; Ho Yong Park; Oh Young Lee; Hang Lak Lee; Byung Chul Yoon; Ho Soon Choi; Joon Soo Hahm; Min Ho Lee; Dong Hoo Lee; Choon Suhk Kee

2006-01-01

218

High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.  

PubMed Central

The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease.

McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

1998-01-01

219

Efficacy and tolerability of two formulations of ramipril in Korean adults with mild to moderate essential hypertension: An 8-week, multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group noninferiority trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of a new generic formulation of ramipril (test) and the branded formulation of ramipril (reference) to satisfy regulatory requirements for marketing of the generic product for use in Korean patients with mild to moderate hypertension.Methods: This was an 8-week, multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group non-inferiority trial in adult patients

Sang-Hyun Kim; Woo-Young Chung; Joo-Hee Zo; Myung-A Kim; Hyuk-Jae Chang; Young-Seok Cho; Tae-Jin Youn; In-Ho Chae; Dong-Joo Choi; Jae-Jin Gwak; Hae-Young Lee; Jin-Sik Park; Hyun-Jae Kang; Young-Jin Kim; Hyo-Soo Kim

2009-01-01

220

Prevalence and Impact of Substance Use among Emerging Adults with Serious Mental Health Conditions  

PubMed Central

Topic This critical review of the literature integrates findings across varied literatures and identifies areas for continued study on the prevalence, correlates, and impact of substance use (alcohol and illicit drugs) on social role functioning among emerging adults with serious mental health conditions. Purpose This population is of interest because of high comorbidity rates between substance use and serious mental health conditions and the added difficulties posed by their co-occurrence during the transition to adulthood. This critical review presents the epidemiology of substance use in emerging adults with serious mental health conditions compared to emerging adults without these conditions, as well as what is known about predictors and consequences of substance use in this population. Sources Used PsychINFO and PubMed along with relevant published literature. Results This review summarizes what is known about the impact of these co-occurring problems on the transition of emerging adults from school and training environments to adult work roles. Though this group presents with unique challenges, few programs have been developed to address their specific needs. This paper synthesizes what is known empirically about approaches with this population, discussing those that might be useful for emerging adults with comorbid serious mental health conditions and substance use problems, particularly in supporting their educational and vocational development. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Emerging adults with co-occurring serious mental health conditions and substance use problems are underserved by current mental health systems. Recommendations focus on how to promote mental health and social role functioning through comprehensive intervention programs that provide continuity of care through the transition to adulthood.

Davis, Maryann; Sheidow, Ashli; Zajac, Kristyn; McCart, Michael

2013-01-01

221

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

2008-01-01

222

The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

2013-01-01

223

Chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability: Prevalence, impact, and health service use based on caregiver report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined chronic pain in adults with an intellectual disability (ID), in terms of its prevalence, impact on physical and psychological functioning, and treatments used. Questionnaires were distributed to 2378 primary caregivers (caregivers) of community-dwelling adults with an ID. The questionnaires were used to gather data on demographics, general health, nature of pain, impact of pain, treatment, and health-related

Maria Walsh; Todd G. Morrison; Brian E. McGuire

2011-01-01

224

Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance among adults in Luzon, Philippines.  

PubMed

Recognizing the problem posed by diabetes mellitus, the National Diabetes Commission was created by Republic Act 8191 in 1996. The Commission identified the need for a Second National Diabetes Survey to have an updated estimate of the magnitude of the disease in the country and to have the needed information for developing a diabetes prevention and control program. This paper reports the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in adults and the factors associated with the prevalence of these conditions. A cross-sectional population-based study assessed the occurrence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance among a random sample of 7044 adults, aged 20-65 years who were residents of urban and rural areas in Luzon. Blood glucose level was measured by OGTT using the current WHO criteria. The crude diabetes prevalence of 5.1% represented a 54% increase over the figure (3.3%) for a similar population in Luzon in 1982. An increase was also noted in the magnitude of IGT which almost doubled from 4.1% in 1982 to 8.1% in the present survey. Only one in three diabetics reported that they had diabetes. The frequency of diabetes and IGT in urban and rural areas were about the same, although a substantial increase from the earlier survey was noted in rural areas. Women registered a higher prevalence for both conditions than men. Aside from age and gender, the other correlates of diabetes mellitus were hypertension, family history of diabetes, WHR, BMI, and physical inactivity. IGT had similar correlates as diabetes except physical inactivity. The present findings which are consistent with those of other studies underscore the role of lifestyle behaviors in diabetes and should be the target of intervention to prevent further increase in disease frequency. PMID:15063603

Baltazar, Jane C; Ancheta, Caridad A; Aban, Inmaculada B; Fernando, Ricardo E; Baquilod, Marina M

2004-05-01

225

The XmnI site 5' to the G gamma-globin gene polymorphism and its relationship to %Hb F and %G gamma in normal Japanese and Korean adults.  

PubMed

The ratio of fetal hemoglobin to total hemoglobin (%Hb F), the ratio of G gamma to total gamma globin (%G gamma), and the polymorphism of the XmnI site at -158 base pairs from the cap site of the G gamma-globin gene were examined in normal unrelated Japanese (n = 113) and Korean (n = 44) adults. The frequency of the presence of the XmnI site was 0.15 in the Japanese and 0.16 in the Korean population. There were statistically significant differences in the %G gamma values of the Japanese between those +/+ and those +/- or -/- at the XmnI site (p less than 0.01). The Korean %G gamma values showed a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.01) between those +/- and those -/-. The presence of the XmnI site was significantly associated with the elevation of G gamma-globin chain synthesis, but this relationship was not necessarily absolute. The absence of the XmnI site in an adult with a gamma-globin gene triplication (G gamma AG gamma A gamma/G gamma A gamma) more or less reduced the level of G gamma-globin chain synthesis, but the presence of the XmnI site in an adult with a gamma-globin gene deletion (GA gamma/G gamma A gamma) had no effects on the proportion of the two gamma-globin chains. PMID:1380946

Shimizu, K; Park, K S; Enoki, Y

1992-01-01

226

Prevalence of adult domestic violence among women seeking routine care in a Native American health care facility.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with, adult domestic violence within a Native American community. METHODS: Adult women in the community were surveyed. RESULTS: Of 371 eligible women, 341 (92%) were surveyed. Among respondents, 179 reported a history of at least 1 episode of domestic violence. Fifty-six (16.4%) reported violence within the previous 12 months. Age under 40 years and living in a household receiving governmental financial assistance were independently associated with 1-year prevalence of adult domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adult domestic violence is prevalent within this Native American community. Additional research is required to characterize further the relationship between domestic violence and socioeconomic status.

Fairchild, D G; Fairchild, M W; Stoner, S

1998-01-01

227

The prevalence of loneliness among adults: a case study of the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Within contemporary Western (post) modern societies, loneliness is seen as a problem that is particularly associated with old age. Much less attention has been given to examining variations in loneliness across age groups. We examine patterns of loneliness across adults aged 15 years and older in the United Kingdom using data from the European Social Survey. We first consider the prevalence of loneliness among the adult population; then the relationship between loneliness and a range of key risk factors, and finally the relationship with age for each of our risk factors. Loneliness demonstrates a nonlinear U-shaped distribution, with those aged under 25 years and those aged over 65 years demonstrating the highest levels of loneliness. Depression is associated with loneliness for all age groups. Poor physical health is associated with loneliness in young adult and midlife but not later life. For those in mid and later life, the quality of social engagement is protective against loneliness, while for young adults it is the quantity of social engagement. This indicates that different factors may endow vulnerability (or protect) against loneliness at different stages of life and suggests that preventative strategies or interventions that reflect these variations need to be developed. PMID:22303614

Victor, Christina R; Yang, Keming

228

Generational Differences in the Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

There were significant changes in health and lifestyle throughout the 20th century which may have changed temporal patterns of hearing impairment in adults. In this study, the authors aimed to assess the effect of birth cohort on the prevalence of hearing impairment in an adult population aged 45–94 years, using data collected between 1993 and 2008 from 3 cycles of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (n?=?3,753; ages 48–92 years at baseline) and a sample of participants from the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (n?=?2,173; ages ?45 years). Hearing impairment was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz greater than 25-dB HL [hearing level]. Descriptive analysis, generalized additive models, and alternating logistic regression models were used to examine the birth cohort effect. Controlling for age, with every 5-year increase in birth year, the odds of having hearing impairment were 13% lower in men (odds ratio?=?0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.92) and 6% lower in women (odds ratio?=?0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.98). These results suggest that 1) older adults may be retaining good hearing longer than previous generations and 2) modifiable factors contribute to hearing impairment in adults.

Zhan, Weihai; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Huang, Guan-Hua; Pankow, James S.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Tweed, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

229

Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits?  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among young adults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in a large sample of young adult military recruits (N=31107). Overall, 18.5% of participants were using some form of alternative tobacco product prior to entry into Basic Military Training. Results revealed a relatively high prevalence of cigar (12.3%) and smokeless tobacco use (6.7%). Use of other products was less common, including 1.1% for pipes, 2.0% for bidis, and 3.0% for kreteks. With the exception of kreteks, which did not differ by gender, the prevalence of use of alternative tobacco products was greater for males than for females ( p<.001). Patterns of use also differed according to other demographic characteristics including race, ethnicity, age, and income. Implications for surveillance and tobacco control efforts are discussed.

Vander Weg, Mark W.; Peterson, Alan L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; DeBon, Margaret; Klesges, Robert C.; Haddock, C. Keith

2007-01-01

230

Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD.

Giangreco, Emiliano; D'agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

2008-01-01

231

Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

Work, T. M.; Smith, M. R.

1996-01-01

232

Bone Mineral Density and Food-frequency in Korean Adults: The 2008 and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diet and Nutrition are important modulators of bone health in men and women. We investigated the associations between frequency of food intake among certain food groups and bone mineral density (BMD) in a large population of Korean adults. Methods We used the data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008 to 2009. Participants were aged 20 years and over. BMDs were measured at lumbar spine and femoral neck with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. We used multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the relationships between annual food-frequency of each food group and BMD. Results After adjustment of multiple covariates, femoral neck and lumbar BMD significantly increased as the frequency of fruit consumption increased in both men and women. Frequency of other carbohydrates consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck and lumbar BMD for women. Frequency of milk and dairy product consumption was significantly associated with greater femoral neck BMD in men. Other food groups, however, had no significant associations with BMDs. Conclusion Frequent consumption of fruit has a positive association with BMDs in men and women. Milk and dairy products and other carbohydrates also had positive effects on BMD for men and women, respectively.

Yoon, Eui-Hyun; Noh, Hyoung; Lee, Hyang-Mee; Park, Hoon-Ki; Park, Yong-Soon

2012-01-01

233

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with leisure time physical activity among Peruvian adults  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between physical activity and MetS. However, these findings were inconsistent; and few investigators have examined these associations among South Americans. We estimated the prevalence of MetS and its association with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among Peruvian adults. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study of 1,675 individuals (619 men and 1056 women) was conducted among residents in Lima and Callao, Peru. Information about LTPA, socio-demographic, and other lifestyle characteristics were collected by interview. The presence of MetS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 26.9% and was more common among women (29.9%) than men (21.6%). Habitual participation in LTPA was associated with a 23% reduced risk of MetS (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.60–1.03). There was an inverse trend of MetS risk with amount of LTPA (p=0.016). Compared with non-exercisers, those who exercised < 150 minutes/week had a 21% reduced risk of MetS (AOR= 0.79; 95% CI 0.60–1.04). Individuals who exercised ? 150 minutes/week, compared with non-exercisers, had a 42% reduced risk of MetS (AOR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.36–0.93). Associations of similar magnitudes were observed when men and women were studied separately. Conclusion These data document a high prevalence of MetS and suggest an association with LTPA among urban dwelling Peruvians. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observations and to examine interventions that may promote increased physical activity in this population.

Gelaye, Bizu; Tafur, Luis Revilla; Lopez, Tania; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.

2009-01-01

234

Prevalence of cough among adults in an urban community in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Background: Cough is the commonest symptom for which patients seek medical attention and may be a warning sign of an impending disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cough among adults in an urban community in Nigeria. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study among subjects aged >18 years from May 2009 to October 2009 in Ilorin, Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) cough guidelines were used to define acute, sub acute and chronic cough. Results: A total of 472 subjects participated in this study, 238(50.4%) were men and 234(49.6%) were women. Ninety-seven (20.6%) had cough in the preceeding 12 months. Thirty-one (6.6%) had cough at the time of interview, of which 17(3.6%) were productive. The prevalence of acute cough was 3.8%, sub acute 1.7% and chronic cough was 1.1%. All types of cough were common in those aged <45 years, unskilled workers, low educational attainment, while chronic cough was common in the women. The risk of coughing increased with tobacco smoking and the number of sticks smoked per day. Majority of subjects with acute cough [16(88.9%)], sub acute cough [8(100%)] and chronic cough [3(60 %)], were yet to consult a doctor. Conclusion: Our study revealed a low prevalence of cough among adults in this urban community in Nigeria. It is imperative to enlighten the community on the importance of seeking early treatment for cough, which may be a warning sign of life threatening lung disease. PMID:22752821

Desalu, O O; Salami, A K; Fawibe, A E

235

The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Despite growing interest in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about prevalence or correlates. METHODS A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability sub-sample (n = 3199) of 18–44 year old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 NCS-R respondents, over-sampling those with a positive screen. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD. RESULTS Estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD is 4.4%. Significant correlates include being male, previously married, unemployed, and Non-Hispanic White. Adult ADHD is highly comorbid with many other NCS-R/DSM-IV disorders and is associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases are untreated, although many obtain treatment for other comorbid mental and substance disorders. CONCLUSIONS Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD. Research is needed to determine whether effective treatment would reduce the onset, persistence, and severity of disorders that co-occur with adult ADHD.

Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard; Barkley, Russell; Biederman, Joseph; Conners, C. Keith; Demler, Olga; Faraone, Stephen V.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Howes, Mary J.; Secnik, Kristina; Spencer, Thomas; Ustun, T. Bedirhan; Walters, Ellen E.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

2010-01-01

236

Prevalence rates for scoliosis in US adults: results from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

National prevalence estimates of scoliosis in adults, based on the reading of 6594 chest X-rays from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, are presented by age, sex and race. Among US adults aged 25-74 years in 1971-75, the prevalence rate of scoliosis was 8.3%. The prevalence of scoliosis increased across age groups among women (p less than 0.001), but not among men. Women had about twice the prevalence of scoliosis as men; 10.7% versus 5.6% (p less than 0.001). Because scoliosis prevalence rates differed by age and sex, prevalence rates and means for scoliosis status subgroups were adjusted for age and sex. Blacks had a higher rate, although not statistically significant (using alpha = 0.10), of scoliosis than whites: 9.7% versus 8.1%. Bone density of the radius was lower for scoliotics than for non-scoliotics: (287.0 versus 294.0 aluminum equivalency units, p less than 0.001), suggesting a possible association between scoliosis and osteoporosis. The percentage with delayed menarche was higher for scoliotics than non-scoliotics: 37.8 versus 30.8% (p = 0.01). Scoliotic women also had a lower mean age of menstruation termination than non-scoliotic women: 43.4 years versus 44.8 years (p = 0.07). This is the first study to present national prevalence estimates for scoliosis among adults in the US. PMID:3501989

Carter, O D; Haynes, S G

1987-12-01

237

The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient' levels of physical activity for health in adults in HCMC. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 among 1906 adults aged 25–64 years using a probability proportional to size cluster sampling method to estimate the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors including physical inactivity. Data on socioeconomic status, health behaviours, and time spent in physical activity during work, commuting and leisure time were collected. Physical activity was measured using the validated Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Responders were classified as 'sufficiently active' or 'insufficiently active' using the GPAQ protocol. Correlates of insufficient physical activity were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results A high proportion of adults were physically inactive, with only 56.2% (95% CI = 52.1–60.4) aged 25–64 years in HCMC achieving the minimum recommendation of 'doing 30 minutes moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 5 days per week'. The main contributors to total physical activity among adults were from working and active commuting. Leisure-time physical activity represented a very small proportion (9.4%) of individuals' total activity level. Some differences in the pattern of physical activity between men and women were noted, with insufficient activity levels decreasing with age among women, but not among men. Physical inactivity was positively associated with high income (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05–2.97) and high household wealth index (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.29–2.66) amongst men. Conclusion Public health policies and programs to preserve active commuting in HCMC and to promote time spent in recreational physical activity in both genders and across all age groups, but especially among young adults, will be critical in any comprehensive national plan to tackle inactivity. Clear and consistent national recommendations about how much physical activity Vietnamese people need for preventing and managing non-communicable diseases should also be part of this population-wide promotional effort.

Trinh, Oanh TH; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Dibley, Michael J; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian E

2008-01-01

238

Dental Caries Prevalence and Tooth Loss in Chilean Adult Population: First National Dental Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries, tooth loss, and risk factors among adult population of Chile. Furthermore, age, gender, and behavioural specific differences in caries prevalence and tooth loss were examined. A national stratified multistage probabilistic sample design in two-age cohorts was applied to the Chilean population. A sample of 1553 adults, comprising 1088 individuals aged 35–44 and 465 senior individuals aged 65–74, were examined. The DMFT was evaluated following WHO recommendations using diagnostic criteria of caries lesions into dentin. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate models using logistic regression analyses. Results showed a mean DMFT of 15.06 in the 35–44-year-old group and of 21.57 in the 65–74 group. Factors related to tooth loss in the 35–44 group through univariate logistic regression were depression (OR 1.9 CI 95% 1.26–2.85), education level <12 years (OR 2.24 CI 95% 1.31–3.73), personal income (OR 1.51 CI 95% 1.04–2.19), and familiar income (OR 2.05 CI 95% 1.34–3.13), and through multivariate logistic regression in the same age group were depression (OR 1.93 CI 95% 1.24–3.0), education level <12 years (OR 1.94 CI 95% 1.2–3.14), and familiar income (OR 1.71 CI 95% 1.09–2.68). Factors related to tooth loss in the 65–74-year-old group through univariate logistic regression were education level <12 years (OR 2.54 CI 95% 1.3–4.96) and personal income (OR 1.66 CI 95% 1.05–2.63), and for multivariate logistic regression in the same age group, it was education level <12 years (OR 2.51 CI 95% 1.21–5.18). In conclusion, adult population in Chile showed a high prevalence of dental caries and tooth loss, as age, education level, personal and familiar incomes, and depression are being the main risk factors.

Urzua, I.; Mendoza, C.; Arteaga, O.; Rodriguez, G.; Cabello, R.; Faleiros, S.; Carvajal, P.; Munoz, A.; Espinoza, I.; Aranda, W.; Gamonal, J.

2012-01-01

239

Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults From Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings From NHANES (2005-2008)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and physical activity correlates of obesity across rural and urban residence are examined. Methods Analysis of body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity from 7,325 urban and 1,490 rural adults in the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Findings The obesity prevalence was 39.6% (SE = 1.5) among rural adults compared to 33.4% (SE = 1.1) among urban adults (P = .006). Prevalence of obesity remained significantly higher among rural compared to urban adults controlling for demographic, diet, and physical activity variables (odds ratio = 1.18, P = .03). Race/ethnicity and percent kcal from fat were significant correlates of obesity among both rural and urban adults. Being married was associated with obesity only among rural residents, whereas older age, less education, and being inactive was associated with obesity only among urban residents. Conclusions Obesity is markedly higher among adults from rural versus urban areas of the United States, with estimates that are much higher than the rates suggested by studies with self-reported data. Obesity deserves greater attention in rural America.

Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

240

Changes in racial\\/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes by obesity level among US adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Ethnic minority status and obesity are two independent risk factors for Type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is no clear understanding of how they may have interacted and influenced disparities in T2D prevalence over time. This study examined the trends in racial\\/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of T2D by weight status among US adults.Methods. We used nationally representative data from

Qi Zhang; Youfa Wang; Elbert S. Huang

2009-01-01

241

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data. A.A. Arif, G.L. Delclos, E.S. Lee, S.R. Tortolero, L.W. Whitehead. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma has been on the increase in the USA and worldwide. To understand the worsening epidemiological trends of asthma, this study analysed the data

A. A. Arif; G. L. Delclos; E. S. Lee; S. R. Tortolero; L. W. Whitehead

2003-01-01

242

Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Malaysia. Continuous and more comprehensive anti-smoking policy measures are needed in order to further prevent the increasing prevalence of smoking among Malaysian men, particularly those who are younger, of Malay ethnicity, less educated, reside in rural residential area and with lower socio-economic status.

2013-01-01

243

Delirium in an adult acute hospital population: predictors, prevalence and detection  

PubMed Central

Background To date, delirium prevalence and incidence in acute hospitals has been estimated from pooled findings of studies performed in distinct patient populations. Objective To determine delirium prevalence across an acute care facility. Design A point prevalence study. Setting A large tertiary care, teaching hospital. Patients 311 general hospital adult inpatients were assessed over a single day. Of those, 280 had full data collected within the study's time frame (90%). Measurements Initial screening for inattention was performed using the spatial span forwards and months backwards tests by junior medical staff, followed by two independent formal delirium assessments: first the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) by trained geriatric medicine consultants and registrars, and, subsequently, the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98) by experienced psychiatrists. The diagnosis of delirium was ultimately made using DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria. Results Using DSM-IV criteria, 55 of 280 patients (19.6%) had delirium versus 17.6% using the CAM. Using the DRS-R98 total score for independent diagnosis, 20.7% had full delirium, and 8.6% had subsyndromal delirium. Prevalence was higher in older patients (4.7% if <50 years and 34.8% if >80 years) and particularly in those with prior dementia (OR=15.33, p<0.001), even when adjusted for potential confounders. Although 50.9% of delirious patients had pre-existing dementia, it was poorly documented in the medical notes. Delirium symptoms detected by medical notes, nurse interview and patient reports did not overlap much, with inattention noted by professional staff, and acute change and sleep-wake disturbance noted by patients. Conclusions Our point prevalence study confirms that delirium occurs in about 1/5 of general hospital inpatients and particularly in those with prior cognitive impairment. Recognition strategies may need to be tailored to the symptoms most noticed by the detector (patient, nurse or primary physician) if formal assessments are not available.

Ryan, Daniel James; O'Regan, Niamh Annmarie; Caoimh, Ronan O; Clare, Josie; O'Connor, Marie; Leonard, Maeve; McFarland, John; Tighe, Sheila; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Trzepacz, Paula T; Meagher, David; Timmons, Suzanne

2013-01-01

244

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed.

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

245

Community-based colorectal cancer intervention in underserved Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information

Grace X. Ma; Steve Shive; Yin Tan; Wanzhen Gao; Joanne Rhee; Micah Park; Jaesool Kim; Jamil I. Toubbeh

2009-01-01

246

Acute HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in Ugandan adults with suspected malaria  

PubMed Central

Objectives Acute febrile illnesses consistent with malaria are the most common presentation at health clinics in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 30–50% of outpatient visits. The symptoms of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can mimic acute malaria. We investigated whether acute HIV infections could be identified among adults with suspected malaria at rural health centers in Uganda. Design Cross-sectional study of 1,000 consecutive patients referred for malaria blood smears at each of 7 government health centers, of which 2893 (41%) were age 13 years or older and tested for HIV. Methods HIV EIA antibody testing was performed on dried blood spots and confirmed by Western blot (WB). EIA non-reactive and EIA reactive, WB-unconfirmed samples were pooled (10/pool) and tested for HIV RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. We defined acute HIV infection as HIV-1 RNA positive with a negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot pattern and early HIV infection as HIV-1 RNA positive with a positive Western blot pattern, but with a BED corrected optical density (ODn) of <0.8. Results Of 2893 patients evaluated, 324 (11%) had test results indicating HIV infection. Overall, 30 patients (1.0%) had acute HIV infection, 56 (1.8%) had early HIV infection, and 238 (8%) had established HIV infection. Acute HIV infections were more prevalent at sites with higher HIV prevalence and lower malaria endemicity. Conclusions At multiple sites in Uganda, 1–3% of adults with suspected malaria had acute or early HIV infection. These findings highlight a major opportunity for expanding recognition of acute and early HIV infection in Africa.

BEBELL, Lisa M.; PILCHER, Christopher D.; DORSEY, Grant; HAVLIR, Diane; KAMYA, Moses R.; BUSCH, Michael P.; WILLIAMS, Joan DUNN; NUGENT, Charles T.; BENTSEN, Christopher; ROSENTHAL, Philip J.; CHARLEBOIS, Edwin D.

2010-01-01

247

Influence of education in the prevalence of obesity in Iranian northern adults  

PubMed Central

Background The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether prevalence of obesity in educational levels is different and some related factors in Iranian northern adults. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on population and 2452 cases (1224 men and 1228 women) aged 15–65 years were chosen by cluster and stratify sampling. Subjects were randomly chosen from 125 clusters and each cluster included 20 cases. Interviewers recorded the data using a multidimensional questionnaire including socio-demographic indexes. Results As a whole, the prevalence of obesity was seen in 24% of subjects (15.5% in male and 32.5% in female) and significantly was seen in 3.1% and 14.1% of uneducated people more than in 1–9 year schooling and in high school or college-educated people, respectively (P = 0.001). The risk of obesity was 2.294 (P = 0.001) in uneducated compared to high school or college-educated people, 1.668 (P = 0.001) in urban area compared to rural area, 2.619 (P = 0.001) in 40–65 year people compared to 15–40 year people, and 1.534 (P = 0.003) in good economic compared to poor economic groups. After adjusted for location area, gender, age, and economic stats, the risk of obesity was 2.044 (P = 0.001) in uneducated people compared to high school or college-educated subjects. Conclusion The obesity as a health problem in Iranian northern adults supported in this study and it was negatively associated with educational levels. Public health programs that aim to reduce obesity should primarily focus on the illiterate and low-educated people.

Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Maghsodlo, Siavash; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas

2013-01-01

248

Family history of type 2 diabetes and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians  

PubMed Central

Background: Our objective was to test the association between familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult Asian Indians. Materials and Methods: A total of 448 adult (>30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Familial risk of T2DM was classified into three groups viz., 1=both parents affected; 2=parent and/or siblings affected and 3=none or no family history for T2DM. Anthropometric measures, blood pressures, fasting blood glucose and metabolic profiles were studied using standard techniques. MS was defined accordingly. The prevalence of MS phenotypes was estimated and compared among the three familial risk strata. Results: Individuals with a history of both parents affected from diabetes had significantly higher (P<0.001) body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting blood glucose (FBG; P=0.035) than individuals having no family history of T2DM. Significant difference was also noticed between individuals with and without MS according to the family history of diabetes (P<0.001). Differences were evident between individuals who fulfilled all the MS criteria (P=0.001) and individuals with only one or two criteria (phenotypes) according to family history of T2DM. Conclusion: Family history of T2DM had significant effect on individuals with MS as compared to their counterparts (individuals having no family history of T2DM). It therefore seems reasonable to argue that family history of T2DM could be useful as a predictive tool for early diagnosis and prevention of MS in Asian Indian population.

Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab

2012-01-01

249

Sexual media use by young adults in Hong Kong: prevalence and associated factors.  

PubMed

The prevalence of sexual media use, and factors associated with it, among Chinese young adults were studied in Hong Kong. Questions on use of sexual media were asked as part of a youth sexuality study conducted by the Family Planning Association in 1996. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 517 men and 447 women aged 18-27 years completed an anonymous structured self-administered questionnaire. The overall prevalence [95% confidence interval (CI)] of ever purchased or rented any type of sexual media was 57.8% (54.7-60.9). More men (70.2%; 95% CI: 66.3-74.2) than women (43.4%; 95% CI: 38.8-48.0) used sexual media. Of 31 independent variables tested by stepwise logistic regression, seven variables significantly predicted sexual media use: age (adjusted odds ratio OR = 1.5 for 21-24 and 1.8 for 25-28, versus 20 or below), male gender (OR = 3.0), number of sexual partner (OR = 2.2 for one and 2.8 for two or more partners), masturbation in the past week (OR = 3.2), being out of school (OR = 1.5), quarrel with family member in past 6 months (OR = 1.8), and religion (OR = 1.6 for no religion and 3.4 for traditional Chinese religion, versus Christians) (all adjusted OR:p < 0.05). PMID:14574098

Janghorbani, Mohsen; Lam, Tai Hing

2003-12-01

250

Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of endodontic treatment in an Italian adult population  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of AP in relation to the quality of endodontic treatment in an Italian adult population. Methods We examined panoramic radiographs (OPG) of 384 patients aged between 18 and 60 years who came under observation for a first dental examination. Two experienced examiners assessed the radiographs according to standardized criteria by examining the following parameters: periapical status, quality of endodontic treatment, quality of root canal filling and quality of coronal restoration. Results 9423 teeth were analyzed. By examining the radiographs 1076 teeth had undergone previous endodontic treatment, of these 448 (41.6%) had AP. Statistical analysis shows a significant association between periapical status and quality of endodontic treatment (p <0.001), between periapical status and quality of root canal filling (p <0.001) and between periapical status and quality of coronal restoration (p <0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of AP was found to be closely related to the quality of endodontic treatment, quality of root canal filling and coronal restoration.

COVELLO, F.; FRANCO, V.; SCHIAVETTI, R.; CLEMENTINI, M.; MANNOCCI, A.; OTTRIA, L.; COSTACURTA, M.

2011-01-01

251

Adult malnutrition screening, prevalence and management in a United Kingdom hospital: cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were to assess the screening, prevalence and management of malnutrition and identify any co-existence with obesity in adult hospital in-patients. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) was applied to all medical, surgical, orthopaedic and critical care in-patients in an acute hospital in North-East England on a single day in 2007. An audit was also performed of malnutrition screening using a locally developed tool. Patients were excluded from study if they had been an in-patient less than 24 h or if discharged on the day of study. Of 328 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 100% had full data collection (143 males, 185 females, median length of stay 8 d (range 1-90 d), median age 76 years (range 17-101 years)). Only 226 patients (68.9%) had been screened for malnutrition and thirty-one (13.7%) were at highest malnutrition risk, of which only 45.2% were appropriately referred to nutrition and dietetic services. The prevalence of malnutrition (MUST > or = 1) was 44%. The prevalence of highest risk (MUST > or = 2) increased with age (20.6% < 60 years, 29.7% 60-79 years and 39.4% > or = 80 years). In total 37.8% (n 70) of female patients had a MUST score of > or = 2 compared with 24.5% (n 35) of males. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) was identified in 9.5% of those with a MUST score > or = 2. We have shown that malnutrition is a common problem affecting over 40% of patients in this hospital-wide study. Currently malnutrition is often unrecognised and undertreated in clinical practice. Hospitals must develop comprehensive strategies to both identify and treat in-patients with this common condition. PMID:19203424

Lamb, Christopher A; Parr, John; Lamb, Elizabeth I M; Warren, Matthew D

2009-02-10

252

Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole therapy. Results Of 1,541 HIV-1 seropositive individuals screened, 298 (19.3%) had detectable helminth infections. Among individuals with helminth infection, hookworm species were the most prevalent (56.3%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.1%), Trichuris trichiura (8.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (7.1%), and Stongyloides stercoralis (1.3%). Infection with multiple species occurred in 9.4% of infections. After CD4 count was controlled for, rural residence (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81), having no education (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.30), and higher CD4 count (RR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73) remained independently associated with risk of helminth infection. Twelve weeks following treatment with albendazole, 32% of helminth-infected individuals had detectable helminths on examination. Residence, education, and CD4 count were not associated with persistent helminth infection. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive adults with CD4 counts above 250 cells/mm3 in Kenya, traditional risk factors for helminth infection, including rural residence and lack of education, were associated with co-infection, while lower CD4 counts were not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00130910

Walson, Judd L.; Stewart, Barclay T.; Sangare, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

2010-01-01

253

Prevalence of norovirus infection in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis, Tehran, Iran, 2008-2009.  

PubMed

Noroviruses are one of important agents that cause acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. These viruses are belonging to Caliciviridae family and are genetically diverse. To date, there is no valuable data about prevalence of norovirus infection and the dominant genogroup/genotype among Iranian population. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of norovirus infection in Iranian patients with gastroenteritis referred to three hospitals of Tehran and to specify the dominant genogroup/genotype of this virus among our study population. A total of 293 patients with acute gastroenteritis were included in the study. Detection of norovirus was performed using RT-PCR method and confirmed by direct sequencing with specific designed primers for capsid region of norovirus genome. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method. Norovirus strains identified in our study were subsequently categorized according to previously defined genogroup/genotypes. Of these, norovirus GII was dominant genogroup. Sixty-five percent (17 of 26) of positive samples were determined as GII and 35% (9 of 26) were determined as GI, respectively, in 2008-2009. And among 8 sequenced strains of genogroup II the most frequent genotype was GII.3. The results of this study indicated that norovirus must be considered as one of the infectious causes of acute gastroenteritis among Iranian population. We also found that GII.3 is more prevalent in our study population. To the best of our knowledge there is limited data about the role of noroviruses in children and adults' acute gastroenteritis among Iranian patients and this prevalence and genotyping report of norovirus infection could be remarkable for further studies. PMID:23412762

Romani, Sara; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Vahedi, Mohsen; Derakhshan, Faramarz; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2011-11-22

254

North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant health study.

2012-01-01

255

Successful Aging in Older Adults with Schizophrenia: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective This study contrasts the prevalence of successful aging in older adults with schizophrenia with their age peers in the community, and examines variables associated with successful aging in the schizophrenia group. Methods The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 community-dwelling persons aged ?55 years who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (N = 113) was recruited using randomly selected block-groups. The three objective criteria proposed by Rowe and Kahn were operationalized using a 6-item summed score. The association of 16 predictor variables with the successful aging score in the schizophrenia group was examined. Results The community group had significantly higher successful aging scores than the schizophrenia group (4.3 vs. 3.0; t =8.36, df =309, p< .001). Nineteen percent of the community group met all 6 criteria on the Successful Aging Score versus 2% of the schizophrenia group. In regression analysis, only two variables –fewer negative symptoms and a higher quality of life index—were associated with the successful aging score within the schizophrenia group. Conclusion Older adults with schizophrenia rarely achieve successful aging, and do so much less commonly than their age peers. Only two significant variables were associated with successful aging, neither of which are easily remediable. The elements that comprise the components of successful aging, especially physical health, may be better targets for intervention.

Ibrahim, Fayaz; Cohen, Carl I.; Ramirez, Paul M.

2010-01-01

256

National Prevalence of PTSD Among Sexually Revictimized Adolescent, College, and Adult Household-Residing Women  

PubMed Central

Context Despite empirical links between sexual revictimization (i.e., experiencing two or more sexual assaults) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no epidemiological studies document the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD. Establishing estimates is essential to determine the scope, public health impact, and psychiatric sequelae of sexual revictimization. Objective Estimate the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD among three national female samples (adolescent, college, adult household probability). Design Surveys were used to collect data from The National Women’s Study – Replication (2006; college) as well as household probability samples from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (2005) and the National Women’s Study-Replication (2006; household probability). Setting Households and college campuses across the U.S. Participants 1,763 adolescent girls, 2,000 college women, and 3,001 household-residing adult women. Main Outcomes Behaviorally specific questions assessed unwanted sexual acts occurring over the lifespan due to use of force, threat of force, or incapacitation via drug or alcohol use. PTSD was assessed with a module validated against the criterion standard, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results 52.7% of victimized adolescents, 50.0% of victimized college women, and 58.8% of victimized household-residing women reported sexual revictimization. Current PTSD was reported by 20.0% of revictimized adolescents, 40.0% of revictimized college women, and 27.2% of revictimized household-residing women. Compared to non-victims, odds of meeting past 6-month PTSD were 4.3–8.2 times higher for revictimized respondents and 2.4–3.5 times higher for single victims. Conclusions Population prevalence estimates suggest that 769,000 adolescent girls, 625,000 college women, and 13.4 million women in US households reported sexual revictimization. Further, 154,000 sexually revictimized adolescents, 250,000 sexually revictimized college women, and 3.6 million sexually revictimized household women met criteria for past 6-month PTSD. Findings highlight the importance of screening for sexual revictimization and PTSD in pediatric, college, and primary care settings.

Walsh, Kate; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

2012-01-01

257

Prevalence and Associations of Incomplete Posterior Vitreous Detachment in Adult Chinese: The Beijing Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine prevalence and associations of incomplete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Incomplete PVD was differentiated into type 1 (shallow PVD with circular perifoveal vitreous attachment), type 2 (PVD reaching fovea but not foveola), type 3 (shallow PVD with pinpoint vitreous attachment at the foveola), and type 4 (PVD completely detached from the macula, attached to the optic disc). Results An incomplete PVD was detected in 3948 eyes (prevalence: 60.5±0.6%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 59.3%,61.7%) of 2198 subjects (67.1±0.8%;95%CI: 65.6%,68.7%). Type 1 PVD was seen in 3090 (78.3%) eyes, type 2 PVD in 504 (12.8%) eyes, type 3 PVD in 70 (1.8%) eyes, and type 4 PVD in 284 (7.2%) eyes. Prevalence of incomplete PVD was associated with younger age (P<0.001;OR:0.91), male gender (P<0.001;OR:0.64), rural region of habitation (P<0.001;OR:0.49), larger corneal diameter (P?=?0.04;OR:0.91), better best corrected visual acuity (P?=?0.02;OR:0.41), and hyperopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:1.15). The type of incomplete PVD was associated with higher age (P<0.001), urban region of habitation (P<0.001), myopic refractive error (P?=?0.001), thinner cornea (P?=?0.005), and better best corrected visual acuity (P?=?0.056). Conclusions In adult Chinese in Greater Beijing, prevalence of an incomplete PVD (detected in 67.1% subjects) was associated with younger age, male gender, rural region of habitation, larger corneal diameter, better best corrected visual acuity and hyperopic refractive error.

Shao, Lei; Xu, Liang; You, Qi Sheng; Wang, Ya Xing; Chen, Chang Xi; Yang, Hua; Zhou, Jin Qiong; Jonas, Jost B.; Wei, Wen Bin

2013-01-01

258

Alcohol prevalence and attitudes among adults and adolescents: Their relation to early adolescent alcohol use in rural communities  

PubMed Central

Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community supportiveness, and the prevalence of community alcohol use exhibited by adolescents and adults. Multilevel analyses were applied to 1,424 6th through 8th grade students residing in 22 rural communities in the Northern Plains. Perceptions of tolerance, prevalence, and support from 790 parents, teachers, and community leaders were also collected. Analyses revealed that community supportiveness and controls against drinking reduced both the decision to try alcohol and past month use among early adolescents. Adolescents were more likely to have ever tried alcohol if they lived in a community with higher peer prevalence than higher levels of adult alcohol prevalence, but in communities where peer drinking was lower; adolescents were more likely to have tried alcohol if they lived in a high adult-prevalence community. Perceived peer drinking was not related to past month use.

DeHaan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

2010-01-01

259

Intercontinental differences in overweight of adopted Koreans in the United States and Europe.  

PubMed

A greater proportion of the United States (US) population is overweight or obese (with BMI over 25kg/m(2)) relative to all Western European populations, and it might be expected that migrants to either the US or Western Europe would develop patterns of overweight and obesity that reflect this difference. This paper examines the effects of obesogenic environments on Asians by reporting differences in rates of overweight (which is taken to include obesity in this analysis) among 261 adult South Koreans, which had been adopted in early-life into white middle class families living in the US and in Western European Nations. Data collected during an international adoption survey carried out for the Korean government in 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of overweight of adopted Koreans raised in the US significantly exceeds the level among adopted Koreans in Europe by 11.3%. These intercontinental differences are statistically significant after controlling for sex, current age, age of adoption, and education. This paper supports the view that life-style factors are more detrimental for the weight status of people in the US than in Western Europe. PMID:23044048

Ulijaszek, Stanley; Schwekendiek, Daniel

2012-09-23

260

Prevalence data on all Ghent features in a cross-sectional study of 87 adults with proven Marfan syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of each single feature in the Ghent criteria in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) is not known. To elucidate this, a cross-sectional study of 105 adults with presumed MFS was carried out. All patients were examined by the same group of investigators with standardized and complete assessment of all features in the Ghent criteria. Eighty-seven (83%) fulfilled the

Svend Rand-Hendriksen; Rigmor Lundby; Lena Tjeldhorn; Kai Andersen; Jon Offstad; Svein Ove Semb; Hans-Jørgen Smith; Benedicte Paus; Odd Geiran

2009-01-01

261

Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. METHODS: Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling,

George A Milias; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Dimitra Xenaki; George Panagopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

262

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

263

Prevalence of Total Tooth Loss, Dental Caries, and Periodontal Disease in Mexican-American Adults: Results from the Southwestern HHANES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southwestern portion of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in 1982 and 1983. The survey population was Mexican-Americans residing in five Southwestern states. This report presents data on the prevalence of total tooth loss, dental caries, and periodontal diseases in 3860 Mexican-American adults aged from 18 to

A. I. Ismail; B. A. Burt; J. A. Brunelle

1987-01-01

264

Prevalence of malnutrition and associated metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older adults from Northwest Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in 287 apparently healthy older adults from Northwest Mexico. Also, the impact of overweight and obesity on metabolic risk factors was assessed. Nutritional status was determined using serum albumin levels and anthropometry. Vitamin status was also assessed. Metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease were

Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo; Julián Esparza-Romero; Rene Urquidez Romero; Humberto Astiazarán García; Flavia A. Pérez Flores; Blanca V. Ochoa Chacón; Mauro E. Valencia

2008-01-01

265

Accuracy of the estimated prevalence of obesity from self reported height and weight in an adult Scottish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine whether self reported heights and weights from Scottish adults can provide an accurate assessment of obesity prevalence in the population.DESIGNStandardised clinic measurements of weight and height were compared against self reported values on a postal questionnaire in the fourth Scottish MONICA cross sectional study.SETTINGA sex and five year age band stratified random population sample drawn from general

Caroline Bolton-Smith; Mark Woodward; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe; Caroline Morrison

2000-01-01

266

PREVALENCE OF PERSISTENT COUGH AND PHLEGM IN YOUNG ADULTS IN RELATION TO LONG-TERM AMBIENT SULFUR OXIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

In early 1976, a survey of persistent cough and plegm (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 micrograms per cubic meter. Corresponding m...

267

Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. METHODS: A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on

Christos Pitsavos; George A Milias; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Dimitra Xenaki; George Panagopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

268

A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability, 2003-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research regarding the prevalence of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with intellectual disability in adults was reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the qualities of sampling and diagnostic methodology, which have been identified as needs in two recent reviews. Sixteen articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2009…

Buckles, Jason; Luckasson, Ruth; Keefe, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

269

Prevalence of untreated asthma in a population sample of 6000 older adults in Bristol, UK  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—A study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of untreated asthma in older adults.?METHODS—A cross sectional population based survey of 6000 men and women aged 65 years and over was performed in 21 general practices in north Bristol, south west England. The main outcome measure was untreated asthma as defined by a two stage process comprising a respiratory questionnaire (symptoms suggestive of asthma or doctor diagnosed asthma not receiving respiratory treatment) followed by lung function tests (significant reversibility following bronchodilators or corticosteroids and/or significant within day variability in peak expiratory flow).?RESULTS—4792 of the 6000 participants (80%) completed the respiratory questionnaire and, of those not receiving respiratory treatment, 55 reported a previous doctor diagnosis of asthma and a further 696 had symptoms suggestive of asthma. Lung function testing in 280 of 501 randomly selected individuals from these groups resulted in 38 being defined as having asthma and an estimated population prevalence for untreated asthma of 2.4% (95% CI 1.6% to 3.6%) in men and 1.2% (95% CI 0.7% to 2.1%) in women. Most subjects (84%) with untreated asthma had moderate or severe disease. Untreated asthma was most common in individuals with doctor diagnosed asthma (21%) and those with breathlessness or wheeze (13-20%).?CONCLUSION—Untreated asthma in the elderly is a common and important problem. Opportunistic use of appropriate lung function tests in older people with a history of doctor diagnosed asthma or wheeze or breathlessness at rest could identify untreated asthmatics who might benefit from treatment.??

Dow, L; Fowler, L; Phelps, L; Waters, K; Coggon, D; Kinmonth, A; Holgate, S

2001-01-01

270

Dissociation between the Prevalence of Atopy and Allergic Disease in Rural China among Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing worldwide, but the reasons are not well understood. Previous studies suggest that this trend may be associated with lifestyle and urbanization. Objective To describe patterns of sensitization and allergic disease in an unselected agricultural Chinese population. Methods The data was derived from a community-based twin study in Anqing, China. Skin prick testing was performed to foods and aeroallergens. Atopy was defined as sensitization to ?1 allergen. Allergic disease was ascertained by self-report. The analysis was stratified by sex and age (children [11-17 years] and adults [?18 years]) and included 1059 same-sex twin pairs. Results Of 2118 subjects, 57.6% were male (n=1220). Ages ranged from 11-71 years; 43.3% were children (n=918). Atopy was observed in 47.2% (n=999) of participants. The most common sensitizing foods were shellfish (16.7%) and peanut (12.3%). The most common sensitizing aeroallergens were dust mite (30.6%) and cockroach (25.2%). Birth order and zygosity had no effect on sensitization rates. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed risk factors for sensitization include age for foods and sex for aeroallergens. The rates of food allergy and asthma were estimated to be <1%. Conclusions Atopic sensitization was common in this rural farming Chinese population, particularly to shellfish, peanut, dust mite, and cockroach. The prevalence of allergic disease, in contrast, was quite low. Clinical Implications Allergen sensitization was far more common than the rate of self-reported allergic disease in this community. Evidence of sensitization is an inadequate marker of allergic disease and better correlates with clinical disease are needed. Capsule summary Among this large unselected Chinese rural farming community, atopy was observed in nearly half of the study subjects, but the rate of allergic disease was comparatively very low.

Kim, Jennifer S; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Fang, Yaping; Wang, Binyan; Liu, Xue; Xing, Houxun; Caruso, Deanna; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Shanchun; Xu, Xiping; Wang, Xiaobin

2009-01-01

271

Prevalence of mitral valve prolapse in healthy adult Nigerians as diagnosed by echocardiography.  

PubMed

Fifty (male = 24; female = 26; age 49.33 +/- 12.16) presumably healthy adult Nigerians were prospectively examined for the presence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP). We performed clinical, electrocardiographic (ECG), M-mode echocardiographic (M-mode echo) and two-dimensional echocardiographic (2-D echo) examinations on these subjects. 2-D echos were obtained from parasternal and apical acoustic windows. Parasternal long axis view obtained when the transducer was perpendicular to the chest wall with both mitral valve leaflets and left atrium recorded was considered optimal for studying mitral valve systolic motion. MVP was defined as late or holosystolic bowing of mitral valve leaflet at least 2 mm or 3 mm, respectively, below the C-D line at M-mode echo; or, marked systolic extension of one or both mitral valve leaflets cephalad to the plane of mitral annulus into the left atrium. No subject had classical features of Marfan's Syndrome. Of the four subjects with cardiac symptoms, only one had diagnostic MVP. Three subjects had mid-to late systolic click following valsalva manouver. Seven subjects had apical late systolic murmur none of which was louder than grade II/VI. Four of them had combined anterior and posterior leaflet prolapse and one had posterior leaflet prolapse compatible with diagnostic MVP, thus resulting in 10% prevalence rate of MVP in the study population. Two other subjects with late systolic murmur had no echocardiographic evidence of MVP. Three subjects with non-diagnostic mild-to moderate prolapse of the anterior leaflet alone on 2-D echo had no clinical murmur even though two of them complained of palpitations. Seven otherwise normal subjects had holosystolic bowing of mitral valve leaflets on M-mode echo but not on 2-D echo and were thus classified into non-diagnostic MVP group. No subject with MVP had serious arrhythmias on resting ECG. These results indicate that the prevalence of MVP in presumably healthy adult Nigerians was 10%. The use of M-mode echo resulted in over-diagnosis, whereas 2-D echo was more accurate in identifying true anatomical and structural abnormalities of the mitral valve. PMID:14510142

Oladapo, O O; Falase, A O

272

North Korean Policy Elites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

North Korea's policy-making procedures remain a mystery to foreigners. This report, written by five North Korean specialists, attempts to identify the North Korean elite, any factions existing among them, and the sources of information to which they have ...

A. Y. Mansourov J. S. Bermudez K. E. Gause K. O. Hassig R. C. Hassig

2004-01-01

273

Adults only: the prevalence of tobacco promotions in bars and clubs in the Boston area  

PubMed Central

Objective: To document the nature and prevalence of tobacco promotions in bars and clubs in a major US city. Design: We conducted systematic observations in a representative sample of 38 establishments in the Boston area, half of which had been advertised in a tobacco company ad. We also observed seven events in six additional clubs hosting Camel Casbah promotions. Telephone interviews were later completed with club managers. Main outcome measure: Use of branded give-away items, distribution of free cigarette samples, managers' reports of costs and benefits of hosting promotions. Results: The majority of the 38 clubs were observed to use bar paraphernalia including matchbooks with tobacco brand logos, regardless of their history of appearing in tobacco sponsored ads. Free cigarette samples were not observed at any of the sampled clubs, but were a feature of every Casbah event. Managers of clubs in the advertised group were somewhat more likely to report having hosted promotions, but 44% of managers of non-advertised clubs indicated that tobacco promotions had occurred in their establishments in the past. Approximately one third of club managers viewed public links with a tobacco company as a negative feature of hosting promotions. Conclusions: Based on managers' reports, tobacco promotions occurred in more than 50% of the Boston area entertainment venues frequented by young adults. Cigarette companies should be required to inform the attorney general of plans to conduct promotions in adult-only venues to facilitate monitoring of compliance with the Master Settlement Agreement. The negative health and business consequences of hosting promotions should be communicated to bar owners.

Biener, L; Nyman, A; Kline, R; Albers, A

2004-01-01

274

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is prevalent in 35- to 64-year-old Chinese adults.  

PubMed

Low vitamin B-12 status alone, or in combination with low folate status, is related to neural tube defects (NTD) and hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, but little is known about vitamin B-12 status in Chinese adults. In a cross-sectional study, we measured plasma vitamin B-12 in 2407 apparently healthy Chinese men and women, 35-64 y old, living in the south and the north of China. Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were lower among the northerners than the southerners (geometric means, 209 vs. 309 pmol/L, P < 0.001). Controlling for gender, age, season (spring and fall), and area (urban and rural) had little impact on the difference. We estimated that 11% of the southerners and 39% of the northerners had plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations <185 pmol/L, a level to define vitamin B-12 deficiency. Within each region, men had lower plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency than women (279 vs. 333 pmol/L and 15 vs. 8% in the south; 192 vs. 233 pmol/L and 47 vs. 34% in the north; P < 0.001 for all the differences). Low intakes of animal-based food, especially fish and dairy products, were significantly associated with vitamin B-12 deficiency. In the north, 59% of the participants were deficient in either folate (<6.8 nmol/L) or vitamin B-12, and 17% had deficiency in both. The corresponding rates were 16 and 1% in the southerners. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common in 35- to 64-y-old Chinese adults, especially in the north. Further studies are needed to evaluate the health effects and possible intervention strategies in areas where B-12 vitamin deficiency is common. PMID:17449593

Hao, Ling; Ma, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Stampfer, Meir J; Tian, Yihua; Willett, Walter C; Li, Zhu

2007-05-01

275

Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.  

PubMed

To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males. PMID:19795199

Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

2010-11-01

276

Prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm in young adults in relation to long-term ambient sulfur oxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

In early 1976, a survey of persistent co gh and plegma (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 ug/mT. Corresponding mean suspended sulfate levels had been 5, 7, 8, and 14 g/mT No intercommunity exposure gradient of total suspended particulates or suspended nitrates was observed. In mothers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was 4.2% in the high-exposure community and about 2.0% in all other communities. In smoking mothers, PCP prevalence was 21.8% in the high-exposure community and about 15.0% elsewhere. In fathers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was about 8.0% in the high-exposure community and averaged about 3.0% elsewhere. In smoking fathers, PCP prevalence was less strongly associated with sulfur oxide exposure. PCP prevalence rates estimated in a categorical logistic regression model were qualitatively consistent with the prevalences presented above.

Chapman, R.S.; Calafiore, D.C.; Hasselblad, V.

1985-01-01

277

The Metabolic Syndrome: How Definition Impacts the Prevalence and Risk in U.S. Adults: 1999-2004 NHANES.  

PubMed

Background: To examine the relationships various medical society definitions have on metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence and the likelihood of a MetS diagnosis among a national sample of the United States (US) adult population. Methods: The sample for this study included adults, 20 years and older, (N = 5620) who completed the mobile examination center (MEC) examination in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). SUDAAN statistical software was used to estimate age-adjusted prevalence and odds ratios. Results: The overall age-adjusted MetS prevalence ranged from a high of 38.9% (ACE/AACE), to a low of 21.2% (EGIR). For most MetS definitions, males, people in the eighth decade of life (70-79 years of age), Mexican-Americans, those without a high school education, and those living in poverty were found to have the greatest prevalence. Additionally, females were 21% to 33% less likely to be diagnosed with the MetS. People in the seventh decade of life were two to four times more likely to have the MetS compared to those in the third decade of life. Furthermore, adults with greater than a high school education were 26% to 30% less likely to be diagnosed with the MetS and adults in the >/=400% poverty category were 24% to 29% less likely to be diagnosed with the MetS compared to those living below the 100% poverty demarcation. Conclusion: MetS prevalence and the likelihood of being diagnosed with the MetS within populations are highly dependent on the requisite criteria and medical society definition used. PMID:18370803

Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Thompson, Dixie L

2007-12-01

278

Increased Prevalence of Albuminuria in HIV-Infected Adults with Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV and type 2 diabetes are known risk factors for albuminuria, but no previous reports have characterized albuminuria in HIV-infected patients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods We performed a cross-sectional study including 73 HIV-infected adults with type 2 diabetes, 82 HIV-infected non-diabetics, and 61 diabetic control subjects without HIV. Serum creatinine >1.5 mg/dL was exclusionary. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. Results The prevalence of albuminuria was significantly increased among HIV-infected diabetics (34% vs. 13% of HIV non-diabetic vs. 16% diabetic control, p?=?0.005). HIV status and diabetes remained significant predictors of albuminuria after adjusting for age, race, BMI, and blood pressure. Albumin/creatinine ratio correlated significantly with HIV viral load (r?=?0.28, p?=?0.0005) and HIV-infected subjects with albuminuria had significantly greater cumulative exposure to abacavir (p?=?0.01). In an adjusted multivariate regression analysis of HIV-infected subjects, the diagnosis of diabetes (p?=?0.003), higher HIV viral load (p?=?0.03) and cumulative exposure to abacavir (p?=?0.0009) were significant independent predictors of albuminuria. Conclusions HIV and diabetes appear to have additive effects on albuminuria which is also independently associated with increased exposure to abacavir and HIV viral load. Future research on the persistence, progression and management of albuminuria in this unique at-risk population is needed.

Kim, Peter S.; Woods, Christian; Dutcher, Lauren; Georgoff, Patrick; Rosenberg, Alice; Mican, Jo Ann M.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Smith, Margo A.; Hadigan, Colleen

2011-01-01

279

Twelve-year trends in the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and prediabetes in Turkish adults.  

PubMed

There is concern about an emerging diabetes epidemic in Turkey. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and their 12-year trends and to identify risk factors for diabetes in the adult Turkish population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, 'TURDEP-II' included 26,499 randomly sampled adults aged ? 20 years (response rate: 87 %). Fasting glucose and biochemical parameters were measured in all; then a OGTT was performed to identify diabetes and prediabetes in eligible participants. The prevalence of diabetes was 16.5 % (new 7.5 %), translating to 6.5 million adults with diabetes in Turkey. It was higher in women than men (p = 0.008). The age-standardized prevalence to the TURDEP-I population (performed in 1997-98) was 13.7 % (if same diagnostic definition was applied diabetes prevalence is calculated 11.4 %). The prevalence of isolated-IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined prediabetes was 14.7, 7.9, and 8.2 %, respectively; and that of obesity 36 % and hypertension 31.4 %. Compared to TURDEP-I; the rate of increase for diabetes: 90 %, IGT: 106 %, obesity: 40 % and central obesity: 35 %, but hypertension decreased by 11 % during the last 12 years. In women age, waist, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, low education, and living environment; in men age, BMI, and hypertension were independently associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. In women current smoking, and in men being single were associated with a reduced risk. These results from one of the largest nationally representative surveys carried out so far show that diabetes has rapidly become a major public health challenge in Turkey. The figures are alarming and underscore the urgent need for national programs to prevent diabetes, to manage the illness and thus prevent complications. PMID:23407904

Satman, Ilhan; Omer, Beyhan; Tutuncu, Yildiz; Kalaca, Sibel; Gedik, Selda; Dinccag, Nevin; Karsidag, Kubilay; Genc, Sema; Telci, Aysegul; Canbaz, Bulent; Turker, Fulya; Yilmaz, Temel; Cakir, Bekir; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2013-02-14

280

Prevalence of self-reported interstitial cystitis (IC) and interstitial-cystitis-like symptoms among adult women in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Reported estimates of IC prevalence vary widely. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of IC among community-dwelling\\u000a adult women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed survey responses from 215 established IC cases and 823 age-matched community-dwelling controls. Using a history\\u000a of diagnosis of urinary conditions and presence of pelvic pain within the last six months, we identified those with possible\\u000a IC

Ibrahim A. Ibrahim; Ananias C. Diokno; Kim A. Killinger; Donna J. Carrico; Kenneth M. Peters

2007-01-01

281

A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.  

PubMed

Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p < 0.05); Ascaridia galli (69% of growers, 29% of adults); Syngamus trachea (14%, 3%); Tetrameres americana (94%, 82%); Trichostrongylus tenuis (43%, 7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (15%, 6%); Davainea proglottina (9%, 2%); and Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p < 0.05). There were significantly higher worm burdens (p < 0.05) in growers than in adults for A. galli, Capillaria caudinflata, R. tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively. PMID:12094676

Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

2002-05-01

282

Content Analysis of Diet Advertisements: A Cross-National Comparison of Korean and U.S. Women's Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content analysis of diet advertisements was performed to examine how diet advertisements portray the Western ideal of feminine beauty and promote dieting in Korean women's magazines in comparison with U.S. women's magazines. Results showed that the Western cultural ideal of feminine beauty and dieting were prevalent in Korean women's magazines. Diet advertisements in Korean magazines appear to promote more passive

Minjeong Kim; Sharron J. Lennon

2006-01-01

283

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Dyslipidemia in the Adult Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

To determine the prevalence, associated factors, awareness and control of dyslipidemia in Chinese living in Greater Beijing, we measured the serum cholesterol concentration in 3251 Chinese adults (age: 45 to 89 years) as participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2006. Additional information on treatment of dyslipidemia was obtained using a standard questionnaire. The mean concentrations of total, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were 4.92±1.01 mmol/L, 1.61±0.36 mmol/L, 2.88±0.85 mmol/L, and 1.76±1.29 mmol/L, respectively. Prevalence of dyslipidemia was 56.1±0.9%%. Presence of dyslipidemia was significantly associated with increasing age (odds ratio (OR):1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), female gender (OR:1.51; 95%CI: 1.25, 1.83), urban region (OR:1.82; 95%CI: 1.30, 2.55), body mass index (OR:1.13; 95%CI: 1.10, 1.15), income (OR:1.11; 95%CI:1.02, 1.21), blood glucose concentration (OR:1.10; 95%CI:1.05, 1.16), diastolic blood pressure (OR:1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03), and smoking (OR:1.23; 1.01, 1.51). Among those who had dyslipidemia, the proportion of subjects who were aware, treated and controlled was 50.9%, 23.8%, and 39.91%, respectively. The awareness rate was associated with urban region (P?=?0.001; OR: 6.50), body mass index (P?=?0.001; OR:1.06), and income (P?=?0.02; OR:1.14). The data suggest that dyslipidemia may be present in about 56% of the population aged 45+ years in Greater Beijing. Factors likely associated with dyslipidemia were higher age, female gender, urban region, higher body mass index, higher income, higher blood concentration of glucose, higher diastolic blood pressure, and smoking. In the examined study population, treatment rate was 24% with about 60% of the treated subjects still having uncontrolled dyslipidemia.

Wang, Shuang; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B.; You, Qi Sheng; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua

2011-01-01

284

Korean Immigrants in Los Angeles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Koreans have been admitted to the United States as legal immigrants since the change in the immigration law in 1965. A significant proportion of the new Korean immigrants have settled in Los Angeles. As a result, the Los Angeles Korean community, the home of some 200,000 Koreans, has become not only the largest Korean center in

Pyong Gap Min

1990-01-01

285

Neonatal non-hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia: a prevalence study of adult neuropsychiatric disability and cognitive function in 463 male Danish conscripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine whether neonatal non-hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia is associated with adult neuropsychiatric disability and cognitive function.MethodsThe study included all men born as singletons ?35 gestational weeks in two Danish counties from 1 January1977 to 31 December 1983 that registered at conscription in a Danish region. Their infant levels of hyperbilirubinemia was ascertained from hospital records. At conscription, the prevalence of neurologic

Finn Ebbesen; Vera Ehrenstein; Mette Traeger; Gunnar Lauge Nielsen

2010-01-01

286

Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless and Unstably Housed Adults Living with HIV: Prevalence and Associated Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the prevalence and risks associated with interpersonal (physical and sexual) abuse among HIV-seropositive homeless\\u000a or unstably housed adults. Data were obtained from the Housing and Health Study of participants living in Baltimore, Chicago,\\u000a and Los Angeles (n = 644). We used logistic regression to identify risks associated with abuse. About 77% of men and 86% of women reported ever\\u000a experiencing

Kirk D. Henny; Daniel P. Kidder; Ron Stall; Richard J. Wolitski

2007-01-01

287

Age, period and birth cohort effects on prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian adults from 1990 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess the individual contributions of age, period and birth cohort to prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Australian population during 1990 to 2000.Design:Age-period-cohort Poisson regression modelling of data from National Health Surveys conducted in Australia in 1990, 1995 and 2000.Subjects:Adults aged 20 years and over. Weightings were applied to account for differences in sampling and participation rates so

M A Allman-Farinelli; T Chey; A E Bauman; T Gill; W P T James

2008-01-01

288

The Prevalence of Parenthood in Adults with Mental Illness: Implications for State and Federal Policymakers, Programs, and Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Nicholson, J., Biebel, K., Williams, V.F., & Katz-Leavy, J. (2004) Prevalence of Parenthood in Adults with Mental Illness: Implications for State and Federal Policy, Programs, and Providers. In Center for Mental Health Services. Mental Health, United States, 2002. Manderscheid, R.W., & Henderson, M.J., eds. DHHS Pub No. (SMA) 3938. Rockville, Maryland: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Chapter

Joanne Nicholson; Kathleen Biebel; Judith Katz-Leavy; Valerie F. Williams

2002-01-01

289

Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts\\u000a in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association\\u000a with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults\\u000a aged 18 - 65

Grace A Shayo; Ferdinand M Mugusi

2011-01-01

290

Prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers in New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers. Design: Analysis of internet purchasing in data from a population based telephone survey of New Jersey households. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with internet cigarette purchasing, adjusting for year, demographic, and smoking behaviour variables. Participants: 3447 current cigarette smokers pooled from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002. Main outcome measures: Ever purchasing tobacco and usually buying cigarettes via the internet. Results: Among all current cigarette smokers, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet increased from 1.1% in 2000 to 6.7% in 2002 and usually buying cigarettes via the internet increased from 0.8% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2002. Among current cigarette smokers with internet access, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet was higher among those who reported smoking 31 or more cigarettes per day (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 10.2) and those without a past year quit attempt (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0). Usually purchasing cigarettes via the internet was higher among those aged 45–64 years (adjusted OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.1) and who reported having their first cigarette ? 30 minutes after waking (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2). Conclusions: Although higher prices are known to reduce the demand for cigarettes, internet cigarette purchasing is likely to weaken this effect, particularly among heavy, more dependent smokers who are less interested in quitting.

Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C; Staniewska, D

2004-01-01

291

Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among young adults in Finland.  

PubMed

Background: This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults. Method: A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment. Results: The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders. Conclusion: Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms. PMID:23750986

Lähteenmäki, Sini; Saarni, Suoma; Suokas, Jaana; Saarni, Samuli; Perälä, Jonna; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana

2013-06-10

292

Acoustic characteristics of Korean stops in Korean child-directed speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of cross-linguistic studies have documented that the acoustic properties of speech addressed to young children include exaggeration of pitch contours and acoustically salient features of phonetic units. It has been suggested that phonetic modifications of child-directed speech facilitate young children's speech perception by providing detailed phonetic information about the target word. While there are several studies reporting vowel modifications in speech to infants (i.e., hyper-articulated vowels), there has been relatively little research about consonant modifications in speech to young children (except for VOT). The present study examines acoustic properties of Korean stops in Korean mothers' speech to their children aged 29 to 38 months (N=6). Korean tense, lax, and aspirated stops are all voiceless in word-initial position, and are perceptually differentiated by several acoustic parameters including VOT, f0 of the following vowel, and the amplitude difference of the first and second harmonics at the voice onset of the following vowel. This study compares values of these parameters in Korean motherese to those in speech to adult Koreans from same speakers. Results focus on the acoustic properties of Korean stops in child-directed speech and how they are modified to help Korean young children learn the three-way phonetic contrast.

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-04-01

293

Prevalence data on all Ghent features in a cross-sectional study of 87 adults with proven Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed

The prevalence of each single feature in the Ghent criteria in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) is not known. To elucidate this, a cross-sectional study of 105 adults with presumed MFS was carried out. All patients were examined by the same group of investigators with standardized and complete assessment of all features in the Ghent criteria. Eighty-seven (83%) fulfilled the criteria in 56 different variants. The most prevalent major criterion in Ghent-positive persons was dural ectasia (91%), followed by major genetic criterion (89%) and ectopic lenses (62 %). In 14 persons (16%), the diagnosis was dependent on the dural findings. In all, 79% fulfilled both major dural and major genetic (positive family history and/or FBN1 mutation) criteria, suggesting that most patients with MFS might be identified by investigating these criteria. A history or finding of ascending aortic disease was present in 46 patients (53%). This low prevalence might partly reflect a high number of diagnosed patients encompassing the whole spectrum of the syndrome. The study confirms the need to examine for the complete set of features in the Ghent criteria to identify all patients with MFS. The majority of persons with MFS might be identified by the combined assessment of dura mater and family history, supplemented with DNA analysis in family-negative cases. The low prevalence of ascending aortic disease might indicate better future prospects in an adult population than those traditionally considered. PMID:19293838

Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Lundby, Rigmor; Tjeldhorn, Lena; Andersen, Kai; Offstad, Jon; Semb, Svein Ove; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Paus, Benedicte; Geiran, Odd

2009-03-18

294

Prevalence data on all Ghent features in a cross-sectional study of 87 adults with proven Marfan syndrome  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of each single feature in the Ghent criteria in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) is not known. To elucidate this, a cross-sectional study of 105 adults with presumed MFS was carried out. All patients were examined by the same group of investigators with standardized and complete assessment of all features in the Ghent criteria. Eighty-seven (83%) fulfilled the criteria in 56 different variants. The most prevalent major criterion in Ghent-positive persons was dural ectasia (91%), followed by major genetic criterion (89%) and ectopic lenses (62 %). In 14 persons (16%), the diagnosis was dependent on the dural findings. In all, 79% fulfilled both major dural and major genetic (positive family history and/or FBN1 mutation) criteria, suggesting that most patients with MFS might be identified by investigating these criteria. A history or finding of ascending aortic disease was present in 46 patients (53%). This low prevalence might partly reflect a high number of diagnosed patients encompassing the whole spectrum of the syndrome. The study confirms the need to examine for the complete set of features in the Ghent criteria to identify all patients with MFS. The majority of persons with MFS might be identified by the combined assessment of dura mater and family history, supplemented with DNA analysis in family-negative cases. The low prevalence of ascending aortic disease might indicate better future prospects in an adult population than those traditionally considered.

Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Lundby, Rigmor; Tjeldhorn, Lena; Andersen, Kai; Offstad, Jon; Semb, Svein Ove; Smith, Hans-J?rgen; Paus, Benedicte; Geiran, Odd

2009-01-01

295

Prevalence and co-use of marijuana among young adult cigarette smokers: An anonymous online national survey  

PubMed Central

Background There is elevated prevalence of marijuana use among young adults who use tobacco, but little is known about the extent of co-use generated from surveys conducted online. The purpose of the present study was to examine past-month marijuana use and the co-use of marijuana and tobacco in a convenience sample of young adult smokers with national US coverage. Methods Young adults age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30?days were recruited online between 4/1/09 and 12/31/10 to participate in an online survey on tobacco use. We examined past 30?day marijuana use, frequency of marijuana use, and proportion of days co-using tobacco and marijuana by demographic characteristics and daily smoking status. Results Of 3512 eligible and valid survey responses, 1808 (51.5%) smokers completed the survey. More than half (53%, n?=?960) of the sample reported past-month marijuana use and reported a median use of 18 out of the past 30?days (interquartile range [IR]?=?4, 30). Co-use of tobacco and marijuana occurred on nearly half (median?=?45.5%; IR?=?13.1, 90.3) of the days on which either substance was used and was more frequent among Caucasians, respondents living in the Northeast or in rural areas, in nonstudents versus students, and in daily versus nondaily smokers. Residence in a state with legalized medical marijuana was unrelated to co-use or even the prevalence of marijuana use in this sample. Age and household income also were unrelated to co-use of tobacco and marijuana. Conclusion These results indicate a higher prevalence of marijuana use and co-use of tobacco in young adult smokers than is reported in nationally representative surveys. Cessation treatments for young adult smokers should consider broadening intervention targets to include marijuana.

2012-01-01

296

The efficacy and safety study of dietary supplement PURIAM110 on non-insulin taking Korean adults in the stage of pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multicenter trial-pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes has already become a threat to the nation and the individual due to its high prevalence rates and high medical expenses. Therefore, preventing diabetes at an earlier stage is very important. Despite advances in antidiabetic agents, we have not yet achieved any satisfying results in treating diabetes. Among various treatments, medicinal herbs and supplements for diabetes are reported to show generally good efficacy and safety data. In particular, PURIAM110, a compound from orange fruits and mulberry leaves, is supposed to prevent the progress of type II diabetes mellitus and improve diabetic symptoms. This is the first reported pilot study about the protective effect of the orange fruits and mulberry leaves mixture against pre-diabetes on Korean adults. Based on these positive results of herb-derived components, extended studies of dietary supplements have to be done to suggest confirmative evidences. Methods/Design The efficacy and safety study of PURIAM110 is a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, and multi-center clinical trial. A total of 45 subjects will participate in this study for 6 weeks. Discussion The present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of PURIAM110 for pre-diabetes, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). In addition, PURIAM110 can be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for diabetes patients. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN44779824

2011-01-01

297

Estimating the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use among Black and White Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas over Time (1992-2002): Estimation Methods and Prevalence Trends  

PubMed Central

No adequate data exist on patterns of injection drug use (IDU) prevalence over time within racial/ethnic groups in U.S. geographic areas. The absence of such prevalence data limits our understanding of the causes and consequences of IDU and hampers planning efforts for IDU-related interventions. Here, we (1) describe a method of estimating IDU prevalence among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adult residents of 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually over an 11-year period (1992–2002); (2) validate the resulting prevalence estimates; and (3) document temporal trends in these prevalence estimates. IDU prevalence estimates for Black adults were calculated in several steps: we (1) created estimates of the proportion of injectors who were Black in each MSA and year by analyzing databases documenting injectors’ encounters with the healthcare system; (2) multiplied the resulting proportions by previously calculated estimates of the total number of injectors in each MSA and year (Brady et al., 2008); (3) divided the result by the number of Black adults living in each MSA each year; and (4) validated the resulting estimates by correlating them cross-sectionally with theoretically related constructs (Black- and White-specific prevalences of drug-related mortality and of mortality from hepatitis C). We used parallel methods to estimate and validate White IDU prevalence. We analyzed trends in the resulting racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence estimates using measures of central tendency and hierarchical linear models (HLM). Black IDU prevalence declined from a median of 279 injectors per 10,000 adults in 1992 to 156 injectors per 10,000 adults in 2002. IDU prevalence for White adults remained relatively flat over time (median values ranged between 86 and 97 injectors per 10,000 adults). HLM analyses described similar trends and suggest that declines in Black IDU prevalence decelerated over time. Both sets of IDU estimates correlated cross-sectionally adequately with validators, suggesting that they have acceptable convergent validity (range for Black IDU prevalence validation: 0.27 < r < 0.61; range for White IDU prevalence: 0.38 < r < 0.80). These data give insight, for the first time, into IDU prevalence trends among Black adults and White adults in large U.S. MSAs. The decline seen here for Black adults may partially explain recent reductions in newly reported cases of IDU-related HIV evident in surveillance data on this population. Declining Black IDU prevalence may have been produced by (1) high AIDS-related mortality rates among Black injectors in the 1990s, rates lowered by the advent of HAART; (2) reduced IDU incidence among Black drug users; and/or (3) MSA-level social processes (e.g., diminishing residential segregation). The stability of IDU prevalence among White adults between 1992 and 2002 may be a function of lower AIDS-related mortality rates in this population; relative stability (and perhaps increases in some MSAs) in initiating IDU among White drug users; and social processes. Future research should investigate the extent to which these racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence trends (1) explain, and are explained by, recent trends in IDU-related health outcomes, and (2) are determined by MSA-level social processes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9304-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Gostnell, Karla; Flom, Peter L.

2008-01-01

298

Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in adult Danish non-dairy cattle sampled at slaughter.  

PubMed

A voluntary, risk-based control program for paratuberculosis in dairy herds was started in 2006 in Denmark. The program does not include non-dairy herds, and the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in these herds is unknown. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of MAP infected adult non-dairy cattle in Denmark. Serum samples were collected between October, 2008 and January, 2009 from every 6th animal over 24 months of age, sent to slaughter to Danish slaughterhouses from non-dairy herds. The final sample included 2345 cattle of 13 different breeds, with the largest breed group being crossbreds (of unknown breeds) (30%) and three dairy breeds (Danish Holstein, Danish Jersey and Danish Red Cattle) comprising 27% of the samples. The serum samples were tested using a MAP specific antibody ELISA (IDScreen) and positives were defined as the sample-to-positive ratio greater than 0.60. Estimation of the breed-specific apparent prevalences, true prevalences (TP), and true prevalences with a random effect of breed was done in a Bayesian analysis. Information about test sensitivity and specificity were based on literature data and expert information. Regardless of the method of analysis, the estimated prevalences showed similar differences between breeds. The dairy breeds Danish Jersey, Danish Holstein and Danish Red Cattle were ranked highest (i.e. with highest prevalence) (TP medians: 13, 10, and 6, respectively). Combined, the dairy breeds had a significantly higher prevalence than the other breeds, median TP (dairy)=15.7% vs. median TP (non-dairy)=0.8%. For the individual non-dairy breeds, the median estimates were generally higher, illustrating the problems of ranking groups based on relatively small sample sizes. PMID:20153536

Okura, Hisako; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

2010-02-12

299

Case-control study of the effectiveness of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine for prevention of laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection in the Korean adult population.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in a South Korean population. A retrospective case-control study was conducted among patients who visited selected hospitals from September 2010 to May 2011. A total of 483 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients were included in the analysis as case subjects. For each case patient, two types of control patients were chosen at a ratio of 1:1:1, and 966 control subjects were selected. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was defined as 100 × (1 - odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus nonvaccinated persons). The VE of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine was 49.5% to 45.8% for both influenza A and B viruses and 50.8% to 47.2% for influenza A virus, according to the control type. The age-specific adjusted VE was 50.8% to 46.5% among subjects aged 19 to 49 years and 58.7% to 63.3% among those aged 50 to 64 years, according to the control type. Statistically significant VE was not found among those aged ?65 years or against influenza B virus. The 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine was effective for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, especially for influenza A virus, in a South Korean population. Evidence of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in older adults or against influenza B virus was not found. PMID:23576674

Choi, Won Suk; Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu Bin; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Park, Dae Won; Lee, Jin Soo; Cheong, Hee Jin; Kim, Woo Joo

2013-04-10

300

Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.  

PubMed

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

2008-09-01

301

Thyroid Function and Prevalent and Incident Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Both subclinical hypothyroidism and the metabolic syndrome have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease events. It is unknown if the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome is higher as TSH levels increase, or in individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism. We sought to determine the association between thyroid function and the prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in a cohort of older adults. Design Data was analyzed from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective cohort of 3,075 community-dwelling US adults. Participants 2,119 participants with measured TSH and data on metabolic syndrome components were included in the analysis. Measurements TSH was measured by immunoassay. Metabolic syndrome was defined per revised ATP III criteria. Results At baseline, 684 participants met criteria for metabolic syndrome. At 6yr follow-up, incident metabolic syndrome developed in 239 individuals. In fully adjusted models, each unit increase in TSH was associated with a 3% increase in the odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.06, p=0.02), and the association was stronger for TSH within the normal range (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.30, p=0.02). Subclinical hypothyroidism with a TSH>10mIU/L was significantly associated with increased odds of prevalent metabolic syndrome (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.0, p=0.04); the odds of incident MetS was similar (OR 2.2), but the confidence interval was wide (0.6–7.5). Conclusions Higher TSH levels and subclinical hypothyroidism with a TSH>10 mIU/L are associated with increased odds of prevalent but not incident metabolic syndrome.

Waring, Avantika C.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Harrison, Stephanie; Kanaya, Alka M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Miljkovic, Iva; Satterfield, Suzanne; Newman, Anne B.; Bauer, Douglas C.

2012-01-01

302

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Hypertensive Adults Aged 45 to 75 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45–75 years. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ?7.0mmol/l] and IFG (6.1–6.9mmol/l) were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ?25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (waist circumference ?90cm for men and ?80cm for women), non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal) were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal) were important independent associated factors for IFG. Conclusion In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if only based on the FPG evaluation), and treatment of diabetes should be urgently taken to overcome the diabetes epidemic in Chinese hypertensive adults.

Zhang, Yan; Ma, Wei; Fan, Fangfang; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Xiaobin; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong

2012-01-01

303

Aging Koreans' Perceived Conflicts in Relationships with their Offspring as a Function of Age, Gender, Cohabitation Status, and Marital Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Youn Scale was used to assess aging Koreans' perceived conflicts in relationships with their adult offspring. The sample consisted of 623 elderly Koreans between the ages of 55 and 84 years. Results indicated that aging Koreans experienced significantly more conflicts in their relationships as they grew older. There were also differences in the perceptions of problems in relationships with

Gahyun Youn; Daehyun Song

1992-01-01

304

Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15

305

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. METHODS: A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages

Trevor S Ferguson; Marshall K Tulloch-Reid; Novie OM Younger; Jennifer M Knight-Madden; Maureen Samms-Vaughan; Deanna Ashley; Jan Van den Broeck; Rainford J Wilks

2010-01-01

306

Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

2013-01-01

307

Prevalence, symptoms and chronicity of ciguatera in New Caledonia: results from an adult population survey conducted in Noumea during 2005.  

PubMed

Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxism which causes gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Investigations conducted by ORSTOM in 1992 highlighted a prevalence of 25% in the adult population of Noumea, New Caledonia. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ciguatera and the persistence of symptoms by sex and by ethnicity among adult patients of a nurse clinic in Noumea in 2005. Investigations were conducted from 1st January to 15th June 2005. During this period, 559 patients were included: 165 males and 394 females. Among them, 37.8% were poisoned at least once in their life. This rate was independent of gender and ethnicity, but was significantly higher in age groups above 40 years. Neurological signs were more frequent (>80%) than gastrointestinal (<50%) and cardiac signs (<15%). Symptoms presented no difference between ethnic or gender groups, even for subjective signs. Most of poisonings were due to carnivorous fishes, but quite all species living in the lagoon were quoted. Symptoms persisted more than one year for 34% of the population, in both Melanesians and Caucasians. This study shows a significant increase of ciguatera prevalence, and its chronicity for 1/5 of European cases. PMID:19835903

Baumann, Francine; Bourrat, Marie-Blanche; Pauillac, Serge

2009-10-14

308

Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Fecal Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Most previous epidemiologic studies about fecal incontinence were performed in specific populations in Korea. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and predictive factors of fecal incontinence in adult Korean population, both men and women aged 20 years and over. Methods Subjects who had undergone medical check-up for health screening were enrolled. They completed the structured questionnaires, including demographics, gastrointestinal symptoms, medical and social histories, and also about their bowel habits. Logistic regression models were constructed to identify the predictive factors for having fecal incontinence. Results Among the total of 1,149 subjects (mean age, 44.8 ± 10.2 years; 648 males), the overall prevalence of fecal incontinence was 6.4%, while the older group (> 50 years old) showed the higher prevalence than the younger group (? 50 years old) (10.4% vs 4.9%, P = 0.001) without gender difference. Most patients had mild fecal incontinence in 78.4%. By multivariate analysis, old ages (Odd ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-5.2; P < 0.001), watery stool (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9; P = 0.001) and functional diarrhea (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.4; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors for fecal incontinence. Conclusions The prevalence of fecal incontinence in Korean adults was 6.4%, and it was significantly more prevalent in older people without any gender difference. Aging and diarrhea were independent predictive factors of fecal incontinence. Therefore, proper control of the bowel pattern would lead to the prevention of fecal incontinence.

Kang, Hye-Won; Kwon, Kyoung-Joo; Song, Eun-Mi; Choi, Ju-Young; Kim, Seong-Eun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae

2012-01-01

309

Psychiatric disorders among elderly Koreans in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the lifetime prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among 100 Korean elderly in Los Angeles. The instrument used in this study is the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III (DIS III, 1–10). The main finding is of relatively low prevalence of most DSM-III disorders with the exception of alcohol abuse and dependence. The rate of alcoholism is astonishingly high

Joe Yamamoto; Siyon Rhee; Dong-San Chang

1994-01-01

310

Prevalence and variations of the median maxillary labial frenum in children, adolescents, and adults in a diverse population.  

PubMed

The median maxillary labial frenum (MMLF) is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphologic variations. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of those variations in a diverse ethnic population and to educate practitioners about the prevalence of MMLF variations to prevent unnecessary biopsies. This study included adult, adolescent, and child patients at the Louisiana State University Health Science Center School of Dentistry. Among the 284 subjects examined, frenum normale was the most common frenum classification, followed by frenum with nodule and frenum with appendix. Most nodules were found in the intermediate third of the MMLF, while appendices were mainly found in the labial third. The prevalence of an appendix was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in Caucasians compared to African-Americans. The prevalence of nodules was marginally higher (P = 0.096) in Caucasians than in African-Americans. No other statistically significant differences were found with regard to ethnicity. Additionally, nodules and appendices on the MMLF were identified in all age groups, and may become more common with increasing age. The authors determined that variations of the MMLF are inherent and do not represent a pathologic condition, nor do they require biopsy for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23454324

Townsend, Janice A; Brannon, Robert B; Cheramie, Toby; Hagan, Joseph

311

Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Introduction Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (?2 chronic conditions) was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Davids, Adlai; Ramlagan, Shandir

2013-01-01

312

Losing a Loved One to Homicide: Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates in a National Sample of Young Adults  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the prevalence, demographic distribution, and mental health correlates of losing a loved one to homicide. A national sample of 1753 young adults completed structured telephone interviews measuring violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, and loss of a family member or close friend to a drunk driving accident (vehicular homicide) or murder (criminal homicide). The prevalence of homicide survivorship was 15.2%. African Americans were more highly represented among criminal homicide survivors. Logistic regression analyses found that homicide survivors were at risk for past year posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 1.88), major depressive episode (OR = 1.64), and drug abuse/dependence (OR = 1.77). These findings highlight the significant mental health needs of homicide survivors.

Zinzow, Heidi; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Hawkins, Alesia; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

2010-01-01

313

Behavioural Addictions in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from a Prevalence Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender\\u000a and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in\\u000a order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise\\u000a Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and

Corrado Villella; Giovanni Martinotti; Marco Di Nicola; Maria Cassano; Giuseppe La Torre; Maria Daniela Gliubizzi; Immacolata Messeri; Filippo Petruccelli; Pietro Bria; Luigi Janiri; Gianluigi Conte

2011-01-01

314

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors by habitat: a study on adult Asian Indians in West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The present community based cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate whether or not increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adult Asian Indian population are associated with increasing urbanization. The 'urban group' was comprised of 224 individuals including 122 males and 102 females being inhabitants of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) under the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) area. The 'rural group' comprised 224 individuals including 135 males and 89 females and was living in a village council located about 80 kilometers from Kolkata. Therefore, a total of 448 adult (> or = 30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Anthropometric measures, lipids profiles, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure measures were taken from participants. Obesity and body composition measures were subsequently calculated from the anthropometric measures. Accepted cut-offs were used to define metabolic syndrome (MS), lipids abnormalities, increased adiposity and high blood pressure in the study. It was found that 58.7% participants were engaged in sedentary work which includes 60.7% males and 56% females. It was further observed that the prevalence of high blood pressure was as high as 70.6% in urban females compared to 55.1% in rural females. However, the prevalence of low HDLc was remarkably high in females ofboth rural and urban areas. The prevalence ofMS was significantly higher in urban females (57.8%) than in their rural counterparts (34.8%). It seems reasonable to argue that people with changing lifestyles due to growing urbanization are associated with adverse CVD risk factors irrespective of their habitat (rural vs. urban). This in turn warranted a comprehensive risk stratification protocol at the national level for the effective management of CVD risk factors in this part of the world. PMID:21905415

Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab

2011-01-01

315

Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among young adults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in a large sample of young adult military recruits (N=31107). Overall,

Mark W. Vander Weg; Alan L. Peterson; Jon O. Ebbert; Margaret DeBon; Robert C. Klesges; C. Keith Haddock

2008-01-01

316

Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

2005-01-01

317

The Prevalence and Severity of Physical Mobility Limitations in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The population of older adults with intellectual disabilities is growing, creating new challenges for individuals, families and service providers. Although there has been increased research into the ageing process for adults with intellectual disabilities, there is little focused research investigating physical mobility. Materials and…

Cleaver, Shaun; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan

2009-01-01

318

Prevalence and patterns of retention in cardiac care in young adults with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

The population with adult congenital heart disease is expanding. Cardiac care retention and follow-up patterns were assessed in 153 adults with congenital heart disease (median age, 24.5 years), previously compliant as teenagers. The majority (125; 81.7%) were retained in care, most often by a pediatric cardiologist (69%). The rate of retention was surprisingly high. PMID:23684108

Norris, Mark D; Webb, Gary; Drotar, Dennis; Lisec, Asher; Pratt, Jesse; King, Eileen; Akanbi, Fadeke; Marino, Bradley S

2013-05-16

319

Prevalence of diminished kidney function in a representative sample of middle and older age adults in the Irish population  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using available estimating equations with the Republic of Ireland is unknown. Methods A randomly selected population based cross-sectional study of 1,098 adults aged 45 years and older was conducted using data from the 2007 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN). Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) was calculated from a single IDMS aligned serum creatinine using the CKD-EPI and the MDRD equations, and albumin to creatinine ratio was based on a single random urine sample. Results The sample clinical characteristics and demography was similar to middle and older age adults in the general Irish population, though with an underrepresentation of subjects >75 years and of males. All results are based on subjects with available blood and urine samples. Applying weighting to obtain survey based population estimates, using Irish population census data, the estimated weighted prevalence of CKD-EPI eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2 was 11.6%, (95% confidence interval; 9.0, 14.2%), 12.0% ( 9.0, 14.2%) of men and 11.2% (7.3, 15.2%) of women. Unweighted prevalence estimates were similar at 11.8% (9.9, 13.8%). Albuminuria increased with lower CKD-EPI eGFR category. 10.1% of all subjects had albuminuria and an eGFR?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 giving an overall weighted estimated prevalence of National Kidney Foundation (NKF) defined CKD 21.3% (18.0, 24.6%), with the unadjusted estimate of 21.9% (19.5, 24.4%). MDRD related estimates for eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and NFK defined CKD were higher than CKD-EPI and differences were greater in younger and female subjects. Conclusions CKD is highly prevalent in middle and older aged adults within the Republic of Ireland. In this population, there is poor agreement between CKD-EPI and MDRD equations especially at higher GFRs. CKD is associated with lower educational status and poor self rated health.

2012-01-01

320

Prevalence of concurrent hearing and visual impairment in US adults: The National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2002.  

PubMed

Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of US adults (n=195801) showed that concurrent hearing and visual impairment prevalence rates were highest for participants older than 79 years of age (16.6%); a 3-fold increase in age-adjusted rates of reported hearing and visual impairment was observed for Native Americans compared with Asian Americans. Research on preventing concurrent hearing and visual impairment and countering its consequences is warranted, especially in population subgroups, such as Native and older Americans. PMID:16195516

Caban, Alberto J; Lee, David J; Gómez-Marín, Orlando; Lam, Byron L; Zheng, D Diane

2005-09-29

321

Prevalence and risk factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescents and young adults in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.\\u000a Objective  To estimate the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescent and young adults in Poland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  3 687 men (48.2%) and women (51.8%), median age 23 (interquartile range 19–20 years) participated in a survey via a ”pop-up\\u000a window-which appeared on two popular Polish internet portals during one month. Questions concerning their body image, exercise\\u000a behaviour, education level and use

Dominik Racho?; Leszek Pokrywka; Krystyna Suchecka-Racho?

2006-01-01

322

Self-reported prevalence of atherothrombosis in a general population sample of adults in Greece; A telephone survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected atherothrombotic risk factors and several clinical manifestations\\u000a of atherothrombosis, as well as the utilization rates of selected vascular interventions in Greece.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  During December 2009, 3,007 adults (aged 47 ± 16 years, 48.3% men and 51.7% women) recruited in a random-digit dialed telephone\\u000a survey (response rate: 16%). The sample

Nikos Maniadakis; Georgia Kourlaba; Vasileios Fragoulakis

2011-01-01

323

The prevalence of anatomical variations that can cause inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block in Koreans: a study using magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the anatomical abnormalities that can induce inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block. The anatomy of the lumbo-sacral area was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. In 2462 of the 2669 patients imaged, the dural sac terminal was located between the upper half of the 1st sacral vertebra and the lower half of the 2nd sacral vertebra. In 22 cases (0.8%), the dural sac terminal and the spinal canal were located at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra, and these were cases of simple anatomical variations. As regards pathologic conditions, there was one case of sacral meningocoele and 46 cases of sacral perineural cyst. In 21 cases (0.8%) out of the 46 perineural cyst cases, the cyst could be found at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra level. Inadvertent dural puncture may happen when performing caudal block in patients with such abnormal anatomy. PMID:19922508

Joo, J; Kim, J; Lee, J

2009-11-17

324

Prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in preschool children  

PubMed Central

Purpose Allergic disease and its comorbidities significantly influence the quality of life. Although the comorbidities of allergic diseases are well described in adult populations, little is known about them in preschool children. In the present study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of allergic diseases in Korean preschool children. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 615 Korean children (age, 3 to 6 years). Symptoms of allergic diseases were assessed using the Korean version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire that was modified for preschool children. Comorbidities of allergic diseases were assessed by 'In the last 12 months, has your child had symptoms?'. Results The prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis as recorded using the ISAAC questionnaire, within the last 12 months was 13.8%, 40.7%, and 20.8%, respectively. The symptom rates of allergic conjunctivitis, food allergy, and drug allergy were 14.8%, 10.4%, and 0.8%, respectively. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children with asthma was 64.3% and that of asthma in children with allergic rhinitis was 21.6%. The prevalence of rhinitis in children with conjunctivitis was 64.8% and that of conjunctivitis in children with rhinitis was 23.6%. Conclusion The prevalence of current rhinitis in our preschool children is shown to be higher than that previously reported. Allergic conjunctivitis is closely associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, further studies are warranted to determine the prevalence and effects of these comorbidities on health outcomes in preschool children.

Kim, Hyeong Yun; Kwon, Eun Byul; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Youn Ho; Yum, Hye Yung; Jee, Hye Mi; Yoon, Jung Won

2013-01-01

325

Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults.Objective:To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction.Design:Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed.Setting and participants:Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco

J F Thrasher; V Villalobos; A Dorantes-Alonso; E Arillo-Santillán; K Michael Cummings; R O’Connor; G T Fong

2009-01-01

326

Elevated post-transfusion serum transaminase values associated with a highly significant trend for increasing prevalence of anti-Vesivirus antibody in Korean patients.  

PubMed

A highly significant increase in anti-Vesivirus (family Caliciviridae) antibody prevalence, along the axis from healthy blood donors; donors with elevated transaminase; patients with clinical hepatitis; and patients with post-transfusion/dialysis hepatitis, has been reported in human sera from the USA and Europe. Asian samples have now been tested retrospectively using serology and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a Vesivirus partial-capsid antigen expressed as a fusion protein. Anti-vesiviral antibodies were measured by optical densities (OD(650)) and compared in patients separated by age, gender and Groups A-F as follows: Control Group A, an Experimental Group B, which was divided further into Group C, patients with elevated enzymes (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT); Group D, patients receiving transfused blood; Group E, patients with high enzyme levels after transfusion; and Group F, hepatitis B and C positive patients. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving transfusion(s), were positive for anti-Vesivirus antibody compared with non-transfused patients (P = 0.008; OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.43-10.43). Also, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly associated with elevated biochemical liver function tests: ALT ? 20?IU or AST ? 120?IU (P = 0.017; OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 1.30-13.80). In the blood transfusion group, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly correlated with high enzyme levels (ALT, P = 0.018; AST, P = 0.010; ?-GT, P = 0.020). These data provide serologic evidence of vesiviral transfusion-transmission-associated disease, which could include infection of any organ system where cytopathology resulted in high levels of either ALT or AST. PMID:23080501

Lee, Heetae; Cho, You-Hee; Park, Jeong Su; Kim, Eui-Chong; Smith, Alvin W; Ko, GwangPyo

2012-12-01

327

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural Sub-District of South India  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002. Methods Survey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) were eligible for sputum examination by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; two sputum samples were collected from each eligible person. Persons with one or both sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were labeled suffering from PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct for bias introduced by incompleteness of data. In six clusters, registered persons were also screened by X-ray chest. Persons with any abnormal shadow on X-ray were eligible for sputum examination in addition to those with symptoms and ATT. Multiplication factor calculated as ratio of prevalence while using both screening tools to prevalence using symptoms screening alone was applied to entire study population to estimate prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray. Results Of 71,874 residents ?15 years of age, 63,362 (88.2%) were screened for symptoms and ATT. Of them, 5120 (8.1%) - 4681 (7.4%) with symptoms and an additional 439 (0.7%) with ATT were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimen were collected from 4850 (94.7%) and early morning sputum specimens from 4719 (92.2%). Using symptom screening alone, prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ?15 years of age was 83 (CI: 57–109), 152 (CI: 108–197) and 196 (CI :145–246) per 100,000 population respectively. Prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray was 108 (CI: 82–134), 198 (CI: 153–243) and 254 (CI: 204–301) respectively. Conclusion Observed prevalence suggests further strengthening of TB control program.

Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Prahlad; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Singh, Sanjay; Narasimhaiah, Somashekar; Joshi, Malathi V.; Gupta, Joydev; Lakshminarayana; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Velu, Magesh; Papkianathan, Suganthi; Babu, Suseendra; Krishna, Hemalatha

2012-01-01

328

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 h) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature\\u000a of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed that older\\u000a characters, regardless of sex, appeared less frequently and in less prominent roles than other adult characters, but not in\\u000a comparison to adolescents and children. The

Shu-Chin Lien; Yan Bing Zhang; Mary Lee Hummert

2009-01-01

329

Low serum magnesium concentrations are associated with a high prevalence of premature ventricular complexes in obese adults with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Premature ventricular complexes (PVC) predict cardiovascular mortality among several adult populations. Increased arrhythmia prevalence has been reported during controlled magnesium (Mg) depletion studies in adults. We thus hypothesized that serum magnesium (sMg) concentrations are inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in adults at high cardiovascular risk. Methods Anthropometric, demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed in 750 Cree adults, aged > 18 yrs, who participated in an age-stratified, cross-sectional health survey in Quebec, Canada. Holter electrocardiograms recorded heart rate variability and cardiac arrhythmias for two consecutive hours. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between sMg and PVC. Results PVC prevalence in adults with hypomagnesemia (sMg ? 0.70 mmol/L) was more than twice that of adults without hypomagnesemia (50% vs. 21%, p = 0.015); results were similar when adults with cardiovascular disease history were excluded. All hypomagnesemic adults with PVC had type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Prevalence of PVC declined across the sMg concentration gradient in adults with T2DM only (p < 0.001 for linear trend). In multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex, community, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, kidney disease, antihypertensive and cholesterol lowering drug use, and blood docosahexaenoic acid concentrations, the odds ratio of PVC among T2DM subjects with sMg > 0.70 mmol/L was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.06-0.98) p = 0.046 compared to those with sMg ? 0.70 mmol/L. Conclusions sMg concentrations were inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in patients with T2DM in a dose response manner, indicating that suboptimal sMg may be a contributor to arrhythmias among patients with T2DM.

2012-01-01

330

The prevalence of marijuana smoking in young adults with sickle cell disease: a longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The active ingredients of marijuana may have beneficial properties in the treatment of chronic pain and inflammation and is being used by sufferers of chronic pain and arthritis in some settings. Anecdotally, marijuana is believed by some sickle cell disease (SCD) patients to improve their health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of marijuana smoking in the Jamaica

J Knight-Madden; N Lewis; IR Hambleton

2006-01-01

331

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has scarcely been researched in the elderly. There is no population-based information on prevalence and risk factors in older persons. Patients with PTSD are often not recognized or incorrectly diagnosed. As the disorder has great implications for the quality of life, a correct diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Increased knowledge on vulnerability factors for PTSD

Willeke H. van Zelst; Edwin de Beurs; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Richard van Dyck

2003-01-01

332

Prevalence and Correlates of Pica among Adults with Intellectual Disability in Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Increased knowledge of complex behaviors such as pica is needed to improve the support and services in the community for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Though the prevalence of pica has been documented extensively in institutionalized settings, few studies have explored its etiology. The aim of this study is to explore the…

Ashworth, Melody; Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.

2008-01-01

333

Prevalence of Renal Artery and Kidney Abnormalities by Computed Tomography among Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objectives: Management of incidental renal artery and kidney abnormalities in patients undergoing computed tomography scans is a clinical challenge because their frequency in healthy subjects has not been precisely estimated. Therefore, the prevalence and management of these abnormalities were determined among a large cohort of potential kidney donors undergoing protocol evaluations. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: All patients

Elizabeth C. Lorenz; Terri J. Vrtiska; John C. Lieske; John J. Dillon; Mark D. Stegall; Xujian Li; Eric J. Bergstralh; Andrew D. Rule

2010-01-01

334

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

2012-01-01

335

The prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic changes have led to profound changes in individuals' lifestyles, including the adoption of unhealthy food consumption patterns, prevalent tobacco use, alcohol abuse and physical inactivity, especially in large cities like Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of Non-communicable Disease Risk Factors survey was conducted to identify physical activity patterns and factors associated with 'insufficient'

Oanh TH Trinh; Nguyen D Nguyen; Michael J Dibley; Philayrath Phongsavan; Adrian E Bauman

2008-01-01

336

Sources and prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses in adults in urban and rural settings of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study provides data on the sources of asthma diagnoses in the adult Bangladeshi population in urban and rural settings. The paper also reports the prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses and associated socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three communities: two rural settings and one urban setting, with a total sample size of 32,665 subjects. Pre-existing surveillance data provided individual socio-demographic factors. Provider categories were based on previous research describing provider plurality in Bangladesh. Descriptive statistics, univariate regression and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) generalists provided the largest proportion of diagnoses in both urban (54.6%) and rural (42.4%) sites. The largest proportion of non-MBBS-trained healthcare workers providing diagnoses of asthma was spiritual healers (13.3%) in the urban settings and village doctors (42.4%) in rural settings. The overall prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses was 5.0% in the urban population and 3.5% in the rural population. The results highlight the importance of non-MBBS doctors in serving the healthcare needs of the Bangladeshi population. This study reveals a higher prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses in the urban setting than in rural ones, which is consistent with international literature on the topic. PMID:23305210

Bartlett, Emily; Parr, John; Lindeboom, Wietze; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Koehlmoos, Tracy Pérez

2013-01-11

337

Prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection among health care workers in pediatric and immunosuppressed adult units.  

PubMed

The prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection varies not only from one country to another, but also with social, economic, and environmental conditions and with professional activity. Health care workers in contact with the main vectors of the CMV (i.e., children and immunosuppressed patients) are particularly exposed to the infection. We assessed the prevalence of the virus among health care personnel in light of CMV epidemiology and the recent shift in living conditions and family size. Our study was included in a broader program evaluating the risk of infection among female hospital workers of childbearing age. The goal of the program was to implement appropriate preventive measures for personnel who were not immune to the infection. Consequently, we included only female caregivers who worked with children or immunosuppressed patients. The study was based on a clinical examination, a medical and occupational questionnaire, the assessment of tasks performed; and CMV serologic testing. The overall seroprevalence was 44.25% in our population (n = 400) and was comparable regardless of the place of work. Prevalence differed significantly with age and parity, and we also found that it was higher among personnel who worked in closer contact with the patients (nurse's aides, pediatric nurse's aides) than among those whose tasks required more technical skills (nurses, pediatric nurses) (57.3% vs 34.5%, P < 0.01). The logistic regression analysis between prevalence of CMV antibodies, age, parity, and type of job showed that "contact job" was as significant a factor as parity to explain immunization in our population (odds ratio, 2.2). We also determined a correlation between the prevalence of CMV antibodies and tasks performed. In addition, we found a non-negligible group of non-immune personnel (55.75%) and young workers (mean age: 33.4) who were potentially exposed to infection. This points to the need to establish a prevention program. PMID:11094790

Sobaszek, A; Fantoni-Quinton, S; Frimat, P; Leroyer, A; Laynat, A; Edme, J L

2000-11-01

338

Prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes in a cohort of Italian young adults with Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare, multisystemic genomic disorder showing a high prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in adulthood. The reason for this association is unknown, though hemizygosity for genes mapping to the WS chromosome region has been implicated. Twenty-two Italian young adults with WS (13 females, 9 males) were studied. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and ?-cell function was estimated with Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA)-B%, Insulinogenic Index, and corrected insulin response whereas insulin sensitivity was assessed with HOMA-Insulin Resistance Index, Quantitative Insulin Check Index, and composite Insulin Sensitivity Index. One patient had known diabetes mellitus (DM), whereas impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was diagnosed in 12 patients and DM in one (63.6% prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism). IGT patients were more insulin resistant than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whereas ?-cell function was unchanged or increased. Islet autoimmunity was absent. Logistic regression showed that impaired glucose metabolism was not associated with age, body mass index (BMI), or family history of DM. ?-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and post-load insulin levels did not differ between WS patients with NGT and healthy controls comparable for gender, age, and BMI, though WS-NGT patients had higher post-load glucose values. These data confirm the high prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in WS young adults, thus suggesting the need for screening these patients with OGTT. IGT is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity, but not with impaired ?-cell function, islet autoimmunity, and traditional risk factors for type 2 DM. PMID:23495209

Masserini, Benedetta; Bedeschi, Maria Francesca; Bianchi, Vera; Scuvera, Giulietta; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Lalatta, Faustina; Selicorni, Angelo; Orsi, Emanuela

2013-03-12

339

Brand Placements in Korean Films, 1995–2003: A Content Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis was conducted of the top 10 most popular Korean films of each year between 1995 and 2003. The study examines to what extent and in what context brands have been placed in Korean films over the nine-year period. Results indicate that brands are prevalent and occurrences have increased over time. Comedy and action were the most popular

Yongjun Sung; Jongsuk Choi; Federico de Gregorio

2008-01-01

340

Alcohol and tobacco use among South Korean adolescents: An ecological review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents a comprehensive review of the literature on the predictors, consequences and prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among South Korean youth. A systematic review of the literature in Korean and English social science journals was undertaken. Findings suggest that processes at multiple levels may lead to problems with alcohol and tobacco among these youth. In particular, the

Jun Sung Hong; Na Youn Lee; Andrew Grogan-Kaylor; Hui Huang

2011-01-01

341

The Trend of Body Donation for Education Based on Korean Social and Religious Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or…

Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

2011-01-01

342

Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Cataract in Adult Patients With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes in Russia  

PubMed Central

AIM: The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic cataract (DC) in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients within the Russian Federation. Also, the stage of DR at the time of its identification and the proportion of new cases diagnosed with DR or DC were to be determined. METHODS: A random sample of 7,186 adult patients with diabetes was screened for DR and DC using fundoscopy and fundus photography. Levels of HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate were assessed. RESULTS: In diabetic patients, the prevalence of DR and DC was 45.9% and 30.6%, respectively. These complications appeared significantly more frequently in patients with type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of background, preproliferative and proliferative DR among diabetic patients was 28.1%, 8.1%, and 6.7%, respectively. Patients with DR were older, had a longer duration of diabetes, higher HbA1c, elevated plasma total cholesterol, increased triglicerides, and higher systolic BP, compared with patients without DR. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria were more prevalent among patients with DR compared with non-DR patients. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that diabetic retinopathy and cataract are wide-spread complications among diabetic patients in Russia. However, the disease course is more aggressive and accelerated in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those having type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to prevent DR by identifying diabetes and signs of retinopathy at the earliest possible stage of progression for timely and adequate retina laser coagulation or surgical treatment, compensation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and normalization of blood glucose and pressure.

Dedov, Ivan; Maslova, Oxana; Suntsov, Yurii; Bolotskaia, Lubov; Milenkaia, Tamara; Besmertnaia, Lena

2009-01-01

343

Prevalence of treated behavioral disorders among adult shelter users: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Of 27,638 homeless adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters in the years 1990 through 1992, 20.1% received treatment for a mental health disorder, and 25.3% for a substance use disorder in the years 1985 through 1993. An additional 20.7% were identified as having untreated substance use problems. Overall, a total of 65.5% of adult shelter users were identified as ever having had a mental health or substance use problem, treated or untreated. PMID:9494643

Culhane, D P; Avery, J M; Hadley, T R

1998-01-01

344

Korean Dietary Habits and Health Beliefs in the San Francisco Bay Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the 1990 census, nearly 800,000 Korean Americans live in the U.S., with 33% living in California. It is important that health practitioners understand their culturally based food and health habits and changes that may occur after Koreans live in the U.S. Dietary habits, health beliefs and health practices of 195 Korean adults in the San Francisco Bay Area

M. S. Yom; B. H. J. Gordon; K. P. Sucher

1995-01-01

345

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Adults in Community Settings in Taiwan ?  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the prevalence of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among adults in community settings in Taiwan and identify its risk factors, we conducted the present study. For a 3-month period, we enrolled all adults who attended mandatory health examinations at three medical centers and signed the informed consent. Nasal swabs were taken for the isolation of S. aureus. For each MRSA isolate, we performed multilocus sequence typing, identification of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, tests for the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, and tests for drug susceptibilities. Risk factors for MRSA colonization were determined. The results indicated that the MRSA colonization rate among adults in the community settings in Taiwan was 3.8% (119/3,098). Most MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59 (84.0%). Independent risk factors for MRSA colonization included the presence of household members less than 7 years old (P < 0.0001) and the use of antibiotics within the past year (P = 0.0031). Smoking appeared to be protective against MRSA colonization (P < 0.0001).

Wang, Jann-Tay; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Lee, Wen-Sen; Huang, Jeng-Hua; Chang, Shan-Chwen

2009-01-01

346

Prevalence of tooth wear on buccal and lingual surfaces and possible risk factors in young European adults.  

PubMed

To assess the prevalence of tooth wear on buccal/facial and lingual/palatal tooth surfaces and identify related risk factors in a sample of young European adults, aged 18-35 years. Calibrated and trained examiners measured tooth wear, using the basic erosive wear examination (BEWE) on in 3187 patients in seven European countries and assessed the impact of risk factors with a previously validated questionnaire. Each individual was characterized by the highest BEWE score recorded for any scoreable surface. Bivariate analyses examined the proportion of participants who scored 2 or 3 in relation to a range of demographic, dietary and oral care variables. The highest tooth wear BEWE score was 0 for 1368 patients (42.9%), 1 for 883 (27.7%), 2 for 831 (26.1%) and 3 for 105 (3.3%). There were large differences between different countries with the highest levels of tooth wear observed in the UK. Important risk factors for tooth wear included heartburn or acid reflux, repeated vomiting, residence in rural areas, electric tooth brushing and snoring. We found no evidence that waiting after breakfast before tooth brushing has any effect on the degree of tooth wear (p=0.088). Fresh fruit and juice intake was positively associated with tooth wear. In this adult sample 29% had signs of tooth wear making it a common presenting feature in European adults. PMID:24004965

Bartlett, D W; Lussi, A; West, N X; Bouchard, P; Sanz, M; Bourgeois, D

2013-09-01

347

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Adult Paternity Among Adolescent Females Ages 14 through 16 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14–16 years having children fathered by males\\u000a age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was\\u000a a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females\\u000a aged 14–16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence

Brian C. Castrucci; Jamie Clark; Kayan Lewis; Rachel Samsel; Gita Mirchandani

2010-01-01

348

Prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated risk factors among Turkish adults: Trabzon lipid study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia as defined by NCEP ATP III criteria in the Trabzon\\u000a Region of Turkey and to determine its associations with cardiovascular risk factors [hypertension (HT), body mass index (BMI),\\u000a waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and fasting serum glucose (FBG)] demographic factors (age, sex, obesity,\\u000a marital status, reproductive history

Cihangir Erem; Arif Hacihasanoglu; Orhan Deger; Mustafa Kocak; Murat Topbas

2008-01-01

349

High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-07-29

350

Prevalence and heritability of skin picking in an adult community sample: a twin study.  

PubMed

Skin-picking disorder (SPD) is a disabling psychiatric condition that can lead to skin damage and other medical complications. Epidemiological data is scarce and its causes are unknown. The present study examined the prevalence and heritability of skin-picking symptoms in a large sample of twins. A total of 2,518 twins completed a valid and reliable self-report measure of skin-picking behavior. The prevalence of clinically significant skin picking was established using empirically derived cut-offs. Twin modeling methods were employed to decompose the variance in the liability to skin picking into additive genetic and shared and non-shared environmental factors. A total of 1.2% of twins scored above the cut-off, indicative of clinically significant skin picking. All these participants were women. Univariate model-fitting analyses (female twins only, N = 2,191) showed that genetic factors accounted for approximately 40% (95% CI 19-58%) of the variance in skin picking, with non-shared environmental factors and measurement error accounting for the remaining variance (60% [95% CI 42-81%]). Shared environmental factors were negligible. It is concluded that pathological skin picking is relatively prevalent problem, particularly among women, and that it tends to run in families primarily due to genetic factors. Non-shared environmental factors are also likely to play an important role in its etiology. PMID:22619132

Monzani, Benedetta; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Cherkas, Lynn; Harris, Juliette; Keuthen, Nancy; Mataix-Cols, David

2012-05-22

351

Energy under-reporting in adults with mood disorders: prevalence and associated factors.  

PubMed

Little is known about relationships of energy under-reporting in mental health populations. Using data from a sample of individuals with mood disorders (n = 97), demographic, food intake and body-related, psychological, lifestyle, and condition-specific factors were examined in relationship to energy under-reporting. More than two-thirds (70%) were considered under-reporters based on Goldberg's classifications. Differences were found between energy under-reporters and accurate reporters for diet quality, sex, body mass index (BMI), weight change after taking psychiatric medications, and for those taking mood stabilizers (all p's < 0.05). Regression analyses indicated there was lower prevalence of under-reporting as diet quality improved, if individuals experienced weight change after taking psychiatric medication, or were females (p < 0.05). The prevalence of under-reporting was more than 1.3 times in those taking mood stabilizers versus those not taking this psychiatric medication [Prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01-1.66, p < 0.05]. Further research of under-reporting in mental health populations will enable targeted approaches to improve accuracy of diet reporting and inferences made about nutrition and mental health. PMID:23868555

Davison, Karen M

2013-07-20

352

Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.  

PubMed

Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (<18 years old) students. The scores of all of these scales were significantly correlated. The strong correlation among different addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours. PMID:20559694

Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

2011-06-01

353

The prevalence of tinea pedis and tinea manuum in adults in rural areas in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of tinea pedis and manuum (dermatophyte infections of the hands and feet) in adults in rural areas of Turkey, the risk factors and self-administered treatment options. A total of 2,574 people living in a rural area were enrolled in the study. Participants were asked demographic data, hygienic habits in a

Nuri Kiraz; Selma Metintas; Yasemin Oz; Filiz Koc; Esra Ayse Koku Aksu; Cemalettin Kalyoncu; Nilgün Kasifoglu; Esin Cetin; ?nci Ar?kan

2010-01-01

354

Low prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Chlamydia pneumoniae was determined in a prospective study of 546 adult patients with CAP included in the German CAP Competence Network (CAPNETZ) project. Three different PCR protocols for detection of C. pneumoniae in respiratory specimens were compared by a multicenter, inter-laboratory comparison involving three laboratories. A case was defined as a patient

Nele Wellinghausen; Eberhard Straube; Heike Freidank; Heike von Baum; Reinhard Marre; Andreas Essig

2006-01-01

355

Costing adult male circumcision in high HIV prevalence, low circumcision rate countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic evidence that male circumcision has a substantial effect in preventing HIV infection might be the most important medical finding in the course of the AIDS epidemic since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The transition from clinical trails to implementation of a general adult male circumcision (AMC) program is beginning, and this paper uses an AMC

John Vincent Fieno

2008-01-01

356

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In people with intellectual disability (ID), impaired sleep is common. Life expectancy has increased in this group, and it is known that in general population sleep deteriorates with aging. Therefore the aims of this systematic review were to examine how sleep problems are defined in research among adults and older people with ID, and to collect…

van de Wouw, E.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

2012-01-01

357

Older adults and smoking: Characteristics, nicotine dependence and prevalence of DSM-IV 12-month disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There are few studies investigating the characteristics of older smokers. Research on younger adults has determined that (1) the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) diagnosis of nicotine dependence (ND) excludes a sizable portion of the smoking population, and (2) younger smokers have high rates of comorbid DSM disorders. In this study, we sought to replicate these results in an

Natalie Sachs-Ericsson; Nicole Collins; Brad Schmidt; Mike Zvolensky

2011-01-01

358

Frequent Behavioral Delay Tendencies By AdultsInternational Prevalence Rates of Chronic Procrastination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult men (n = 582) and women (n = 765) from six nations (Spain, Peru, Venezuela, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States) completed two reliable and valid measures of chronic procrastination. Because both arousal and avoidant procrastination types were significantly related across the entire sample (r = .72, p < .001) and within each national sample, regression analyses

Joseph R. Ferrari; Juan Francisco Díaz-Morales; Jean OCallaghan; Karem Díaz; Doris Argumedo

2007-01-01

359

Adult Recall of Parental Alienation in a Community Sample: Prevalence and Associations With Psychological Maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred fifty-three adults working in a New York child welfare agency agreed to complete anonymous research packets containing, among other measures, 6 existing scales of psychological maltreatment and a single item about exposure to parental alienation as a child. Results revealed that one fourth of the full sample reported some exposure to parental alienation, which itself was associated with

Amy J. L. Baker

2009-01-01

360

Prevalence and Impact of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Southern Chinese Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Vitamin D is a vital element for bone health but the problem of vitamin D deficiency is underestimated in Hong Kong. Methods: Serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were evaluated in 382 community dwelling Chinese adults >50 years for their relation with bone mineral density (BMD) and risks of osteoporotic fractures and falls. Results: The mean age of

W. Z. M. Wat; J. Y. Y. Leung; S. Tam; A. W. C. Kung

2007-01-01

361

Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. METHODS: Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national

Fikru Tesfaye; Peter Byass; Stig Wall

2009-01-01

362

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In people with intellectual disability (ID), impaired sleep is common. Life expectancy has increased in this group, and it is known that in general population sleep deteriorates with aging. Therefore the aims of this systematic review were to examine how sleep problems are defined in research among adults and older people with ID, and to collect…

van de Wouw, E.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

2012-01-01

363

Prevalence of Kaposi's Sarcoma Among Adult HIV-Seropositive Patients Seen in a Designated HIV Treatment and Care Center in Abuja, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a dearth of information on the prevalence of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AAKS) in Nigeria despite the HIV National seroprevalence of 5% and the occurrence of the disease in people living with HIV\\/AIDS. Objective: To determine the prevalence of AAKS among HIV-seropositive adults seen in an HIV\\/AIDS treatment and care center in Abuja, Nigeria. Design: This was a

K. C. Iregbu; O. Y. Elegba

2006-01-01

364

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Clustering Among the Adult Population of China Results From the International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asia (InterAsia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors has been increasing in China. Methods and Results—We examined the prevalence of CVD risk factor clustering among Chinese adults aged 35 to 74 years with data from the International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asia (InterAsia), a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample (n14 690) conducted during 2000 to 2001

Dongfeng Gu; Anjali Gupta; Paul Muntner; Shengshou Hu; Xiufang Duan; Jichun Chen; Robert F. Reynolds; Paul K. Whelton; Jiang He

2011-01-01

365

Korean History: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Kenneth Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, this comprehensive bibliography is offered as an update and supplement to the 1980 annotated bibliography Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide. Robinson's bibliography includes his earlier Korean War bibliography (see the November 5, 1999 Scout Report), as well as covering early modern Korean history, the nineteenth century, modern history of the North and South into the 1960s, economics, literature, the Korean diaspora, law, women, demography, education, and music, among others. An excellent resource for students and scholars alike, the bibliography is easily navigated via a table of contents or menu buttons on the left-hand side of the browser window.

366

Ancient Japan's Korean Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes relations among the peoples of the Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago between A.D. 350 and 700 from an archaeological perspective. Until recently, the international academic community was divided between those who advocated the \\

William Wayne Farris

1996-01-01

367

Prevalence of physical and verbal aggressive behaviours and associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background Verbal and physical aggressive behaviours are among the most disturbing and distressing behaviours displayed by older patients in long-term care facilities. Aggressive behaviour (AB) is often the reason for using physical or chemical restraints with nursing home residents and is a major concern for caregivers. AB is associated with increased health care costs due to staff turnover and absenteeism. Methods The goals of this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study are to determine the prevalence of verbal and physical aggressive behaviours and to identify associated factors among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area (n = 2 332). Results The same percentage of older adults displayed physical aggressive behaviour (21.2%) or verbal aggressive behaviour (21.5%), whereas 11.2% displayed both types of aggressive behaviour. Factors associated with aggressive behaviour (both verbal and physical) were male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild and severe cognitive impairment, insomnia, psychological distress, and physical restraints. Factors associated with physical aggressive behaviour were older age, male gender, neuroleptic drug use, mild or severe cognitive impairment, insomnia and psychological distress. Finally, factors associated with verbal aggressive behaviour were benzodiazepine and neuroleptic drug use, functional dependency, mild or severe cognitive impairment and insomnia. Conclusion Cognitive impairment severity is the most significant predisposing factor for aggressive behaviour among older adults in long-term care facilities in the Quebec City area. Physical and chemical restraints were also significantly associated with AB. Based on these results, we suggest that caregivers should provide care to older adults with AB using approaches such as the progressively lowered stress threshold model and reactance theory which stress the importance of paying attention to the severity of cognitive impairment and avoiding the use of chemical or physical restraints.

Voyer, Philippe; Verreault, Rene; Azizah, Ginette M; Desrosiers, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Bedard, Annick

2005-01-01

368

High prevalence of central hypothyroidism in adult patients with ?-thalassemia major.  

PubMed

The commonest form of thyroid dysfunction seen in subjects with TM is primary hypothyroidism due to abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Central hypothyroidism (CH) has been reported as an uncommon clinical entity in TM patients although the anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical oxidative stresses. Diagnosis is usually made on a biochemical basis showing low circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone associated with an inappropriately low TSH levels. The diagnosis is not clinically obvious and a basal normal TSH level does not exclude the diagnosis of CH. Therefore, it is important that clinicians accurately interpret thyroid function tests. In TM patients, CH prevalence differs at different ages is unknown and it is not easy to diagnose because most of the symptoms of symptoms of CH are non specific and are frequently attributed to anaemia or other associated complications . We performed a cross-sectional analysis on a large database using the clinical records of our TM patients to explore the prevalence of CH in prepubertal (<11 years: 25 patients; 13 males) peripubertal (between 11 and 16 years: 9 patients; 3 males), and pubertal TM subjects (>16 years: 305 patients; 164 males). Central hypothyroidism was present in 26 (7,6%) TM patients. Their mean age was 29.9±8.4 years, 14 (53.8%) were males and 12 (46.1%) were females. The prevalence of CH was 6% in patients with a chronological age below 21 years and 7.9% in those above 21 years. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of CH through accurate interpretation of thyroid function tests. We recommend L-thyroxine therapy if the level of FT4 is consistently low provided that the patient has normal cortisol levels. PMID:24099820

De Sanctis, V; Soliman, A; Candini, G; Campisi, S; Anastasi, S; Yassin, M

2013-09-01

369

One-year prevalence of migraine in Sweden: a population-based study in adults.  

PubMed

A randomly selected sample of 1668 individuals (782 women and 886 men) aged 18-74 years was interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire including the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria for migraine. The survey was performed by SIFO, the national public opinion poll agency. The results obtained demonstrate that 21% of the Swedish population had suffered from severe headaches during the past year. A majority of these headache sufferers (61%) fulfilled the IHS-criteria for migraine. The 1-year prevalence of migraine in Sweden was found to be 13.2 +/- 1.9% (16.7% among women and 9.5% among men). The prevalence of migraine in this Swedish population did not differ between the northern, middle and southern part of Sweden, or between urban and rural areas or different income groups. Only about half (49%) of the migraineurs had been diagnosed by a physician. Among the individuals who fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine the mean attack-frequency was 1.3 per month and the mean attack-duration was 19 h. If the duration of the attack was disregarded as a strict criterion for migraine (attacks < 4 h and > 72 h were included), the prevalence increased to 17.0 +/- 1.9% without affecting the sex distribution. With this amendment, 92% of those who considered their headaches to be migraine or migraine-like in fact fulfilled the alternative criteria for migraine. However, only 76% of those who believed that they had migraine or migraine-like headaches fulfilled the strict IHS criteria for migraine. An extension of the time window from 4 to 72 h may be reasonable both from a pragmatic and from a rational clinical point of view. PMID:11531898

Dahlöf, C; Linde, M

2001-07-01

370

Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ?18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (?2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance.

Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Leger, D.

2012-01-01

371

Prevalence of tobacco smoking in adults with tuberculosis in South Africa [Short communication].  

PubMed

We conducted a tobacco prevalence survey among 707 in-patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Current smoking status was expanded to include both patients who self-reported at the time of TB diagnosis and patients who stopped smoking in the 2-month period before diagnosis. Six per cent reported current smoking at the time of TB diagnosis, 26% within 2 months before TB diagnosis. Human immunodeficiency virus status (73% positive) was not associated with current smoking. Classifying current smoking status among newly diagnosed TB patients should be extended to include smoking at time of the onset of TB symptoms. PMID:23827797

Lam, C; Martinson, N; Hepp, L; Ambrose, B; Msandiwa, R; Wong, M L; Apelberg, B; Tamplin, S; Golub, J E

2013-07-03

372

Prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression in dating relationships of adolescents and young adults.  

PubMed

Dyadic influences among the diverse forms of aggression in dating relationships of adolescents and young adults have been reported in various studies. The goal of this research was to extend a dyadic model of physical aggression against partners to sexual aggression against partners. An urban sample of 4,052 adolescents and young adults of both genders, between 16 and 26 years old, was used. The percentage of male aggressors was significantly higher than that of the females (35.7% vs. 14.9%) and the percentage of victimization was higher for the women (25.1% vs.21.7%). Sexual aggression and sexual victimization was almost solely psychological in nature, that is, verbal coercion. As predicted by the dyadic model of physical aggression in dating relationships, sexual victimization was best predicted by sexual aggression of the individuals in this study both for males and females. PMID:19403076

Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Graña, José Luis; O'Leary, K Daniel; González, M Pilar

2009-05-01

373

Comorbidity of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder: prevalence and clinical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity\\u000a with lifetime bipolar disorder, and the influence of this comorbidity on various demographic and clinical variables in patients.\\u000a Patients (n = 159) with a previous diagnosis of bipolar disorder (79 female, 80 male) were included in this study. All patients were\\u000a interviewed for the

Lut Tamam; Gonca Karakus; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

2008-01-01

374

Prevalence of Regular Exercise Among Iranian Adults: A Study in Northern Iran.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Regular exercise is an important aspect of physical activity for people living in urban areas. We examined prevalence of regular exercise in leisure times and some related factors in middle aged men and women in northern Iran. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 1425 women and 676 men in two main cities in northern Iran. Information on exercise habits was collected using a self-administrated questionnaire. Regular exercise was defined as any kind of recreational or sport physical activity other than walking performed three or more days per week for at least 20 minutes. Questions on perceived barriers on regular exercise, walking habit were also included in the questionnaire. RESULTS: Findings showed that 11.2% of the participants (9% in women and 12.8% in men P<0.05) did exercise regularly. Prevalence of doing regular exercise was inversely related to age in women but not in men. Educated women were more likely to do regular exercise. The most common perceived barrier for regular exercise was time insufficiency. CONCLUSION: Only a small proportion of the study men and women had sustainable regular exercise for one year. Regular exercise was more common among young and well educated women than older women and the men. PMID:23575214

Maddah, Mohsen; Akbarian, Zahra; Shoyooie, Solmaz; Rostamnejad, Maryam; Soleimani, Mehdi

2013-04-01

375

Prevalence of unsuspected thyroid nodules in adults on contrast enhanced 16- and 64-MDCT of the chest  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the prevalence of unsuspected thyroid nodules on contrast enhanced 16- and 64-modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) of the chest, in a population of adult outpatients imaged for indications other than thyroid disease. METHODS: This retrospective study involved review of intravascular contrast-enhanced MDCT scans of the chest from 3077 consecutive adult outpatients, to identify unsuspected thyroid nodules. Exclusion criteria included history of thyroid cancer, known thyroid nodules or thyroid disease and risk factors for thyroid cancer, as evidenced by their medical records. One of 9 radiologists recorded number of nodules, location and bidirectional measurement of largest nodule, as well as amount of thyroid visualized on the chest computed tomography (CT). Presence of nodule was correlated with age, gender, race and percentage of thyroid imaged. RESULTS: A total of 2510 (2510/3077 or 81.6%) study subjects were included in the data analysis; among them, one or more nodules were identified in 629 subjects (629/2510 or 25.1%), with 242 (242/629 or 38.5%) having multiple nodules. Patients with nodule(s) were significantly older than those without (64 ± 13 years vs 58 ± 14 years, P < 0.0001), and female gender was associated with presence of nodule(s) (373/1222 or 30.5% vs 256/1288 or 19.9%, P < 0.0001). Women were also more likely having multiple nodules (167/373 or 44.8%) compared to men (75/256 or 29.3%, P < 0.0001). The majority of nodules (427/629 or 67.9%) were less than 1 cm. CONCLUSION: This retrospective review revealed a prevalence of 25.1% for unsuspected thyroid nodules on contrast-enhanced chest CT.

Ahmed, Sameer; Johnson, Pamela T; Horton, Karen M; Lai, Hong; Zaheer, Atif; Tsai, Saline; Fishman, Elliot K

2012-01-01

376

Two Cases of Human Thelaziasis and Brief Review of Korean cases  

PubMed Central

The present study was performed to describe 2 cases of human thelaziasis (HT) which occurred in Gyeongsangnam- do and to briefly review the previously reported Korean cases. A 58-year old woman, residing in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, came to Gyeongsang National University Hospital (GNUH) complaining of foreign body sensation and itching of the right eye in March 2000. Total 6 adult nematodes of Thelazia callipaeda (2 males and 4 females) were detected in her right eye. A 80-year old man, residing in Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, came to GNUH complaining of foreign body sensation, itching, and pain of the right eye in December 2007. A total of 5 worms (4 females and 1 degenerated) were removed from his right eye. We analyzed characteristics of the total 39 Korean HT cases reported to date, including the present 2 cases. Most of the cases (71.8%) occurred in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do before 2000, and 21 cases (53.8%) were males and 18 (46.2%) were females. The prevalence was higher in younger ages below 30 years (48.7%) than 31-60 years (41.0%) and over 61 years (10.3%). The seasonal prevalence showed a higher incidence in autumn (43.6%) than in other seasons. Most of the cases (94.9%) were conjunctival sac infections and only 2 (5.1%) were intraocular cases. The present 2 HT cases are the first reported cases in Gyeongsangnam-do. Some characteristics of Korean HT cases were analyzed.

Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yoo, Ji Myong

2011-01-01

377

Prevalence, Comorbidities, and Correlates of Challenging Behavior Among Community-Dwelling Adults With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE:: Investigate the prevalence, comorbidities, and correlates of challenging behaviors among clients of the New South Wales Brain Injury Rehabilitation Program. SETTING:: All community-based rehabilitation services of the statewide program. PARTICIPANTS:: Five hundred seven active clients with severe traumatic brain injury. DESIGN:: Prospective multicenter study. MAIN MEASURES:: Eighty-eight clinicians from the 11 services rated clients on the Overt Behaviour Scale, Disability Rating Scale, Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale-2, Care and Needs Scale, and Health of the Nation Outcome Scale-Acquired Brain Injury. RESULTS:: Overall prevalence rate of challenging behaviors was 54%. Inappropriate social behavior (33.3%), aggression (31.9%), and adynamia (23.1%) were the 3 most common individual behaviors, with 35.5% of the sample displaying more than 1 challenging behavior. Significant associations were found between increasing levels of challenging behavior and longer duration of posttraumatic amnesia, increasing functional disability, greater restrictions in participation, increased support needs, and greater degrees of psychiatric disturbance, respectively (P < 0.004). Multivariate binomial logistic regression found that premorbid alcohol abuse, postinjury restrictions in participation, and higher levels of postinjury psychiatric disturbance were independent predictors of challenging behavior. CONCLUSIONS:: Challenging behaviors are widespread among community-dwelling adults with severe traumatic brain injury. Services need to deliver integrated anger management, social skills, and motivational treatments. PMID:23640541

Sabaz, Mark; Simpson, Grahame K; Walker, Alexandra J; Rogers, Jeffrey M; Gillis, Inika; Strettles, Barbara

2013-05-01

378

Prevalence of Self-Reported Memory Problems in Adult Cancer Survivors: A National Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Cancer and its treatments can impair cognitive function, especially memory, leading to diminished quality of life. Prevalence studies of cancer treatment–related memory impairment have not been conducted in the adult-onset cancer population. Methods: To determine the prevalence of self-reported memory (SRM) problems in people with and without a history of cancer, we analyzed data from a large, nationally representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. Participants answered the yes-or-no question, “Are you limited in any way because of difficulty remembering or because you experience periods of confusion?” Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, and general health were controlled. Results: The sample (N = 9,819) consisted of 4,862 men and 4,957 women age 40 years and older. There were 1,938 blacks, 5,552 whites, 1,998 Hispanics, and 331 participants categorized as other race/multiracial. Of these, 1,305 reported a history of cancer; 8,514 did not. Memory problems were self-reported more often by participants with a history of cancer (14%) than by those without (8%). Having had cancer was independently associated with SRM impairment (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.83). Other predictors of memory impairment were age, lower education, lower income, and poorer general health (P < .01 for all). Participants with cancer had a 40% greater likelihood of reporting memory problems relative to those without cancer. Conclusion: Cancer history independently predicted SRM impairment. Prevalence of SRM impairment in people with a history of cancer/cancer treatment is substantial and increasing. Health care providers should assess and be ready to treat memory impairment in patients with a history of cancer.

Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Winters, Paul C.; Ahles, Tim A.; Antoni, Michael; Armstrong, F. Daniel; Penedo, Frank; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Miller, Tracie L.; Fiscella, Kevin

2012-01-01

379

Prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in Latin America, India and China: cross-cultural study  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety is a common mental disorder among older people who live in the Western world, yet little is known about its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Aims We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in low- and middle-income countries with diverse cultures. Method Cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 or over (n = 15 021) in 11 catchment sites in 7 countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru) were carried out as part of the 10/66 collaboration. Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT) diagnostic algorithm. Results The age- and gender-standardised prevalence of anxiety varied greatly across sites, ranging from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0–0.3) in rural China to 9.6% (95% CI 6.2–13.1) in urban Peru. Urban centres had higher estimates of anxiety than their rural counterparts with adjusted (age, gender and site) odds ratios of 2.9 (95% CI 1.7–5.3). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and comorbid physical illnesses were all associated with a GMS/AGECAT diagnosis of anxiety, and so was disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II). Conclusions Anxiety is common in Latin America. Estimates from this region are similar to the ones from high-income European countries found in the literature. As demographic change will occur more rapidly in these countries, further research exploring the mental health of older people in developing areas is vital, with the inclusion of other specific anxiety disorders, along with evidence for strategies for supporting those with these disorders.

Prina, A. Matthew; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Brayne, Carol; Prince, Martin

2011-01-01

380

Replicating the Positivity Effect in Picture Memory in Koreans: Evidence for Cross-Cultural Generalizability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults’ relatively better memory for positive over negative material (positivity effect) has been widely observed in Western samples. This study examined whether a relative preference for positive over negative material is also observed in older Koreans. Younger and older Korean participants viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), were tested for recall and recognition of the images,

Yookyung Kwon; Susanne Scheibe; Gregory R. Samanez-Larkin; Jeanne L. Tsai; Laura L. Carstensen

2009-01-01

381

Korean Older Intimate Partner Violence Survivors in North America: Cultural Considerations and Practice Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

While literature on elder abuse has expanded, elder abuse by intimate partners has been less investigated. Even less is known about intimate partner violence among older Koreans living in North America. This article identifies important cultural considerations for individuals helping the Korean older adult community, beginning with the definition of intimate partner violence in this community and barriers to leaving

Woochan S. Shim; Holly Nelson-Becker

2009-01-01

382

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Mentally Disabled Children and Adults of Urmia, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection in institutions for mental retardation of Urmia City, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran was investigated. Methods This descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out in institutions of mentally retarded patients of Urmia city in 2007–2008. Fecal samples of 225 less than 29 year old mentally disabled individuals were examined using direct smear, formalin - ether concentration. Beside their scotch tape samples were observed for Enterobius eggs. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS 10. Results Of 225 mentally retarded persons, 118(52.4%) and 107(47.6%) were female and male. The overall prevalence of infection was 20.4% and that of male, and female were 20.5% and 20.3%, respectively. 17.3% of examined individuals had protozoa infection and 3.1% showed Enterobius vermicularis eggs. The infection rates of detected intestinal protozoa were Entamoeba coli 9.7%, Giardia lamblia 6.2%, Iodoamoeba butschlii 5.7%, Blastocystis hominis 4%, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 0.4%. Forty percent of 1–5 year, 22.8% of 6–14 year, 22.2% of 15–18 year, and 16.8% of more than 18-year age groups, had positive results in their tests. According to IQ test results, 23.8% of less than 25 score group, 19.6% of 25–50, 17.2% of 50–75, and 40% of 75–90 groups were infected. Conclusion More efforts for increasing sanitation level and prompt diagnosis and treatment of infected persons in these institutions are necessary.

Tappeh, Kh Hazrati; Mohammadzadeh, H; Rahim, R Nejad; Barazesh, A; Khashaveh, Sh; Taherkhani, H

2010-01-01

383

Mental health issues in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: prevalence and impact on glycemic control.  

PubMed

Mental health comorbidities can negatively affect disease management in adolescents with chronic illnesses. This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of mental health issues in a population of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 150 patients aged 11 to 25 years with type 1 diabetes from an urban, academic diabetes center was conducted. Participants completed 3 validated mental health disorder screening instruments: Beck's Depression Inventory, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-41 anxiety screen, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. More than a third screened positive: 11.3% for depression, 21.3% for anxiety, and 20.7% for disordered eating (14.7% had ?2 positive screens). Patients with a positive screen had twice the odds of having poor glycemic control as those without, as measured by HgbA1c. This study supports screening for mental health issues in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. PMID:22988007

Bernstein, Carrie M; Stockwell, Melissa S; Gallagher, Mary Pat; Rosenthal, Susan L; Soren, Karen

2012-09-17

384

Korean nursing students' intention to migrate abroad.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Migration of Korean nurses has continued with changing patterns and reasons. However, detailed studies of migration among Korean nursing students are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the intention, reasons, and preferences of migration among Korean nursing students. This study also identified priorities and barriers to the decision of nursing students to migrate and work abroad. DESIGN: A descriptive study using a questionnaire was used for this study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 717 nursing students from four BSN programs and three diploma programs at nursing schools in D city and K province of South Korea were included in the analysis. RESULTS: According to the results, 69.8% of respondents intended to migrate abroad, if possible, or absolutely in the future. The score for females who answered "yes, if possible" regarding the intention to migrate was significantly higher, compared to males. More than 64% of respondents eventually want to return to Korea after migration. The two most common reasons for migration were economic reason (salary) (29.7%) and "professional development (28.2%)". Half of all respondents preferred the US as the destination country of migration (50.5%). "Working condition" was the most prevalent reason for the decision regarding the destination and the place to work. More than 71% of respondents selected "the lack of language proficiency" as a barrier to migration. CONCLUSIONS: Economic reason was not as strong as in the past to explain migration of Korean nursing students. Most Korean nursing students want to return back with professional development and higher degree. Even permanent migration and return migration of nurses are an inevitable part of globalization, positive and negative aspects of migration between donor as well as destination countries should be investigated. PMID:23660240

Lee, Eunjoo; Moon, Mikyung

2013-05-01

385

Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.  

PubMed

Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias. PMID:20143107

Oluwole, O S A

2010-02-09

386

Hepatitis B Vaccination Prevalence and its Predictors Among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccination prevalence and its predictors were estimated among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American,\\u000a and Multiracial (A-PI-NA-M) adults. Using 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, estimates of HBV vaccination\\u000a among A-PI-NA-M adults (N = 233) were compared with all other racial\\/ethnic groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate predictors\\u000a of vaccination. Among A-PI-NA-M adults 42% (95%CI

John W. AyersHee-Soon; Hee-Soon Juon; Sunmin Lee; Eunmi Park

2010-01-01

387

High Prevalence of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors, Impaired Spermatogenesis, and Leydig Cell Failure in Adolescent and Adult Males with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, testic- ular tumors, or so-called adrenal rest tumors, have been de- scribed, but their presence in well controlled patients is thought to be rare. In this study, the prevalence of testicular tumors in 17 adolescent and adult male patients with congen- ital adrenal hyperplasia (age, 16 - 40 yr) was investigated. In 16

NIKE M. M. L. STIKKELBROECK; BARTO J. OTTEN; ARIFA PASIC; GERRIT J. JAGER

388

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilin city. METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through

Ina S Santos; Jose Boccio; Ari S Santos; Neiva CJ Valle; Camila S Halal; Marta Colvara Bachilli; Ricardo D Lopes

2005-01-01

389

Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or…

Herek, Gregory M.

2009-01-01

390

A General Practice-Based Prevalence Study of Epilepsy among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and of Its Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Behaviour Disturbance and Carer Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the elevated occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is well recognized, the nature of seizures and their association with psychopathology and carer strain are less clearly understood. The aims were to determine the prevalence and features of epilepsy in a community-based population of adults with…

Matthews, T.; Weston, N.; Baxter, H.; Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2008-01-01

391

A General Practice-Based Prevalence Study of Epilepsy among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and of Its Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Behaviour Disturbance and Carer Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Although the elevated occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is well recognized, the nature of seizures and their association with psychopathology and carer strain are less clearly understood. The aims were to determine the prevalence and features of epilepsy in a community-based population of adults with…

Matthews, T.; Weston, N.; Baxter, H.; Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2008-01-01

392

Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences Among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates From a National Probability Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey responses from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this paper reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Such experiences are conceptualized in terms of enacted stigma (criminal victimization, harassment, and discrimination based on sexual orientation) and felt stigma (perceptions that sexual minorities

Gregory M. Herek

2008-01-01

393

Birth cohort effects among U.S.-born adults born in the 1980s: Foreshadowing future trends in U.S. obesity prevalence  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity prevalence stabilized in the U.S. in the first decade of the 2000s. However, obesity prevalence may resume increasing if younger generations are more sensitive to the obesogenic environment than older generations. Methods We estimated cohort effects for obesity prevalence among young adults born in the 1980s. Using data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1971 and 2008, we calculated obesity for respondents aged between 2 and 74 years. We used the median polish approach to estimate smoothed age and period trends; residual non-linear deviations from age and period trends were regressed on cohort indicator variables to estimate birth cohort effects. Results After taking into account age effects and ubiquitous secular changes, cohorts born in the 1980s had increased propensity to obesity versus those born in the late 1960s. The cohort effects were 1.18 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.07] and 1.21 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.09] for the 1979–1983 and 1984–1988 birth cohorts, respectively. The effects were especially pronounced in Black males and females but appeared absent in White males. Conclusions Our results indicate a generational divergence of obesity prevalence. Even if age-specific obesity prevalence stabilizes in those born before the 1980s, age-specific prevalence may continue to rise in the 1980s cohorts, culminating in record high obesity prevalence as this generation enters its ages of peak obesity prevalence.

Robinson, Whitney R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Utz, Rebecca L.; Martin, Chantel L.; Yang, Yang

2012-01-01

394

Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488) and non-slum (= 5,667) groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8%) than non-slums (46.4%). Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P < 0.001) higher prevalence of smoking cigarettes (53.3%) as compared to those living in non-slums (44.6%). A similar pattern was found for bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression revealed significantly higher odds ratio (OR) of smoking cigarettes (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22), bidis (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.58–2.29) and any of the two (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13–1.34) among men living in slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums and non-slums by multivariable logistic regressions. Other significant correlates of smoking cigarettes were marital status (both areas), birth place (slums), and religion (non-slums). Similarly significant factors for smoking bidis were age (both areas), marital status (slums), religion (non-slums), and birth place (both areas). Conclusion The men living in the urban slums reported higher rates of smoking cigarettes and bidis as compared to men living in the urban non-slums. Some of the significant correlates of smoking e.g. education and division should be considered for prevention activities. Our findings clearly underscore the necessity of interventions and preventions by policy makers, public health experts and other stakeholders in slums because smoking was more prevalent in the slum communities with detrimental health sequelae.

Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Khan, Aklimunnessa; Kraemer, Alexander; Mori, Mitsuru

2009-01-01

395

School Bullying and Suicidal Risk in Korean Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Being a victim or a perpetra- tor of school bullying, the most common type of school violence, has been frequently associated with a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional, and social problems. In a Korean middle school community sample, this study specifically investigated the prevalence of suicidal ide- ations and behaviors in victims, perpetrators, and victim- perpetrators of school

Young Shin Kim; Yun-Joo Koh; Bennett Leventhal

2005-01-01

396

Prevalence and correlates of complicated grief in adults who have undergone a coronary artery bypass graft  

PubMed Central

Background Complicated Grief (CG) is a recently described mental health condition that follows bereavement. CG is often comorbid with depression and may also be associated with poor health outcomes. However, CG has not been studied in depressed medically ill populations. This study examined the prevalence, correlates, and impact of CG in depressed post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients. Methods A 5-item CG screen was administered to 302 depressed post-CABG patients participating in a comparative effectiveness intervention trial at 7 Pittsburgh-area hospitals from March 2004 to September 2007. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered collaborative care intervention for depression or their primary care physicians’ usual care. Measures examined depression, physical and mental health-related quality of life, and physical functioning over 8 months. Results Compared to CG screen-negative patients, CG screen-positive patients were younger, more likely to: be female, non-White, have lost a partner or child, and to have used tobacco or antidepressants. At baseline, they had significantly higher depression and lower mental health scores. At 8 months, screen-positives had poorer physical functioning and marginally higher depression scores. Limitations The study lacked a definitive measure of CG. Moreover, the CG-positive group was relatively small, reducing the power to detect differences between groups or control for the possible influence of other variables on identified results. Conclusions CG in depressed post-CABG patients is associated with negative health and mental health outcomes. These results underscore the importance of identifying and treating CG in depressed medically ill populations.

Ghesquiere, Angela; Shear, M. Katherine; Gesi, Camilla; Kahler, Julie; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Mazumdar, Sati; He, Fanyin; Rollman, Bruce L.

2012-01-01

397

High Drug Resistance Prevalence among Vertically HIV-Infected Patients Transferred from Pediatric Care to Adult Units in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has contributed to increased life expectancy of HIV-1 infected children. In developed countries, an increasing number of children reaching adulthood are transferred to adult units. The objectives were to describe the demographic and clinical features, ART history, antiviral drug resistance and drug susceptibility in HIV-1 perinatally infected adolescents transferred to adult care units in Spain from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1 infected children. Methods Clinical, virological and immunological features of HIV-1 vertically infected patients in the Madrid Cohort of HIV-infected children were analyzed at the time of transfer. Pol sequences from each patient were recovered before transfer. Resistance mutations according to the InternationaI AIDS Society 2011 list were identified and interpreted using the Stanford algorithm. Results were compared to the non-transferred HIV-1 infected pediatric cohort from Madrid. Results One hundred twelve infected patients were transferred to adult units between 1997 and 2011. They were mainly perinatally infected (93.7%), with a mean nadir CD4+-T-cells count of 10% and presented moderate or severe clinical symptoms (75%). By the time of transfer, the mean age was 18.9 years, the mean CD4+T-cells count was 627.5 cells/ml, 64.2% presented more than 350 CD4+T-cells/ml and 47.3% had ?200 RNA-copies/ml. Most (97.3%) were ART experienced receiving Highly Active ART (HAART) (84.8%). Resistance prevalence among pretreated was 50.9%, 76.9% and 36.5% for Protease Inhibitors (PI), Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI) and Non-NRTI (NNRTI), respectively. Resistance mutations were significantly higher among transferred patients compared to non-transferred for the PI+NRTI combination (19% vs. 8.4%). Triple resistance was similar to non-transferred pediatric patients (17.3% vs. 17.6%). Conclusion Despite a good immunological and virological control before transfer, we found high levels of resistance to PI, NRTI and triple drug resistance in HIV-1 infected adolescents transferred to adult units.

de Mulder, Miguel; Yebra, Gonzalo; Navas, Adriana; de Jose, Maria Isabel; Gurbindo, Maria Dolores; Gonzalez-Tome, Maria Isabel; Mellado, Maria Jose; Saavedra-Lozano, Jesus; Munoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; de Ory, Santiago Jimenez; Ramos, Jose Tomas; Holguin, Africa

2012-01-01

398

The prevalence of tinea pedis and tinea manuum in adults in rural areas in Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of tinea pedis and manuum (dermatophyte infections of the hands and feet) in adults in rural areas of Turkey, the risk factors and self-administered treatment options. A total of 2,574 people living in a rural area were enrolled in the study. Participants were asked demographic data, hygienic habits in a questionnaire. KOH preparations and culture were performed from suspicious lesions. Medical and alternative therapy methods and former dermatophytosis diagnosis history were taken from the respondents with suspicious lesions. Microbiological samples were taken from 285 (11.1%) participants. Culture was positive in 109 (4.2%) of those. The most common agent was Trichophyton rubrum. The predisposing factors were found as age older than 40, male gender and obesity. Forty-nine (44.9%) of patients had taken a medical therapy, 56 (51.4%) had performed non-medical methods (cologne, Lawsonia inermis-Henna and softener creams). Patient's education about the treatment compliance is important. PMID:20853199

Kiraz, Nuri; Metintas, Selma; Oz, Yasemin; Koc, Filiz; Koku Aksu, Esra Ayse; Kalyoncu, Cemalettin; Kasifoglu, Nilgun; Cetin, Esin; Arikan, Inci

2010-10-01

399

Prevalence of premilitary adult sexual victimization and aggression in a Navy recruit sample.  

PubMed

U.S. Navy recruits (n = 3,776) were surveyed for premilitary histories of adult sexual assault. They completed a survey designed to estimate rates for experiences as victims (women) and perpetrators (men) of attempted and completed rape since the age of 14. The results show that 45.5% of the women reported being the victim of attempted (9.4%) or completed rape (36.1%) before entering the Navy. Male recruits' self-reports indicated that 14.8% admitted perpetrating attempted (3.5%) or completed rape (11.3%) before entering the Navy. A high percentage of recruits in this study reported histories of sexual assault. Female victims of sexual assault are at high risk of incurring somatic and/or psychological problems that require treatment by health care professionals. Male perpetrators of sexual assault are at high risk of repeating their behavior. The results of this study suggest that it may be cost-effective to develop treatment education, and prevention programs for military recruits. PMID:9575763

Merrill, L L; Newell, C E; Milner, J S; Koss, M P; Hervig, L K; Gold, S R; Rosswork, S G; Thornton, S R

1998-04-01

400

Depression and Korean American immigrants.  

PubMed

Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

2008-02-01

401

Korean Women in America: A Comparison of the Perception of Leadership between Korean American Women and Korean International Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study supplements the scarcity of research on Korean women in America. It explores the perception of leadership between Korean American women and Korean international women. It was inspired by stories that were told by Korean women indicating that Korean women in America first and foremost deal with the question, \\

Eun Hye Kang

2006-01-01

402

Prevalence and clinical features of HIV and malaria co-infection in hospitalized adults in Beira, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background Mozambique presents a very high prevalence of both malaria and HIV infection, but the impact of co-cancel infection on morbidity in this population has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of malaria in hospitalized adult HIV-positive patients, treated and untreated with combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole (CTX)-based chemoprophylaxis, compared to HIV negatives. Methods From November to December 2010, all adult patients consecutively admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of Beira Central Hospital, Sofala Province, Mozambique, were submitted to HIV testing, malaria blood smear (MBS) and, in a subgroup of patients, also to the rapid malaria test (RDT). Socio-demographical and clinical data were collected for all patients. The association of both a positive MBS and/or RDT and diagnosis of clinical malaria with concomitant HIV infection (and use of CTX and/or ART) was assessed statistically. Frequency of symptoms and hematological alterations in HIV patients with clinical malaria compa