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  1. Prevalence and Management of Diabetes in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Jun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Hee Man; Park, Seok Won; Kim, Jongoh; Kim, Dae Jung

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research investigated recent changes in the prevalence and management status of diabetes among Korean adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationwide survey examining the general health and nutrition status of the Korean people, was conducted in 1998, 2001, and 2005. Using the first (1998; n = 5,645), second (2001; n = 4,154), and third (2005; n = 4,628) KNHANES datasets, in the present study, we estimated the prevalence of diabetes among Korean adults (aged ?30 years), the proportions of known cases of diabetes, and the proportions of well-controlled cases of diabetes, as defined by either the American Diabetes Association (A1C <7%) or the International Diabetes Federation guidelines (A1C <6.5%). RESULTS In 2005, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 9.1% (?2.58 million people: 10.2% of men and 7.9% of women), including 6.2% with known diabetes and 2.9% with newly diagnosed diabetes. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 17.4% (?4.94 million people). The proportion of known cases of diabetes drastically increased from 23.2% in 1998 to 41.2% in 2001 and 68.0% in 2005 (P < 0.0001). Among known diabetic patients in 2005, 43.5 and 22.9% had A1C levels <7.0 and <6.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The overall prevalence of diabetes in Korea has not changed significantly between 1998 and 2005. Physician diagnosis and treatment rates of diabetes have significantly improved during this period, but glycemic control was still poorer than that in other developed countries. PMID:19675201

  2. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ? 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 g/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ? 193.4 g/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (? = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  3. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend?=?0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend?=?0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  4. The Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hearing Impairment in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae W.; Jeon, Ju H.; Ku, Cheol R.; Noh, Jung H.; Yoo, Hyung J.; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n = 33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6–21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6–9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19–39 years’ old) was 4.4% (3.5–5.5), in middle-age adults (40–64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8–22.5), and in older adults (≥65 years’ old), it was 69.7% (67.8–71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m2 as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2, and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of developing hearing impairment. As such, these groups may benefit from hearing loss screening in addition to those groups typically considered to be of elevated risk including geriatrics, those of low socioeconomic status, and those with considerable occupational noise exposure. PMID:25761183

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in Osteoporosis Prevalence: Different Results in the Overall Korean Adult Population and Single-person Households

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungmee; Lee, Joongyub; Shin, Ju-Young; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted in order to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and osteoporosis prevalence in Korea and to assess whether different associations are found in single-person households. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2008 to 2011. The study subjects were people aged ? 50 years with osteoporosis as defined by bone mineral density. Multivariate logistic models were used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (pORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Gender differences in the likelihood of osteoporosis were analyzed based on household income, education level, and residential area. Results: There were 8221 osteoporosis patients aged ? 50 years, of whom 927 lived in single-person households. There was a gender-specific association between osteoporosis prevalence and all three SES factors that we analyzed: income, education, and residential area. After adjusting for age, SES, and health behaviors, including body mass index (BMI), low household income was only significantly associated with osteoporosis in men, whereas education level had an inverse relationship with osteoporosis only in women (p=0.01, p<0.001, respectively). However, after controlling for age and BMI, rural residency was only associated with osteoporosis in women living in single-person households (pOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.43). Conclusions: The Korean adult population showed a gender-specific relationship between SES and osteoporosis prevalence, with a different pattern found in single-person households. PMID:25857646

  6. Prevalence and Trends of Isolated Systolic Hypertension among Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Rae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Systolic and diastolic blood pressure may have different effects on cardiovascular disease, but limited data is available for hypertension subtypes in the Korean population. Thus, the prevalence, and absolute number of hypertension subtypes among Korean adults was estimated. Subjects and Methods The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2012 was used to estimate the prevalence and absolute number of each hypertension subtype among Korean adults aged ≥20 years. Hypertension was classified into four subtypes: treated hypertension (TH), isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH). Results In 2012, approximately 9.5 million adults were estimated to have hypertension, which consists of 5675671 TH (60.0%), 954253 ISH (10.1%), 1649486 IDH (17.4%), and 1175506 SDH (12.4%). Between 2010 and 2012, the proportion of IDH steadily decreased with age, but ISH increased especially in older ages (≥40). Between 1998 and 2012, TH markedly increased from 1.4 million to 5.7 million while the number of untreated hypertension remained relatively constant. During the same time, the number of hypertensive elderlies increased from 507000 to 2822000 along with rapid ageing of the Korean population. Despite of significant improvement in treatment rate, there are still around 583000 elderlies with untreated hypertension (423000 ISH; 42000 IDH; 118000 SDH) as of 2012. Conclusion Although the prevalence of hypertension has been constant over the last decades, absolute number of people with hypertension has been increasing. Along with the rapid population ageing, the number of elderly hypertension is increasing and the ISH is also becoming more prevalent. PMID:26617652

  7. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  8. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  9. The Prevalence of Toxocariasis and Diagnostic Value of Serologic Tests in Asymptomatic Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Young; Yang, Moon Hee; Hwang, Jung-Hae; Kang, Mira; Paeng, Jae-Won; Yune, Sehyo; Lee, Byung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Toxocariasis is the most common cause of peripheral blood eosinophilia in Korea and produces eosinophilic infiltration in various organs, including the lung. However, the prevalence of toxocariasis in the general population is rarely reported. Methods We investigated the seroprevalence of Toxocara larval antibody among asymptomatic people who attended Samsung Medical Center for a health checkup, including low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) between March 2012 and December 2013. A total of 633 people (400 men and 233 women) were prospectively recruited. Results The Toxocara-seropositive rate was 51.2% using the current cutoff value based on Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (67.0% for men and 24.0% for women). In the multivariate-adjusted model, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.04-1.11), male sex (OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.26-5.33), rural residence (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05-2.30), and history of raw liver intake (OR, 8.52; 95% CI, 3.61-20.11) were significantly associated with Toxocara seropositivity. When subjects were divided into 3 groups using cutoff values base on weak positive and strong positive control optical densities (ODs), the ORs for peripheral blood eosinophilia and serum hyperIgEaemia were 0.31 (95% CI, 0.02-2.89) in the weakpositive group and 36.64 (95% CI, 11.73-111.42) in the strong positive group compared to the seronegative group. Similarly, ORs for the solid nodule with surrounding halo were 2.54 (95% CI, 0.60-10.84) in the weak positive group and 15.08 (95 CI 4.09-55.56) in the strong positive group compared to the seronegative group. Conclusions The study indicated that the Toxocara-seropositive rate obtained by using the current cutoff value based on ELISA was high in the asymptomatic population in Korea. The results of this study suggest that active toxocariasis may be more frequently seen in the Toxocara-strong positive group than in the Toxocara-weak positive group. PMID:26122506

  10. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. PMID:25524331

  11. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  12. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority

  13. Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with

  14. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  15. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Prevalence of Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults of Age 30 Years and Older without Diabetes, Hypertension, Renal Failure, or Overt Proteinuria: The 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Gong-Myung; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Mi-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Microalbuminuria and obesity markers are known risk factors for cardiovascular or renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria according to body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity criteria. Methods The study subjects included 3,979 individuals aged 30 years or older who did not have diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, or overt proteinuria, from among those who participated in The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. BMI and waist circumference were classified according to the Asia-Pacific criteria. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 5.1%. In the normoalbuminuria group, 3.4%, 41.7%, 24%, 27.6%, and 3.2% of participants were included in the underweight, normal, overweight, obesity 1, and obesity 2 groups, respectively. These percentages in the microalbuminuria group were 7.1%, 34.5%, 19.2%, 28.6%, and 10.6%, respectively (P<0.001). The waist circumference in men was 21.4% in the normoalbuminuria group and 36.5% in the microalbuminuria group (P=0.004). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of microalbuminuria and BMI or waist circumference groups. The risk of microalbuminuria was significant only in the underweight group (odds ratio, 13.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.5568.63; P=0.002) after adjusting for confounding factors, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with microalbuminuria. Conclusion The prevalence of microalbuminuria in a general population in Korea was associated with underweight in men and was not associated with waist circumference in either men or women. PMID:26885324

  16. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  17. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ok; Bak, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Jin-Young

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of Korean adults to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria as a marker for early-stage chronic kidney disease. Methods A total of 8,497 adults (3,625 men and 4,872 women) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012 were included. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to recommendation from a joint interim statement of international organizations published in 2009. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. The association between metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria was evaluated using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for covariates while considering sampling weights and the complex survey design. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuriain subjects with metabolic syndrome was 11% for men and 14.4% for women, whereas the prevalence in subjects without metabolic syndrome was 3.1% for men and 6.7% for women. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with an increased risk of microalbuminuriain both women (odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 2.01 to 3.88) and men (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 4.27). All components of the metabolic syndrome were associated with a significantly increased risk of microalbuminuria with the strongest association for high blood pressure. The risk of microalbuminuria increased in a dose-dependent manner (P-value for trend < 0.001) with the number of metabolic syndrome components observed for both sexes. Conclusion These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease from an early stage. PMID:25802687

  18. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Pain in Korean Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Min, David; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of musculoskeletal pain (MSK) pain in Korean farmers using initial survey data of Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related MSK pain (FARM) study. Methods Farmers (534 females and 479 males; mean age 57.2±7.5 years) who owned or rented a farm and belonged to an agricultural cooperative unit were recruited. Presence of pain for each body part (neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand/finger, low back, leg/foot), and characteristics of MSK pain (prevalence, location, duration, severity, and frequency) during the last year was assessed. Additionally, demographic data such as farming duration, history of prior injury, and workload (low, moderate, somewhat hard, or hard) were collected using structured questionnaires. Results Almost all subjects (n=925; 91.3%) complained of pain in more than one body part. The frequency order was low back (63.8%), leg/foot (43.3%), shoulder (42.9%), wrist/hand/finger (26.6%), arm/elbow (25.3%), and neck (21.8%). Low back pain was more frequent in those with over 30 years of farming experience (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.81). MSK pain was related to history of prior injury (OR, 2.18–5.24; p<0.05) in all body parts except for leg/foot, and very hard workload was associated with low back, leg/foot, neck, shoulder, and wrist/hand/finger pain (OR, 2.88–10.83; p<0.05). Conclusion Most Korean farmers experience MSK pain; furthermore, there is a significant association between pain, history of prior injury, and workload, suggestive of the necessity of coping and preventive strategies to reduce injury or workload. PMID:26949663

  20. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Korean Woman Based on the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyoung-Joon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background The criteria for defining sarcopenia vary among studies and confusion has arisen when defining the cutoff value. As a result, the prevalence of sarcopenia differs markedly depending on the definition. This study used the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V. We used the AWGS recommended cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean women. Results The prevalence rates of sarcopenia using a cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 were 385 (19.5%) in women in their 50s, 286 (16.6%) in women in their 60s, 293 (23.7%) in women in their 70s, and 91 (30.8%) in women ≥80 years. The prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 307 (19.0%) in women 65 to 74 years, 194 (27.4%) in women 75 to 84 years, and 32 (40.5%) in women ≥85 years. The overall prevalence among women >50 years was 20.2%. The prevalence of sarcopenia in women >65 years was 22.1%. Conclusions The prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women was within the range of values of previous research about sarcopenia. Furthermore, using 5.4 kg/m2 as the cutoff value was useful to compare various studies about sarcopenia in Koreans. PMID:26981517

  1. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling

  2. Between Sundays: A Case Study of a Korean Immigrant Adult Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, Byoungchul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a Korean immigrant adult learning program, the Reading Facilitator Training program, at a Korean immigrant church in Los Angeles, CA, in 2008. The purpose of this research was to discover how Korean immigrant adults learn in a way that has meaning and brings about change and how the local church can function as a safe learning

  3. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity from various diseases, some of which have rarely been explored in previous epidemiologic studies. PMID:24906069

  4. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios?=?0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30?mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P?=?0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P?=?0.04), or those without obesity (P?=?.04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  5. Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments. Materials and Methods: Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression equations were constructed. Results: It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety. Conclusions: The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults. PMID:24860222

  6. The Association of Serum Cystatin C with Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Eun Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Dong Wook; Son, Seok Man

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystatin C has been known to be associated not only with early renal impairment but also with the incidence of diabetic conditions (prediabetes plus diabetes). However, it is not clear whether cystatin C levels are associated with the prevalence of diabetic conditions in Asian populations. We evaluated this association using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels as the definition of diabetes in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed data from 1,559 Korean adults (937 men and 622 women) with available serum cystatin C and HbA1c values. Results The serum cystatin C levels in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes were significantly increased (0.91±0.14 mg/L in prediabetes and 0.91±0.17 mg/L in diabetes vs. 0.88±0.13 mg/L in patients with normal glucose levels, P=0.001). At increasing cystatin C levels, the prevalence of subjects with prediabetes (30.2% vs. 14.6%, P<0.001) and those with diabetes (10.6% vs. 8.0%, P<0.001) significantly increased in the group with the highest cystatin C levels. The group with the highest cystatin C levels had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for the presence of diabetic conditions compared to the group with the lowest values in total subjects (OR, 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 3.58; P<0.001) and in women (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.97 to 8.65; P<0.001), though there was no significant increase after adjusting for multiple variables. Conclusions Higher levels of serum cystatin C are associated with an increased prevalence of diabetic conditions in Korean adults. Our findings may extend the positive association of cystatin C with diabetes incidence to an Asian population. PMID:26616596

  7. Effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of exercise intensity on hypertension prevalence in Korean men with high sodium intake. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on the data collected from 2007 to 2013 in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A total of 8853 male adults were included in the analysis. The odds ratios for hypertension according to exercise groups were assessed by using logistic regression of each sodium intake group. [Results] Among the 8853 subjects, 6243 had an eating habit of 4000 mg or more sodium consumption per day, and 2619 had less than 4000 mg. Among the 2619 subjects with less than 4000 mg sodium consumption, 16.7% subjects were diagnosed as having hypertension. In the subjects with 4000 mg or more sodium consumption, compared to the no-exercise group, the moderate-exercise group showed a lower likelihood of developing hypertension, with an odds ratio of 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.47–0.85) after adjusting for age. In multivariate models 1 and 2, odds ratios for the likelihood of developing hypertension in the moderate-exercise group decreased to 0.63 (0.43–0.91) and 0.66 (0.45–0.96), respectively. [Conclusion] Moderate exercise is significantly associated with a lower likelihood of developing hypertension in cases of high sodium intake. PMID:26504286

  8. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  9. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ?19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP?140 mmHg, DBP?90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 162; 95 % CI 111, 237; P trend=00447) and women (OR 220; 95 % CI 121, 400; P trend=00403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 24-fold in women (OR 237; 95 % CI 119, 472; P trend=00272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  10. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19-Year-Old Male from 2008 to 2009: A Study Based on Korean Conscription -National and Geographic Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19YO Male-

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. Materials and Methods We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. Results The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. Conclusion In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD. PMID:23918557

  11. Association between Hypertension and the Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans. Methods A total 17,128 participants (age ?20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20072009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.700.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ?140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.700.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.680.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ?90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.630.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively). Conclusions Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association. PMID:26393797

  12. Associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chun, In-Ae; Park, Jong; Ro, Hee-Kyung; Han, Mi-Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food insecurity has been suggested as being negatively associated with healthy behaviors and health status. This study was performed to identify the associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data used were the 2011 Community Health Survey, cross-sectional representative samples of 253 communities in Korea. Food insecurity was defined as when participants reported that their family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat in the past year. Healthy behaviors were considered as non-smoking, non-high risk drinking, participation in physical activities, eating a regular breakfast, and maintaining a normal weight. Multiple logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between food insecurity and healthy behaviors. RESULTS The prevalence of food insecurity was 4.4% (men 3.9%, women 4.9%). Men with food insecurity had lower odds ratios (ORs) for non-smoking, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82), participation in physical activities, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.74), whereas they had a higher OR for maintaining a normal weight, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), than men with food security. Women with food insecurity had lower ORs for non-smoking, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88). For men, ORs for obesity were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) for overweight and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39-0.82) for mild obesity. For women, the OR for moderate obesity was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14-3.63) as compared with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity has a different impact on healthy behaviors. Provision of coping strategies for food insecurity might be critical to improve healthy behaviors among the population. PMID:26244083

  13. Prevalence and correlates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in Korean college students

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Young-Sook; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists into adulthood in a high proportion of cases, causing social difficulties and affective problems. We evaluated the prevalence of symptoms of ADHD and the correlates thereof in Korean college students. Methods A total of 2,172 college students, stratified to reflect geographical differences, were asked to complete self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, depression, and related factors. Results ADHD symptoms were found in 7.6% of college students. Univariate analysis revealed that younger students had higher rates of ADHD symptoms than did older students. We found significant associations between ADHD symptoms and problematic alcohol use, depression, and lifetime suicidal behavior. Multivariate analysis revealed that ADHD symptoms in adults were significantly associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] =4.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.23–6.80; P<0.001) and overweight or obesity (OR =1.50; 95% CI 1.02–2.22; P=0.040), after controlling for sex and age. Conclusion These results have implications in terms of the mental health interventions required to assess problems such as depression, alcohol use, obesity, and suicidality in young adults with ADHD symptoms. PMID:25848277

  14. The prevalence of obesity and the level of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides in Korean preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yuni; You, Yeji; Go, Kyeong Ah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; You, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Seungmin

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the degree of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides for Children (KDAGC). In a cross-sectional study based on a child care center-based survey in Seoul, Korea, we collected parental-reported questionnaires (n = 2,038) on children's weight and height, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the quality of dietary and activity behaviors based on the 2009 KDAGC Adherence Index (KDAGCAI) which was developed as a composite measure of adherence to the KDAGC. Overweight and obesity were determined according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentile from the 2007 Korean national growth chart. Associations were assessed with generalized linear models and polytomous logistic regression models. Approximately 17.6% of Korean preschool children were classified as overweight or obese. Obese preschoolers had lower adherence to the KDAGCAI compared to those with lean/normal weight. Preschoolers with a high quality of dietary and activity behaviors had a 51% decreased odds ratio (OR) of being obese (highest vs. lowest tertile of KDAGCAI-score, 95% CI 0.31, 0.78; P = 0.001); the associations were more pronounced among those who were older (P = 0.048) and lived in lower income households (P = 0.014). A greater frequency of vegetable consumption, but not fruit, was associated with a borderline significant reduction in the prevalence of obesity. Our findings support the association between obesity prevention and high compliance with the Korean national dietary and activity guideline among preschool children. PMID:23766882

  15. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does

  16. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ? 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ? 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity, increased sedentary time, and frequent consumption of instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted. PMID:26240489

  17. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths

  18. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Refractive Errors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Chul; Morgan, Ian G.; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Kang, Seungbum; Jee, Donghyun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the prevalence and risk factors of refractive errors in a representative Korean population aged 20 years old or older. Methods A total of 23,392 people aged 20+ years were selected for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey 20082011, using stratified, multistage, clustered sampling. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia, and interviews were performed regarding associated risk factors including gender, age, height, education level, parent's education level, economic status, light exposure time, and current smoking history. Results Of 23,392 participants, refractive errors were examined in 22,562 persons, including 21,356 subjects with phakic eyes. The overall prevalences of myopia (< -0.5 D), high myopia (< -6.0 D), and hyperopia (> 0.5 D) were 48.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.448.8), 4.0% (CI, 3.74.3), and 24.2% (CI, 23.624.8), respectively. The prevalence of myopia sharply decreased from 78.9% (CI, 77.480.4) in 2029 year olds to 16.1% (CI, 14.917.3) in 6069 year olds. In multivariable logistic regression analyses restricted to subjects aged 40+ years, myopia was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.93-0.94, p < 0.001), education level of university or higher (OR, 2.31; CI, 1.972.71, p < 0.001), and shorter sunlight exposure time (OR, 0.84; CI, 0.760.93, p = 0.002). Conclusions This study provides the first representative population-based data on refractive error for Korean adults. The prevalence of myopia in Korean adults in 40+ years (34.7%) was comparable to that in other Asian countries. These results show that the younger generations in Korea are much more myopic than previous generations, and that important factors associated with this increase are increased education levels and reduced sunlight exposures. PMID:24224049

  20. Relationship Between Allergic Rhinitis and Mental Health in the General Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the association between AR and mental health status in the general Korean adult population and to investigate the relative burden of AR on mental health using the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed by using data from 11,154 individuals, 19 years old or older in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. Univariate analysis was conducted in the healthy AR groups with weighted prevalence of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and comorbid diseases. Subanalysis that classified AR severity according to the ARIA classification was carried out to evaluate the relationship of AR severity with mental health. The odds ratios (ORs) for each component representing mental health status were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis with confounder adjustment. Results Univariate analysis with the chi-square test after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use status, and exercise status, components representing mental health status showed a linear relationship with the severity of AR according to the ARIA classification. Stress, depressive mood, suicidal thoughts, and psychological consultation factors were correlated with AR after adjustment for demographic characteristics and socioeconomic status. Even after adjustment for comorbid allergic diseases, the correlation remained significant with stress, depressive mood, and psychological consultation factors (OR [95% CI]; 1.227 [1.042, 1.445], 1.368 [1.095, 1.71], 1.804 [1.096, 2.969], respectively). Conclusions Patients with AR appear to be at higher risk of mental disorders in the general Korean adult population. Moreover, persistent or severe AR was correlated with poor mental health. Therefore, better control of AR may be conducive to better mental health, and more attention should be paid to the psychological status of AR patients. PMID:26540501

  1. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial

  2. Redeeming Immigrant Parents: How Korean American Emerging Adults Reinterpret Their Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyeyoung; Okazaki, Sumie; Abelmann, Nancy; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Lan, Shanshan

    2010-01-01

    Korean American youth experience immigration-related parent-child challenges including language barriers, parent-child conflicts, and generational cultural divides. Using grounded theory methods, this article examines the ways in which 18 Korean American college-enrolled emerging adults retrospectively made sense out of their experiences of

  3. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  4. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  5. Socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Heon; Jeong, Baek Geun; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  6. Association between Total Sleep Duration and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jong-Yeon; Choi, Won-Jung; Chang, Hoo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine the association between sleep duration and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Data obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, and probability-cluster survey of civilian non-institutionalized Korean residents. Participants: A total of 15,236 subjects (6,638 males and 8,598 females) ? 19 years old. Measurements and Results: The weighted prevalence of self-reported short sleep duration (? 5 h/day) was 11.7% in males and 15% in females, and of long sleep duration (? 9 h/day) was 6.7% in males and 8.9% in females. A U-shaped relationship existed, with both short and long sleep durations associated with a higher suicidal ideation risk. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health status. After controlling for covariates, people with short sleep were 38.1% more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR = 1.381, 95% CI 1.156-1.650) than people with sleep duration of 7 h/day. Suicidal ideation was 1.196 times higher (95% CI: 0.950-1.507) in long-sleeping people than people sleeping 7 h/day, although statistically not significant. Inclusion of depressive mood (a potential confounder) in multiple logistic regression models attenuated but did not eliminate the sleep duration/suicidal ideation association. Limitations: Sleep duration and suicidal ideation were assessed only by self-report. Conclusions: The sleep duration/suicidal ideation relationship is U-shaped in the Korean adult population. Self-reported habitual sleep duration may be a useful behavioral indicator for both individual and societal suicidal ideation risk. Citation: Kim JH; Park EC; Cho WH; Park JY; Choi WJ; Chang HS. Association between total sleep duration and suicidal ideation among the Korean general adult population. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1563-1572. PMID:24082316

  7. Prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in Korean college students according to the K-MDQ

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seung Oh; Kim, Moon Doo; Lee, Jung Goo; Seo, Jeong-Suk; Won, Seung-Hee; Woo, Young Sup; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Won; Kim, Se Joo; Min, Kyung Joon; Jon, Duk-In; Shin, Young Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD) in the general Korean population. Methods A sample of college students (n = 1026) was stratified to reflect geographical differences accurately in Korean college students. The Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) was administered and an epidemiological survey carried out between November 2006 and February 2007. BSD was defined as a score of at least seven K-MDQ symptoms that co-occurred and resulted in minimal or more functional impairment. Results The prevalence of BSD was 18.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.221.0) in total, being 19.8% (95% CI 16.323.2) in men and 17.5% (95% CI 14.220.8) in women. The prevalence of BSD was more common in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (P = 0.008, chi-square test). Univariate and multivariate regression models showed that rural residence was a significant factor associated with BSD. There were significant relationships between BSD and gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Conclusion The prevalence of BSD found in the present study is higher than that reported by other epidemiological studies in Korea and in international studies. PMID:23836973

  8. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  9. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  10. Enteral Nutritional Intake in Adult Korean Intensive Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunjung; Stotts, Nancy A.; Froelicher, Erika S.; Engler, Marguerite M.; Porter, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutritional support is important for maximizing clinical outcomes in critically ill patients, but enteral nutritional intake is often inadequate. Objectives To assess the nutritional intake of energy and protein during the first 4 days after initiation of enteral feeding and to examine the relationship between intake and interruptions of enteral feeding in Korean patients in intensive care. Methods A cohort of 34 critically ill adults who had a primary medical diagnosis and received bolus enteral feeding were studied prospectively. Energy and protein requirements were determined by using the Harris-Benedict equation and the American Dietetic Association equation. Energy and protein intake prescribed and received and the reasons for and lengths of feeding interruptions were recorded for 4 consecutive days immediately after enteral feeding began. Results Although the differences between requirements and intakes of energy and protein decreased significantly, patients did not receive required energy and protein intake during the 4 days of the study. Energy intake prescribed was consistently less than required on each of the 4 days. Enteral nutrition was withheld for a mean of 6 hours per patient for the 4 days. Prolonged feeding interruptions due to gastrointestinal intolerance (r = ?0.874; P < .001) and procedures (r = ?0.839; P = .005) were negatively associated with the percentage of prescribed energy received. Conclusion Enteral nutritional intake was insufficient in bolus-fed Korean intensive care patients because of prolonged feeding interruptions and underprescription of enteral nutrition. Feeding interruptions due to gastrointestinal intolerance and procedures were the main contributors to inadequate energy intake. PMID:23455862

  11. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes

  12. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  13. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children Based on Data From the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution. PMID:26540505

  14. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Children Based on Data From the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Kim, Kyung min; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Jun Young

    2016-01-01

    Population-based studies of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Korean children are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, geographic distribution, and risk factors of AD in the Korean pediatric population. We examined AD prevalence using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of 8,947 children up to age 18 throughout the country. Overall, 13.50% of children reported a diagnosis of AD. The age-standardized prevalence ranged from 9.13% to 17.67% between cities and provinces, with the highest prevalence-observed in many of the larger cities at low latitudes, as well as Jeju-do. After adjusting for confounders, high economic status was found to be a significant factor for predicting increased prevalence of AD, with an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval of 1.02-1.79, P=0.0034). Urban living (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval of 1.00-1.53, P=0.0526) was also associated with a higher prevalence of AD. In this first large scale, nationwide study in Korean children, we found that the overall prevalence of AD depends on age, household income, and geographic distribution. PMID:26540505

  15. A nationwide epidemiological study of nocturnal enuresis in Korean adolescents and adults: population based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Minki; Park, Kwanjin; Lee, Hahn-Ey; Kang, Ju Hyung; Suh, Hong Jin; Kim, Ji Hong; Lee, Sang Don; Pai, Ki Soo; Han, Sang Won; Park, Yong Hoon; Kim, Kyung Do

    2013-07-01

    We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in Korean adolescents and adults. A questionnaire was sent via e-mail to 51,073 people aged 16-40 yr by stratified sampling according to age, sex, and region among a 200,000 internet survey panel pool. The questionnaire included following information; presence or absence of NE, frequency of NE, possible risk factors for NE, self-esteem scale score and depression score results, and measures for the treatment of NE. Among the 2,117 responders, 54 (2.6%) had NE (?1 enuretic episode within 6 months). Of 54 bedwetters, 9.3% wet ?1 night per week and 20.5% wet ?1 per month. The prevalence rates remained relatively stable with no apparent trend of reduction with age. The presence of sleep disturbance, family history, urgency, or urge incontinence increased the probability of NE episode significantly. The self-esteem score was lower (P=0.053) and the depression scale score was higher (P=0.003) in bedwetters compared with non-bedwetters. Overall 2.6% of Korean aged 16-40 yr have NE. The higher rate of urgency and urge incontinence in adolescent and adult enuretics suggests that bladder function has an important role in adolescent and adult NE. PMID:23853491

  16. Association between direct and indirect smoking and osteoarthritis prevalence in Koreans: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyungrae; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between smoking patterns and knee and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older with focus on knee OA. Design Cross-sectional study using nationally representative data. Setting Data were collected at portable Health Examination Centres in Korea. Participants Data of 9064 participants of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012) aged 50 years or older who received knee or hip joint X-rays out of 31 596 total surveyees were analysed. Primary outcome measures OA prevalence by smoking behaviour (current smoking, past smoking, indirect smoking and non-smoking). Secondary outcome measures Estimated risk of OA by smoking amount, period, pack-years and indirect smoking exposure time to assess the association between smoking-related factors and knee OA by calculating ORs and adjusting for covariates in a complex sampling design. A multinomial logistic regression analysis and backward elimination method was used. Results OA prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older was 13.9%, with prevalence about 3.5 times higher in women (men 5.7%, women 20.1%). ORs for knee and hip joint OA prevalence by smoking behaviour in male indirect-smokers were lower than those in non-smokers in age and sex (OR 0.271; 95% CI 0.088 to 0.828), and selective adjustments (OR 0.314; 95% CI 0.102 to 0.966). All other analyses for smoking behaviour and total OA prevalence, and knee OA prevalence were not significantly different. Associations between smoking amount, period, pack-years and knee OA prevalence were non-significant in ever-smokers. Associations between indirect smoking exposure time and knee OA prevalence were also non-significant. Conclusions This study found that though direct and previous smoking and OA prevalence were not associated, there was a weak relationship between indirect smoking and OA. PMID:26892791

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  19. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  20. Alcohol consumption and the CAGE questionnaire in Korean adults: results from the Second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Park JT; Kim BG; Jhun HJ

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults by evaluating alcohol consumption and responses to the CAGE questionnaire obtained from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The age-adjusted prevalence of males who consumed 0, 0.1-20, 20.1-40, or >40 g/day of alcohol were 28.0, 51.5, 12.5, and 8.0%, respectively; 26.9% of male drinkers were CAGE-positive (> or =2 affirmative responses to the CAGE). The age-adjusted prevalence of females who consumed 0, 0.1-10, 10.1-20, or >20 g/day of alcohol were 67.7, 26.6, 3.9, and 1.8%; 11.9% of female drinkers were CAGE-positive. The risk factors for high alcohol consumption were old age, low education level, smoking, and drinking onset at young ages in male drinkers, whereas low education level and smoking in female drinkers. The risk factors for a positive CAGE were young age, marriage, low education level, smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in male drinkers, whereas high household income, ex-smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in female drinkers. Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults are not negligible and require intervention.

  1. Alcohol consumption and the CAGE questionnaire in Korean adults: results from the Second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Jhun, Hyung-Joon

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults by evaluating alcohol consumption and responses to the CAGE questionnaire obtained from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The age-adjusted prevalence of males who consumed 0, 0.1-20, 20.1-40, or >40 g/day of alcohol were 28.0, 51.5, 12.5, and 8.0%, respectively; 26.9% of male drinkers were CAGE-positive (> or =2 affirmative responses to the CAGE). The age-adjusted prevalence of females who consumed 0, 0.1-10, 10.1-20, or >20 g/day of alcohol were 67.7, 26.6, 3.9, and 1.8%; 11.9% of female drinkers were CAGE-positive. The risk factors for high alcohol consumption were old age, low education level, smoking, and drinking onset at young ages in male drinkers, whereas low education level and smoking in female drinkers. The risk factors for a positive CAGE were young age, marriage, low education level, smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in male drinkers, whereas high household income, ex-smoking, high amount of alcohol consumed on a single occasion, and high drinking frequency in female drinkers. Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in Korean adults are not negligible and require intervention. PMID:18437000

  2. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered. PMID:26645381

  3. Prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in traditional Korean string instrument players.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Yong; Kim, Mi-Sook; Min, Seung-Nam; Cho, Young-Jin; Choi, Junhyeok

    2012-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in players of a variety of traditional Korean classical instruments: gayageum, geomungo, ajaeng, and haegeum. A large percentage of these musicians suffer from musculoskeletal pain of various body parts. However, there has been no research regarding the extent of musculoskeletal disorders in players of these instruments. Through a focus group interview, a questionnaire was developed to investigate musculoskeletal disorders. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: demographic factors, performance factors, musculoskeletal disorder symptoms, and musculoskeletal disorder experiences. Eighty-six expert players participated in this survey. The data from the survey were analyzed by correlation analysis and chi-squared analysis. Musculoskeletal disorders symptoms and severe pain were reported in the neck, shoulder, back and knee. These problems were statistically related to height for players of the gayageum and geomungo. In addition, the musculoskeletal disorder experience of geomungo players was correlated with age and career length. The symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in traditional Korean music players were reported as being mostly observed in the neck, shoulder, back, and knee. In addition, these symptoms were related to various demographic factors such as age, height, career length, and hobby styles. The results of this study can be used as preliminary data for developing guidelines to prevent traditional Korean musical instrument players from developing musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:23247878

  4. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Hearing Loss and Hearing Aid Use in Korean Elders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid usage rates among Korean elders by comparing the differences between those with and without hearing loss, and between those who used and did not use hearing aids. Methods: This study was based on data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (20102012). The study sample consisted of 5,447 Koreans aged ?60 years who received a hearing assessment. Hearing loss was measured using a pure tone audiometry test and classified according to the World Health Organizations criteria. Hearing aid use was assessed by self-report. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between hearing loss, hearing aid use, and related variables. Results: Hearing loss was found in 16.8% of the elders and only 15.9% of them used a hearing aid. Male (95% CI: 1.272.15), tinnitus (95% CI: 1.582.32), dizziness (95% CI: 1.051.73), and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.322.38) were the variables most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment. Tinnitus (95% CI: 1.344.13) and occupational noise exposure (95% CI: 1.015.02) were strongly associated with hearing aid use after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: More than half of South Korean elders aged ?60 and older have hearing loss but the rate of hearing aid use is very low. An aural public health program should address modifiable risk factors, such as tinnitus and noise exposure, and non-modifiable risk factors associated with hearing loss in the elderly. PMID:25905073

  5. The Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Wild Korean Water Deer, Korea

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, Gee-Wook; KIM, Eun-Ju; LEE, Hae-Beom; CHO, Ho-Seong

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetti infection in wild Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in Korea, by using serology and real-time PCR analyses. One hundred ninety-six sera were collected from 4 provinces and tested for anti-C. burnetii antibody detection, by means of CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit; and C. burnetii IS1111 insertion sequence detection, by means of real-time PCR. Antibodies were detected in 18 of the 196 (9.18%) serum samples, whereas genomes of C. burnetii were detected in 13 of the 196 (6.63%) serum samples. Based on overall high seroprevalence, the public health implications of these findings are important, because they indicate that asymptomatic seropositive or seronegative wild animals may be consistently shedding C. burnetii. This is the first study of C. burnetii prevalence in Korean water deer in the Republic of Korea that has indicated the presence of infected animals throughout the country. PMID:24717533

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Thyroid Eye Disease among Korean Dysthyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of thyroid eye disease among dysthyroid Korean patients and to analyze the relationship between demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease. Methods All dysthyroid patients who visited endocrinology clinics in 24 general hospitals in Korea during a chosen one-week period were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease variables were analyzed as risk factors using multivariable regression models to identify independent associations with thyroid eye disease. Results A total of 1,632 dysthyroid patients were included (1,301 females [79.7%] and 331 males [20.3%]). Two hundred eighty-three of these patients (17.3%) had thyroid eye disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, young age, Graves' disease, dermopathy, anti-thyroid medication treatment, and radioiodine treatment were independent risk factors for thyroid eye disease. Conclusions The lower prevalence of thyroid eye disease in dysthyroid Korean patients and the influence of gender on risk factors in this study are novel findings compared to studies performed involving Europeans. Although the risk factors for thyroid eye disease are understood in part, a more in-depth comparative study of gender and ethnic groups is needed to fully understand the biological significance of the demographic factors. PMID:24311923

  7. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  8. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  9. Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in…

  10. Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in

  11. The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673

  12. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of anemia in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae Sung; Bang, Ki Bae; Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Quality of life is closely related to anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several studies have reported on anemia in patients with IBD in Western countries. This study investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of anemia in Korean patients with IBD. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 92 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 76 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who were followed regularly at a single tertiary medical center in Korea between January 2003 and December 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) thresholds used to define anemia were <13.0 g/dL in men and <12.0 g/dL in women according to the World Health Organization criteria. We chose the lowest Hb level in each year as a representative value because Hb levels changed at each examination and anemia was associated with disease deterioration. The relationship between clinical variables and lowest Hb level was assessed. Results The prevalence of anemia was 36.3% in patients with UC and 41.6% in patients with CD. Anemia in patients with CD was associated with hospital admission, 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) and infliximab treatment in men. Anemia in patients with UC was associated with hospital admission, oral steroid use, thiopurine and infliximab treatment in men. Conclusions The prevalence of anemia in Korean patients with IBD was comparable to that of patients in Western countries. Anemia was associated with male patients with CD who were admitted to the hospital and received medications including 5-ASA and infliximab, and men with UC who were admitted to the hospital and received medications including oral steroids, thiopurine and infliximab. PMID:26884734

  13. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD. PMID:26826428

  14. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  15. Are Korean Adults Meeting the Recommendation for Physical Activity during Leisure Time?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Haeng

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine if Korean adults meet their physical activity recommendations during their leisure time to promote a healthy living. [Subjects and Methods] The sample included South Korean adults, aged over 20, who were currently residing in K City, South Korea. The author used a quota sampling technique to select 1,000 samples. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 845 questionnaires were used to conduct a χ2 test. [Results] It was revealed by the questionnaire that there was a clear distinction in the categories of very high level activity (11.0%), high level activity (29.1%), acceptable level activity (12.9%), low level activity (9.7%), and inactive level of physical activity (38.3%) in Korean adults’ leisure time. [Conclusions] The most interesting finding was that more than half of Korean adults do reach the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of moderate activity, on three or more days a week for at least three months. The other interesting finding was that the questionnaire is a useful instrument suitable for analyzing the recommendations of physical activity, comprising frequency, intensity, time, and overall duration. PMID:25013279

  16. Association between Dietary Patterns and Blood Lipid Profiles in Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Yeon-Sook; Chang, Hak Chul; Moon, Min Kyong

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore the associations of dietary patterns with blood lipid profiles and obesity in adults with type 2 diabetes. The data were obtained from the Forth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Adults 30 yr or older, from which had both biochemical and dietary data were obtained. Among them, 680 subjects were defined as having diabetes based on criteria of fasting glucose ? 126 mg/dL, anti-diabetic treatment, or previously diagnosed diabetes. Dietary data from a 24-hr recall were used to derive dietary patterns by factor analysis. Four dietary patterns by factor analysis were identified: 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol', 'Noodles & Seafood', 'Rice & Vegetables', and 'Korean Healthy' patterns. Serum cholesterol levels in the highest quartile of the 'Bread & Meat & Alcohol' pattern were significantly higher compared with those in the lowest quartile. In addition, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the highest quartile of the 'Korean Healthy' pattern were significantly lower after adjusting for potential confounders. Dietary patterns of adults with diabetes were found to be associated with blood lipid profiles. 'Korean Healthy' pattern including whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits could thus improve lipid profiles among those with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21935277

  17. Depression among Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Ansan-Community-Based Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Young; Kim, So Young; Gil, Jong Won; Park, Min Hee; Park, Jong-Hyock; Kim, Yeonjung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There are an increasing number of studies being carried out on depression in patients with diabetes. Individuals with diabetes have been reported as having a higher prevalence of depression compared to those without diabetes. However, only a few studies involving Korean patients have been conducted. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of depression and to find various risk factors according to the degree of depression among Korean patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods An Ansan-community-based epidemiological study was conducted from 2005 to 2012. The total number of participants in this study was 3,540, from which patients with diabetes (n=753) have been selected. The presence of depression was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory total score. Results The prevalence of depression was 28.8%. The mean age of participants was 55.58.2 years. We divided the participants into three groups (without-depression, moderate-depression, and severe-depression groups) to examine the depression prevalence among Korean T2DM patients. The unemployed participants had 2.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.214.76], the low-income participants had 2.57 (95% CI 1.524.35), the participants using an oral diabetes medicine or insulin had 2.03 (95% CI 1.253.32), the participants who are currently smoking had 2.03 (95% CI 1.103.73), and those without regular exercise had 1.91 (95% CI 1.173.14) times higher odds of depression in the severe-depression group, compared with the without-depression group. Conclusion There was a significant association between depression prevalence and diabetes, and we found various risk factors according to the degree of depression in Korean patients with T2DM. PMID:26473089

  18. Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

  19. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  20. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  1. Prevalence of Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction and Its Risk Factors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Hyun; Wee, Jee Hye; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based studies for olfactory dysfunction are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction and its risk factors in the Korean general population. Methods The data were obtained from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized population all around the country (n = 10,533). All interviewees underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, endoscopic examination and blood/urine tests. Whether sense of smell has been normal or abnormal during the last 3 months was asked. Complete olfaction data were obtained from 7,306 participants and the participants were divided into normosmic and hyposmic group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results The weighted prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction was 4.5%. Its increased prevalence was significantly associated with the increasing age for both men and women. In the multivariate analyses, low income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.01–2.03), habitual exposure to air pollutants (adjusted OR = 2.18, CI = 1.33–3.55), a history of hepatitis B (adjusted OR = 3.10, CI = 1.25–7.68), rhinitis (adjusted OR = 1.78, CI = 1.26–2.51) and chronic sinusitis (adjusted OR = 14.55, CI = 10.06–21.05) were risk factors of olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion Our population-based study showed that olfactory dysfunction was quite prevalent and several risk factors were associated with impaired sense of smell. Given its prevalence, further researches for its prevention and management are required. PMID:23671628

  2. Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45–0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to replicate our findings. PMID:24915202

  3. Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging excessive eating or encouraging exercise from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders messages, the frequency of congregants messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms. PMID:20886700

  4. The Change of South Korean Adult Education in Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung-Jung

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of adult education in South Korea from postwar modernization to the current globalized environment. Notes that adult higher education is increasingly formalized and institutionalized, with expanded credentialism, inequality, and government intervention and a weakening connection between adult education and social

  5. Learning Disability Prevalence and Adult Education Program Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…

  6. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population. PMID:25863477

  7. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Nonobese Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Chin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Asia, but little is known about the disease in the nonobese population. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and the factors associated with it in a nonobese Korean population and to compare the clinical characteristics of nonobese and obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 2,058 subjects who participated in a medical checkup program. Results The prevalence of NAFLD was 12.4% (213/1,711) in the nonobese population. A higher body mass index (BMI), higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values, higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, triglyceride concentrations 150 mg/dL, and hyperuricemia were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Compared with the obese subjects with NAFLD, the nonobese subjects with NAFLD were composed of a higher proportion of females and had lower BMIs, smaller waist circumferences, lower HOMA-IR values, and fewer metabolic irregularities. Conclusions Higher BMIs, HOMA-IR values, ALT levels, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia were associated with NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Clinicians should be particularly aware of the possibility of NAFLD in nonobese Asian people. PMID:26260755

  8. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20?years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  9. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20?years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  10. The Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Men Aged 40 Years or Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Korean men aged ?40 years. Methods We performed a population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey on a geographically stratified random sample of men aged ?40 years. All respondents were asked about the presence of individual LUTS using a questionnaire based on 2002 International Continence Society definitions. For comparison, we also defined nocturia as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to assess LUTS severity. Results Responses from 1,842 subjects were analyzed. The overall prevalence of LUTS was 83.4%. Storage LUTS (70.1%) were more prevalent than voiding (60.4%) or postmicturition LUTS (38.3%). When nocturia was defined as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night, voiding symptoms became most prevalent (storage, 39.7%; voiding, 60.4%; and postmicturition, 38.3%). More than 90% of our population described the severity of their urinary symptoms as moderate (8-19) or severe (20-35). The prevalence and severity of LUTS increased with age. Conclusions LUTS are highly prevalent among Korean men, and its prevalence increases with age. Increased public awareness and a larger number of treatment options are needed to appropriately manage symptoms and their consequences. PMID:25279239

  11. Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 4079 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

  12. Acculturation and BMI Among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between acculturation and BMI among Asian Americans using multiple measures of acculturation. Data of 847 Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese recruited for a health education program in Maryland during 2009 to 2010 were used. Acculturation was measured by the short version of Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) and its individual components. Height and weight were measured by trained staff. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between acculturation and BMI. After adjusting for age, gender, education, income, marital status, and ethnicity, SL-ASIA (? = 0.71, SE = 0.28), having education in the US (? = 0.56, SE = 0.28), younger age of arrival (05 years: ? = 3.32, SE = 0.76, 610 years: ? = 1.55, SE = 0.78), self identified as Americans (? = 1.51, SE = 0.77) and equal preference of Asian/American food in restaurants (? = 0.92, SE = 0.28) were significantly associated with increased BMI. The association between acculturation and BMI was stronger among men than women, strongest among Chinese and weakest among Vietnamese. Acculturation was moderately associated with increased BMI among Asian Americans and this association varied by measures of acculturation. The association of acculturation and BMI was moderated by sex and ethnicity groups. PMID:21922164

  13. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  14. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  15. Vitamin D Status and Its Association with the SCORAD Score and Serum LL-37 Level in Korean Adults and Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tae Seok; Kim, Min Ho; Chae, Jeong Don; Lee, June Hyun Kyung; Son, Sook-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D insufficiency could be associated with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To examine vitamin D status and the relations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, SCORAD score, serum LL-37 level, and body mass index (BMI) in Korean AD patients, and to explore whether these associations differ between adults and children. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, serum LL-37, and clinical features were analyzed in a total of 72 Korean patients with AD (39 adults and 33 children) and 140 healthy control subjects (70 adults and 70 children). Results Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly reduced in children with AD (15.064.64 ng/ml) compared with normal children in the control group (16.256.60 ng/ml) (p=0.036). Significant inverse correlations were found between BMI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (r=-0.315, p=0.007) and between the SCORAD score and serum LL-37 level (r=-0.3, p=0.011) in the total AD patients. Conclusion The results showed that serum vitamin D levels were lower in children with AD than in healthy children; however, the same relation was not observed between adults with AD and healthy adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not significantly correlated with AD severity or serum LL-37 levels in our study population. PMID:25673925

  16. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: A Q methodology approach

    PubMed Central

    Kae Hwa, JO; Gyeong-Ju, AN; DOORENBOS, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. Methods The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents’ ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. Results The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented–self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented–self-recognition type, reflection-oriented–self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented–self-maintenance type. Conclusions The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. PMID:22583944

  17. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  18. Association Between the Presence of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Hemoglobin A1c in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae W.; Ku, Cheol R.; Noh, Jung H.; Ko, Kyung S.; Rhee, Byoung D.; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have investigated the clinical effect of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on the use of the Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening parameter for diabetes or prediabetes. We investigated the association between IDA and HbA1c levels in Korean adults. Among the 11,472 adults (?19 years of age) who participated in the 20112012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey conducted by the Korean Center for Disease Control for Health Statistics), 807 patients with diabetes currently taking anti-diabetes medications were excluded from this study. We compared the weighted HbA1c levels and weighted proportion (%) of HbA1c levels of ?5.7%, ?6.1%, and ?6.5% according to the range of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and the presence of IDA. Among 10,665 participants (weighted n?=?35,229,108), the prevalence of anemia and IDA was 7.3% and 4.3%, respectively. The HbA1c levels were higher in participants with IDA (5.70%??0.02%) than in normal participants (5.59%??0.01%; P?

  19. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Korean Children Presenting with Nonspecific Lower-Extremity Pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Jung; Lee, Juyeob; Lee, Jun Ku

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although interest in the role played by vitamin D in bone health is increasing, little is known about the role of this vitamin in musculoskeletal pain in children. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children presenting with nonspecific lower extremity pains. Materials and Methods From 2011 to 2012, 183 children underwent evaluation for nonspecific lower-extremity pains. Patients with valid causes, such as fractures or transient synovitis, were excluded, as were those with underlying medical conditions, such as cerebral palsy and metabolic disease. Ultimately, 140 patients met the inclusion criteria. Levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25-(OH)D], the ideal indicator of vitamin D status, were measured in these children. Results Eighty-seven boys (62.1%) and 53 girls (37.9%) were included. The mean age at presentation was 5.2 years (range, 2-15). Serum 25-(OH)D levels were <10 ng/mL in 5.7% of patients, 10 to <20 ng/mL in 51.4%, 20 to <30 ng/mL in 37.9%, and ?30 ng/mL in only 5.0%. Most patients visited the hospital in the winter (41.4%) (summer, 12.9%), and serum 25-(OH)D levels were also lowest in the winter (17.25.5 ng/mL). Conclusion This study found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in Korean children with nonspecific lower-extremity pains, indicating a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and growing pains. More attention should be directed toward vitamin D and its role in the optimization of bone health. PMID:26256984

  20. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3 %), flavonols (20·3 %), isoflavones (18·1 %), flavan-3-ols (16·2 %), anthocyanidins (11·6 %), flavanones (11·3 %) and flavones (0·3 %). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4 %), vegetables (20·5 %), legumes and legume products (16·2 %) and beverages and alcohols (3·1 %), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9 %), mandarins (12·5 %), tofu (11·5 %), onions (9·6 %) and grapes (9·0 %). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans. PMID:26489826

  1. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group

  2. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-02-15

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and stylized ORNL phantom. The armless KTMAN-1 can be applied to dosimetry for computed tomography or lateral x-ray examination, while the whole body KTMAN-2 can be used for radiation protection dosimetry.

  3. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adult Cancer Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Joo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated not only with increased risk of cancer incidence, but also influences prognosis, and the quality of life of the cancer survivors. Thus, smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis is necessary. However, smoking behavior among Korean cancer-survivors is yet unknown. Materials and Methods We investigated the smoking status of 23770 adults, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the Health Interview Survey of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010. Data on the cancer diagnosis and smoking history were obtained from an interview conducted by trained personals. "Cancer-survivor" was defined as anyone who has been diagnosed with cancer by a physician regardless of time duration since diagnosis. Smoking status was classified into "never-smoker", "former-smoker", and "current-smoker". Former-smoker was further divided into "cessation before diagnosis" and "cessation after diagnosis". Results Overall, 2.1% of Korean adults were cancer-survivors. The smoking rate of Korean cancer-survivors was lower than that of non-cancer controls (7.8±1.3% vs. 26.4±0.4%, p<0.001). However, 53.4% of the cancer-survivors continued to smoke after their cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, male gender [odds ratio (OR), 6.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.62-15.31], middle-aged group (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.12-6.72), the lowest income (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.19-14.15), living with smoking family member(s) (OR, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.42-12.48), and the poor self-perceived health status (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.01-7.71) were independently associated with persistent smoking among Korean cancer-survivors. Conclusion The smoking rate among Korean cancer survivors is low. However, the smoking cessation rate after the cancer diagnosis is also low. This mandates comprehensive and systematic intervention for smoking cessation among cancer-survivors. PMID:25684009

  4. Associations between combinations of body mass index plus non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetes mellitus among Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Ji-Won; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between combinations of body mass index (BMI) categories plus non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among Korean adults. We prepared the data of 5665 subjects aged 20 years and over who had visited a health promotion center. We excluded 582 subjects as they had a viral or alcoholic liver disease. According to BMI-NAFLD status, the subjects were categorized as non-obese (BMI<25 kg/m2) without NAFLD (n=2568), obese (BMI≥25 kg/m2) without NAFLD (n=572), non-obese with NAFLD (n=748), or obese with NAFLD (n=1195). The prevalence of NAFLD was highest in the obese subjects with DM (87.9%). In non-obese and non-DM subjects, the prevalence of NAFLD was lowest (18.4%). After adjustment of age, gender, waist circumference, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, the odd ratios for DM or DM plus impaired fasting glucose (IFG) of subjects with mild NAFLD regardless of obesity were almost 2-fold compared to non-obese subjects without NAFLD. Moreover, those of subjects with moderate or severe NAFLD regardless of obesity were about 4- fold. Clinicians and investigators need to pay attention to non-obese patients with fatty liver. PMID:21393105

  5. Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9 g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9 g), and ≥3 servings (≥120 g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40 g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Otitis Media: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20102012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Park, Moo Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The performance of nationwide studies of chronic otitis media (COM) in adults has been insufficient in Korea. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of COM in Korea. Methods This study was conducted using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 23,621). After excluding the subjects under 20 year old and suffered from cancers, 16,063 patients were evaluated for COM. Participants underwent a medical interview, physical examination, endoscopic examination, and blood and urine test. COM was diagnosed by trained residents in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology using an ear, nose, and throat questionnaire and otoendoscopy findings. Data on the presence and absence of COM were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results Of the 16,063 participants aged above 20 year old, the weighted prevalence of COM was 3.8%. In the multivariate analyses, the following factors showed high odds ratios (ORs) for COM: pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.01), chronic rhinosinusitis (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.98), mild hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.34-2.85), moderate hearing impairment (adjusted OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.21-7.22), tinnitus (adjusted OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34-2.49), increased hearing thresholds in pure tone audiometry in the right ear (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and left ear (adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). The following factors showed low odds ratios for COM: hepatitis B (adjusted OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.94) and rhinitis (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88). In addition, high levels of vitamin D, lead, and cadmium, EQ-5D index; and low red blood cell counts were associated with development of COM (Students t-test, P < 0.01). Conclusions Our population-based study showed that COM is not rare in Korea, and its development may be associated with various host and environmental factors. Further research on its relationships and the pathogenesis are needed. PMID:25978376

  7. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adultsusing data from the 20022010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  8. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adultsusing data from the 2002-2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  9. Awareness and Completion of Advance Directives Among Korean American Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Debra; Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Meng, Hongdao

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing concerns about racial and ethnic disparities in completion rates of advance directives (ADs) among community-dwelling older populations. While differences in AD completion rates in non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans have been reported, not much is known about the awareness and completion of ADs in other groups of ethnic minorities. Using a sample of community-dwelling Korean American older adults (n = 675) as a target, factors associated with their awareness and completion of ADs were explored. Guided by Andersen's behavioral health model, predisposing (age, sex, marital status, and education), need (chronic conditions and functional disability), and enabling variables (health insurance and acculturation) were included in the separate logistic regression models of AD awareness and AD completion. In both models, acculturation was found to be a significant predictor; those who had a higher level of acculturation were more likely to be aware of ADs and to have completed ADs. This study contributes to the knowledge about the role of acculturation in explaining AD awareness and completion among Korean American older adults and provides practice implications for possible AD educational interventions for this older adult minority population. PMID:25803787

  10. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine (ZOSTAVAX™) in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Eom, Joong Sik; Kim, Sang Il; Sohn, Jang Wook

    2016-01-01

    A live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZOSTAVAX™, Merck & Co., Inc.) was approved by the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2009. However, the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine has not been assessed in Korean population. This is multi-center, open-label, single-arm study performed with 180 healthy Korean adults ≥50 yr of age. The geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) of varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies were measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) at 4 weeks post-vaccination. Subjects were followed for exposure to varicella or herpes zoster (HZ), the development of any varicella/varicella-like or HZ/HZ-like rashes, and any other clinical adverse experiences (AEs) for 42 days post-vaccination. For the 166 subjects included in the per-protocol population, the GMT at Day 1 was 66.9. At 4 weeks post-vaccination, the GMT for this population was 185.4, with a GMFR of 2.8 (95% CI, 2.5-3.1). Of the 180 subjects vaccinated, 62.8% experienced ≥1 AE, with 53.3% of subjects reporting injection-site AEs. The most frequently reported injection-site AEs were erythema (45.0%) with the majority being mild in intensity. Overall, 44 (24.4%) subjects experienced ≥1 systemic AE, 10 (5.5%) subjects experienced a systemic vaccine-related AE, and 3 (1.7%) subjects experienced ≥1 serious AE not related to vaccine. No subjects reported a VZV-like rash. There was no subject of death and no subject discontinued due to an adverse event. A single dose of zoster vaccine induced VZV-specific gpELISA antibody response and was generally well-tolerated in healthy Korean adults ≥50 yr of age (registry at www.clinicaltrial.gov No. NCT01556451). PMID:26770032

  11. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine (ZOSTAVAX™) in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Jun Yong; Eom, Joong Sik; Kim, Sang Il; Pai, Hyunjoo; Peck, Kyong Ran; Sohn, Jang Wook; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2016-01-01

    A live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZOSTAVAX™, Merck & Co., Inc.) was approved by the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2009. However, the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine has not been assessed in Korean population. This is multi-center, open-label, single-arm study performed with 180 healthy Korean adults ≥50 yr of age. The geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold rise (GMFR) of varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies were measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) at 4 weeks post-vaccination. Subjects were followed for exposure to varicella or herpes zoster (HZ), the development of any varicella/varicella-like or HZ/HZ-like rashes, and any other clinical adverse experiences (AEs) for 42 days post-vaccination. For the 166 subjects included in the per-protocol population, the GMT at Day 1 was 66.9. At 4 weeks post-vaccination, the GMT for this population was 185.4, with a GMFR of 2.8 (95% CI, 2.5-3.1). Of the 180 subjects vaccinated, 62.8% experienced ≥1 AE, with 53.3% of subjects reporting injection-site AEs. The most frequently reported injection-site AEs were erythema (45.0%) with the majority being mild in intensity. Overall, 44 (24.4%) subjects experienced ≥1 systemic AE, 10 (5.5%) subjects experienced a systemic vaccine-related AE, and 3 (1.7%) subjects experienced ≥1 serious AE not related to vaccine. No subjects reported a VZV-like rash. There was no subject of death and no subject discontinued due to an adverse event. A single dose of zoster vaccine induced VZV-specific gpELISA antibody response and was generally well-tolerated in healthy Korean adults ≥50 yr of age (registry at www.clinicaltrial.gov No. NCT01556451). PMID:26770032

  12. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  13. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  14. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. PMID:25122719

  15. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  16. Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements. PMID:25297054

  17. Determinants of Poor Self-rated Health in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwi-Won; Song, Minkyo; Yang, Jae Jeong; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Self-rated health is a measure of perceived health widely used in epidemiological studies. Our study investigated the determinants of poor self-rated health in middle-aged Korean adults with diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the Health Examinees Study. A total of 9759 adults aged 40 to 69 years who reported having physician-diagnosed diabetes were analyzed with regard to a range of health determinants, including sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial, and physical variables, in association with self-rated health status using multivariate logistic regression models. A p-value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: We found that negative psychosocial conditions, including frequent stress events and severe distress according to the psychosocial well-being index, were most strongly associated with poor self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]Frequent stress events, 5.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.63 to 6.29; ORSevere distress, 11.08; 95% CI, 8.77 to 14.00). Moreover, younger age and being underweight or obese were shown to be associated with poor self-rated health. Physical factors relating to participants’ medical history of diabetes, such as a younger age at diagnosis, a longer duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, hemoglobin A1clevels of 6.5% or more, and comorbidities, were other correlates of poor reported health. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, in addition to medical variables, unfavorable socioeconomic factors, and adverse lifestyle behaviors, younger age, being underweight or obese, and psychosocial stress could be distinc factors in predicting negative perceived health status in Korean adults with diabetes. PMID:26639743

  18. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of G. duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centr...

  19. The Nature and Prevalence of Learning Deficiencies among Adult Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raymond; And Others

    In order to determine the nature and prevalence of learning deficiencies among adult inmates in U.S. correctional institutions, a sample of subjects was drawn from three institutions in each of the states of Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington. One male maximum security, one male medium security, and one women's prison were selected in each of

  20. Sexism, Ageism and Racism Prevalent Throughout the South Korean System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Korean society has for long been shaped by Confucian ideologies wherein age and gender among other factors predetermine one's position in relation to others among friends, family and society as a whole. Especially the determiners pertaining to age and gender lead to sexism and ageism which in essence encompass the widely spread prejudicial…

  1. Association between Obesity and Physical Fitness, and Hemoglobin A1c Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jekal, Yoonsuk; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Sukyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Jung-Ui; Naruse, Masayo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Sun-Hyeon; Chu, Sang Hui; Suh, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity level, physical fitness level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among Korean adults. Methods A total of 557 adults (272 males and 285 females) who underwent medical check-up at local hospital were recruited. In addition to regular health check-up, cardiopulmonary fitness, muscular endurance were measured and their association were analyzed. Results The prevalence of MetS was 31.7% for males and 23.7% for females. Females with the higher muscular endurance had lower waist circumference, triglyceride level, and HbA1c level than those with the lower muscular endurance. Males with the higher level of cardiopulmonary fitness had lower diastolic blood pressure, lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol level than males with the lower level of cardiopulmonary fitness. Females with the higher level of cardiopulmonary fitness had lower body weight, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose level than females with the lower level of cardiopulmonary fitness. Participants with the higher level of adiposity and the lower level of physical fitness were 5.26 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19 to 12.62), 5.71 times (95% CI, 2.23 to 14.60) more likely to have MetS, respectively, in male and female compared to participants who were neither obese nor have the lower level of fitness. Conclusion This study suggests that maintaining a healthy body weight as well as a certain level of fitness is important for the prevention of MetS. PMID:20617079

  2. Calculation of standard liver volume in Korean adults with analysis of confounding variables

    PubMed Central

    Um, Eun Hae; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Standard liver volume (SLV) is an important parameter that has been used as a reference value to estimate the graft matching in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). This study aimed to determine a reliable SLV formula for Korean adult patients as compared with the 15 SLV formulae from other studies and further estimate SLV formula by gender and body mass index (BMI). Methods Computed tomography liver volumetry was performed in 1,000 living donors for LDLT and regression formulae for SLV was calculated. Individual donor data were applied to the 15 previously published SLV formulae, as compared with the SLV formula derived in this study. Analysis for confounding variables of BMI and gender was also performed. Results Two formulae, "SLV (ml)=908.204BSA-464.728" with DuBois body surface area (BSA) formula and "SLV (ml)=893.485BSA-439.169" with Monsteller BSA formula, were derived by using the profiles of the 1,000 living donors included in the study. Comparison with other 15 other formulae, all except for Chouker formula showed the mean volume percentage errors of 4.8-5.4%. The gender showed no significant effect on total liver volume (TLV), but there was a significant increase in TLV as BMI increased. Conclusions Our study suggested that most SLV formulae showed a crudely applicable range of SLV estimation for Korean adults. Considering the volume error in estimating SLV, further SLV studies with larger population from multiple centers should be performed to enhance its predictability. Our results suggested that classifying SLV formulae by BMI and gender is unnecessary. PMID:26693231

  3. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Cancer Survivors in a Nationwide Survey of the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with a poor cancer prognosis, but data regarding actual vitamin D levels in cancer survivors are limited. This study investigated the vitamin D levels and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls, and identified the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 915 cancer survivors and 29,694 controls without a history of cancer were selected. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured; vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels less than 20 ng/mL. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors. Results Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 62.7% of cancer survivors and 67.1% of controls. Among cancer survivors, vitamin D deficiency was most prevalent among 1944 year olds (76.2%) and among managers, professionals, and related workers (79.3%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger cancer survivors and those who work indoors were predisposed to vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among both cancer survivors and controls in Korea. The regular evaluation and management of vitamin D levels is needed for both bone health and general health in cancer survivors. PMID:26047013

  4. Release bursts in English word-final voiceless stops produced by native English and Korean adults and children.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Kimiko; Birdsong, David; Mack, Molly; Sung, Hyekyung; Bialystok, Ellen; Flege, James

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acquisition of statistical properties of a second language (L2). Stop consonants are permitted in word-final position in both English and Korean, but they are variably released in English and invariably unreleased in Korean. Native Korean (K) adults and children living in North America and age-matched native English (E) speakers repeated English words ending in released tokens of /t/ and /k/ at two times separated by 1.2 years. The judgments of E-speaking listeners were used to determine if the stimuli were repeated with audible release bursts. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed fewer final releases for K than E adults, and fewer releases for /t/ (but not /k/) for K than E children. Nearly all /t/ and /k/ tokens were heard as intended in experiment 3, which evaluated intelligibility. However, the K adults' /k/ tokens were identified with less certainty than the E adults'. Taken together, the results suggested that noncontrastive (i.e., statistical) properties of an L2 can be learned by children, and to a somewhat lesser extent by adults. PMID:15662105

  5. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend= 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend= 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. PMID:26073677

  6. A study on the trend analysis regarding the rice consumption of Korean adults using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1998, 2001 and 2005

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Ho-Myoung; Han, Gyusang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information regarding trends of rice consumption of Korean adults based on different meal types. Respondent reports 24-hour recall data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess daily rice consumption and intake ratios of rice for different meal types and places of preparation. Rice intake had gradually decreased from 224.6 g in 1998 to 190 g in 2001 and to 179.4 g in 2005. The rice consumption of Korean adults decreased every year in all ages for all places of meal preparation in 2001 and 2005 compare to 1998. Analysis for each meal type showed that rice intake at breakfast had not considerably changed, but rice intake had decreased at lunch and dinner. While the rice consumption ratio at lunch and dinner decreased, it also decreased or did not change at snack times except for the 19-29 age groups. All the age groups revealed comparable change in the analysis for meal types. There was some diversity between all age divisions in daily rice intake depending on place of meal preparation. The rice consumption by place of meal preparation was generally highest at home, lowest at other places, but it decreased in all places. The rice consumption at home was highest in the over 50 age group, lowest in the 20-30 age group. These changes seem to be related to food intake patterns of rice and substitutional foods in the diets and development regarding socio-economic status. So the need for further study on differences in rice intake based on socioeconomic levels and age group are indicated. PMID:22808351

  7. A study on the trend analysis regarding the rice consumption of Korean adults using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1998, 2001 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ho-Myoung; Han, Gyusang; Chung, Hea-Jung

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information regarding trends of rice consumption of Korean adults based on different meal types. Respondent reports 24-hour recall data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess daily rice consumption and intake ratios of rice for different meal types and places of preparation. Rice intake had gradually decreased from 224.6 g in 1998 to 190 g in 2001 and to 179.4 g in 2005. The rice consumption of Korean adults decreased every year in all ages for all places of meal preparation in 2001 and 2005 compare to 1998. Analysis for each meal type showed that rice intake at breakfast had not considerably changed, but rice intake had decreased at lunch and dinner. While the rice consumption ratio at lunch and dinner decreased, it also decreased or did not change at snack times except for the 19-29 age groups. All the age groups revealed comparable change in the analysis for meal types. There was some diversity between all age divisions in daily rice intake depending on place of meal preparation. The rice consumption by place of meal preparation was generally highest at home, lowest at other places, but it decreased in all places. The rice consumption at home was highest in the over 50 age group, lowest in the 20-30 age group. These changes seem to be related to food intake patterns of rice and substitutional foods in the diets and development regarding socio-economic status. So the need for further study on differences in rice intake based on socioeconomic levels and age group are indicated. PMID:22808351

  8. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and increase of metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults: 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Moon, Ae Eun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in adults aged 20 or older (n=5,483) using 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, which represents national data in Korea. Key study results were as follows: First, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels decreased significantly with an increase in MSS (p=0.004), shown by serum 25(OH)D levels after adjusting the variables (age, gender, BMI, TC, HDL-C, FBS, SBP, and DBP, etc.). These were 17.300.16ng/ml for MSS 0, 17.13 0.15ng/ml for MSS 1, 17.020.16ng/ml for MSS 2, 16.600.20 ng/ml for MSS 3, 16.550.28ng/ml for MSS 4, and 15.520.50 ng/ml for MSS 5. Second, after adjusting the related variables, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p=0.004) in the metabolic syndrome group (16.490.19ng/ml) than the non-metabolic syndrome group (17.160.09ng/ml). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome and the increased levels of its components are inversely associated with the serum vitamin D concentration in Korean adults. PMID:26236105

  9. Weighty concerns: the growing prevalence of obesity among older adults.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Nicklas, Barbara J; Zizza, Claire A

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity among older adults has increased during the past 20 years and will affect both medical and social services. Along with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and several cancers, obesity is associated with increased risk of physical and cognitive disability. However, relatively little attention has been given to the issue of weight management among community-dwelling older adults. Intentional weight loss in obese older adults has not been widely advocated by health care providers due to the uncertainty of whether the benefits outweigh the risks. Limited data in older adults show that intentional weight loss is effective in improving diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical function. This review describes the changes in body composition associated with aging, the consequences of obesity in older adults, and the effect of intentional weight loss on chronic disease risk factors and physical function. Recommendations for weight loss in obese older adults that minimize the likelihood of adverse effects on muscle mass, bone density, or other aspects of nutritional status are reviewed. Specific recommendations for macronutrient intake, in particular protein, and selected micronutrients, vitamin D and B-12, as well as dietary fiber, and fluid intake as part of a hypocaloric diet and recommendations for physical activity are described. As part of the health professionals team, dietetics practitioners need to be able to guide and manage weight loss treatment options on an individual basis by evaluating the potential benefits against the potential risks in obese older adults. PMID:19857630

  10. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults.

    PubMed

    Osterballe, M; Mortz, C G; Hansen, T K; Andersen, K E; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2009-11-01

    rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related fruits and vegetables in pollen allergic patients. The questionnaire was returned by 77.1%. Primary FHS was reported by 19.6% and secondary FHS by 16.7% of the participants. Confirmed primary FHS by oral challenge was 1.7% [1.1% - 2.95%]. In primary FHS, the most common allergenic food was peanut (0.6%) followed by additives (0.5%), shrimp (0.2%), codfish (0.1%), cow's milk (0.1%), octopus (0.1%) and soy (0.1%). In secondary FHS, kiwi allergy was reported by 7.8% of the participants followed by hazelnut (6.6%), pineapple (4.4%), apple (4.3%), orange (4.2%), tomato (3.8%), peach (3.0%) and brazil nut (2.7%). This study found a 1.7% [1.1% - 2.95%] prevalence of primary FHS confirmed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. PMID:19594854

  11. The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, W; Feng, X-P; Li, R

    2012-03-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a common oral problem. This study investigated the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in the adult population of Shanghai, China. A multi-stage, stratified, random sampling method was used to investigate the study population. A total of 2120 subjects were examined at 10 investigation points in Shanghai City. Subjects were divided into age groups (10 years per age group) and included the same number of male and female subjects in each group. Participants completed a dentine hypersensitivity questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. The diagnosis of dentine hypersensitivity was confirmed clinically as a sharp well-localised pain in response to administration of a blast of cold air from a triple syringe. Gingival recession of sensitive teeth was measured by a Williams periodontal probe. Among 2120 participants, 723 were diagnosed as having dentine hypersensitivity, indicating a prevalence of 34·1%. The male to female ratio of dentine hypersensitivity was 1:1·5. The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity was highest in the 40- to 49-year age group at 43·9%. The number of teeth with dentine hypersensitivity was 3·2 per patient. Dentine hypersensitivity occurred predominantly in the premolars (49·6%), followed by the anterior teeth (30·5%). A total of 84·3% of dentine hypersensitive patients had gingival recession. The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Shanghai adults was 34·1%, indicating that it is a common condition. Therefore, public education about the condition and effective treatment of dentine hypersensitivity are required. PMID:21902706

  12. Alarming high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Jordanian adults

    PubMed Central

    Obeidat, Ahmad A.; Ahmad, Mousa N.; Haddad, Fares H.; Azzeh, Firas S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and the individual components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Jordanian adults. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 630 adult subjects (308 men and 322 women) aged between 20-70 years were recruited from the clinics at the King Hussein Medical Center. The diagnosis of MetS was made according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria-2005. Blood samples were collected after 10-12 hours overnight fasting and serum was obtained for biochemical analysis. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to IDF criteria was 51% (46.4% in men and 55.3% in women). Prevalence of increased waist circumference in the total sample was 71.6%, 46% for high blood pressure, 42.4% for elevated fasting blood glucose, 43.5% for low high density lipoprotein, and 50.2% for hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusion: The prevalence and individual components of MetS in Jordan were high. Screening of MetS is needed at national level to reduce the incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). PMID:26870100

  13. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ?10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (?=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (?=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  14. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  15. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20072009

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  16. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant Korean women: the first trimester and the winter season as risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted. PMID:25970148

  17. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Korean Women: The First Trimester and the Winter Season as Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted. PMID:25970148

  18. No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Methods Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Korean version was used to evaluate neuroticism, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR)-Korean version was used to evaluate body dissatisfaction, and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES)-Korean version was used to evaluate self-esteem. The 5-HTTLPR genotype by neuroticism (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total BDDE-SR score, and 5-HTTLPR genotype by BDDE-SR (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total SES score. Results The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism (high : low) with respect to body dissatisfaction showed no main effects of genotype whereas neuroticism did influence the BDDE-SR score and no interaction of the genotype with neuroticism. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and BDDE-SR (high : low) with respect to self-esteem score showed no main effects of genotype whereas BDDE-SR did influence the self-esteem score and no interaction of the genotype with body dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and neuroticism does not affect body dissatisfaction and an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and body dissatisfaction does not affect self-esteem in a young adult Korean population. PMID:25598828

  19. Utilization of Hyaluronate and Incidence of Septic Knee Arthritis in Adults: Results from the Korean National Claim Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Septic arthritis of the knee has been reported recently in adult patients who were administered hyaluronate. We evaluated the incidence of septic knees and the utilization of hyaluronate in the Korean adult population using nationwide data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Methods All new admissions to the clinics or hospitals for septic knees were recorded in the HIRA database which was established by the Korean government and covers the Korean population using the International Classification of Diseases-10 revision code. We evaluated the incidence of septic arthritis of the knees in the population above 50 years of age. Hyaluronate prescription data was also collected from the HIRA database. Results In 2012, the incidence of septic knees was 2.7 per 100,000 persons in men and 4.2 per 100,000 persons in women, respectively. The age-adjusted incidence of septic knees increased by 6.7% per year (95% confidence interval, 3.3 to 10.1), and the annual number of prescriptions of hyaluronate increased about 1.5-fold during the study period. Conclusions Cautious aseptic technique is required when hyaluronate is administered in adult patients with osteoarthritis of the knee due to the concerns of the risk of septic arthritis. PMID:26330953

  20. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-01-01

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (?7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health. PMID:26890214

  1. Binge Drinking and Its Relation to Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Im, Ho-Jin; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Eun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background It is reported that heavy drinking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome. But there have been few studies on the relationship between the intensity of drinking and metabolic syndrome when drinking the same amount of alcohol. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in Korean adult men. Methods From the database of the 4th and 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007-2010, data of 8,305 adult men (?19 years of age) was included in this analysis. Cross-sectional relationship between the frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome was investigated adjusting for pure alcohol consumed per day. Results Adjusting for various confounders including pure alcohol consumed per day, the adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in those in higher frequency (more than 1/wk) binge drinking group was 1.62 (95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.03; P for trend = <0.001) compared to those in the non-binge drinking group. Through analysis of the relationship between pure alcohol consumed per day and metabolic syndrome, it was found that pure alcohol consumed per day had a positive relation to metabolic syndrome in the higher frequency binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.041). The relationship was inverse in the non-binge drinking group (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusion Our study found a positive relationship between frequency of binge drinking and metabolic syndrome in adult men. And the effect of drinking on metabolic syndrome may depend on the frequency of binge drinking. Further studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:25120888

  2. The relationship between fracture and quality of life in Korean adults receiving treatment for osteoporosis based on the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Jun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Han-Shin; Jeon, Dae-Jung; Ji, Sung-Ha

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fracture and quality of life in Korean adults receiving treatment for osteoporosis based on the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). [Subjects and Methods] This study utilized the raw data of the 2010 KCHS. In the survey, osteoporosis was assessed in 228,903 subjects, excluding 326 for whom there was insufficient data. There were 17,387 subjects with osteoporosis confirmed by a doctors diagnosis and 9,419 of them were being treated for osteoporosis at the time of the survey. [Results] Among the patients being treated, those with fractures had a significantly lower QOL than patients who did not experience fractures. The lower QOL scores were caused by hip, vertebral and wrist fractures, and in all cases, QOL was significantly lower. Greater numbers of fractures significantly lowered QOL scores compared to participants without fractures. [Conclusion] Fractures in patients receiving treatment for osteoporosis have a direct impact on QOL. Among the different types of fractures, hip fractures resulted in the lowest scores. Therefore, to avoid additional fractures caused by inappropriate management of osteoporosis, we suggest that there is a need to improve fall related self-efficacy and prevention programs. PMID:26311930

  3. Association between Sleep Duration and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Korean Adults: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cho-Rong; Shin, Jin-Young; Gim, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and IFG. Methods This cross-sectional study included 14,925 Korean adults (5,868 men and 9,057 women) ≥19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2011 and 2012. Blood glucose levels were measured after at least eight hours of fasting. Study subjects were categorized into three groups based on self-reported sleep duration (<7, 7–8, or >8 h/d). IFG was diagnosed according to recommendations American Diabetes Association guidelines. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates. Results In men, short sleep duration (<7 hours) was associated with increased risk of IFG (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.96) compared to adequate sleep duration (7–8 hours), whereas long sleep duration (>8 hours) was not associated with risk of IFG (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.37 to 2.18). In women, sleep duration was not associated with risk of IFG. Conclusion The association between sleep duration and IFG differed by sex; sleep deprivation, was associated with increased risk of IFG, especially in men. PMID:26885323

  4. Application of New Cholesterol Guidelines to the Korean Adult Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 joint guidelines for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia expand the indications for statin therapy. This study was performed to estimate the numbers of diabetic patients indicated for statin therapy according to the Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) of the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines and the new ACC/AHA guidelines in Korea. We analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Patients with diabetes over 30 yr of age were analyzed by the two guidelines. Of the total 1,975 diabetic patients, only 377 (19.1%) were receiving drugs for dyslipidemia. Among 1,598 patients who had not taken any medications for dyslipidemia, 65.6% would be indicated for statin therapy according to the ATP-III guidelines. When we apply the new guidelines, 94.3% would be eligible for statin therapy. Among the total diabetic patients, the new guidelines, compared with the ATP-III guidelines, increase the number eligible for statin therapy from 53.1% to 76.2%. The new guidelines would increase the indication for statin therapy for most diabetic patients. At present, many diabetic patients do not receive appropriate statin therapy. Therefore efforts should be made to develop the Korean guidelines and to ensure that more diabetic patients receive appropriate statin therapy. PMID:26539005

  5. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.

  6. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  7. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

    2011-10-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

  8. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. RESULTS Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity. PMID:26060541

  9. Physical Activity Level of Korean Adults with Chronic Diseases: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ho-Seong; An, Ah-Reum; Choi, Ho-Chun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Heon; Oh, Seung-Min; Seo, Young-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Proper physical activities are known to be helpful in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, the physical activity level of patients with chronic diseases is low. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the physical activity compliance of patients with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2010-2012 Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We included 13,873 individuals in the analysis. The level of physical activity compliance was measured by performing multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results In the univariate analysis, the subjects with hypertension or diabetes tended to comply with the physical activity guidelines less faithfully than their healthy counterparts. The proportion of subjects with hypertension who were insufficiently physically active was 65.4% among the men and 75.8% among the women. For diabetes, the proportions were 66.7% and 76.8%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the subjects with dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant difference in physical activity compliance was observed between the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia and their healthy counterparts for both sexes. Conclusion The patients with hypertension or diabetes tended to have lower physical activity prevlaence than their healthy counterparts. However, for dyslipidemia, no significant difference was found between the two groups. Given the significance of physical activities in the management of chronic diseases, the physical activities of these patients need to be improved. PMID:26634091

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chrifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic. PMID:25107996

  11. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadans day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE?22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11?MMSE?21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE?10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

  12. Screening Young Adults for Prevalent Chlamydial Infection in Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Cheryl R.; Kaufman, Jay S.; Ford, Carol A.; Leone, Peter A.; Feldblum, Paul J.; Miller, William C.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Community-based testing may identify young adults in the general population with sexually transmitted chlamydial infection. To develop selective screening guidelines appropriate for community settings, the authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave III (April 2, 2001 May 9, 2002). METHODS Separately for women and men, we developed three predictive models using unconditional multiple logistic regression for survey data. To account for racial/ethnic disparity in prevalence, initial models included identical predictor characteristics plus information on 1) respondents race/ethnicity; or 2) respondents most recent partners race/ethnicity; or 3) no information on race/ethnicity. RESULTS C. trachomatis diagnosis was available for 10,928 (88.6%) of the sexually experienced respondents. A combination of five characteristics for women and six characteristics for men identified approximately 80% of infections while testing ?50% of the population. Information regarding race/ethnicity dramatically affected algorithm performance. CONCLUSION Using race/ethnicity in any screening algorithm is problematic and controversial, but the model without race information missed many diagnoses in the minority groups. Universal screening in high prevalence regions and selective screening in low prevalence regions may be one method of reaching the affected populations while avoiding the stigma of guidelines incorporating race/ethnicity. PMID:18504140

  13. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult Malaysians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon-Wan; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin-Md; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Yaacob, Nor Azwany; Mustafa, Norlaila; Ali, Osman; Isa, Siti Harnida-Md; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad-Wan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (<30 years old) were either overweight (20%, 95% CI=16.6, 23.6) or obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country. PMID:21393108

  15. Dietary factors related to hypertension risk in Korean adults-data from the Korean national health and nutrition examination survey III

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Sug; Park, Juyeon

    2011-01-01

    Regional differences between large cities and rural areas are observed in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). This present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary factors on hypertension risk in Korean populations, especially residents of the Chungcheong province which was not in metropolitan area, using KNHANES III. A total of 544 adults aged ≥ 19 years were placed into either the normotensive or the hypertensive group. Subject characteristics, BMI, blood pressure, and nutrient intakes were compared between the two groups using a chi-square test and t-test. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for energy intake and selected covariates. There were significant differences in age, education level, alcohol consumption, and BMI between the normotensive and hypertensive groups. We found decreased ORs for the medium versus lowest tertile of calcium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.21-0.88), for the highest versus lowest tertile of calcium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.90) with significant trends in risk (P = 0.040), and for the medium versus lowest tertile of potassium intake (multivariate OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89). Subjects with the highest sodium/calcium ratio had a 2.10-fold greater risk of hypertension compared to the subject with the lowest, with significant trends in risk (P = 0.002). Adequate calcium and potassium intake should be encouraged and regional differences should be considered in making a healthy plan for hypertension management. PMID:21487498

  16. Associations of Low Environmental Exposure to Multiple Metals with Renal Tubular Impairment in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungryul; Lim, Ji-ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Kwon, Ho-jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Heon; Park, Jung-duck

    2016-01-01

    Recently several studies reported that the renal toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) may exist in even a low level exposure. In terms of the deterioration of tubular function, it affects the loss of divalent metals and leads to other complications, so renal tubular effect of heavy metals should be well managed. Considering the exposure to heavy metals in reality, it is hard to find the case that human is exposed to only one heavy metal. We designed a cross-sectional study using Korean Research Project on the Integrated Exposure Assessment (KRIEFS) data to investigate the renal effects of multiple metal exposure in general population. We used blood Pb and urinary Cd as exposure measures, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as renal tubular impairment outcome. We conducted linear regression to identify the association between each heavy metal and urinary NAG and β2-MG. And then, we conducted linear regression including the interaction term. Of 1953 adults in KRIEFS (2010~2011), the geometric mean of blood Pb and urinary Cd concentration was 2.21 μg/dL (geometric SD = 1.49 μg/dL) and 1.08 μg/g cr (geometric SD = 1.98 μg/g cr), respectively. In urinary Cd, the strength of the association was also high after adjusting (urinary NAG: β = 0.44, p < 0.001; urinary β2-MG: β = 0.13, p = 0.002). Finally, we identified the positive interactions for the two renal biomarkers. The interaction effect of the two heavy metals of β2-MG was greater than that of NAG. It is very important in public health perspective if the low level exposure to multiple heavy metals has an interaction effect on kidney. More epidemiological studies for the interaction and toxicological studies on the mechanism are needed. PMID:26977259

  17. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  18. Influence of message error type on Korean adults' attitudes toward an individual who uses augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC. PMID:25716683

  19. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Hyoun Choi, Sang; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  20. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults’ quality of life. PMID:26759965

  1. Prevalence of Obesity in Korean Adolescents and its Relationship with the Weekly Frequency of the Physical Education Classes

    PubMed Central

    So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong-Jun; Swearingin, Brenda; Baek, Seong-Ik; Rhi, Soung-Yob; Webb, Daniel; Fuller, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the prevalence of obesity among Korean adolescents and to determine the relationship of obesity prevalence with weekly frequency of physical education (PE) classes. In 2009, 72,399 students from grades 7 to 12 participated in the fifth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) project. Body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of PE classes attended were assessed by the KYRBWS- V. BMI was computed to classify the participants as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. The association between the frequency of PE classes and BMI were examined using one-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis. The differences in the weekly frequency of PE classes and the BMI values among both the boys and girls were significant (p < 0.001). A post-hoc test showed that underweight boys and girls attended the PE classes more frequently (p < 0.001), and overweight girls attended these classes less frequently (p < 0.01) than the other groups did; moreover, obese boys and girls, compared to boys and girls in the other groups, attended less number of PE classes per week while at school (p < 0.05). Besides, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval, CI) for normal-weight vs. underweight boys attending 1 PE class, 2 PE classes, and ≥ 3 PE classes per week were 1.168 (1.011-1.349, p = 0.035), 1.621 (1.450-1.812, p < 0.001), and 3.023 (2.704-3.381, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those for boys who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) of normal-weight vs. obese boys attending ≥ 3 PE classes attended across normal vs. obese boys was 0.862 (0.762-0.974, p = 0.017), compared with those of boys who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) for normal-weight vs. underweight girls who attended 2 PE classes and ≥ 3 PE classes per week were 1.235 (1.131-1.349, p < 0.001) and 2.238 (2.048-2.446, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) of for normal-weight vs. overweight girls who attended ≥ 3 PE classes per week were 0.886 (0.787- 0.997, p = 0.045) and 0.772 (0.679-0.878, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend PE classes. The OR (95% CI) for normal-weight vs. obese girls who attended 2 PE classes and ≥ 3 PE classes per week were 0.788 (0.675-0.919, p = 0.002) and 0.709 (0.599-0.838, p < 0.001), respectively, compared with those of girls who did not attend the PE class. Increase in the frequency of PE classes should be considered in any attempt for curbing weight-related problems in Korean adolescents. Key points Increase in the frequency of PE classes is a factor that should be considered to improve weight status PMID:24149558

  2. A comparison of the Ghent and revised Ghent nosologies for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome in an adult Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong Hoon; Han, Hyejin; Jang, Shin Yi; Moon, Ju Ryoung; Sung, Kiick; Chung, Tae-Young; Lee, Heung Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2012-05-01

    Recently, a revised Ghent nosology has been established for the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) that puts more weight on the aortic root aneurysm and ectopia lentis. We compared the application of the Ghent and revised Ghent nosologies in adult Korean patients for whom there is suspicion of MFS. From January 1995 to June 2010, we enrolled 106 patients older than 20 years for whom there was suspicion of MFS, and who had undergone genetic analysis of the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Of 106 patients, 86 patients (81%) fulfilled the criteria of the Ghent nosology, and 84 patients (79%) met the criteria of the revised Ghent nosology. The two patients who met the Ghent nosology criteria, but not the criteria of the revised Ghent nosology were diagnosed with Loeys-Dietz syndrome and MASS phenotype. The level of agreement between both nosologies was very high (? = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 1.0). Marfan-like syndromes were diagnosed in 30% (6/20 patients) with negative Ghent and revised Ghent criteria and no FBN1 mutations. These results suggest that adult Korean patients who fulfill the old Ghent criteria almost all fulfill the new criteria for the diagnosis of MFS. PMID:22162372

  3. The Relations between Document Familiarity, Frequency, and Prevalence and Document Literacy Performance among Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.; Snowden, Jessica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of document prevalence and familiarity as predictors of adult document literacy performance. Three indexes--quantifying document prevalence, document familiarity, and the frequency of document use--were constructed using survey responses from an adult community sample and documents collected from government agencies…

  4. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Kimberly Y Z; Stuhldreher, Wendy L

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency could be linked to several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its correlates to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency was common in the US population, especially in certain minority groups. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2006 data were analyzed for vitamin D levels in adult participants (N = 4495). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations ?20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). The overall prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was 41.6%, with the highest rate seen in blacks (82.1%), followed by Hispanics (69.2%). Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common among those who had no college education, were obese, with a poor health status, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, or not consuming milk daily (all P < .001). Multivariate analyses showed that being from a non-white race, not college educated, obese, having low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, poor health, and no daily milk consumption were all significantly, independently associated with vitamin D deficiency (all P < .05). In summary, vitamin D deficiency was common in the US population, especially among blacks and Hispanics. Given that vitamin D deficiency is linked to some of the important risk factors of leading causes of death in the United States, it is important that health professionals are aware of this connection and offer dietary and other intervention strategies to correct vitamin D deficiency, especially in minority groups. PMID:21310306

  5. Gender-specific influence of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache: the results from the Korean headache survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender. Methods We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based sample of Koreans aged 19–69 years. Education level, district size, and household income were evaluated as socioeconomic variables. Results Among 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-4.6%] and 29.1% (95% CI 25.7-32.5%) in women and 3.2% (95% CI 1.9-4.6%) and 32.5% (95% CI 29.1-35.9%) in men, respectively. In women, multiple regression analysis found that living in rural areas was related to higher prevalence of migraine [odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% CI 1.85-11.02] and lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.58) and college-level education was related to lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.74). In men, multiple regression analysis failed to reveal significant influences of any socioeconomic variable on the prevalence of migraine or tension-type headache. Conclusions The influence of socioeconomic status on migraine and tension-type headache differs by gender, with women being more susceptible to socioeconomic influence. PMID:24093215

  6. Modernity and Postmodernity Related Issues in Developing Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education in Korean Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    Korean society is in the midst of a conflict between modern and postmodern condition. The concept of modernity is rooted in the Enlightenment, which valued reason and proposed the rational and progressive construction and transformation of society and reality. As a result of a rational differentiation between culture and society, modern phenomena

  7. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28 years. Former smokers were more likely to have smoked fewer cigarettes per day and to have smoked for significantly less time than current smokers. DISCUSSION: Given the fact that free education is provided at all levels by the government, anti-tobacco education and awareness should be included as an integral part of the curriculum in schools and colleges. PMID:11143190

  8. Prevalence of Cervical Enamel Projection and Its Impact on Furcation Involvement in Mandibular Molars: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Chang; Jeon, Seok-Kyun; Cha, Jae-Kook; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of cervical enamel projections (CEPs) in mandibular molars, and analyzed the correlation between CEPs and furcation involvement (FI) based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data in a Korean population. CBCT images obtained from March 2012 to August 2012 were analyzed. CEPs and FI on the buccal and lingual surface were classified in three-dimensionally reconstructed images and cross-sectional views, and the correlation between these two parameters was analyzed. In total, 982 teeth in 425 patients were analyzed. The overall prevalence rate of CEPs was 76% (71% and 27% on the buccal and lingual surfaces, respectively). Grade I CEPs were the most common, followed by CEPs of grades II and III. There was a statistically significant, but negligible correlation between the CEP grade and the degree of FI on the buccal and lingual surfaces. Within the limitations of this cross-sectional study, a high prevalence of CEPs were found in a Korean population, but the role of CEPs in provoking FI appeared not to be decisive. Anat Rec, 299:379-384, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663760

  9. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kim B; Bang J; Kim H; Kim Y; Kim BS; Beuchat LR; Ryu JH

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice.

  10. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. PMID:24929722

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive. PMID:24968689

  12. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  13. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  14. Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Jobs Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America Listen (Based on ... populations) Estimated Number of Cases by Vision Problem Age ≥ 40 Total Population ≥ 40 142,648,393 AMD* ...

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000

  16. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

  17. Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety

  18. Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,…

  19. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with

  20. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down

  1. Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,

  2. Rasch validation of the SF-36 for assessing the health status of Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sae-Hyung; So, Wi-Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To verify, using Rasch analysis, the applicability of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to elderly Koreans, as this instrument would be useful for determining elderly individuals’ overall performance and providing them with health information. [Subjects and Methods] The SF-36 was administered to a sample of 510 individuals aged over 60 living in the Seoul and Gyeonggi areas of South Korea. When testing for goodness-of-fit, we considered items with infit and outfit indexes of over 1.30 or less than 0.70 to be incongruent. SF-36 factors that contained over three items, including physical functioning, role limitations (physical and emotional), mental health, vitality, and general health, were analyzed. Each factor was examined through step calibration of the response categories in the probability curve. [Results] The response categories were found to be appropriate because the adjustment values of each factor increased. We found five items in physical functioning, two items in role limitation–emotion, one item in mental health, and one item in general health to be incongruent; all items in the role limitation–physical and vitality factors were congruent. [Conclusion] We conclude that the SF-36 could be revised to more accurately measure the health status of elderly Koreans. PMID:25931689

  3. Chronic Low Back Pain in Young Korean Urban Males: The Life-Time Prevalence and Its Impact on Health Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Doh, Jae-Won; Bae, Hack-Gun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed the life-time prevalence (LTP) of chronic low back pain (LBP) in young Korean males. We also evaluated the relationship between lumbar spinal lesions and their health related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Methods A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted in Korean males (aged 19-year-old) who underwent physical examinations for the conscript. We examined 3331 examinees in November 2014. We included 2411 subjects, who accepted to participate this study without any comorbidities. We interviewed using simple binary questions for their LBP experience and chronicity. HRQOL was assessed by Short-Form Health-Survey-36 (SF-36) in chronic LBP and healthy control groups. Radiological assessment was performed in chronic LBP group to determine whether there were any pathological causes of their symptoms. Results The LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%. Most (71.7%) of them didn't have any lumbar spinal lesions (i.e., non-specific chronic LBP). The SF-36 subscale and summary scores were significantly lower in subjects with chronic LBP. Between specific and non-specific chronic LBP group, all physical and mental subscale scores were significantly lower in specific chronic LBP group, except mental health (MH) subscale score. In MH subscale and mental component summary score, statistical significant differences didn't appear between two groups (p=0.154, 0.126). Conclusion In Korean males 19 years of age, the LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%, and more than two-thirds were non-specific chronic LBP. Chronic LBP had a significant impact on HRQOL. The presence of lumbar spinal pathoanatomical lesions affected mainly on the physical aspect of HRQOL. It influenced little on the mental health. PMID:25628807

  4. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

  5. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year

  6. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,

  7. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past

  8. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in 2011–2012, based on measured weight and height. Keywords: obese adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey What was ... is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared, rounded to one decimal place. Obesity in adults is defined as BMI greater than or equal ...

  9. Detection of a UL97 gene mutation conferring ganciclovir resistance in human cytomegalovirus: prevalence of the D605E polymorphism in Korean immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Sung, Heungsup; An, Dongheui; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Han; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Mi-Na

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ganciclovir (GCV) resistance-conferring human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 gene mutations and UL97 polymorphisms in Korean immunocompromised patients. A partial sequence of the HCMV UL97 gene spanning codons 430 to 644 was amplified in 77 samples from 32 patients by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced directly. A cysteine-to-glycine mutation at codon 592 (C592G) conferring GCV resistance was detected in a 2-year-old girl after a 40-day GCV treatment, but overall, UL97 gene mutations associated with GCV resistance were rare in GCV-treated patients. An aspartate-to-glutamate substitution at codon 605 (D605E) was detected in 29 of 32 patients (90.6%), but 17 of 19 (89.5%) GCV-nave patients also possessed D605E. These findings indicate that the D605E polymorphism, which is frequent in Korean patients and thus may be a natural sequence variant, could be a genetic marker for HCMV in Asian countries. PMID:23090742

  10. Lifestyle-related factors and their association with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wanki; So, Wi-Young

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether lifestyle-related factors are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects comprised 590 men and 1,138 women aged 20?years and above. The subjects visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to participate in a survey regarding sleep duration, mental stress, educational level, economic status, and frequency of alcohol consumption and smoking. MetS was defined according to the standard definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III report. The relationship between lifestyle-related factors and MetS was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustments for age and sex. [Results] Sleep duration, educational level, economic status, and frequency of alcohol consumption and smoking were not associated with MetS. Mental stress was the only lifestyle-related factor associated with MetS. [Conclusion] Well-designed studies will be necessary in order to establish the lifestyle-related factors of MetS. PMID:25931679

  11. Residential Segregation and Injection Drug Use Prevalence Among Black Adults in US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Friedman, Risa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed the relations of two 1990 dimensions of racial residential segregation (isolation and concentration) with 1998 injection drug use prevalence among Black adult residents of 93 large US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Methods. We estimated injection drug use prevalence among Black adults in each MSA by analyzing 3 databases documenting injection drug users encounters with the health care system. Multiple linear regression methods were used to investigate the relationship of isolation and concentration to the natural logarithm of Black adult injection drug use prevalence, controlling for possible confounders. Results. The median injection drug use prevalence was 1983 per 100000 Black adults (interquartile range: 1422 to 2759 per 100000). The median isolation index was 0.48 (range: 0.05 to 0.84): in half the MSAs studied, the average Black resident inhabited a census tract where 48% or more of the residents were Black. The multiple regression model indicates that an increase of 0.50 in the isolation index was associated with a 23% increase in injection drug use prevalence among Black adults. Concentration was unrelated to the outcome. Conclusions. Residential isolation is positively related to Black injection drug use prevalence in MSAs. Research into the pathways linking isolation to injection drug use is needed. PMID:17077412

  12. Stress, Depression, and Lifestyle Behaviors in Korean Adults: A Latent Means and Multi-Group Analysis on the Korea Health Panel Data.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Min; An, Ji-Young; Hayman, Laura L; Woo, Jong-Min; Yom, Young-Hee

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that stress can induce depression, with the patient's age and sex as moderating factors. Associations between depression and lifestyle in Korean adults have not been addressed. This study was designed to examine if the relationships among stress, problem drinking, exercise, and depression differ by age and sex. For this study, the Korea health panel data was utilized, and a structural equation model using AMOS was employed. The major findings were as follows: women were more likely to experience stress and depression than men. Individuals over 40 showed a higher tendency toward stress and depression than those under 40. Age- and sex-specific paths from stress to problem drinking, exercise, and depression were positively inter-correlated; the path from exercise to depression indicated an inverse association. These results indicate the need for evidence-based stress-management programs for the psychological well-being of Korean adults. PMID:25032882

  13. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some

  14. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in U.S. older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161

  15. Analysis of Protrusio Acetabuli Using a CT-based Diagnostic Method in Korean Patients with Marfan Syndrome: Prevalence and Association with Other Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwang Jin; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Jang, Shin Yi; Lee, Seung Hwa; Gwag, Hye Bin; Chung, Tae-Young; Huh, June; Ki, Chang-Seok; Sung, Kiick; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Kim, Sung Mok; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2015-09-01

    A new CT-based diagnostic method of protrusio acetabuli (PA) was introduced. However, prevalence of PA by this method and correlation between PA and other manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS) is unknown in Korean MFS patients. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of PA diagnosed by a CT-based method in Korean patients with MFS, the association of PA with other manifestations of MFS, and the contribution of PA to MFS diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 146 MFS patients with the presence of a causative FBN1 mutation and 146 age- and sex-matched controls from a single tertiary care center. All MFS patients underwent a complete assessment of criteria based on the revised Ghent nosology. PA was assessed quantitatively using a CT-based circle-wall distance (CWD) method. PA was diagnosed in 77.4% of patients in the MFS group and in 11.0% of the control group. CWD was significantly different between the two groups (1.50 mm vs. -0.64 mm, P<0.001). The presence of PA did not correlate with the presence of ectopia lentis, aortic root diameter, or history of aortic dissection. The presence of PA did not have a significant impact on the final diagnosis of MFS. Even though the presence of PA does not related to the cardinal clinical features of MFS or influence MFS diagnosis, its presence may be helpful for the suspicion of MFS when aortic dissection or aneurysm is found on CT angiography of the aorta because of the high frequency of PA in MFS patients. PMID:26339165

  16. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (?20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. PMID:24120902

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (1-OHPG and 2-naphthol) and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) biomarkers in urine among Korean adults and children.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho; Kang, Daehee

    2012-07-01

    Using the urinary biomarkers 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHPG), 2-naphthol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), we evaluated seasonal and regional variations in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress among Korean adults and children. In total, 322 children (175 male and 147 female) and 332 adults (47 male and 285 female) were recruited in two regions of Korea, one representing a metropolitan area (Seoul/Incheon) and the other an industrial (Pohang) area, from winter 2002 to spring 2003. The subjects voluntarily gathered their first morning urine void, which was immediately transported to our laboratory and stored at -20 C. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, 2-naphthol by HPLC, and urinary MDA by HPLC with a UV detector. The median urinary 1-OHPG concentration tended to be higher in the industrial region than in the metropolitan region (0.92 vs. 0.77 ng/mL; p=0.03), and higher in winter than in spring (0.95 vs. 0.73 ng/mL; p<0.001). The median 2-naphthol concentration was also higher in the industrial region than in the metropolitan region (21.0 vs. 12.3 ng/mL; p<0.0001), but was higher in spring than in winter (19.7 vs. 10.3 ng/mL; p<0.0001). The median MDA concentration was significantly higher in winter than in spring (2.19 vs. 1.03 ?mol/L; p<0.0001), whereas regional variation in MDA was observed only in female adults (p=0.02). In winter, the level of 1-OHPG was higher in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke than in unexposed children (0.94 vs. 0.86 ng/mL; p=0.02). Our results indicate that both region and season can significantly influence the levels of PAH exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers. PMID:22436105

  18. [Prevalence of mental disorders in adults in Subtiava, Len, Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Penayo, U; Caldera, T; Jacobsson, L

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in the Subtiava district of Len, Nicaragua. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select 219 families (n = 584 persons). The study was carried out in two phases. In the first, probable mental disorder cases were screened using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. In the second, the diagnoses were confirmed through the Present State Examination questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires had been confirmed in a pilot study. The present study was conducted in October and November 1987, when Nicaragua was still immersed in armed conflict. Construction of a family map made it possible to analyze, through the multiple imputation method, the characteristics of persons who were absent at the time of the interviews or who did not respond. The estimated prevalence percentages and their respective 95% confidence intervals were as follows: neurosis, 7.5% (5.2%-9.8%); depression, 6.2% (2.6%-8.1%); reactive crisis, 3.3% (2.6-6.5%); alcoholism, 5.8% (3.9%-8.9%); organic brain syndrome, 3.9% (1.7%-5.2%); psychosis, 0.5% (0.2%-1.6%); and other disorders, 0.7% (0.2%-1.6%). The estimated overall prevalence of mental disorders in the study population was 27.9%. Disorders were more prevalent among men (30.8%) than women (26.3%). It is concluded that these high estimated prevalences are associated with stress caused by the war. PMID:1510822

  19. Prevalence of facial acne vulgaris in late adolescence and in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, W J; Gould, D J

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 1066 healthy women and 1089 healthy men aged 18-70 years, performed to determine the prevalence of facial acne, showed that clinical acne was not confined to adolescents. Though it was more prevalent among men than women at 18, beyond the age of 23 clinical acne was more prevalent among women as the prevalence in men gradually declined. At 40-49 years 3% of men and 5% of women still had definite, albeit mild, clinical acne, and at 50-59 years 6% of men and 8% of women had physiological acne. The surprisingly high prevalence of acne in adults may be related to antibiotic treatment or, in women, to the use of oral contraceptives or cosmetics, though this survey did not study their influence. Further studies in different populations are needed to establish the prevalence of acne in the community, and its distribution. PMID:156054

  20. Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type Among Adults--United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A

    2015-07-31

    Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities. PMID:26225475

  1. Prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Dashdemberel, Sarangerel; Logii, Narantsetseg; Nakae, Kimihiro; Chigusa, Yuichi; Ohhira, Shuji; Ito, Clyde; Sagara, Hironori; Makino, Sohei

    2014-01-01

    Background Mongolia is changing lifestyle, unhealthy habits, increase of air pollution, increasing life expectancy have led to an up rise of chronic respiratory diseases. Over 10 years ago, the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Mongolia were in the lower range reported from previous studies. Objective The main aim of the survey is to know the prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis among adult population of Ulaanbaatar city, Mongolia and their risk factors. Methods Total of approximately 1,200 adults aged 20 years and over were planned to be randomly selected. The questionnaire was developed on the basis of WHO Protocol for Assessment of Prevalence of Major Respiratory Diseases and modified by local risk factors assessment and by other international survey approach including Global Initiative for Asthma and European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Results Prevalence of current wheezer in all age group was 15.7% (95% CI: 14.7-16.8). Age and sex segregated distribution of current wheezer were defined among male and female and prevalence was 14.5% (95% CI: 13.3-16.2) in male and female 16.6% (95% CI: 15.2-18.3) respectively. Prevalence of diagnosed asthma among adults was 4.7% (95% CI: 4.3-5.6) in all age group, 3% (95% CI: 2.4-3.7) in male and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8-7.9) in female. Prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis was 14.6% in all age group. 28.4% out of subjects with allergic rhinitis has current asthma, while 11.6% of subjects without allergic rhinitis has asthma (p < 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence of asthma increased for one decade in Ulaanbaatar. Prevalence of diagnosed asthma is approximately 5% and current wheezer is approximately 15% in adults of population, which is close to other Asia and European countries. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma. PMID:24527407

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men.

    PubMed

    Lym, Youl Lee; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40-69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (+/-SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5+/-30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respectively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men. PMID:19786385

  3. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    PubMed

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made. PMID:25496304

  4. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia linked CSF1R mutation: Report of four Korean cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Hun; Na, Duk L; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Hwang, Sun Jae; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young Min; Shin, Myung-Jun; Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Yoon, Uicheul; Park, Do Youn; Jung, Dae Soo; Ahn, Jae Woo; Sung, Suk; Huh, Gi Yeong

    2015-02-15

    We describe detailed clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), linked to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutations in four Korean cases. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings were obtained by direct evaluation and from previous medical records. The genetic analysis of the CSF1R gene was done in two autopsy-confirmed ALSP cases and two cases where ALSP was suspected based on the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics. We identified two known mutations: c.2342C>T (p.A781V) in one autopsy-proven HDLS and clinically ALSP-suspected case and c.2345G>A (p.R782H) in another autopsy-proven POLD case. We also found a novel mutation (c.2296A>G; p.M766V) in a patient presenting with hand tremor, stuttering and hesitant speech, and abnormal behavior whose father died from a possible diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented ALSP-linked CSF1R mutation in Korea and supports the suggestion that HDLS and POLD, with pathological characteristics that are somewhat different but which are caused by CSF1R mutations, are the same spectrum of disease, ALSP. PMID:25563800

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Modified Adult Attachment Scale for the Use of Medically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Byunggu; Rim, Hyo-Deog

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-M36) scale was developed for medically ill, older individuals in 2008 (Toronto, Canada, department of psychosocial oncology and palliative care, Princess Margaret Hospital). The scale has displayed satisfactory reliability and validity. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the Korean version of Modified Experiences in Close Relationships (K-ECR-M36) questionnaire in female patients with breast cancer. Methods A total of 199 post-operative breast cancer patients completed the K-ECR-M36 as well as other psychological measures including the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS), World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The reliability and validity of the K-ECR-M36 were evaluated. Explorative factor analysis was conducted to identify the factor structure of the K-ECR-M36. Results The K-ECR-M36 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's ?=0.87) and reasonable test-retest reliability (r=0.752, p<0.001). The total as well as avoidance and anxiety subscales demonstrated construct validity with the RAAS, the HADS, and the WHOQOL-BREF. Factor analysis revealed four-factor structure which was originally proposed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998). Conclusion These findings support that the K-ECR-M36 has satisfactory reliability, validity and factor structure among patients with breast cancer. PMID:26508959

  6. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  7. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungeun; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  8. Factors That Affect Suicidal Attempt Risk Among Korean Elderly Adults: A Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Junsoo; Park, Jongheon; Lee, Jinsuk; Jung, Hyemin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Among the Korean elderly (those 65 years of age and older), the suicide rate is 80.3/100 000 people, which is ten times higher than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development average. Because South Korea is rapidly becoming an aging population, this high elderly suicidal rate will only get worse. Although the size of the elderly suicide problem is quite large, previous research in South Korea has surveyed restricted areas and not the entire country. Even though the factors that affect elderly suicide are complicated, there has been little research into these influencing factors. Thus, this research uses the national survey data (Community Health Survey) that was obtained in 2009. Additionally, we analyze factors affecting elderly suicidal ideation and attempts as well as the paths of these effects. Methods: Community Health Survey data obtained by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009 was used for this study. We additionally examined the factors that affect suicide with chi-squared tests, t-tests, Pearsons correlation test, and path analysis. Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are the only factors that directly affect suicidal attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors have indirect effects on suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Depression has the strongest influence on suicidal ideation and attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts mostly through depressive symptoms. In addition, there is a path that suggests that demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts not through depression symptoms but only through suicidal ideation. This means that the elderly who do not have depression symptoms attempt suicide according to their own situations and characteristics. PMID:25652708

  9. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend < 0.001), milkdairy product (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.10-5.31, p for trend = 0.071) and beverage (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.35-7.48, p for trend = 0.002) intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high traditional rice cake consumption is associated inversely with colorectal cancer incidence, warranting a future study. PMID:25954732

  10. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n=2326) and middle-aged adults (n=3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  11. Prevalence of colorectal adenomas in asymptomatic young adults: a window to early intervention?

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ji Yeong; Kim, Kwang Min; Yang, Hae Jin; Yu, Kil Jong; Lee, Jae Gon; Jeong, Yeon Oh; Shim, Sang Goon

    2016-06-01

    Objective The prevalence of colorectal adenoma is increasing in the average-risk population. However, little research is available on colorectal adenoma in young adults under age 40. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of colorectal adenoma in 20- to 39-year-old adults. Methods We evaluated 4286 asymptomatic young adults aged 20 to 39 years who underwent first colonoscopy screening as part of an employer-provided health wellness programme at the Health Promotion Centre of Samsung Changwon Hospital, Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors for colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic young adults. Results The prevalence of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma was 11.6% (497/4286) and 0.9% (39/4286), respectively. By age group, the prevalence of colorectal adenoma was 5.4% (33/608) in participants aged 20 to 29 years and 12.6% (464/3678) in participants aged 30 to 39. Colorectal adenoma was found in 13.1% (403/3072) of men and 7.7% (94/1214) of women. Increased risk of colorectal adenoma was associated with age over 30 years (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.64-3.42), current smoker status (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91), and alcohol consumption (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.63). Conclusions Our findings indicate that even if the prevalence of colorectal adenoma was low in young adults aged 20 to 39, being over 30, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption can affect young adults who have no other CRC risks. PMID:26863602

  12. Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriagas decomposition method. Results Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23years in men and 7.69years in women. Young adult groups aged 3549 in men and aged 2539 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 2529 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. Conclusions The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy. PMID:24897953

  13. Association between Low-level Mercury Exposure and Neurobehavioral Functions in Korean Adults Living in a Coastal City

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hong, Young-Seoub; You, Chang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between low-level mercury exposure and neurobehavioral functions in adults living in coastal regions of Korea. Methods We selected 172 adults aged 20-65 years living in a city in the coastal region of Korea. A sociodemographic survey was conducted, mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were measured, and the associations according to computerized neurobehavioral tests were determined using univariate analysis. After adjustment for associated variables, a multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. Results The geometric mean mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were 5.41 g/L (range, 0.00-15.84 g/L), 1.17 g/g-creatinine (range, 0.00-32.86 g/g-creatinine), and 1.37 mg/kg (range, 0.42-6.56 mg/kg), respectively. Variables that were associated with simple reaction time according to the neurobehavioral test results were age and urine mercury level. Variables associated with choice reaction time were the recent use of Korean traditional medicine and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the right-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, smoking behavior, education level, monthly household income, and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the left-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, education level, and urine mercury level. After adjustment for associated variables, there was no significant association between urine mercury level and simple reaction time (?=25.96; p=0.47), choice reaction time (?=50.37; p=0.32), or the number of left-hand finger taps (?=-1.54; p=0.21). However, urine mercury level was significantly associated with the number of right-hand finger taps (?=-3.86; p=0.01). Conclusions We found no evidence that low-level mercury exposure in adults is associated with deficits in neurobehavioral functions. A longer follow-up study is required to confirm this conclusion. PMID:24303351

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study. PMID:23071800

  15. Prevalence and reasons for initiating use of electronic cigarettes among adults in Montana, 2013.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lisa; Reidmohr, Alison; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    We used data from the 2013 Montana Adult Tobacco Survey to estimate the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and reasons for initiation among Montana adults. More than 1 in 10 (11.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-13.2%) adults reported ever using e-cigarettes, and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.9%) reported current use. Most respondents reported "trying something new" (64%) or "trying to quit or reduce cigarette use" (56%) as a reason for initiating use. Ongoing surveillance of these addictive products is needed. PMID:25412027

  16. Prevalence and Types of Aggressive Behaviour among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, A. G.; Mercier, C.; Lachapelle, Y.; Brunet, A.; Morin, D.; Roy, M. -E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Aggressive behaviours represent major obstacles to the integration into society of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and pose significant management issues for carers. Methods: The present study assessed the prevalence and severity of five types of aggressive behaviours in 3165 adult men and women with ID receiving services

  17. Prevalence of Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Mental Retardation and Challenging Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 165 adults with mental retardation was surveyed for the presence of psychiatric symptoms, mental retardation level, and challenging behavior. Challenging behavior was associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety and psychosis, and not with depression. No association was found between anxiety and

  18. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

  19. Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia in Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K.; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been

  20. The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:

  1. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of

  2. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Abbas, Mostafa A. F.; Abuzaid, Lamiaa Z.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension. PMID:21912737

  3. The prevalence of asthmatic respiratory symptoms among adults in Estonian and Swedish university cities.

    PubMed

    Jgi, R; Janson, C; Bjrnsson, E; Boman, G; Bjrkstn, B

    1996-05-01

    The prevalence of atopy and related diseases is lower among children in Eastern European countries than in countries with a market economy. Such comparisons have not been made in adults. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) postal questionnaire was mailed to random samples of 3000 inhabitants in Tartu, Estonia, and 3600 in Uppsala, Sweden, between the ages of 20 and 44 years. Asthmatic symptoms (wheeze with breathlessness occurring in the absence of colds) were less prevalent in Tartu (4.6% vs 6.8%, P < 0.001), as were attacks of asthma (1.9% vs 3.3%, P < 0.01), current asthma medication (0.7% vs 4.9%), and allergic rhinitis (17.8% vs 22.2%, P < 0.001). Age was inversely related to allergic rhinitis in Uppsala (P < 0.05), but not in Tartu. Nocturnal respiratory symptoms (wakening with chest tightness or being woken by an attack of breathlessness or an attack of cough) were more prevalent in Tartu (P < 0.001), and their prevalence increased with age (P < 0.05) in Tartu, but not in Uppsala. Symptoms of asthma and hay fever were less common but other respiratory problems more common in Tartu than in Uppsala. The difference in the prevalence of hay fever diminished with age, supporting the notion that the increasing prevalence of allergy among children and young adults in Western Europe is caused by a cohort effect. PMID:8836338

  4. Comparison of Serum Ferritin and Vitamin D in Association with the Severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Cho, Young Hye; Yi, Dong Won; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Son, Seok Man

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased serum ferritin and decreased vitamin D levels associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, their association with the severity of NAFLD has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the association of serum ferritin and 25(OH)D3 levels with the severity of ultrasonographically detected NAFLD (US-NAFLD) and hepatic steatosis defined by fatty liver index (FLI) in Korean adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of clinical and anthropometric data, including serum ferritin and 25(OH)D3, from men (n=295) and women (n=263) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2012. Results In men, with an increase in the quartile of serum ferritin level, the incidences of subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.002), US-NAFLD (P=0.041), and FLI ≥60 (P=0.010) were significantly elevated. In women, the incidence of subjects with US-NAFLD was also significantly elevated with increases in the serum ferritin quartile (P=0.012). Regarding 25(OH)D3, no statistical differences were observed among the different quartiles in either gender. Serum ferritin level significantly increased as the severity of US-NAFLD increased (P<0.001); however, no significant differences in 25(OH)D3 level were observed in men. No significant differences in either serum ferritin or 25(OH)D3 level were observed among women with different levels of severity of US-NAFLD. Conclusion Increased serum ferritin level showed a closer association with severity of NAFLD compared with level of serum vitamin D, suggesting that serum ferritin level may be a better marker than vitamin D level for predicting the severity of US-NAFLD and hepatic steatosis in a clinical setting. PMID:25559574

  5. Association Between Hearing Impairment and Albuminuria in the Korean Adults: The 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Although the associations between albuminuria and renal and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, have been extensively studied, few studies have investigated the association between albuminuria and hearing impairment. In this study, we assessed the relationship between albuminuria and hearing impairment in 9786 adult Korean subjects, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011-2012. The range of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was divided into 4 grades: grade 1 (first tertile of low-grade albuminuria [LGA]), 0.00 to 1.99 mg/g Cr; grade 2 (second tertile of LGA), 2.00 to 5.49 mg/g Cr; grade 3 (third tertile of LGA), 5.50 to 29.99 mg/g Cr; grade 4 (albuminuria), ≥30.00 mg/g Cr.The age- and sex-adjusted weighted UACR was higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with those without hearing impairment (26.2 ± 4.7 mg/g Cr vs 14.1 ± 1.5 mg/g Cr, P = 0.020). The age- and sex-adjusted weighted prevalence of albuminuria was also higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with subjects without hearing impairment. (8.3 ± 0.9% vs 5.8 ± 0.4%, P = 0.013) The age- and sex-adjusted weighted percentage of hearing impairment increased as UACR increased (18.0% ± 0.6%, 20.0% ± 0.8%, 22.2% ± 0.9%, 25.3% ± 2.0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses were performed for hearing impairment by albuminuria, with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m as covariates. Using grade 1 of UACR as the control, grade 3 (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.53, P = 0.005) and grade 4 (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.90, P = 0.026) of UACR were correlated with hearing impairment, respectively. When the level of hearing impairment (dB) was analyzed as a continuous variable, it was positively correlated with log UACR (Spearman correlation, unadjusted r = 0.226, adjusted r = 0.076, P < 0.001).In conclusion, we are the first to demonstrate that albuminuria is associated with hearing impairment in the Korean general population, using nationally representative data. Screening for albuminuria would allow for interventions for the prevention of hearing impairment. PMID:26512589

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of hospitalized adults on chronic opioid therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mosher, Hilary J.; Jiang, Lan; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Cram, Peter; Kaboli, Peter J.; Vander Weg, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Background As chronic opioid therapy (COT) becomes more common, complexity of pain management in the inpatient setting increases; little is known about medical inpatients on COT. Objective To determine the prevalence of COT among hospitalized patients and to compare outcomes among these patients relative to those not receiving COT. Design Observational study of inpatient and outpatient administrative data Participants All Veterans with acute medical admissions to 129 Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals during fiscal years 2009-2011, residing in the community, and with outpatient pharmacy use. Measurements We defined COT as 90 or more days of opioids prescribed in the 6 months prior to hospitalization. Patient characteristics included demographic variables and major comorbidities; outcomes included 30-day readmission and death during hospitalization or within 30 days, with associations ascertained using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 122,794 hospitalized Veterans, 31,802 (25.9%) received COT. These patients differed from comparators in age, sex, race, residence, and presence of chronic non-cancer pain, COPD, complicated diabetes, cancer, and mental health diagnoses including PTSD. After adjustment for demographic factors, comorbidities, and admission diagnosis, COT was associated with hospital readmission (odds ratio [OR]: 1.15, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.20) and death (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.29). Conclusions COT is common among medical inpatients; patients on COT differ from patients without COT beyond dissimilarities in pain and cancer diagnoses. Occasional and chronic opioid use are associated with increased risk of hospital readmission, and COT is associated with increased risk of death. Additional research relating COT to hospitalization outcomes is warranted. PMID:24311455

  7. E-Cigarette Prevalence and Correlates of Use among Adolescents versus Adults: A Review and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2014-01-01

    Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ?18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ?18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors. PMID:24680203

  8. E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2014-07-01

    Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ?18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ?18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors. PMID:24680203

  9. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  10. Pertussis seroprevalence in korean adolescents and adults using anti-pertussis toxin immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Bae, E Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Park, Yeon-Joon; Ma, Sang Hyuk

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate age-specific seroprevalence of pertussis in Korea and to formulate a strategy to prevent and reduce the incidence of pertussis. Residual serum samples of healthy adolescents and adults 11 yr of age or older were collected between July 2012 and December 2012, and anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG titers were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. We compared the mean anti-PT IgG titers and seroprevalence of pertussis of the six age groups: 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and ≥ 61 yr. A total of 1,192 subjects were enrolled. The mean anti-PT IgG titer and pertussis seroprevalence were 35.53 ± 62.91 EU/mL and 41.4%, respectively. The mean anti-PT IgG titers and seroprevalence were not significantly different between the age groups. However, the seroprevalence in individuals 51 yr of age or older was significantly higher than in individuals younger than 51 yr (46.5% vs 39.1%, P = 0.017). Based on these results, a new pertussis prevention strategy is necessary for older adults. PMID:24851020

  11. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult

  12. Feasibility of a Self-Determination Theory-Based Exercise Program in Community-Dwelling South Korean Older Adults: Experiences from a 13-Month Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Min Joo; Suh, Dongwon; Kim, Jungjin; Jo, Eunkyoung; Yoon, BumChul

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of self-determination theory (SDT), a representative motivational theory, on exercise domain in older adults. This feasibility study used quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of a 13-month group exercise program applying SDT-based motivational strategies on exercise adherence, physical fitness, and quality of life, and to explore factors affecting exercise adherence in South Korean older adults (N = 18). Exercise attendance rate was high (82.52%). There were significant differences in aerobic endurance (p < .001), lower body strength (p < .05), dynamic balance (p < .001), and perceived social functioning (p < .05) at 13 months compared with baseline. Factors affecting exercise adherence were related to the SDT-based motivational strategies. These results support the importance of health professionals applying SDT-based motivational strategies to exercise programs to help facilitate motivation for participation and to promote physical fitness and quality of life in older adults. PMID:25699515

  13. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tinnitus: Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 20092011

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Park, Hun Yi; Lee, Kyu Yup; Choi, Young Seok; Oh, Kyung Won; Lee, Ari; Yang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seon Woo; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition and frequently can be annoying to affected individuals. We investigated the prevalence and associated factors for tinnitus in South Korea using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 20092011. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21 893). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. Results Among the population over 12 years of age, the prevalence of any tinnitus was 19.7% (95% CI 18.8%20.6%). Tinnitus was more prevalent in women, and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). Among those with any tinnitus, 29.3% (95% CI 27.3%31.3%) experienced annoying tinnitus that affected daily life. Annoying tinnitus also increased with age (P < 0.001), but no sex difference was demonstrated (P = 0.25). In participants aged 40 years or older, age, quality of life, depressive mood, hearing loss, feeling of dizziness, and rhinitis were associated with any tinnitus (P < 0.05). Age, hearing loss, history of cardiovascular disease, and stress were associated with annoying tinnitus (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tinnitus is a common condition, and a large population suffers from annoying tinnitus in South Korea. Public understanding of associated factors might contribute to better management of tinnitus. PMID:24953134

  14. Distribution of Abdominal Obesity and Fitness Level in Overweight and Obese Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Duk-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won; Jeon, Justin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio), and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.045, P = 0.499), whereas VAT (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (r = 0.214, P = 0.001) remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (? = 0.204, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (? = 0.163, P = 0.008) but not with SAT (? = 0.097, P = 0.111). Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults. PMID:24723950

  15. Perceptions of Cancer Risk and Cause of Cancer Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Eun Young; Oh, Kyounghee; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of perceived risk for cancer; to explore associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cancer risk; to identify perceived cause of cancer risk; and to examine the associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cause of cancer risk. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,009 participants aged 30-69 years, selected from a population-based database in October 2009 through multiple-stratified random sampling. Information was collected about the participants’ perceived cancer risk and perceived cause of cancer risk. Results Overall, 59.5% of the respondents thought they had the chance of developing cancer. Female sex, younger age, lower income, and family history of cancer were positively associated with perceived cancer risk. The most important perceived cause of cancer risk was stress. There was a difference between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cause of cancer risk. Conclusion Factors affecting perceptions of cancer risk and cause of cancer risk need to be addressed in risk communications. The results provide important directions for the development of educational strategies to promote awareness and self-appraisal of cancer risk and risk factors. PMID:25483748

  16. The association between the socioeconomic status and thyroid cancer prevalence; based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-Woo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Han, Mi-ah; Park, Jong

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has recently increased in most industrialized countries, including Korea. To date, few studies have examined the association between thyroid cancer and socioeconomic status (SES). The current study was based on data collected from a total of 12,276 subjects (5,277 men and 6,999 women) by the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (odds ration [OR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.05), being female (OR, 8.16; 95%CI, 2.99-22.24), being overweight (OR, 1.04; 95%CI, 1.01-1.06), monthly household income (OR, 3.27; 95%CI, 1.16-9.20 for medium-highest household income vs lowest household income; OR, 3.30; 95%CI, 1.16-9.34 for highest household income vs lowest household income), educational level (OR, 2.74; 95%CI, 1.16-6.46 for 10-12 yr vs < 7 yr) and alcohol consumption (OR, 1.89; 95%CI 1.08-3.32) were significant risk factors for thyroid cancer. Our results indicate that the recent increase in thyroid cancer is attributable to better early detection rather than to any increase in actual prevalence. PMID:24339702

  17. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Obesity in Pennsylvania Adults, 19952010

    PubMed Central

    Lengerich, Eugene J.; Camacho, Fabian; Gallant, Nancy R.; Wray, Linda A.; Ahern, Frank; Bogdan, Greg; Weinberg, Gene; Ulbrecht, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study examined trends in the prevalence and sociodemographic distributions of diabetes and the associations of diabetes with obesity over time in adult Pennsylvanians from 1995 through 2010. Methods We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data collected from 1995 through 2010. Diabetes prevalence was assessed by self-report of physician diagnosis. Obesity was assessed by body mass index computed from self-report of height and weight. State-level data for diabetes and associated obesity prevalence from 1995 through 2010 were collected for each year. Data on sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race, income, education) and 1 known disease risk factor (obesity) were also collected. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine associations between diabetes, sociodemographic factors, and obesity. Results Diabetes prevalence in Pennsylvania, which increased from 5.6% in 1995 to 10.5% in 2010, followed national trends but exceeded the national prevalence each year by approximately 0.6 percentage points for 12 of the 16 years. The increase in prevalence was not equal across all socioeconomic groups. Obesity became a more dominant risk factor for diabetes during these 16 years. Conclusion The burden of diabetes and obesity in Pennsylvania is substantial and increasing. Program managers and policy makers in Pennsylvania should consider these trends when allocating limited resources and designing programs for reducing diabetes-related illness. Other states may consider similar studies to monitor the prevalence of diabetes and determine whether disparities are changing and whether programs and resources should also shift. PMID:24995653

  18. HIV testing among clients in high HIV prevalence venues: Disparities between older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Wallace, Steven P.; Nakazono, Terry; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (age>50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided to younger adults in these venues should also be provided to older adults. We examined aging-related disparities in recent (past 12 months) and ever HIV testing in a probability sample of at-risk adults (N=1,238) seeking services in needle exchange sites, sexually transmitted disease clinics and Latino community clinics that provide HIV testing. Using multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we estimated associations between age category (<50 years vs. >50 years) and each HIV testing outcome. Even after controlling for covariates such as recent injection drug use, older adults had 40% lower odds than younger adults did of having tested in the past 12 months (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.400.90) or ever (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.400.90). Aging-related disparities in HIV testing exist in these high HIV prevalence venues, and may contribute to known aging-related disparities in late diagnosis of HIV infection and poor long-term prognosis. PMID:25303208

  19. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA genotypes in the peri-implant sulcus of Koreans assessed using a new primer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA is a virulence factor associated with periodontal diseases, but its role in the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the condition of peri-implant tissue and the distribution of P. gingivalis fimA genotypes in Koreans using a new primer. Methods A total of 248 plaque samples were taken from the peri-implant sulci of 184 subjects. The control group consisted of sound implants with a peri-implant probing depth (PD) of 5 mm or less with no bleeding on probing (BOP). Test group I consisted of implants with a peri-implant PD of 5 mm or less and BOP, and test group II consisted of implants with a peri-implant PD of more than 5 mm and BOP. DNA was extracted from each sample and analyzed a using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with P. gingivalis-specific primers, followed by an additional PCR assay to differentiate the fimA genotypes in P. gingivalis-positive subjects. Results The Prevalence of P. gingivalis in each group did not significantly differ (P>0.05). The most predominant fimA genotype in all groups was type II. The prevalence of type Ib fimA was significantly greater in test group II than in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions The fimA type Ib genotype of P. gingivalis was found to play a critical role in the destruction of peri-implant tissue, suggesting that it may be a distinct risk factor for peri-implantitis. PMID:26937292

  20. The prevalence of disorders causing disability in young adult males in Turkey between 2009-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Necmettin; Turker, Turker; Aydin, Ibrahim; Istanbulluoglu, Hakan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Kilic, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disability is one of the significant problems that the public faces as regards social aspects, economics, public health and politics. Our aim was to review the prevalence of diseases causing disabilities in young adult men who are declared unfit for military service in Turkey after medical examination. Methods: We reviewed the prevalence of diseases among 113,175 young adult men who were referred for medical examination between 2009 and 2011. Results: Prevalence of unfitness for military service was 5.56% in 2009, 6.74% in 2010 and 6.77% in 2011. Leading causes for young adult men to be rejected from military service was intellectual disability 6.88, hearing loss 3.71, epilepsy 1.59, schizophrenia 1.54 and diabetes mellitus 1.47 per thousand people. Conclusion: Screening for the prevalence of disability conditions is an important data source for policies to be developed. Supporting such survey with community based studies in different populations in future shall be beneficial for improvement of policies in social and health fields. PMID:24353728

  1. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezi?, Aleksandra; Selakovi?, Sanja; Pavlovi?, Ivan; ?irovi?, Duko

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

  2. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ahn, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary fat intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We investigated the association between dietary fat and specific types of fat intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods The study population included 1,662 healthy adults who were 50.2 years of age and had no known hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or metabolic syndrome at the initial visit. Dietary intake was obtained from a 1-day food record. During 20.7 months of follow-up, we documented 147 cases of metabolic syndrome confirmed by self-report, anthropometric data, and blood test results. The intakes of total fat, vegetable fat, animal fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and cholesterol level divided by quintile. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, total calorie, and protein intake. Results Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk (odds ratio for the highest vs. the lowest quintile, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.76). Total fat, animal fat, SFA, PUFA, MUFA, and cholesterol intakes showed no association with metabolic syndrome. Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among the components of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion These data support an inverse association between vegetable fat and the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26435816

  3. Fast Eating Speed Increases the Risk of Endoscopic Erosive Gastritis in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Kyung; Kim, E-Yeon; Han, Byoung-Duck; Cho, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast eating or overeating can induce gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis. However, the association between gastritis and speed of eating is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether eating speed is associated with increased risk of endoscopic erosive gastritis (EEG). Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 10,893 adults who underwent a general health checkup between 2007 and 2009. Two groups, EEG patients and EEG-free patients, were compared by using the t-test and the chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between eating speed and EEG. Results The group with EEG had a higher proportion of males, average age, body mass index, and percentages of current smokers and risky drinkers than those without EEG. After adjusting for anthropometric, social, and endoscopic parameters, the group with the highest eating speed (<5 min/meal) had 1.7 times higher risk for EEG than the group with the lowest eating speed (≥15 min/meal) (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.45). Conclusion High eating speed is an independent risk factor for EEG. Our results indicate the need for further studies to clarify the role of eating speed in gastritis. PMID:26634096

  4. The Next Generation of Users: Prevalence and Longitudinal Patterns of Tobacco Use Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Valerie; Rath, Jessica; Villanti, Andrea C.; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We monitored the prevalence and patterns of use of the array of tobacco products available to young adults, who are at risk for initiation and progression to established tobacco use. Methods. We used data from waves 1 to 3 of GfK’s KnowledgePanel (2011–2012), a nationally representative cohort of young adults aged 18 to 34 years (n = 2144). We examined prevalence and patterns of tobacco product use over time, associated demographics, and state-level tobacco policy. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine predictors of initiation of cigarettes as well as noncombustible and other combustible products. Results. The prevalence of ever tobacco use rose from 57.28% at wave 1 to 67.43% at wave 3. Use of multiple products was the most common pattern (66.39% of tobacco users by wave 3). Predictors of initiation differed by product type and included age, race/ethnicity, policy, and use of other tobacco products. Conclusions. Tobacco use is high among young adults and many are using multiple products. Efforts to implement policy and educate young adults about the risks associated with new and emerging products are critical to prevent increased initiation of tobacco use. PMID:24922152

  5. Prevalence and Secular Trends in Obesity Among Chinese Adults, 1991–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Hui-Jun; Yan, Jing; Han, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Dian-Wu; Tian, Qing-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults increased from 1991 to 2000; however, recent changes in this trend are unclear. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of obesity and to assess trends in obesity and BMI distribution in Chinese adults from 1991 through 2011. Methods Height and weight measurements of 12,249 Chinese adults from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey were analyzed (in 2013) together with China Health and Nutrition Survey data for 1991–2009. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥28.0 based on the Working Group on Obesity in China criteria. Results In the 2011 survey, the age-adjusted mean BMI was 23.8 (95% CI=23.7, 23.9) for men and 23.4 (95% CI=23.2, 23.5) for women. The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 11.3% (95% CI=10.8%, 11.9%) overall, 11.8% (95% CI=10.8%, 12.6%) among men, and 11.0% (95% CI=10.3%, 11.8%) among women. Estimates of age-adjusted obesity prevalence among the Chinese population were significantly lower than those of the U.S. population (all p<0.05). Over the 20-year period, the prevalence of obesity increased from 2.88% to 11.8% among men (age-adjusted annual change in OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.07, 1.09, p<0.001) and from 4.55% to 11.0% among women (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.05, 1.06, p<0.001). Similar significant findings were observed for both men and women based on WHO recommendations. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity among both Chinese men and women increased significantly from 1991 through 2011, particularly among men. PMID:26275960

  6. Multimorbidity prevalence and pattern in Indonesian adults: an exploratory study using national survey data

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Huxley, Rachel R; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity in the Indonesian adult population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based survey. The sampling frame was based on households in 13 of the 27 Indonesian provinces, representing about 83% of the Indonesian population. Participants 9438 Indonesian adults aged 40 years and above. Main outcome measures Prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Results The mean number of morbidities in the sample was 1.27 (SE±0.01). The overall age and sex standardised prevalence of multimorbidity was 35.7% (34.8% to 36.7%), with women having significantly higher prevalence of multimorbidity than men (41.5% vs 29.5%; p<0.001). Of those with multimorbidity, 64.6% (62.8% to 66.3%) were aged less than 60 years. Prevalence of multimorbidity was positively associated with age (p for trend <0.001) and affluence (p for trend <0.001) and significantly greater in women at all ages compared with men. For each 5-year increment in age there was an approximate 20% greater risk of multimorbidity in both sexes (18% in women 95% CI 1.14 to 1.22 and 22% in men 95% CI 1.18 to 1.26). Increasing age, female gender, non-Javanese ethnicity, and high per-capital expenditure were all significantly associated with higher odds of multimorbidity. The combination of hypertension with cardiac diseases, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, and uric acid/gout were the most commonly occurring disease pairs in both sexes. Conclusions More than one-third of the Indonesian adult population are living with multimorbidity with women and the more wealthy being particularly affected. Of especial concern was the high prevalence of multimorbidity among younger individuals. Hypertension was the most frequently occurring condition common to most individuals with multimorbidity. PMID:26656028

  7. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. Methods A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). Results The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. Conclusion The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment. PMID:26816872

  8. The Prevalence of Asthma in an Adult Population in Khorramabad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, A; Asadi, S; Almasi, V; Ghobadi, A

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Asthma is one of the most common respiratory disorders. There have not been any studies assessing the prevalence rate for asthma based on spirometry in an adult population in the west of Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of asthma in an adult population in Khorramabad, in the west of Iran. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was done on adult residents in Khorramabad between 2009 and 2010. The samples were selected by cluster and systematic sampling methods. The interviewers went to the selected homes and evaluated the samples by the standard questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The individuals who were susceptible to asthma were evaluated using a hand-held spirometer (ZAN 100, Obertulba, Germany). Also, in the patients whose first spirometry had been normal, a more than 10% reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after the exercise and more than 12% rise in FEV1 after the salbutamol spray inhalation was considered as having asthma. Finally, the data were summarized using means and percentages. Results: Eight hundred and fifty-seven adults were evaluated by the questionnaire and 450 suspicious cases were referred to the pulmonologist's office. The frequency of spirometry-diagnosed asthma in the adult residents of Khorramabad was 9.45%. Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma in Khorramabad in our study was more than in similar studies in Iran and other countries. Doing analytical studies on the prevalence of asthma and its risk factors is recommended. PMID:25781280

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Prescription Drug Misuse among Socially Active Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse represents an emerging global drug trend. Data indicate that young adults are misusing prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is critical, particularly for those engaged in social scenes known to accommodate drug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of lifetime and recent prescription drug misuse among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results In a diverse sample of 1,207 young adults, 44.1% reported lifetime prescription drug misuse, and 20.3% reported misuse during the past three months. Stimulants were the most common class of drug respondents misused within the past six months (16.7%), followed by pain killers (16.5%) and sedatives (14.5%). While no gender or sexual orientation differences in misuse prevalence existed, Black youth reported the lowest prevalence of misuse. In multivariate analyses, increased age was associated with lower odds of recent misuse, females report lower odds of recent use, and Black, Asian, and Latino individuals had lower odds of recent misuse than Whites. These odds varied by prescription drug type. Negative binomial regression analyses indicate that, among prescription drug misusers, women misuse prescription drugs less frequently. Younger individuals more frequently misuse stimulants and older individuals more frequently misuse sedatives. Racial variation existed with frequency of use across classes. Conclusions This study illustrates the need for health promotion efforts targeting prescription drug misuse among young adults who are highly socially active. Future research should focus on motivations for and factors associated with prescription drug misuse within youth cultures. Further research may provide a fuller sense of how to reduce the impact of prescription drug misuse for nations whose prescription drug problem lags behind that of the U.S. PMID:23036649

  10. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults. PMID:24241785

  11. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in U.S. adults: 2001, 2006, and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Richard; Luccioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence indicates that food allergies are increasing in the population. Information on a change in self-reported food allergy (srFA) in adults over time is lacking. Objective: To report the prevalence of srFA and compare differences at three time points over a decade. Methods: We analyzed srFA and reported physician-diagnosed food allergy in >4000 U.S. adults who participated in the 2010 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Survey. Information on causative food(s), reaction severity characteristics, and various diagnostic factors was also analyzed. We compared 2010 Food Safety Survey data with 2006 and 2001 data, and highlighted relevant differences. Results: SrFA prevalence increased significantly, to 13% in 2010 and 14.9% in 2006 compared with 9.1% in 2001 (p < 0.001). Physician diagnosed food allergy was 6.5% in 2010, which was not significantly different compared with 7.6% in 2006 and 5.3% in 2001. SrFA increased in both men and women, non-Hispanic white and black adults, 5059 year olds, and in adults with a high school or lower education. In 2010, milk, shellfish, and fruits were the most commonly reported food allergens, similar to 2001. Also, in 2010, 15% of reactions reportedly required a hospital visit and 8.4% were treated with epinephrine. Minor differences in reaction severity characteristics were noted among the surveys. Conclusions: Analysis of survey results indicates that the prevalence of srFA increased among U.S. adults from 2001 to 2010 and that adults are increasingly self-reporting FAs without obtaining medical diagnosis. Improved education about food allergies is needed for this risk group. PMID:26453524

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeon-Young; Shin, Jin-Young; Jo, Euni

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered an important outcome measure in chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is known to be associated with impaired HRQoL. However, few studies have examined HRQoL in individuals at high risk of CVD. Methods Using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, we analyzed data from 10,307 adults aged ≥30 years. The study subjects were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their Framingham risk score-a 10-year estimate of CVD risk: <10.0% (low risk), 10.0%-19.9% (moderate risk), and ≥20.0% (high risk). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. Results A significantly higher proportion of high-risk subjects than low-risk participants had impaired HRQoL (defined as the lowest quartile of the EQ-5D index); this held true even after adjustment for confounding factors in multivariable logistic regression analysis (men: odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.11; women: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.08). In terms of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% was significantly associated with self-reported problems of mobility in men (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.02-4.90), and of mobility (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24), self-care (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09-4.22), and usual activity problems (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.78) in women. Conclusion A high CVD risk is associated with impaired HRQoL. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% is an independent predictor of impaired HRQoL in the general population; in particular, of mobility problems in men, and of mobility, self-care, and usual activity problems in women. PMID:26634104

  13. Changes in the prevalence of asthma in adults since 1966: the Busselton health study.

    PubMed

    James, A L; Knuiman, M W; Divitini, M L; Hui, J; Hunter, M; Palmer, L J; Maier, G; Musk, A W

    2010-02-01

    Asthma prevalence has increased worldwide; although less so in developed countries recently. This study assessed changes in the prevalence of asthma and related symptoms in the Busselton community since 1966. Cross-sectional respiratory health surveys of Busselton adults were conducted in 1966, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1981, 1990 and 2005-2007. Logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence rates of asthma, respiratory symptoms, smoking, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and atopy and to make comparisons in 2005-2007 and previous survey years. Asthma was defined as ever having doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA). The prevalence of DDA was around 6% from 1966 to 1975, 8% in 1981 and rose to 19% in 2005-2007. From 1981 to 2005-2007, smoking prevalence declined and obesity and atopy increased but changes in these variables explained only a small part of the increase in DDA. Wheeze and cough/phlegm increased but AHR, breathlessness and doctor-diagnosed bronchitis remained relatively stable over the same period. These observations indicate that the increase in DDA is partly explained by increased symptoms and atopy. The lack of changes in AHR and doctor-diagnosed bronchitis suggests that factors such as diagnostic transfer and increased awareness of asthma have also contributed to the rise in prevalence of DDA. PMID:19643935

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria or overweight and obesity in Nigeria. In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders. PMID:23573067

  15. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 2025 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in all groups more than 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination. PMID:26540392

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sleep Disturbance in a Large HIV-Infected Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Allavena, C; Guimard, T; Billaud, E; De la Tullaye, S; Reliquet, V; Pineau, S; Hüe, H; Supiot, C; Chennebault, J-M; Michau, C; Hitoto, H; Vatan, R; Raffi, F

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbances in French adult HIV-infected outpatients. Patients fullfilled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behavior, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), quality of life and depression; 1354 patients were enrolled. Median sleeping time was 7 h. Poor sleep quality was observed in 47 % of the patients, and moderate to serious depressive symptoms in 19.7 %. Factors significantly associated with sleep disturbances were depression, male gender, active employment, living single, tobacco-smoking, duration of HIV infection, nevirapine or efavirenz-including regimen. Prevalence of poor sleepers is high in this HIV adult outpatient population. Associated factors seem poorly specific to HIV infection and more related to social and psychological status. Taking care of these disturbances may prove to be an effective health management strategy. PMID:26271816

  17. Prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Honami; Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamura, Kunio

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with a national epidemiological survey to investigate the prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure the history of child abuse and the demographic characteristics. The participants reported the following 4 types of child abuse: physical abuse (3%), sexual abuse (0.6%), neglect (0.8%), and psychological abuse (4%). Significant unequal distribution of child abuse was found to be associated with sex, living region, marital status, job status, and educational status. We determined the prevalence of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan and found that their demographic characteristics were unequally distributed. Policy makers and public health providers should take these demographic disparities into account in considering effective public health interventions for survivors of child abuse. PMID:23687257

  18. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Kalra, Sanjay; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathi; John, Mathew; Tewari, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata) of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]). Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 <0.89 ng/dl and TSH >5.50 μU/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ≥18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females) were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78) of which 7.48% (n = 401) patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186) were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportion of females vs. males (15.86% vs 5.02%) and older vs. younger (13.11% vs 7.53%), adults were diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Additionally, 8.02% (n = 430) patients were diagnosed to have subclinical hypothyroidism (normal serum free T4 and TSH >5.50 μIU/ml). Anti – TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171) patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations. PMID:23961480

  19. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: prevalence and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in adults.

    PubMed

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Nmeth, Istvn; Balzs, Andrea; Balla, Eszter

    2015-09-01

    The extragenital manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection frequently results in non-specific conjunctivitis among sexually active adults. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, to describe the distribution of serovars among patients with conjunctivitis and to characterize the relationship between the prevalence and patient demographics such as age and gender. A total of 245 conjunctival specimens were screened for C. trachomatis DNA targeting the plasmid gene. Serovar determination of the C. trachomatis-positive specimens was carried out by an omp1 PCR-based RFLP analysis method. Statistical analysis was done using a generalized linear model. C. trachomatis was detected in 53 cases (21.6 %) of adult conjunctivitis. Molecular genotyping differentiated seven distinct urogenital serovars, the most prevalent being serovar E (16/53), followed by F (15/53), D (6/53), K (6/53), G (4/53), H (4/53) and J (2/53). Statistical analysis showed higher C. trachomatis prevalence in the younger age groups, and this peaked at younger age in women than in men. The high prevalence of this pathogen found in ocular samples should alert ophthalmologists to focus on the role of C. trachomatis in adult conjunctivitis. The serovar distribution indicated that ocular chlamydial infections usually have a genital source. Nevertheless, conjunctivitis might be the only sign of this sexually transmitted infection. Further comparative genotyping of C. trachomatis in ocular and genital specimens might give more detailed epidemiological information about the aetiology of the disease. PMID:26297635

  20. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  1. Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gonzlez-Lpez, Jos Rafael; Rodrguez-Gzquez, Mara de Los ngeles; Lomas-Campos, Mara de Las Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report) in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%). For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices. PMID:22991115

  2. Prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis and aphthous ulcers among young adults on six continents.

    PubMed Central

    Embil, J. A.; Stephens, R. G.; Manuel, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    The prevalence of recurrent herpes labialis (RHL) and recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAU) in young adults - - 635 armed-forces recruits and 9897 health-profession students - - in 48 institutions in 21 countries was determined by a questionnaire survey. Two or more occurrences (lifetime prevalence) of RHL were reported by 33.2% of men and 28.0% of women; the corresponding figures for RAU were 38.7% and 49.7%. North American respondents, mainly from Canada, had a significantly higher prevalence of both lesions. There were some differences in relation to profession. Approximately 15% of all the people surveyed had had herpes labialis and 25% had had aphthous ulcers at least once during the previous year. Persons with a history of recurrence of one lesion were more likely to have a history of recurrence of the other. PMID:1181018

  3. Adult lifetime prevalence of firesetting behaviors in a state hospital population.

    PubMed

    Geller, J L; Fisher, W H; Moynihan, K

    1992-01-01

    Hospital records of all patients under age 65 years old on the census of Worcester State Hospital (WSH) on October 25, 1988 (n = 279) were reviewed for indications of firesetting behaviors during the individuals' adult lifetime. The prevalence of firesetting behaviors was found to be 27.2%. The prevalence of firesetting episodes, a subset of firesetting behaviors, was found to be 17.6%. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was used to determine whether any factors significantly differentiated the members of the firesetting behavior group from the remainder of the population. This analysis revealed that the number of WSH admissions, the number of admissions to other inpatient facilities, and a history of injurious behavior to self are significant positive predictors of membership in the firesetting behaviors group. The results of the WSH analysis are very similar to those found at Northampton State Hospital in 1983. These high prevalence rates have implication for treatment, education, record keeping, and liability. PMID:1488458

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 1.90) meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking. PMID:25101300

  5. Sociocultural Dynamics of ESL Learning (De)Motivation: An Activity Theory Analysis of Two Adult Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their

  6. The Prevalence of Cardiopulmonary Symptoms Among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Manrui; Simon, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular and pulmonary symptoms influence health and well-being among older adults. However, minority aging populations are often underrepresented in most studies on cardiovascular and pulmonary symptoms. This study aims to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular and pulmonary symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods. Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. Clinical Review of Systems was used to assess participants’ perceptions of their cardiovascular and pulmonary symptoms. Results. Cardiovascular symptoms (31.6%) and pulmonary symptoms (42.2%) were commonly experienced by U.S. Chinese older adults. Symptoms such as cough (27.4%), sputum production (22.7%), chest pain or discomfort (16.3%), shortness of breath at rest (15.1%), and shortness of breath with activity (12.9%) were commonly reported. Older age, lower income, fewer years residing in the community, poorer self-perceived health status and quality of life, and worsened health over the last year were associated with report of any cardiovascular or pulmonary symptom. Conclusions. Cardiovascular and pulmonary symptoms are common among Chinese older adults in the U.S. Future longitudinal research is needed to examine changes in Chinese older adults’ burden of cardiopulmonary symptoms and their health and well-being. PMID:25378447

  7. Prevalence of Childhood and Adult Obesity in the United States, 20112012

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Cynthia L.; Carroll, Margaret D.; Kit, Brian K.; Flegal, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE More than one-third of adults and 17% of youth in the United States are obese, although the prevalence remained stable between 20032004 and 20092010. OBJECTIVE To provide the most recent national estimates of childhood obesity, analyze trends in childhood obesity between 2003 and 2012, and provide detailed obesity trend analyses among adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Weight and height or recumbent length were measured in 9120 participants in the 20112012 nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES In infants and toddlers from birth to 2 years, high weight for recumbent length was defined as weight for length at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. In children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. In adults, obesity was defined as a BMI greater than or equal to 30. Analyses of trends in high weight for recumbent length or obesity prevalence were conducted overall and separately by age across 5 periods (20032004, 20052006, 20072008, 20092010, and 20112012). RESULTS In 20112012, 8.1% (95% CI, 5.8%11.1%) of infants and toddlers had high weight for recumbent length, and 16.9% (95% CI, 14.9%19.2%) of 2- to 19-year-olds and 34.9% (95% CI, 32.0%37.9%) of adults (age-adjusted) aged 20 years or older were obese. Overall, there was no significant change from 20032004 through 20112012 in high weight for recumbent length among infants and toddlers, obesity in 2- to 19-year-olds, or obesity in adults. Tests for an interaction between survey period and age found an interaction in children (P = .03) and women (P = .02). There was a significant decrease in obesity among 2- to 5-year-old children (from 13.9% to 8.4%; P = .03) and a significant increase in obesity among women aged 60 years and older (from 31.5% to 38.1%; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Overall, there have been no significant changes in obesity prevalence in youth or adults between 20032004 and 20112012. Obesity prevalence remains high and thus it is important to continue surveillance. PMID:24570244

  8. Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design and Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Caucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and online in the San Francisco Bay Area and San Diego from August to December 2013. Participants were asked to describe in their own words signs and/or symptoms of diabetes. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of lay symptom knowledge with gender after controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Overall, the average age of the sample populations was 44 (SD ±16.1) years, 36% were male, and 58% were married. Increased thirst/dry mouth following increased urinary frequency/color/odor and increased fatigue/lethargy/low energy were the most frequently reported signs and symptoms (19.8%, 15.4%, and 13.6%, respectively). After controlling for known confounding factors, women were 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.3, P = .004) times more likely than men to report at least 1 diabetes symptom. However, this gender difference in knowledge of diabetes signs and symptoms did not significantly differ across Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Korean Americans (P = .87). Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of improving public knowledge and awareness of signs and symptoms of diabetes, particularly in men. PMID:25227121

  9. Insulin Resistance Is Associated with Prevalence of Physician-Diagnosed Urinary Incontinence in Postmenopausal Non-Diabetic Adult Women: Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Byung Il; Han, Kyung-Do; Lee, Kyu Won; Kwon, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Sun Wook; Sohn, Dong Wan; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Ha, U-Syn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between insulin resistance (IR) and urinary incontinence in Korean adult women by analyzing the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES) 20072009 Methods A nationally representative sample of 5318 non-diabetic Korean women ?19-years-of-age (3043 premenopausal and 2275 postmenopausal women) was included from KNHANES 20082010. IR was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Participants in the highest and lowest quartile of HOMA-IR were defined as insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive respectively. Women who have current physician-diagnosed urinary incontinence were classified as having urinary incontinence. Results Incontinence was found in 9.18% of the total population, 8.51% of the premenopausal population, and 10.86% of the postmenopausal population. The prevalence of incontinence increased with age, reaching a peak at 60-69-years-of-age. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increased significantly with higher HOMA-IR quartiles in pre- and post-menopausal women (p for linear association = 0.0458 and 0.0009 respectively). Among post-menopausal women, those in the highest quartile of HOMA-IR were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence compared to those in the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.072.77]. However premenopausal population exhibited no association between incontinence and HOMA-IR quartiles Conclusion Our results suggest that the prevalence of incontinence increased across HOMA-IR in non-diabetic adult women, and especially, IR might be a risk factor for incontinence in postmenopausal non-diabetic women. PMID:26529410

  10. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2%) in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4%) in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9%) in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1%) in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6%) and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%). Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set targets for obesity prevalence as requested at the United Nations high-level meeting on Prevention and Control of NCDs. PMID:23167948

  11. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertension amongst adults in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    OlaOlorun, Akintayo D.; Odeigah, Louis O.; Adesina, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In many developing countries obesity and obesity-related morbidity are now becoming a problem of increasing importance. Obesity is associated with a number of disease conditions, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, gallstones, respiratory system problems and sleep apnoea. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and obesity, as classified according to waist circumference (WC), and further to determine whether there was any association between abdominal obesity and hypertension amongst adults attending the Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Method A cross-sectional descriptive study of 400 adults aged 18 years or older was conducted. Blood pressure and WC measurements were taken and participants completed a standardised questionnaire. Results A group of 400 participants were randomly selected (221 women; 179 men), with a mean age of 48.7 16.6 years. The overall prevalence of obesity as indicated by WC was 33.8% (men = 8.9%; women = 53.8%). Women were significantly more sedentary than men (50.8% for men vs 62.4% for women, p < 0.05). Most of the obese participants families also preferred high-energy foods (85.2%, p > 0.05). Overall prevalence of hypertension amongst the study population was 50.5%, but without a significant difference between men and women (52.0% for men vs 49.3% for women, p > 0.05). The prevalence of hypertension amongst the obese subset, however, was 60.0%. Conclusion Prevalence of abdominal obesity was found to be particularly significant amongst women in this setting and was associated with hypertension, physical inactivity and the consumption of high-energy diets.

  12. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  13. Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation. PMID:20977363

  14. Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Song, SuJin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Soyoung; Shin, Sangah; Song, YoonJu; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ≥ 30 y were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26425287

  15. Effects of muscle activity and number of resistance exercise repetitions on perceived exertion in tonic and phasic muscle of young Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    An, Ho Jung; Choi, Wan Suk; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Nyeon Jun; Min, Kyung Ok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of muscle activity and the number of resistance exercise repetitions on perceived exertion in tonic and phasic muscles in young Korean adults. [Subjects] Jandas classification system was used to divide 40 Korean males and females in their 20s into a tonic muscle group (10 males, 10 females) and phasic muscle group (10 males, 10 females). [Methods] Each participant performed resistance exercise at 70% of maximum exertion for a single repetition. Muscle activity and number of repetitions were measured according to the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, with fairly light, hard, and very hard rated as 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was performed. [Results] As the number of tonic and phasic muscle repetitions for males and females and female phasic muscle activity increased, the perceived exertion increased. Perceived exertion increased as the number of tonic muscle repetitions and activity of gastrocnemius muscles in males and females and the hamstring in males increased. Increased activity of phasic muscles in males and females and rhomboid muscle activity in males was associated with significantly increased perceived exertion. [Conclusion] Muscle activity and number of repetitions affect perceived exertion. The perception of exertion differs by muscle type and can differ by gender. The influence of the number of repetitions exceeds that of muscle activity. PMID:26696718

  16. Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone.

    PubMed

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-02-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at https://villanova.gosignmeup.com. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone" found on pages 28-35, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until January 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the health problems and social issues related to the increase in Korean older adult women living alone. 2. Describe the positive effects of Meridian acupressure as a potential complementary therapy for Korean older adult women living alone. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the author have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong (one of 12 Meridian systems) on the physical health state, depression, and life satisfaction of Korean older adult women living alone. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest control group design was used. Participants included 76 (experimental: n = 38, control: n = 38) women 65 and older living alone in Seoul and Gyeonggido, South Korea. Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong was applied for 15 minutes twice per week, for a total of 8 weeks in the experimental group. Data showed there were significant differences in physical health state (t = -15.062, p < 0.001), depression (t = 3.241, p < 0.001), and life satisfaction (t = -17.141, p < 0.001) between the two groups. Health professionals must consider an array of methods, including Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong, for older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(2), 28-35.]. PMID:26716461

  17. The prevalence and epidemiology of genetic renal disease amongst adults with chronic kidney disease in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an established and growing number of Mendelian genetic causes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, though estimates of prevalence have been speculative. The CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD) registry enables partial clarification of this through the study of adults with CKD receiving nephrology care throughout Queensland, Australia. Methods Data from the first 2,935 patients consented to the CKD.QLD registry across five sites was analysed, with a comparison between those with and without Genetic Renal Disease (GRD). Prevalence of GRD amongst those with diagnosed CKD, the general population, and commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) was calculated using the CKD.QLD registry, national census data and extracted Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation (ANZDATA) registry report data respectively. Results Patients with GRD constituted 9.8% of this Australian adult CKD cohort (287/2935). This was lower than in local incident RRT cohorts (20062011: 9.8% vs 11.3%, x2?=?0.014). Cases of adult CKD GRD were more likely to be female (54.0% vs 45.6%; x2?=?0.007), younger (mean 52.6yrs vs 69.3yrs, p?adult CKD population in specialty renal practice is similar to past estimations. GRD is a significant cause for CKD and for RRT commencement, presenting opportunities for ongoing longitudinal study, directed therapeutics and clinical service redesign. PMID:24980890

  18. High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

    1998-01-01

    The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease. PMID:9616201

  19. Differences in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults - United States, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-07-17

    Obesity is associated with increased health-care costs, reduced quality of life, and increased risk for premature death. Common morbidities associated with obesity include coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. As of 2007, no state had met the Healthy People 2010 objective to reduce to 15% the prevalence of obesity among U.S. adults. An overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 is to eliminate health disparities among racial/ethnic populations. To assess differences in prevalence of obesity among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, CDC analyzed data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys conducted during 2006--2008. Overall, for the 3-year period, 25.6% of non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics were obese. Non-Hispanic blacks (35.7%) had 51% greater prevalence of obesity, and Hispanics (28.7%) had 21% greater prevalence, when compared with non-Hispanic whites (23.7%). This pattern was consistent across most U.S. states. However, state prevalences varied substantially, ranging from 23.0% (New Hampshire) to 45.1% (Maine) for non-Hispanic blacks, from 21.0% (Maryland) to 36.7% (Tennessee) for Hispanics, and from 9.0% (District of Columbia [DC]) to 30.2% (West Virginia) for non-Hispanic whites. Given the overall high prevalence of obesity and the significant differences among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, effective policies and environmental strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity are needed for all populations and geographic areas, but particularly for those populations and areas disproportionally affected by obesity. PMID:19609247

  20. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Young Adults in Ternate, Eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ie, Susan Irawati; Turyadi; Sidarta, Erick; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Purnomo, Gludhug Ariyo; Soedarmono, Yuyun S M; Pattiiha, Mochtar Zein; Thedja, Meta Dewi; Harahap, Alida R; Muljono, David H

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been declining thanks to the universal hepatitis B infant immunization program. Nevertheless, young adults born before the program implementation might have acquired HBV in early childhood or remain susceptible to infection. This study aimed to evaluate hepatitis B epidemiology in asymptomatic young adult population in Ternate, eastern Indonesia. Serum samples of 376 subjects (aged 17-25, mean 19.82 1.69 years; male/female 138/238) were screened for HBV parameters serologically (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]; its antibody [anti-HBs]; anti-core antigen [anti-HBc]), and molecularly (HBV DNA). HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and HBV DNA prevalence were 15.7%, 36.2%, 24.2%, and 27.9%, respectively, with male predominance. Of all subjects, 13.0% were HBsAg negative with detectable HBV DNA (occult hepatitis B [OHB]), and 56.4% showed negativity for all seromarkers. This population showed high hepatitis B prevalence with substantial occurrence of OHB. However, a high percentage of the population were still susceptible and at risk of HBV infection. This study emphasizes the necessity to improve prevention strategies to screen and manage HBV carriers, including the adoption of catch-up or booster vaccination targeted to young adult populations. Investigations on the roles of host-virus interactions associated with OHB and its implications are warranted. PMID:26392157

  1. The Prevalence of Medical Conditions Among U.S. Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of medical conditions is increasing among U.S. older adults, yet we have very limited knowledge about medical conditions among Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of medical conditions and its sociodemographic and health-related correlates within the context of a population-based cohort study of U.S. Chinese older adults. Method. Using a community-based participatory research approach, community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed between 2011 and 2013. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were female and the mean age was 72.8 years. In total, 84.3% of older adults had one or more medical condition, 24.6% reported two conditions, 19.5% had three conditions, and 17.0% reported four or more conditions. A sizeable percentage of older adults had never been screened for dyslipidemia (24.4%) or had never been screened for diabetes mellitus (35.7%).For those who reported high cholesterol, 73.0% were taking medications when compared with 76.1% of those who reported having diabetes and 88.3% of those who reported having high blood pressure. Various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics were correlated with medical conditions. Conclusion. Medical conditions were common among U.S. Chinese older adults, yet screening and treatment rates were fairly low. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to better understand the risk and protective factors associated with medical conditions. PMID:25378445

  2. High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

  3. Prevalence of, and factors associated with, problem behaviors in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sheena; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Williamson, Andrew; Morrison, Jillian

    2008-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of problem behaviors in adults with intellectual disabilities and to investigate which factors are independently associated with problem behaviors. A population-based cohort (n = 1023) had comprehensive individual assessments. Data were examined using multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of problem behaviors was 22.5% (psychiatrists' opinion) or 18.7% (DC-LD criteria). Factors independently associated with problem behaviors were lower ability level, female gender, living in a congregate care setting or with paid carer support (rather than living with a family carer), having urinary incontinence; visual impairment, not having Down syndrome, and not having severe physical disabilities. Further studies focusing on the etiology, course, and treatment of problem behaviors are required. PMID:18791429

  4. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Grønli, Janne; Sivertsen, Børge; Lehmann, Sverre

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults presenting symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population. Randomly selected participants (N = 1,502; 50.7% men, 49.3% women), ages 40 to 70 yr. (M = 53.6, SD = 8.5) were interviewed over the telephone. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) were assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. OSA symptoms were identified by self- or spouse reports on snoring, breathing cessations during sleep, and being tired or sleepy. The prevalence of OSA was 6.2%. Among these participants with OSA, 57.6% reported insomnia and 30.1% reported excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, OSA symptoms were associated with self-reported obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and depression, but only in participants with comorbid insomnia or excessive sleepiness. PMID:24897888

  5. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

  6. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the

  7. Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric

  8. Prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults Using the 2012 Beers Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, Amy J.; Miller, G. Edward; Sarpong, Eric M.; Yang, Eunice; Brandt, Nicole; Fick, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Beers list of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) provides a key indicator of medication prescribing quality. The criteria were updated in 2012, adding new drugs and assessing evidence strength. Objectives To use the most recently available population-based data to estimate PIM prevalence under the 2012 update and to provide a benchmark from which to measure future changes. Design and Setting Retrospective cohort study using nationally representative data from the 20062010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Participants Community-dwelling sample of US older adults (n = 18,475). Measurements We operationalized the updated Beers criteria, generating a broad PIM definition that incorporated form, route or dose restrictions where clearly specified and a qualified definition that applied specific exceptions where mentioned in the rationale associated with each drug category. Bivariate analyses described PIM prevalence, comparing the two operational definitions, and examined time trends. Results Among older adults with prescription medications, 42.6% had at least one medication fill that met the broad definition, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) having the highest (10.9%) prevalence. The rate declined from 45.5% in 20062007 to 40.8% in 20092010. The categories with the largest absolute decline were NSAIDs, selected sulfonylureas, and estrogens. PIM prevalence was 30.7% using the qualified definition. Conclusion Despite the overall high use of PIMs, there has been a decline observed in recent years. Future studies should test the effect of educational and clinical interventions on changes in PIM use and patient outcomes. The current study results can aid in targeting these interventions. PMID:25752646

  9. Prevalence and most common causes of disability among adults--United States, 2005.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    Since 1994, disability-related costs for medical care and lost productivity have exceeded an estimated $300 billion annually in the United States. To update previous reports on the prevalence and most common causes of disability among adults, CDC and the U.S. Census Bureau analyzed the most recent data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This report summarizes the findings of that analysis, which indicated that the prevalence of disability in 2005 (21.8%) remained unchanged from 1999 (22.0%); however, because of the aging of the population, particularly the large group born during 1946-1964 ("baby boomers"), the estimated absolute number of persons reporting a disability increased 7.7%, from 44.1 to 47.5 million. The three most common causes of disability continued to be arthritis or rheumatism (affecting an estimated 8.6 million persons), back or spine problems (7.6 million), and heart trouble (3.0 million). Women (24.4%) had a significantly higher prevalence of disability compared with men (19.1%) at all ages. For both sexes, the prevalence of disability doubled in successive age groups (18-44 years, 11.0%; 45-64 years, 23.9%; and >/=65 years, 51.8%). The number of adults reporting a disability likely will increase, along with the need for appropriate medical and public health services, as more persons enter the highest risk age group (>/=65 years). To accommodate the expected increase in demand for disability-related medical and public health services, expanding the reach of effective strategies and interventions aimed at preventing progression to disability and improving disability management in the population is necessary. PMID:19407734

  10. Prevalence of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis among Adults in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Pefura-Yone, Eric Walter; Kengne, Andr Pascal; Balkissou, Adamou Dodo; Boulleys-Nana, Julie Racha; Efe-de-Melingui, Nelly Rachel; Ndjeutcheu-Moualeu, Patricia Ingrid; Mbele-Onana, Charles Lebon; Kenmegne-Noumsi, Elvira Christelle; Kolontchang-Yomi, Barbara Linda; Theubo-Kamgang, Boris Judical; Ebouki, Emilienne Rgine; Djuikam-Kamga, Chrystelle Karen; Magne-Fotso, Christiane Gaelle; Amougou, Francine; Mboumtou, Liliane; Ngo-Yonga, Martine; Petchou-Talla, Elsie Linda; Afane-Ze, Emmanuel; Kuaban, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Population-based estimates of asthma and allergic rhinitis in sub-Saharan African adults are lacking. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of asthma and allergic rhinitis in urban adult Cameroonians. Methods A community-based survey was conducted from December 2013 to April 2014 among adults aged 19 years and above (N = 2,304, 57.3% women), selected through multilevel stratified random sampling across all districts of Yaounde (Capital city). Internationally validated questionnaires were used to investigate the presence of allergic diseases. Logistic regressions were employed to investigate the determinants of allergic conditions. Results Prevalence rates were 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1-3.4) for asthma-ever, 6.9% (5.9-7.9) for lifetime wheezing, 2.9% (92.2-3.6) for current wheezing and 11.4% (10.1-12.7) for self-reported lifetime allergic rhinitis; while 240 (10.4%) participants reported current symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and 125 (5.4%) had allergic rhino-conjunctivitis. The prevalence of current asthma medication use and self-reported asthma attack was 0.8 (0.4-1.2) and 1 (0.6-1.4) respectively. Multivariable adjusted determinants of current wheezing were signs of atopic eczema [2.91 (1.09-7.74)] and signs of allergic rhinitis [3.24 (1.83-5.71)]. Age group 31-40 years [0.27(0.09-0.78), p = 0.016] was an independent protective factor for wheezing. Determinants of current rhinitis symptoms were active smoking [2.20 (1.37-3.54), p<0.001], signs of atopic eczema [2.84 (1.48-5.46)] and current wheezing [3.02 (1.70-5.39)]. Conclusion Prevalence rates for asthma and allergic rhinitis among adults in this population were at the lower tails of those reported in other regions of the world. Beside the classical interrelation between allergic diseases found in this study, active smoking was an independent determinant of allergic rhinitis symptoms. Nationwide surveys are needed to investigate regional variations. PMID:25853516

  11. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Phosphate Tablets and Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Bowel Cleansing in Healthy Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Seo, Sang-Wook; Kang, Joon-Koo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Lee, Dong-Ryul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bowel cleansing is generally regarded as time-consuming and unpleasant among patients. Patients commonly state that bowel preparation provokes more discomfort than the actual colonoscopic examination. The purpose of this study was to compare two regimens of sodium phosphate (NaP) tablets versus polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel preparation in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods This was a single center, prospective, open-label, investigator-blinded, randomized, controlled-pilot study. A total of 62 healthy Korean subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (NaP vs. PEG). Efficacy, safety, and patient-related outcomes, as well as procedural parameters, were evaluated. Results Although there were no significant differences in total Ottawa bowel quality score, fluid scores and the rate of adequate bowel preparation were significantly better in the NaP group than the PEG group. Additionally, the NaP group showed better results regarding patient tolerance, satisfaction, preference, and rate of adverse events than the PEG group. Significant fluctuations in specific serum electrolytes were common and of a greater magnitude in the NaP group than the PEG group. However, these abnormalities were transient and did not result in serious complications and side effects. Conclusion In this study, NaP tablets were shown to be an effective, well-tolerated, and acceptable regimen for bowel preparation. Also, our study suggests that NaP tablets may be safe and can be used as a bowel cleansing agent in healthy adults undergoing elective colonoscopy. Further multicenter, large scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25323890

  12. Prevalence of food insecurity and comprehensiveness of its measurement for older adult congregate meals program participants.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Food insecurity prevalence was assessed for 189 community-dwelling older adults participating in congregate meals, using the national CPS-FSSM survey, based on economics, and augmented items, including such factors as ability to prepare and/or shop for food. Results showed that 80.4% were food secure; lower than the national rate for older adult households (92.4%). Age, gender, and educational level were found to be statistically significant indicators of food security status. Scores based on national versus augmented items were significantly correlated, but scores for augmented items showed higher levels of food insecurity for 29.1% of participants, indicating these items were identifying at-risk individuals overlooked using only the national economics-based items. PMID:18032220

  13. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 20012011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australias five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  14. Evidence for the VP Constituent from Child Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young-mee Yu; Hong, Ki-Sun

    An examination of children's sentence structure in Korean argues for a verb phrase (VP) constituent in child grammar, but suggests that this does not necessarily support its existence in adult Korean grammar. Korean children, it is noted, generally restrict their sentences to one word order, subject-object-verb, despite the existence of another

  15. Prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Lima, Rosngela C; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults, and to explore the effect of some variables on the prevalence of this condition. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study on individuals born in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. A total of 4,297 subjects was traced in 2004-5, representing 77.4% of the original cohort. Data were collected by means of interviews using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee) questionnaire. Associations between the outcome occurrence of wheezing in the chest within the 12 months prior to the interview and the variables of socioeconomic, demographic and birth characteristics were tested by means of multivariable analyses, using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing over the preceding year was 24.9%. Among the individuals reporting wheezing, 54.6% reported difficulty in sleeping, and 12.9% reported difficulty in speaking due to wheezing. The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was significantly higher among women. This association was maintained in analyses adjusted for non-white skin color, family history of asthma and low socioeconomic level. Among men, there was no significant association in the analyses adjusted for skin color and family income at birth. Family histories of asthma and poverty throughout life presented significant associations with wheezing in the chest. For both sexes, there were no associations with the variables of birth weight and breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was high, and subjects with low family income at birth were more likely to have had wheezing in the chest over the preceding year. PMID:19142351

  16. Prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial disease among offspring of atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Suyama, A; Cologne, J B; Akahoshi, M; Yamada, M; Suzuki, G; Koyama, K; Takahashi, N; Kasagi, E; Grant, E J; Lagarde, E; Hsu, W L; Furukawa, K; Ohishi, W; Tatsukawa, Y; Neriishi, K; Takahashi, I; Ashizawa, K; Hida, A; Imaizumi, M; Nagano, J; Cullings, H M; Katayama, H; Ross, N P; Kodama, K; Shore, R E

    2008-10-01

    The first study to examine whether parental radiation exposure leads to increased heritable risk of common adult-onset multifactorial diseases (i.e., hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) was conducted among 11,951 participants in the clinical examination program out of a potential of 24,673 mail survey subjects who were offspring of survivors born from May 1946 through December 1984. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated no evidence of an association between the prevalence of multifactorial diseases in the offspring and parental radiation exposure, after adjusting for age, city, gender and various risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) for a paternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.01, P = 0.08], and that for a maternal dose of 1 Gy was 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.10, P = 0.71). There was no apparent effect of parental age at exposure or of elapsed time between parental exposure and birth, but male offspring had a low odds ratio (OR = 0.76 at 1 Gy) for paternal exposure, but cautious interpretation is needed for this finding. The clinical assessment of nearly 12,000 offspring of A-bomb survivors who have reached a median age of about 50 years provided no evidence for an increased prevalence of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in relation to parental radiation exposure. PMID:19024652

  17. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult type 1 patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Burcu; Oner, Can; Bayramicli, Oya Uygur; Yorulmaz, Elif; Feyizoglu, Guneş; Oguz, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Celiac disease, an autoimmune disease, is related to immune mediated intolerance to gluten. Some studies suggest that Celiac Disease was 20 times more frequent in type 1 patients with diabetes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in hospital based type 1 diabetic adults. Methods: Our study was carried out retrospectively in Medeniyet University Goztepe Training and Educational Hospital in Istanbul between 2012–2013. The cohort comprised 482 type 1 patients with diabetes attending the diabetes outpatient clinic. The data were analyzed by SPSS 10.5 package program. Student’s t tests is used for comparative analyses. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The cohort included 482 type 1 patients with diabetes. Fifty seven of them were not evaluated for Endomysium antibody positivity. Fifteen of the remaining 425 patients were positive for anti endomysial antibody (3.5%). The prevalence of biopsy proven celiac disease was 2.3% (10/425). There was no significant difference between Endomysial antibody positive and negative groups in regard of age, sex, or duration of the disease. Conclusion: This study confirms that the celiac disease is common in type 1 diabetic patients. Since a small proportion of celiac patients are symptomatic this disorder should be screened in all adult type 1 patients with diabetes by antiendomysium antibody. PMID:26430419

  18. A critical appraisal of the prevalence and metabolic significance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Paul; Greenfield, Jerry R; Ho, Ken K Y; Fulham, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a major role in energy homeostasis in animals. Detection of BAT using positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in humans has challenged the view that BAT disappears after infancy. Several recent studies, based on analysis of single scans, have reported a low prevalence of only 5-10% in humans, casting doubt on its significance. We undertook a critical analysis of the sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of PET-CT to deduce the prevalence of BAT and factors associated with its detection in adult humans. In a retrospective evaluation of PET-CT, using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose, performed in 2,934 patients, BAT was identified in 250 patients, yielding an apparent prevalence of 8.5%. Among those patients with BAT, 145 were scanned more than once. The frequency of another scan being positive increased from 8 to 65% for one to more than four additional studies. The average probability of obtaining another positive scan among patients with BAT is 13%, from which the prevalence of BAT is estimated at 64%. BAT was more commonly detected in women, in younger (36 1 vs. 52 1 years, P < 0.001) and leaner (20.1 0.9 vs. 24.9 0.9 kg/m2, P < 0.01) individuals. Fasting glucose was lower in those with BAT than those without (4.9 0.1 vs. 5.5 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Among patients scanned more than once, BAT was detected when body weight and fasting glucose were lower (54.9 0.5 vs. 58.2 0.8 kg, P < 0.001 and 4.9 0.3 vs. 5.5 0.3 mmol/l, P = 0.03). We conclude that BAT is present in the majority of adult humans. Presence of BAT correlates negatively with body mass index and glucose concentration. BAT may play an important role in energy homeostasis in adults. PMID:20606075

  19. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  20. Prevalence of mental illness in a rehabilitation unit for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D; Evans, M; King, D

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was studied in 78elderly people in a rehabilitation unit for older adults. The patients were assessed using the Evans Liverpool depression rating scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and Mini-Mental State Examination. Twenty-eight (35.9%) patients were found to be depressed, 15of these also had raised anxiety. Thirty-one (41.0%) patients had significant cognitive impairment and 14of these had associated depression. Only 33(42%) had no evidence of either cognitive impairment or mood disorder. On discharge, 20(25.6%) patients were on antidepressant treatment but only 50% of those had this diagnosis recorded on the discharge summary. Our results showed higher prevalence of depression in this situation compared with the reported prevalence of 20-30% in the acute hospital setting. We recommend that all patients undergoing rehabilitation should be routinely screened for depression as it is common and treatment will improve the overall outcome.???Keywords: depression; elderly; rehabilitation; psychiatric morbidity; screening PMID:10684325

  1. Prevalence and Etiology of Abnormal Liver Tests in an Adult Population in Jilin, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; He, Shu Mei; Sun, Jie; Wang, ChunYan; Jiang, Yan Fang; Gu, Qing; Feng, Xiang Wei; Du, Bing; Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiao Dong; Zhang, Si Qi; Li, Wan Yu; Niu, Jun Qi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Serum biochemical liver tests (LTs) (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase) and platelet counts are often used to screen for chronic liver disease. We determined the prevalence and etiologies of abnormal LTs in an adult population in Jilin, China. Methods: A total of 3791 individuals between the ages of 18 and 79 years were interviewed and then underwent ultrasonography and blood tests. Results: The prevalence of abnormal LTs was 14.77% (560 out of 3791 subjects). The risk factors for abnormal LTs were non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) alone, which accounted for 11.61%, metabolic syndrome alone for 25%, or both for 22.14%. Abnormal LTs were more common in male than in female subjects. The development of abnormal LTs was correlated with older age males, increased daily alcohol intake, poor quality of sleep, smoking, fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, triglyceridemia, and low-density lipoprotein. Abnormal LTs in patients with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD were associated with high fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, body mass index, low density lipoprotein, male, young age, poor sleep quality, smoking, and alcohol intake. However, abnormal LTs in patients with hepatitis B virus were associated with gender and increased age. Conclusions: The results from the current study demonstrated that the prevalence of abnormal LTs is high in the population (14.77%). Metabolic syndrome, NAFLD, and alcohol intake appear to be potentially important causes of the observed abnormal LTs. PMID:21487569

  2. Smoking prevalence in the 1982 birth cohort: from adolescence to adult life, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M B; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess smoking prevalence in adolescents and young adults of a population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Prospective birth cohort study of infants born in 1982, in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and interviewed in 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005. In the 1997 and 2000-2001 follow-up visits, the outcome studied was smoking, defined as the consumption of at least one cigarette in the previous week. In the 2005 follow-up visit, the dependent variable was current smoking. Adjusted analysis was performed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Smoking prevalences among males were 5.9%, 20.2% and 27.6% in the 1997, 2000-2001 and 2005 follow-up visits, respectively. Among females, respective values were 9.3%, 27.5% and 23.6%. Mean age of smoking onset was 15.1 years (SD=2.5). In the multivariate analysis, lower maternal level of education, low income level in 1982, poverty during the follow-up period and maternal smoking were significantly associated with higher smoking prevalences in both sexes. Being non-white was associated with higher risk of smoking among females exclusively. Breastfeeding was not associated with smoking. Among females, smoking was inversely associated with birth weight in the crude analysis, but lost its significance in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher incidence of smoking in poorer groups suggests that behavior such as avoiding smoking during pregnancy and increasing cigarette prices can have an important population impact. PMID:19142348

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for work related asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, R D; Bettiol, H; Barbieri, M A; Terra‐Filho, J; Garcia, C A; Vianna, E O

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence and predictors of work related asthma in young adults from the general population. Methods A total of 1922 subjects randomly selected from a birth cohort 1978/79 in Brazil, aged 23–25 years, completed a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, and underwent spirometry, bronchial challenge test with methacholine, and skin prick test. For subjects presenting with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, workplace exposure and its relationship with symptoms were assessed by a specific questionnaire and individualised job description to define cases of work related asthma. Results The prevalence of work related asthma was 4.2% (81 cases): 1.5% (29 cases) were classified as aggravated asthma and 2.7% (52 cases) as occupational asthma. Work related asthma was associated with atopy and education. Lower educational level (1–8 years of schooling) was associated with work related asthma (odds ratio 7.06, 95% CI 3.25 to 15.33). There was no association between work related asthma and smoking, gender, or symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion The prevalence of work related asthma was high (4.2%), and was associated with low schooling, probably because of low socioeconomic level. The disease may therefore be a consequence of poverty. PMID:16728501

  4. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. Results Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%–in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. Conclusions Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:26954566

  5. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia. PMID:25524952

  6. Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 20092011

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ?3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

  7. Prevalence of Contralateral Hearing Aid Use in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Cintia Tizue; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valria Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Introduction?The exclusive use of a cochlear implant (CI) in one ear allows patients to effectively hear speech in a quiet environment. However, in environments with competing noise, the processing of multiple sounds becomes complex. In an attempt to promote binaural hearing in a noninvasive manner, the use of a hearing aid in the nonimplanted ear is suggested for patients with a unilateral CI. Aims?To identify the prevalence of hearing aid use in the contralateral ear in adults who already have a CI; to determine the reasons why some patients do not use contralateral hearing aids (CHAs); and to analyze the effects of residual hearing in CHA users. Materials and Methods?This is a clinical study in 82 adult patients with CI implants who responded to a questionnaire designed to determine current use of CHA. Results?In our patient sample, 70 CHA nonusers were identified. The prevalence of CHA users was determined to be 12% with a 95% confidence interval of 11 to 13%. About 58.2% of the CHA nonusers reported a lack of noticeable benefit even after wearing hearing aids, and 23.6% reported not having received the option to use a CHA. CHA users had a pure tone average of 107-dB hearing level, whereas CHA nonusers had a pure tone average of 117-dB hearing level. Conclusion?The prevalence of the use of a CHA is low in our study. We attribute the low use of a CHA to either a lack of residual hearing or to a lack of benefit from the amplification. PMID:25992038

  8. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

  9. Intimate Partner Violence Among Hong Kong Young Adults: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Health Problems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wong, William C W; Ip, Patrick; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious social problem and public health issue affecting the well-being of the young adults. However, there is very little epidemiological evidence on the incidence and associated health problems in contemporary Chinese society. Using a representative community sample of 1,223 young adults aged 18 to 27 years conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association in 2011, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factors, and possible health consequences of intimate partner violence among young adults in Hong Kong. It is found that the prevalence of lifetime and preceding 1-year intimate partner violence by former or current partners was 8.6% and 4.9% respectively. Male youths who were older were less likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, p < .05) and those who had a university degree or were unemployed were more likely to experience past-year intimate partner violence (OR = 8.48, p < .01 and OR = 8.14, p < .05 respectively). Female youths who had a full-time job were less likely to experience the lifetime violence (OR = 0.15, p < .05) and those who were ever pregnant with current partner were more likely to experience both lifetime intimate partner violence (OR = 5.00, p < .05) and past-year violence (OR = 5.63, p < .05). Both female and male victims were more likely to be subjected to mental health problems and only female victims felt fear for the violent partner. PMID:25304670

  10. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %). PMID:23695063

  11. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a group of urban adults in Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    Olatunbosun, S. T.; Ojo, P. O.; Fineberg, N. S.; Bella, A. F.

    1998-01-01

    This survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a group of urban adults in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 998 subjects randomly selected from five main ministries and departments in the Government Secretariat participated in the survey. Each subject was asked to fast overnight and ingested 75 g of glucose dissolved in 250 mL of water after answering a questionnaire. Relevant anthropometric measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip diameters, and blood pressure also were taken. After 2 hours, of blood was drawn and plasma glucose concentration measured. Diagnosis of diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was based on 1985 World Health Organization (WHO) cut-off values. Blood glucose results were available in 875 subjects. Seven subjects were found to be diabetic for a prevalence of 0.8%, with the majority (5 subjects) being newly diagnosed. Nineteen were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for a prevalence of 2.2%. There were no sex differences between the two groups. All of the newly diagnosed diabetics were asymptomatic. Multivariate analysis revealed that subjects with a family history of diabetes, higher body mass index, and higher systolic blood pressure had higher blood glucose levels. The prevalence of diabetes in this survey is lower than rates reported in recent surveys in Nigeria that used less stringent criteria and different methodologies. The rate is comparable to that of a Tanzanian study that used WHO criteria. However, the rate of impaired glucose tolerance in this study, first to be reported in Nigeria, is lower than that obtained in the Bantu population. PMID:9617070

  12. Analysis of the Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Tinnitus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; An, Soo-Youn; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Joong Seob; Hong, Sung Kwang; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background Tinnitus is a common condition in adults; however, the pathophysiology of tinnitus remains unclear, and no large population-based study has assessed the associated risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of tinnitus. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with 19,290 participants ranging in age from 20 to 98 years old, between 2009 and 2012. We investigated the prevalence of tinnitus using a questionnaire and analyzed various possible factors associated with tinnitus using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. Results The prevalence of tinnitus was 20.7%, and the rates of tinnitus associated with no discomfort, moderate annoyance, and severe annoyance were 69.2%, 27.9%, and 3.0%, respectively. The prevalence of tinnitus and the rates of annoying tinnitus increased with age. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of tinnitus was higher for females, those with a smoking history, those reporting less sleep (? 6 h), those with more stress, those in smaller households, those with a history of hyperlipidemia osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, thyroid disease, an abnormal tympanic membrane, unilateral hearing loss, bilateral hearing loss, noise exposure from earphones, noise exposure at the workplace, noise exposure outside the workplace, and brief noise exposure. Additionally, unemployed individuals and soldiers had higher AORs for tinnitus. The AOR of annoying tinnitus increased with age, stress, history of hyperlipidemia, unilateral hearing loss, and bilateral hearing loss. Conclusions Tinnitus is very common in the general population and is associated with gender, smoking, stress, sleep, hearing loss, hyperlipidemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, depression, and thyroid disease history. PMID:26020239

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Metropolitan City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanaraj, Baskaran; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Vedachalam, Chandrasekaran; Sundaram, Vijayaraj; Shanmugam, Shivakumar; Sekar, Gomathi; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area. Methods A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify significant risk factors. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping was performed on isolated M. tuberculosis strains. Mapping of PTB cases was done using geographic positioning systems. Results Of 59,957 eligible people, 55,617 were screened by X-ray and /or TB symptoms and the prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated to be 228 (95% CI 189265), 259 (95% CI 217299) and 349 (95% CI 330428) per 100,000 population, respectively. Prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was highest amongst men aged 5564 years. Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of both culture and bacteriologically positive PTB disease was significantly associated with: age >35 years, past history of TB treatment, BMI <18.5 Kgs/m2, solid cooking fuel, and being a male currently consuming alcohol. The most frequent spoligotype family was East African Indian. Spatial distribution showed that a high proportion of patients were clustered in the densely populated north eastern part of the city. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that TB is a major public health problem in this urban area of south India, and support the use of intensified case finding in high risk groups. Undernutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors for TB disease. PMID:25905900

  14. Prevalence of comorbid substance use disorder during long-term central stimulant treatment in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjrn; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Vaaler, Arne; Nordahl, Hans M

    2013-03-01

    Central stimulant (CS) therapy is a cornerstone in treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Substance use disorder (SUD) is a common comorbid disorder of ADHD and might complicate the treatment. Our main objectives were to investigate the prevalence of SUD during CS treatment, and identify variables associated with SUD during the treatment. The collection of data was based on a naturalistic, retrospective approach using the medical records of a cohort of all adult ADHD patients (N = 117) starting treatment with CS in a specific catchment area in the period 1997 to May 2005. A logistic regression model was applied to identify possible predictors of SUD during CS treatment. The study showed no onset of SUD during the CS treatment in the group of patients without comorbid SUD at baseline (mean CS treatment length 41.1 months). In the group of patients with comorbid SUD at baseline, 58.5 % had one or more relapses of SUD during treatment (mean CS treatment length 27.9 months). Younger age and comorbid antisocial personality disorder were associated with relapse. In a logistic regression analysis, cannabis abstinence for more than 12 months was a negative predictor for relapse of SUD. CS treatment does not precipitate onset of SUD in adults without previous SUD. PMID:23104523

  15. The prevalence of dental caries among adult population of different regions of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tsitaisvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelasvili, V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of dental caries in adult population of Georgia according to their regional distribution. The survey was carried out by pathfinder survey, based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34 years, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ years, the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of dental status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 'Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and an explorer. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk-factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people's attitude towards oral hygiene (tooth brushing, using dental floss) accessibility and acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The study revealed the high prevalence of dental caries in Georgia's adult population (96-100%) Caries intensity and severity was seen as the highest in Mtskheta- Mtianeti - 13.265.97, Guria - 12.798.92, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 12.628.44, Shida Qartli - 12.037.22 and Achara - 12.237.89 regions, relatively lower in Tbilisi - 11.647.8; Qvemo Qartli - 10.967.07; Imereti - 10.797.63 Samegrelo - 10.547.95 and in Kakheti - 9.867.02. By the mean number of caries decayed teeth Mckheta-Mtianeti - 4.263.51, Samckhe-Javakheti - 3.523.51 and Imereti - 3.053.1 were distinguished. The mean number of caries missing teeth was noted to be highest in Guria - 5.497.42, Samckhe-Javakheti - 5.316.97 and Achara - 5.326.73. Mckheta-Mtianeti - 2.623.05, Shida Qartli - 2.392.8 and Tbilisi - 2.282.09 were the leading regions by the mean number of filled teeth, the lowest value of filled teeth variable was seen in Imereti - 0.671.39. In summary behavioral factors (unsatisfactory oral hygiene and less acceptability of dental service due to low medical educational background) play substantial role in occurrence and prevalence of dental caries among adult population of Georgia in all regions, though the financial problem seems to be a considerable contributor in caries prevalence. Reliable statistical data obtained in the study allowed to conclude that in spite of small differences in prevalence in different regions of Georgia dental caries is very widespread throughout the country (96-100%). It represents a major problem in Georgia and needs serious attention and preventive measures to be carried out to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and improve medical educational background of the population. PMID:25214266

  16. Association between Low-Grade Albuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk in Korean Adults: The 20112012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have indicated that low UACR levels (<30 ?g/mg) previously considered to be in the normal range (low-grade albuminuria) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We studied 9,736 participants with albuminuria in the normal range from the 20112012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Results The weighted prevalences of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the 10-year risk for coronary heart disease measured using the Framingham risk score (FRS) ? 20% (high risk) were 22.5 0.7% and 14.5 0.7%, respectively, in males and 23.3 0.8% and 8.5 0.4%, respectively in females. Weighted comparisons among the tertiles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS increased with increasing UACR (MS: males, 15.9 1.1, 20.2 1.2, 32.4 1.5%, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 17.6 1.0, 22.7 1.0, 30.2 1.4%, respectively; P < 0.001. High-risk FRS: males, 9.5 0.7, 12.3 0.9, 22.5 1.2, respectively; P < 0.001; and females, 5.8 0.6, 7.9 0.7, 12.0 0.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). The positive association persisted after adjusting for hypertension and diabetes. The weighted comparisons among the deciles of UACR revealed that the prevalences of MS and high-risk FRS began to increase at the ranges of 3.895.15 and 5.167.36 mg/g Cr, respectively. Conclusion Low-grade albuminuria was significantly associated with estimated cardiovascular risk and MS in a nationally representative sample of Koreans. PMID:25742159

  17. Ideal Cardiovascular Health and the Prevalence and Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alman, Amy C.; Maahs, David M.; Rewers, Marian J.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In 2010, the American Heart Association defined seven metrics (smoking, BMI, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) for ideal cardiovascular health (ICH). Subsequent studies have shown that the prevalence of achieving these metrics is very low in the general population. Adults with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but no studies to date have been published on the prevalence of ICH in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data for this analysis were collected as part of the prospective Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. This analysis involved 546 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 631 subjects without diabetes who had complete information for calculating the ICH metrics. RESULTS Overall, the prevalence of ICH was low in this population, with none meeting the ideal criteria for all seven metrics. The prevalence of ideal physical activity (10.0%) and diet (1.1%) were particularly low. ICH was significantly associated with both decreased prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.70; 95% CI 0.62–0.80) and progression (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66–0.90) of coronary artery calcification (CAC). CONCLUSIONS ICH is significantly associated with decreased prevalence and progression of CAC; however, prevalence of ICH metrics was low in adults both with and without type 1 diabetes. Efforts to increase the prevalence of ICH could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of CVD. PMID:24130360

  18. Excessive Sleep and Lack of Sleep Are Associated With Slips and Falls in the Adult Korean Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impacts of excessive sleep duration on falls. This study investigated the associations between sleep duration and falls among Korean adults in a wide range of age groups while adjusting for numerous confounding factors. Data collected from study participants ranging in age from 19 to 109 years old were analyzed from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). Sleep duration was divided into 5 groups: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 hours per day. The relations between sleep duration and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, days of vigorous or moderate physical activity, income, education, alcohol use, smoking, stress, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and asthma were controlled for as confounding factors. Associations between sleep duration and falls were analyzed in 19 to 40, 41 to 60, and 61+ year age groups. Furthermore, the relations between sleep duration and indoor versus outdoor falls were analyzed. Both ≤6 and ≥8 hours of sleep per day were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time and ≥2 times per year) in the overall adult population (P < 0.001 in both instances). In a subgroup analysis, sleep durations of ≤5 and ≥9 hours were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time a year) in each age group. Six hours of sleep was not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times per year) in the 61+ year age group, and 8 and 9 hours of sleep were not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times a year) in the 19 to 40 year age group. This study demonstrated that long as well as short sleep durations are associated with an increased incidence of falls. However, these relations were not evident in elderly populations with short sleep durations or in young adults with long sleep durations. PMID:26825881

  19. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Adults from Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Pascal; Haman, Franois; Blais, Jules M.; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krmmel, Eva M.; Robidoux, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults from two First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods. Body weight, height, and waist circumference as well as fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 31 men and 41 women. Results. The mean age of the sample was 43 13?y. The prevalence of obesity was 65.3% and was comparable between men and women. 90.3% of the individuals presented waist circumference levels greater than the thresholds associated with an increased risk of developing health problems. 26 of the 72 individuals (36.1%) were found to be type 2 diabetic. The prevalence of diabetes was not different between men and women. Conclusion. Using objective measurements, this study confirms that First Nations adults from remote communities of Canada continue to experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than nonaboriginal Canadians. PMID:21603265

  20. Dental Caries Prevalence and Tooth Loss in Chilean Adult Population: First National Dental Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Urzua, I.; Mendoza, C.; Arteaga, O.; Rodríguez, G.; Cabello, R.; Faleiros, S.; Carvajal, P.; Muñoz, A.; Espinoza, I.; Aranda, W.; Gamonal, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries, tooth loss, and risk factors among adult population of Chile. Furthermore, age, gender, and behavioural specific differences in caries prevalence and tooth loss were examined. A national stratified multistage probabilistic sample design in two-age cohorts was applied to the Chilean population. A sample of 1553 adults, comprising 1088 individuals aged 35–44 and 465 senior individuals aged 65–74, were examined. The DMFT was evaluated following WHO recommendations using diagnostic criteria of caries lesions into dentin. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate models using logistic regression analyses. Results showed a mean DMFT of 15.06 in the 35–44-year-old group and of 21.57 in the 65–74 group. Factors related to tooth loss in the 35–44 group through univariate logistic regression were depression (OR 1.9 CI 95% 1.26–2.85), education level <12 years (OR 2.24 CI 95% 1.31–3.73), personal income (OR 1.51 CI 95% 1.04–2.19), and familiar income (OR 2.05 CI 95% 1.34–3.13), and through multivariate logistic regression in the same age group were depression (OR 1.93 CI 95% 1.24–3.0), education level <12 years (OR 1.94 CI 95% 1.2–3.14), and familiar income (OR 1.71 CI 95% 1.09–2.68). Factors related to tooth loss in the 65–74-year-old group through univariate logistic regression were education level <12 years (OR 2.54 CI 95% 1.3–4.96) and personal income (OR 1.66 CI 95% 1.05–2.63), and for multivariate logistic regression in the same age group, it was education level <12 years (OR 2.51 CI 95% 1.21–5.18). In conclusion, adult population in Chile showed a high prevalence of dental caries and tooth loss, as age, education level, personal and familiar incomes, and depression are being the main risk factors. PMID:23316234

  1. General Similarities but Consistent Differences Between Early- and Late-Onset Depression Among Korean Adults Aged 40 and Older.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Eun; Sohn, Ji Hoon; Seong, Su Jeong; Suk, Hye Won; Cho, Maeng Je

    2015-08-01

    Differences in clinical characteristics, symptomatology, and psychiatric comorbidity between early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD) were examined in a nationwide representative sample. The Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to investigate psychiatric diagnoses and age of onset. A total of 319 subjects aged 40 years and older with a current major depressive disorder (MDD) were included, and both a continuous and a dichotomous (40 years) age-of-onset indicator were used in the analyses. Despite general similarities between groups, EOD was related to chronic (recurrent and longer episode) and severe (higher lifetime suicidality) clinical features. Hypersomnia and suicidal plans/attempts were associated with EOD, whereas anhedonia was related to LOD. Lifetime generalized anxiety disorder was associated with EOD, whereas dysthymic disorder was related with higher age of MDD onset. This study provides additional evidence of consistent differences between EOD and LOD among middle-aged and older Asians. PMID:26186068

  2. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-09-01

    Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P < .05). Total daily energy intake declined steadily from 1931 in 1998 to 1691 kcal in 2010. Carbohydrate intakes were unchanged over the study period; however, fat-derived energy intake increased slightly from 19.7% to 20.0% (P < .05). Our factor and cluster analyses identified 3 dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea. PMID:25262419

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among Panamanian Adults. 1982–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Morris; Lee, Marcos; Jan, Carmen; Fontes, Flavia; Motta, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background In Central America, there has been a marked increase in obesity in the last 30 years. Over this time frame, in Panama, there have been lifestyle changes associated with economic development and urbanization that may have facilitated increases in body weight. The aim of the study is to describe the change in the prevalence of obesity in the country since 1982 and to analyze the association of obesity with gender, place of residence and socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed three nationally representative cross-sectional studies and one sub-national study of Panamanian adults that evaluated anthropometric and socioeconomic variables; ENPA-1982 (n = 11 611), ENV-II 2003 (n = 14 737), ENV-III 2008 (n = 15 484), PREFREC-2010 (n  = 3 590). We also evaluated one nationally representative study that evaluated people’s perception of their body weight, ENSCAVI-2007 (n = 25 748). Results In 1982, the prevalence in males of a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 3.8% (3.3 – 4.2) and in females 7.6% (6.9 – 8.2). In 2003, the prevalence in males increased to 14.4% (13.6 – 15.2) and in females to 21.8% (20.8 – 22.7). In 2008, the prevalence in males was 16.9% (16.0 – 17.7) and in females it was 23.8% (22.8 – 24.7). Nevertheless, in 2007, the national perception of being obese was only 4% among males and 6.7% among females. The highest prevalence of obesity was noted in urban areas. Female gender and higher income were found to be positively associated with obesity. Income level was positively associated with abdominal obesity in men but not in women. Conclusions There has been a marked increase of obesity in Panama in the last 3 decades. Initiatives to control this problem will have to take into consideration the observed gender difference and the lifestyle changes that have contributed to the rise of this problem. PMID:24621825

  4. Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

  5. Prevalence and patterns of spina bifida occulta in 2707 normal adults.

    PubMed

    Fidas, A; MacDonald, H L; Elton, R A; Wild, S R; Chisholm, G D; Scott, R

    1987-09-01

    Plain radiographs of the urinary tract on 2707 normal volunteers were reviewed to establish the prevalence and patterns of spina bifida occulta in the normal population. Abnormalities in the formation of the posterior arch were identified in 23%, and four different patterns are described. In this group of subjects the condition was twice as common in males as in females (P less than 0.001) and commoner in younger adults. The commonest defects were either in S1 alone or involved S1 and S2 together. Isolated defects at L5 or S2 were rare. The level of opening of the posterior sacral arcs was assessed and a high level of opening was shown to correlate with the presence of spina bifida occulta. PMID:3311565

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US adults: NHANES 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2015-10-28

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under-reporting and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 19 693 US adults ?20 years of age. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted using the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters of EI were identified by two methods based on the 95 % confidence limits: (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI to BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (155) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI to estimated energy requirement (EER) of 10. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under-reporter or over-reporter compared with an acceptable reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters were 251, 735 and 14 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR, and 257, 718 and 25 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with female sex, older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites), lower education, lower family poverty income ratio and overweight and obesity. Over-reporting was associated with male sex, younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, current smoking (compared with never smoking) and underweight. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 28 794). In conclusion, we found that misreporting of EI, particularly under-reporting, remains prevalent and differential in US adults. PMID:26299892

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in adult patients with enteropathic AIDS in north-eastern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tarimo, D S; Killewo, J Z; Minjas, J N; Msamanga, G I

    1996-06-01

    A six month study was conducted in north-eastern Tanzania to determine the prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites among adult patients with enteropathic AIDS. A total of 352 patients were recruited of whom 158 (45%) had chronic diarrhoea. Of the 352 patients, 123 (35%) had intestinal parasites. Of the 123, 77 (62.6%) patients had chronic diarrhoea. The types of parasites detected were Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichuris, trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Entamoeba histolytica. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher in patients with chronic diarrhoea than in those without (P < 0.05). Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli were only detected in patients with chronic diarrhoea and were thus the most likely cause of the diarrhoea. This study has established that coccidian parasites are the most important gut opportunistic infections in Tanzanian patients with enteropathic AIDS. The fact that a high proportion of patients with chronic diarrhoea (51.3%) had no identifiable parasitic agents, suggests that other infectious agents or alternative mechanisms other than infections are responsible for the diarrhoea. PMID:8840602

  8. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    PubMed

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important. PMID:26816163

  9. Greater serum carotenoid levels associated with lower prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhao-min; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids may be inversely associated with liver injury, but limited data are available from population-based studies. We examined the relationship between serum carotenoid levels and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. A total of 2935 participants aged 4075 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of carotenoid and the presence and degree of NAFLD were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, we observed a dose-dependent inverse association between NAFLD risk and each individual serum carotenoid and total carotenoids (all p-values prevalence of NAFLD in middle aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26256414

  10. Prevalence of major obstructive sleep apnea syndrome symptoms in coal miners and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kart, Levent; Dutkun, Yal?n; Alt?n, Remzi; Ornek, Tacettin; K?ran, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with symptoms including habitual snoring, witness apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Also obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to some occupations which are needed attention for work accident. We aimed to determine the prevalence of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness in coal workers and healthy adults in Zonguldak city center, and also evaluate the differences between these groups. This study consisted of 423 underground coal workers and 355 individuals living in centre of Zonguldak. Study and comparison group were chosen by nonstratified randomized sampling method. Data were collected by a questionnaire that included information regarding snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Mean age was 43.3 6.05 years in miners and 44.3 11.8 years in comparison group. In miners, snoring frequency was determined as 42.6%, witnessed apneas were 4.0%, and daytime sleepiness were 4.7%. In comparison group, these symptoms were 38.6%, 4.8% and 2.8% respectively. There were no statistical differences between coal workers and comparison group in these symptoms. Also snoring prevalence was higher in smoker miners. We found that major symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in coal workers are similar to general population in Zonguldak. Further studies that constucted higher populations and with polysomnography are needed to evaluate these findings. PMID:21038136

  11. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. RESULTS Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p < 0.05). The obese participants also had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the non-obese participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking soy milk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.447; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.253–0.787; p < 0.05) and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215–0.900; p < 0.05) were associated with a reduced risk of obesity. The risk of obesity was higher in younger participants (adjusted OR 2.714; 95% CI 1.225–6.011; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION The prevalence of obesity was high among the apparently healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population. PMID:24570317

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  13. Prevalence of Self-Reported Stroke and Disability in the French Adult Population: A Transversal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named the Disability Health survey was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without. PMID:25521057

  14. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wu, Shouling; Chen, Ji; Hu, Dayi

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated conflicting results about the association of sleep duration and hypertension. Given the potential relationship between sleep quality and hypertension, this study aimed to investigate the interaction of self-reported sleep duration and sleep quality on hypertension prevalence in adult Chinese males. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of 4144 male subjects. Sleep duration were measured by self-reported average sleep time during the past month. Sleep quality was evaluated using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure level ?140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment. The association between hypertension prevalence, sleep duration, and sleep quality was analyzed using logistic regression after adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics. Results Sleep duration shorter than 8 hours was found to be associated with increased hypertension, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.031.52) for 7 hours, 1.41 (95% CI, 1.141.73) for 6 hours, and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.813.11) for <6 hours. Using very good sleep quality as the reference, good, poor, and very poor sleep quality were associated with hypertension, with odds ratios of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.011.42), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.322.11), and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.673.21), respectively. More importantly, further investigation of the association of different combinations of sleep duration and quality in relation to hypertension indicated an additive interaction. Conclusions There is an additive interaction of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration on hypertension prevalence. More comprehensive measurement of sleep should be performed in future studies. PMID:25912096

  15. Concomitant dietary supplement and prescription medication use is prevalent among US adults with doctor-informed medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Farina, Emily K; Austin, Krista G; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-11-01

    Information on patterns of concomitant dietary supplement (DS) and prescription medication (PM) use among US adults is limited. Thus, the prevalence of concomitant DS and PM use as a function of doctor-informed medical conditions (DIMC) was determined in a cross-sectional, observational study of a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized, civilian adults aged ?20 years in the United States (N=9,950) from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were weighted for the complex, multistage, probability sampling design. Approximately one third (34.3%) of all US adults reported concomitant DS and PM use (approximately one in three adults). The prevalence of use was significantly higher among those with vs without a DIMC (47.3% vs 17.3%). Adults with a DIMC were more than two and a half times more likely to concomitantly use DS and PM than adults without a DIMC, after adjustment for sex, age, education, and household income. Multivitamin plus other ingredient(s), followed by antacids and multivitamin plus botanical ingredient(s), were the most prevalent DS categories used with a PM among those with and without a DIMC. The most prevalent PM categories used with a DS were cardiovascular agents (among those with a DIMC) and hormones (among those without a DIMC). These findings demonstrate that presence of a DIMC may be a risk factor for concomitant DS and PM use among US adults. Multivitamins containing nonvitamin or mineral ingredients are more commonly used than standard multivitamins with PM by US adults. This may be an emerging trend that warrants further consideration. PMID:24703929

  16. Prevalence of Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy in the Adult Population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Setting: Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Participants: Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an active or in remission with treatment form of NFLE. Measurements and Results: Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.74.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.83.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 1113 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. Conclusions: This epidemiologic study establishes that nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. Citation: Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Giovannini G, Licchetta L, Naldi I, Mostacci B, Rubboli G, Provini F, Tinuper P, Meletti S. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. SLEEP 2015;38(3):479485. PMID:25406112

  17. Prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Verbraak, F; Schreinemachers, M; Tiller, A; van Deventer, S J H; de Smet, M D

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
METHODS—In 179 consecutive patients (96 with Crohn's disease, 55 with ulcerative colitis, and 28 with inflammatory bowel disease of undetermined nature) without previous or concurrent ocular complaints, quantitative flare measurements were obtained with the Kowa FC laser flare to detect the presence of subclinical uveitis.
RESULTS—The mean flare value was 3.9 (SD 1.1) ph/ms in patients younger than 30 years of age, rising to 5.8 (2.5) ph/ms in those over 60 years of age. No measurement performed in this patient population fell outside the mean observed value plus or minus SD of the normal controls within the same age category.
CONCLUSION—In an adult population of 179 consecutive patients with inflammatory bowel disease the presence of a form of subclinical uveitis, as described by Hofley et al in a group of juvenile patients, is highly unlikely.

 PMID:11159490

  18. Prevalence of tics and Tourette syndrome in an inpatient adult psychiatry setting

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Valsamma; Laker, Martin; Anfield, Anita; Dobbs, Jeremy; Robertson, Mary M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective Given the widely recognized genetic basis for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) and the suggestion that the putative TS gene(s) may be expressed as or associated with a variety of psychiatric illnesses, this study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of tics and TS in a psychiatric inpatient population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and patients 200 consecutive adult patients who were admitted to the psychiatric wards of University College London Teaching Hospitals. Outcome measures TS and related behaviours, as assessed by the comprehensive semi-structured National Hospital Interview Schedule. Results None of the 200 patients had definite TS, but 2 were observed to have motor tics; 10 had a history of tics (present for less than a year), and 7 reported a family history of tics. Thus, 19 (9.5%) inpatients qualified for inclusion in a broadly defined TS diathesis. These rates are significantly lower than those reported in a similar community based epidemiological study of adolescents (p = 0.018). Conclusions Our findings do not support the theory that TS and related behaviours are over-represented among adult inpatients with psychiatric illnesses. PMID:11762209

  19. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J; Wallendal, Maggie S; Hyde, Trevor F; Larsen, Janet D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for oncogenic HPV infections in high-risk mid-adult women

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Xi, Long Fu; Lee, Shu-Kuang; OReilly, Sandra F.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of high-risk (hr) HPV infections in mid-adult women with new sex partners is undefined. Methods We analyzed baseline data from 518 2565 year old female online daters. Women were mailed questionnaires and kits for self-collecting vaginal specimens for PCR-based hrHPV testing. Risk factors for infection were identified using Poisson regression models to obtain prevalence ratios (PRs). Results The prevalence of hrHPV infection was 35.9%. In multivariate analysis restricted to sexually active women, the likelihood of hrHPV infection was associated with abnormal Pap test history (PR=1.42, 95% CI:1.101.84), lifetime number of sex partners >14 (relative to 14; PR=2.13, 95% CI:1.134.02 for 1524 partners and PR=1.91, 95% CI:1.003.64 for ?25 partners), male partners with ?1 concurrent partnership (PR=1.34, 95% CI:1.051.71) and male partners whom the subject met online (PR=1.39, 95% CI:1.081.79). Age was inversely associated with infection only in women who were sexually inactive (PR=0.67 per 5-year age difference, adjusted for Pap history and lifetime number of partners). Compared to sexually inactive women, the likelihood of infection increased with increasing risk level, (from low-risk to high-risk partners) (p<.0001 by trend test). In multivariate analysis, infection with multiple versus single hrHPV types was inversely associated with ever having been pregnant (PR=0.64, 95% CI:0.460.90) and recent consistent condom use (PR=0.56, 95% CI:0.320.97), and positively associated with genital wart history (PR=1.43, 95% CI:1.031.99). Conclusions Measures of both cumulative and recent sexual history were associated with prevalent hrHPV infection in this high-risk cohort of mid-adult women. PMID:23064533

  1. Prevalence and Patterns of Chronic Disease Pairs and Multimorbidity among Older Chinese Adults Living in a Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yajun; Tan, Edwin C. K.; Cai, Chuanzhu; Jiang, Hui; Song, Aiqin; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic diseases in China is substantial now. Data on patterns of chronic diseases and multimorbidity among older adults, especially among those living in rural areas, are sparse. Objective We aim to investigate the prevalence and patterns of chronic disease pairs and multimorbidity in elderly people living in rural China. Methods This population-based study included 1480 adults aged 60 years and over (mean age 68.5 years, 59.4% women) living in a rural community. Data were derived from the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong, China (June 2010-July 2011). Chronic diseases were diagnosed through face-to-face interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory tests. Patterns of chronic disease pairs and multimorbidity were explored using logistic regression and exploratory factor analyses. Results The prevalence of individual chronic diseases ranged from 3.0% for tumor to 76.4% for hypertension, and each disease was often accompanied with three or more other chronic diseases. The observed prevalence of pairs of chronic conditions exceeded the expected prevalence for several conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders, as well as pulmonary diseases and degenerative disorders. Chronic multimorbidity (≥2 chronic diseases) affected more than 90% of subjects, and two patterns of chronic multimorbidity were identified: cardiopulmonary-mental-degenerative disorder pattern (overall prevalence, 58.2%), and cerebrovascular-metabolic disorder pattern (62.6%). Prevalence of the cardiopulmonary-mental-degenerative disorder pattern increased with age, and was higher in men than women; whereas prevalence of the cerebrovascular-metabolic disorder pattern was higher in women than in men but did not vary by age. Conclusion Chronic multimorbidity was highly prevalent among older Chinese adults living in rural areas, and there were specific patterns of the co-occurrence of chronic diseases. Effort is needed to identify possible preventative strategies based on the potential clustering of chronic diseases. PMID:26394368

  2. Intergenerational relations: older Korean-Americans' experiences.

    PubMed

    Kauh, T O

    1997-09-01

    This paper examined intergenerational relations and cohesiveness in the Korean-American family, based on a concept of family solidarity. The data were drawn from face-to-face interviews for 50 older Korean immigrants, telephone interviews for 40 Korean adult children in the Philadelphia area. Most Korean-American elderly were found to live in proximity to a son. There were a high degree of interaction in visiting and telephoning between generations, but less frequency in shared leisure activities and particularly in communication. Financial aid largely flowed from adult children to aged parents, but service assistances were balanced between generations. It is noteworthy that aged parents had lower level of exchanges with their married daughters than their married sons. Results also indicated that Korean-Americans had a consensus about an ideal of dependency in old age. In general, Korean-Americans seemed to have less intergenerational conflicts because of the modest expectations of filial obligation among the older Koreans. The findings did not suggest any evidence of deterioration in cohesion of the Korean-American family, but illustrated a significant ethnic characteristic in intergenerational relationships. PMID:14617929

  3. A Standardized Assessment of Thyroid Nodules in Children Confirms Higher Cancer Prevalence Than in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anjuli; Ly, Samantha; Castroneves, Luciana A.; Frates, Mary C.; Benson, Carol B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Wassner, Ari J.; Smith, Jessica R.; Marqusee, Ellen; Alexander, Erik K.; Barletta, Justine; Doubilet, Peter M.; Peters, Hope E.; Webb, Susan; Modi, Biren P.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Kozakewich, Harry; Cibas, Edmund S.; Moore, Francis D.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Larsen, P. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Context: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, but due to its rare occurrence in the pediatric population, the cancer risk of childhood thyroid nodules is incompletely defined, and optimal management of children with suspected nodules is debated. Objective: The aim was to study the presenting features and cancer risk of sporadic childhood thyroid nodules using a standardized clinical assessment and management plan. Design and Setting: Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital collaborated to create a multidisciplinary pediatric thyroid nodule clinic and implement a standardized assessment plan. Upon referral for a suspected nodule, serum TSH was measured and hypothyrotropinemic patients underwent 123I scintigraphy. All others underwent thyroid ultrasonography, and if this confirmed nodule(s) ? 1 cm, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and compared to a control population of 2582 adults evaluated by identical methods. Patients and Results: Of 300 consecutive children referred for the initial evaluation of suspected thyroid nodules from 1997 to 2011, 17 were diagnosed with autonomous nodules by scintigraphy. Neck ultrasonography performed in the remainder revealed that biopsy was unnecessary in over half, either by documenting only sub-centimeter nodules or showing that no nodule was present. A total of 125 children met criteria for thyroid biopsy, which was performed without complication. Their rate of cancer was 22%, significantly higher than the adult rate of 14% (P = .02). Conclusions: Neck ultrasonography and biopsy were key to the evaluation of children with suspected thyroid nodules. Although the relative cancer prevalence of sonographically confirmed nodules ? 1 cm is higher in pediatric patients than adults, most children referred for suspected nodules have benign conditions, and efforts to avoid unnecessary surgery in this majority are warranted. PMID:23737541

  4. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  5. Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe

  6. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and

  7. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  8. Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

  9. PREVALENCE OF PERSISTENT COUGH AND PHLEGM IN YOUNG ADULTS IN RELATION TO LONG-TERM AMBIENT SULFUR OXIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In early 1976, a survey of persistent cough and plegm (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 micrograms per cubic meter. Corresponding m...

  10. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability, 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Jason; Luckasson, Ruth; Keefe, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Research regarding the prevalence of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with intellectual disability in adults was reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the qualities of sampling and diagnostic methodology, which have been identified as needs in two recent reviews. Sixteen articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2009

  11. The prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A lot of empirical studies have been conducted to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the prevalence and odds ratios of depression and anxiety in Chinese adults with cancer compared with those without. Methods The three most comprehensive computerized Chinese academic databases-CNKI, Wangfang and Vip databases-were systematically screened through September 2012. PubMed and Web of Science (SCIE) were also searched from their inception until September 2012 without language restrictions, and an internet search was also used. Case–control studies assessing the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer were analyzed. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors. The non-weighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were all calculated. Results Seventeen eligible studies with a total of 3497 subjects were included. The prevalence of depression and anxiety were significantly higher in adults with cancer compared with those without (Depression: 54.90% vs. 17.50%, OR = 7.85, 95% CI = 5.56-11.07, P = 0.000; Anxiety: 49.69% vs. 18.37%, OR = 6.46, 95% CI = 4.36-9.55, P = 0.000), the same situation was also observed in subgroup of control groups, assessment methods and cancer types. Although no difference of depression was observed in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis compared with self-report, the OR of anxiety in adults with cancer compared with those without was higher in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis (OR = 8.42, 95% CI = 4.83-14.70) than self-reports (OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 3.64-9.34). The ORs of depression and anxiety in cancer patients compared with disease group (Depression: OR = 6.03, 95% CI = 4.23-8.61; Anxiety: OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.05-6.36) were lower than in those compared with normal group (Depression: OR = 13.58, 95% CI = 6.26-29.46; Anxiety: OR = 15.47, 95% CI = 10.00-23.95). Conclusions We identified high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. The findings support that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adults with cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. PMID:23967823

  12. Caries prevalence and tooth loss in Hungarian adult population: results of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Madléna, Melinda; Hermann, Péter; Jáhn, Marianna; Fejérdy, Pál

    2008-01-01

    Background Oral health is basicly important for the well-being of people. Thus, it is strongly suggested to organize epidemiological surveys in order to gain representative data on oral condition of the given population. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to determine the results on tooth loss and caries prevalence of Hungarian adults in different age groups. Methods Altogether 4606 persons (2923 women, 1683 men) participated in the study who were classified into different age groups: 19 [less than or equal to], 20–24, 35–44, 45–64, 65–74, [greater than or equal to]75 year olds. Probands were selected randomly from the population attending the compulsory lung screening examinations. The participants were examined by calibrated dentists, according to the WHO (1997) criteria. In order to produce representative data, the chosen localities for these examinations covered the capital, the largest towns, the villages, and case weights were used for the statistical evaluation. Results The mean values of DMF-T were found between 11.79±5.68 and 21.90±7.61 These values were significantly higher in women compared to men (p < 0.05). In all age groups the values of M were the highest. Except for the women in the groups of 35–44 and 45–64 year olds, these values showed an increasing tendency both in women and men by age (from 5.50±6.49, and 4.70±4.08 to 21.52±9.07 and 18.41±8.89 respectively). The values of D components reached the highest values in 45–64 year olds (4.54±2.12 and 4.22±2.81, by gender, respectively), then in the older age groups there was a high reduction in these values (in 65–74 year olds: 2.72±1.88 and 1.36±2.48; in 75 or more than 75 year olds: 1.05±1.41 and 1.03±1.76 by gender, respectively). The ratio of D and F values was the highest in the age group of 65–74 year olds (2.12), the lowest ratio could be calculated in 20–34 year olds (0.65). Data showed some decrease in caries experience in 35–44 years of age between 2000 and 2004. The prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth had been increased from 65.6% to 73.1%. This positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group: the prevalence of edentulous persons changed from 1.4 to 1.9%. In 65–74 year olds the level of edentulousness became lower, from 25.9 to 14.8% and the prevalence of persons with 21 or more teeth is higher (22.6%) than it was in 2000 (13.0%). Conclusion Present data from Hungary show some slight decrease in caries experience between 35–44 years of age, although this positive tendency has not been occured in prevalence of edentulousness in this age group. A positive tendency could be experienced in the group of 65–74 year olds in edentulousness and in number of teeth, but further efforts are needed to reach a better situation. PMID:18939981

  13. A reappraisal of the prevalence and clinical importance of left ventricular false tendons in children and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, J; Gharzuddine, W; Kutayli, F

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical importance of false tendons were studied in 488 consecutive patients referred for echocardiography. Two hundred and eighty three (58%) patients had acquired heart disease, 91 (19%) had congenital heart disease, and 114 (23%) had normal hearts. Sixty six patients with normal hearts had innocent systolic murmurs and one had recurrent ventricular tachycardia. The overall prevalence of false tendons was 25% compared with 1.6% in a retrospective analysis of 763 cross sectional echocardiograms. When patients with innocent murmurs were excluded from statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of these tendons between children and adults, boys and girls, men and women, or between patients with acquired or congenital heart disease and normal patients. The prevalence of false tendons in patients with dilated left ventricles (57%), however, resembled that seen in necropsy studies. The prevalence of false tendons in patients with an innocent systolic murmur was 76% in children and 40% in adults, with an overall prevalence of 52%. False tendons are a common echocardiographic finding of no clinical importance except for their possible role in the genesis of innocent murmurs and ventricular arrhythmias. The echocardiographic detection of false tendons increases considerably when these structures are specifically sought and in conditions that result in left ventricular chamber dilatation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3718798

  14. Prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive adult patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awoyemi, O B; Ige, O M; Onadeko, B O

    2002-12-01

    Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has reached a pandemic proportion. There is a resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) Worldwide, this return of an old enemy has been attributed to a number of factors among which HIV infection has emerged as the strongest known risk factor determining the outcome of infection with Mycobaterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) accounts for more than 80% of TB cases and is the main problem on account of its frequency and infectivity. There have been studies determining prevalence of HIV in TB cases but that of prevalence of PTB in HIV infected patients have been limited. This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of active PTB in HIV seropositive adult patients in University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan. Fifty-eight confirmed HIV-seropositive adults patients were studied. All subjects were interviewed and examined. Subjects with positive respiratory symptoms and signs had their sputum examined and cultured for M. tuberculosis and had chest radiograph done. In this study, the prevalence of active PTB in HIV-seropositive subjects was 32.8% The TB prevalence shows a bimodal distribution at the extremes of age, while the age group 30-39 years had the lowest prevalence of 23.3%. PMID:15027773

  15. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Iranian Adult Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amirkalali, Bahareh; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Sharifi, Farshad; Kelishadi, Roya; Zamani, Farhad; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samavat, Tahereh; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Context: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of most non-communicable diseases; gathering information about its prevalence can be very effective in formulating preventive strategies for metabolic diseases. There are many different studies about the prevalence of MetS in Iran, but the results and the study populations of these studies are very different; therefore, it is very important to have an overall estimation of its prevalence in Iran. Objectives: This study systematically reviewed the findings of all available studies on MetS in the adult Iranian population and estimated the overall prevalence of MetS in this population. Data Sources: International databases (Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for papers published from January, 2000 to December, 2013 using medical subject headings (MeSH), Emtree, and related keywords (metabolic syndrome, dysmetabolic syndrome, cardiovascular syndrome, and insulin resistance syndrome) combined with the words “prevalence” and “Iran.” The Farsi equivalent of these terms and all probable combinations were used to search Persian national databases (IranMedex, Magiran, SID, and Irandoc). Study Selection: All population-based studies and national surveys that reported the prevalence of MetS in healthy Iranian adults were included. Data Extraction: After quality assessment, data were extracted according to a standard protocol. Because of between-study heterogeneity, data were analyzed by the random effect method. Results: We recruited the data of 27 local studies and one national study. The overall estimation of MetS prevalence was 36.9% (95% CI: 32.7 - 41.2%) based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria, 34.6% (95% CI: 31.7 - 37.6%) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and 41.5% (95% CI: 29.8 - 53.2%) based on the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) criteria. The prevalence of MetS determined by JIS was significantly higher than those determined by ATP III and IDF. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% lower in men than in women (27.7% versus 43.1%) based on the ATP III criteria, and it was 11.3% lower in men based on the IDF criteria; however according to the JIS criteria, it was 8.4% more prevalent in men. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of MetS in the Iranian adult population, with large variations based on different measurement criteria. Therefore, prevention and control of MetS should be considered a priority. PMID:26756015

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (1949 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.082.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (? 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.091.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ? 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  17. Changing Patterns of Bacterial Strains in Adults and Children With Otitis Media in Korean Tertiary Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Seok; Kim, Myung Gu; Hong, Seok Min; Na, Se Young; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Otitis media (OM) is an infectious disease that affects all age brackets. Aural discharge is a typical symptom, occurring in all subtypes of OM. We have compared the identity and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from aural discharges of adults and children with various types of OM, including acute OM (AOM), OM with effusion (OME), chronic OM (COM), and cholesteatomatous OM (CSOM). Methods The study involved 2,833 patients who visited five tertiary hospitals between January 2001 and December 2010 and were diagnosed with AOM, OME, COM, or CSOM. The patients were divided into a pediatric group and an adult group, and the distribution of cultured bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity were compared in the two groups. Results Bacterial detection rates were higher in adults than in children with OME and COM (P=0.000 each). The majority of the bacteria cultured from patients with AOM and OME bacteria were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics (P=0.002) and had higher antibiotic sensitivity (P=0.001) than were bacteria cultured from adults. The majority of bacteria culture from patients with COM and CSOM were MSSA and pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher in adults than in children, and more strains of bacteria isolated from adults were sensitive to the antibiotics septrin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Conclusion Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics and had higher antibiotic sensitivity than did bacteria cultured from adults. PMID:24917902

  18. Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code −10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure. PMID:24840377

  19. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  20. Prevalence and Patterns of Multi-Morbidity in Serbian Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jovic, Dragana; Vukovic, Dejana; Marinkovic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Like many developing countries, Serbia is facing a growing burden of chronic diseases. Within such public health issue, multi-morbidity requires a special attention. Aims This study investigated the prevalence of multi-morbidity in the Serbia population and assessed the co-occurrence of chronic diseases by age and gender. Methods We analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Survey, which included 13,103 individuals ≥ 20 years old. Multi-morbidity patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis of data on self-reported chronic diseases, as well as data on measured body weight and height. The analysis was stratified by age and gender. Results Multi-morbidity was present in nearly one-third of respondents (26.9%) and existed in all age groups, with the highest prevalence among individuals aged 65 years and older (47.2% of men and 65.0% of women). Six patterns of multi-morbidity were identified: non-communicable, cardio-metabolic, respiratory, cardiovascular, aggregate, and mechanical/mental/metabolic. The non-communicable pattern was observed in both genders but only in the 20–44 years age group, while the aggregate pattern occurred only in middle-aged men. Cardio-metabolic and respiratory patterns were present in all age groups. Cardiovascular and mechanical/mental/metabolic patterns showed similar presentation in both men and women. Conclusions Multi-morbidity is a common occurrence among adults in Serbia, especially in the elderly. While several patterns may be explained by underlying pathophysiologies, some require further investigation and follow-up. Recognizing the complexity of multi-morbidity in Serbia is of great importance from both clinical and preventive perspectives given that it affects one-third of the population and may require adjustment of the healthcare system to address the needs of affected individuals. PMID:26871936

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lisa X; Khan, Abigail May; Drajpuch, David; Fuller, Stephanie; Ludmir, Jonathan; Mascio, Christopher E; Partington, Sara L; Qadeer, Ayesha; Tobin, Lynda; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Kim, Yuli Y

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with adverse outcomes and increased mortality in cardiac patients. No studies have examined PTSD in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of PTSD in patients with ACHD and explore potential associated factors. Patients were enrolled from an outpatient ACHD clinic and completed several validated measures including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Clinical data were abstracted through medical data review. A total of 134 participants (mean age 34.6 10.6; 46% men) were enrolled. Of the 127 participants who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, 14 (11%) met criteria for elevated PTSD symptoms specifically related to their congenital heart disease or treatment. Of the 134 patients who completed PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, 27 (21%) met criteria for global PTSD symptoms. In univariate analyses, patients with congenital heart disease-specific PTSD had their most recent cardiac surgery at an earlier year (p= 0.008), were less likely to have attended college (p= 0.04), had higher rates of stroke or transient ischemic attack (p= 0.03), and reported greater depressive symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (7 vs 2, p <0.001). In multivariable analysis, the 2 factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depressive symptoms (p<0.001) and year of most recent cardiac surgery (p <0.03). In conclusion, PTSD is present in 11% to 21% of subjects seen at a tertiary referral center for ACHD. The high prevalence of PTSD in this complex group of patients has important implications for the medical and psychosocial management of this growing population. PMID:26803381

  2. Nail involvement in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis: prevalence and clinical features*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Beber, Andr Avelino Costa; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Monticielo, Odirlei Andr

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of worldwide distribution with a prevalence of 1 to 3%. Nail psoriasis is estimated in 50% of patients with psoriasis, and in the presence of joint involvement, it can reach 80%. OBJECTIVE: To study the nail changes - and their clinical implications - presented by patients with psoriasis vulgaris under surveillance in a university hospital from the south of Brazil. METHODS: his cross-sectional study evaluated 65 adult patients from January 2012 to March 2013. Cutaneous severity was assessed according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) was used to evaluate patient's nails. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was established according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR). RESULTS: The prevalence of NP was 46.1%. These patients had a median [interquartilic range (IQR)] NAPSI of 1 (0-15). A total of 63.3% of patients reported aesthetic discomfort or functional impairment related to their nails. Onycholysis was the most common feature (80%). When compared with patients without nail involvement, patients with NP had lower mean age at psoriasis onset [21 (18-41) vs. 43 (30-56) years, p=0,001]; longer disease duration [15.5 (10-24) vs. 6 (2-12) years, p=0.001]; higher PASI [9.2 (5-17) vs. 3.7 (2-10), p=0.044], higher frequency of psoriatic arthritis (43.3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.002) and more often reported family history of psoriasis (40% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Onycholysis was the most frequent finding and most patients feel uncomfortable with the psoriatic nail changes that they experience. PMID:26131859

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with scleral hyaline plaque: clinical study of older adults in southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Soraya; Damasceno, Nadyr; Damasceno, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prevalence of scleral hyaline plaque among older adults in the city of Niterói in southeastern Brazil. A second goal was to assess the correlation between scleral hyaline plaque and several age-related diseases, including eye diseases and systemic diseases. Methods The study sample comprised 667 participants who were followed for 15 months. The study had a prospective, longitudinal, observational design that established inclusion and exclusion criteria. The following variables were selected for correlation with scleral hyaline plaque: sex, age, age range, iris color, ethnicity, presence of cataract, moderate to high myopia, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, degenerative arthritis, and osteoporosis. These correlations were assessed by means of the χ2 test and Student’s t-test. Multivariate analysis was performed to exclude factors that were potentially associated with aging exclusively but that did not have a direct relationship with hyaline plaque. Binary logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, significance, and confidence intervals. Results Scleral hyaline plaques were found in 177 patients (17.54%). There was a statistically significant association between the presence of hyaline plaques and sex (female), age range (≥70 years old), ethnicity (Caucasian), cataract, moderate to high myopia, systemic arterial hypertension, degenerative arthritis, and osteoporosis (P<0.05). On multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, only female sex, age range (≥70 years), moderate to high myopia, and degenerative arthritis exhibited significant correlation. Conclusion The prevalence of scleral hyaline plaque in the present study was higher than in previous reports in the medical literature. Several age-related diseases exhibited a correlation with scleral hyaline plaque. The most significant factors associated with scleral hyaline plaque were advanced age, female sex, moderate to high myopia, and degenerative arthritis. PMID:26170612

  4. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

  5. The Prevalence of Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in Adult Asians: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rui-Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is higher in Asians than Europeans and Africans, with over 80% of PACG worldwide in Asia. Previous estimates of PACG were based largely on early studies, mostly using inappropriate case definitions. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of PACG in adult Asian populations and to quantify its association with age, gender, and region. Methods All primary reports of population-based studies that reported the prevalence of PACG in adult Asian populations were identified. PACG case definition was compatible with the ISGEO definition. Twenty-nine population-based studies were included. The overall pooled prevalence estimates were calculated using a random effect model, and ethnicity-, age- and gender-specific pooled prevalence estimates were also calculated. Results The overall pooled prevalence of PACG in those of adult Asians was 0.75% (95% CI, 0.58, 0.96). Ethnicity-specific pooled prevalence estimates were 0.97% (0.22, 4.27) in Middle East group, 0.66% (0.23, 1.86) in South East Asia group, 0.46% (0.32, 0.64) in India group, 1.10% (0.85, 1.44) in China group, and 1.19% (0.35, 3.98) in Japan group, respectively. Age-specific prevalence was 0.21% (0.12, 0.37) for those 4049 years, 0.54% (0.34, 0.85) for those 5059 years, 1.26% (0.93, 1.71) for those 6069 years, and 2.32% (1.74, 3.08) for those 70 years or above. The overall female to male ratio of the PACG prevalence was 1.51?1 (95% CI 1.01, 2.28). Conclusions PACG affects approximately 0.75% adult Asians, increasing double per decade, and 60% of cases being female. The prevalence rates vary greatly by ethnic region. PMID:25057993

  6. Prevalence of oesophageal eosinophils and eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults: the population?based Kalixanda study

    PubMed Central

    Ronkainen, Jukka; Talley, Nicholas J; Aro, Pertti; Storskrubb, Tom; Johansson, Sven?Erik; Lind, Tore; Bolling?Sternevald, Elisabeth; Vieth, Michael; Stolte, Manfred; Walker, Marjorie M; Agrus, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic oesophagitis may be increasing but the prevalence in the general population remains unknown. Our aim was to assess this and the presence of eosinophils in the distal oesophageal epithelium in the community. Methods Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in a random sample (n?=?1000) of the adult Swedish population (mean age 54 years, 49% men). Oesophageal biopsy samples were obtained from 2?cm above, and at, the Z?line. Any eosinophil infiltration of the epithelium was defined as eosinophils present. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was defined as ?20, probable as 1519, and possible as 514 eosinophils/high?power field (HPF, at magnification 40) in oesophageal biopsy specimens. Results Eosinophils were present in 48 subjects (4.8%, 95% CI 3.5 to 6.1%, mean age 54 years, 63% men), in 54% without troublesome reflux symptoms. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was present in four subjects (0.4%, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.8%, mean age 51 years, 75% men) and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis in seven subjects (0.7%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.2%, mean age 58 years, 43% men). Erosive oesophagitis (OR?=?2.99, 95% CI 1.58 to 5.66) and absence of dyspepsia (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR?=?0.41, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.92) were independent predictors for eosinophils present. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was associated with dysphagia (2/66 vs 2/926, p?=?0.025), and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis with narrowing of the oesophageal lumen (2/15 vs 5/978, p?=?0.005). Conclusions Oesophageal eosinophils were present in nearly 5% of the general population; approximately 1% had definite or probable eosinophilic oesophagitis. Oesophageal eosinophils may be a manifestation of reflux disease in adults, but the condition is as likely to be asymptomatic and go unrecognised. PMID:17135307

  7. Prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm in young adults in relation to long-term ambient sulfur oxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.S.; Calafiore, D.C.; Hasselblad, V.

    1985-01-01

    In early 1976, a survey of persistent co gh and plegma (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 ug/mT. Corresponding mean suspended sulfate levels had been 5, 7, 8, and 14 g/mT No intercommunity exposure gradient of total suspended particulates or suspended nitrates was observed. In mothers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was 4.2% in the high-exposure community and about 2.0% in all other communities. In smoking mothers, PCP prevalence was 21.8% in the high-exposure community and about 15.0% elsewhere. In fathers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was about 8.0% in the high-exposure community and averaged about 3.0% elsewhere. In smoking fathers, PCP prevalence was less strongly associated with sulfur oxide exposure. PCP prevalence rates estimated in a categorical logistic regression model were qualitatively consistent with the prevalences presented above.

  8. Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults aged 19 years and older in Basrah, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Abbas Ali; Al-Maliky, Ahmed A; Kasem, Bashar; Jabar, Abdulsatar; Mosbeh, Khalid Abdulabass

    2014-01-01

    Background Six of the top ten countries in the world with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus are in the Middle East. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Southern Iraq. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, simple random study screened 5,445 persons aged 19–94 years in Basrah, with glycated hemoglobin measured in 88.3% of the population and fasting plasma glucose in 18.7%. Body mass index and other demographic parameters were also measured. Results Of the 5,445 persons screened, 8.7% had already been diagnosed with diabetes and 11% were found by screening to have undiscovered diabetes, giving an age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes of 19.7%, with 55.7% of those with diabetes being previously undiagnosed. In addition, 29.1% of the screened population had prediabetes, giving a prevalence of dysglycemia of 48.8%, with only 51.2% of the persons screened being normoglycemic. The prevalence of diabetes in both sexes peaked at age 46–60 years. Diabetes was slightly more prevalent in females than in males, and about 70.3% of diabetic individuals had a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Iraq, is very high, affecting one in five adults. The epidemic of diabetes will result in strain on the financial resources of health care systems. PMID:24833912

  9. Features and prevalence of patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who request treatment for cocaine use disorders.

    PubMed

    Prez de Los Cobos, Jos; Siol, Nria; Puerta, Carmen; Cantillano, Vanessa; Lpez Zurita, Cristina; Trujols, Joan

    2011-01-30

    To characterize those patients with probable adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who ask for treatment of cocaine use disorders; to estimate the prevalence of probable adult ADHD among these patients. This is a cross-sectional and multi-center study performed at outpatient resources of 12 addiction treatment centers in Spain. Participants were treatment-seeking primary cocaine abusers recruited consecutively at one center and through convenience sampling at the other centers. Assessments included semi-structured clinical interview focused on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) ADHD criteria adapted to adulthood, and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for screening childhood history of ADHD according to patients. Probable adult ADHD was diagnosed when patients met DSM-IV criteria of ADHD in adulthood and scored WURS>32. All participants were diagnosed with current cocaine dependence (n=190) or abuse (n=15). Patients with probable adult ADHD, compared with patients having no lifetime ADHD, were more frequently male, reported higher impulsivity, and began to use nicotine, alcohol, cannabis, or cocaine earlier. Before starting the current treatment, patients with probable adult ADHD also showed higher cocaine craving for the previous day, less frequent cocaine abstinence throughout the previous week, and higher use of cocaine and tobacco during the previous month. Impulsivity and male gender were the only independent risk factors of probable adult ADHD in a logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of probable adult ADHD was 20.5% in the sub-sample of patients consecutively recruited (n=78). A diagnosis of probable adult ADHD strongly distinguishes among treatment-seeking cocaine primary abusers regarding past and current key aspects of their addictive disorder; one-fifth of these patients present with probable adult ADHD. PMID:20537723

  10. The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Tang, Suqin; Yu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Xie, Qiuyuan; Wang, Jianping

    2014-10-30

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients. PMID:24924526

  11. Prevalence and predictors of habitual snoring in a sample of Saudi middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring among a sample of middle-aged Saudi adults, and its potential predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 until June 2013 in randomly selected Saudi Schools in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The enrolled subjects were 2682 school employees (aged 30-60 years, 52.1% females) who were randomly selected and interviewed. The questionnaire used for the interview included: the Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire to assess for snoring, medical history, and socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure readings were recorded using standard methods. Results: Forty percent of the 2682 enrolled subjects were snorers: 23.5% were habitual snorers, 16.6% were moderate snorers, and 59.9%, were non-snorers. A multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of snoring were ageing, male gender, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, family history of both snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, water-pipe smoking, and consanguinity. Conclusion: This study shows that snoring is a common condition among the Saudi population. Previously reported risk factors were reemphasized but consanguinity was identified as a new independent predictive risk factor of snoring. Exploring snoring history should be part of the clinical evaluation. PMID:26219441

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus after leisure noise exposure in young adults.

    PubMed

    Degeest, Sofie; Corthals, Paul; Vinck, Bart; Keppler, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus among students after exposure to leisure noise. In addition, the effects of tinnitus on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in participants suffering from chronic tinnitus were evaluated. The study consisted of two parts. First, a questionnaire regarding leisure noise exposure and tinnitus was completed. Second, the hearing status of the subjects suffering from chronic tinnitus was evaluated and compared with a matched control group (CG). Furthermore, the psychoacoustical characteristics of their tinnitus in the chronic tinnitus group (TG) were established. The questionnaire was answered by 151 respondents. Seven persons suffering from chronic tinnitus were examined further in the second part of the study. Transient tinnitus was observed in 73.5% of the respondents after leisure noise exposure and 6.6% experienced chronic tinnitus. Transient and chronic tinnitus had similar characteristics, as established by the questionnaire. The amplitude of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions was reduced and the amount of efferent suppression was smaller in the TG as compared with the CG. Tinnitus induced by leisure noise is observed frequently in young adults. The characteristics of tinnitus cannot predict whether it will have a transient or rather a chronic nature. In subjects suffering from tinnitus, subclinical damage that cannot be detected by audiometry can be demonstrated by measuring OAEs. These findings underpin the importance of educating youth about the risks of noise exposure during leisure activities. PMID:24583677

  14. Prevalence of influenza A antibodies in yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) eggs and adults in southern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Abdessalem; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Chokri, Mohamed Ali; Arnal, Audrey; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Boulinier, Thierry; Selmi, Slaheddine

    2011-12-01

    Investigating the prevalence of anti-influenza A viruses (AIV) antibodies in wild birds can provide important information for the understanding of bird exposure to AIV, as well as for prevention purposes. We investigated AIV exposure in nature by measuring the prevalence of anti-AIV antibodies in the nests and adults of an abundant and anthropophilic waterbird species common around the Mediterranean sea, the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Sampling took place in two colonies located in the gulf of Gabs in southern Tunisia: Sfax and Djerba. Antibodies were detected in the two sites, with higher prevalence in adults, eggs, and nests at Sfax than Djerba. Across both colonies, clutches that were laid later in the season, and, thus, more likely by younger parents, showed lower prevalence. Using patch occupancy modeling applied to egg clutches, we found that it is unnecessary to sample all the eggs in a given nest; nest status (antibody positive or negative) can be reliably estimated from a single egg. Differences in the density of birds, notably Larids, between the two sites may explain the observed differences in prevalence. The higher concentration of Larids in the Sfax colony could favor the transmission of AIV to yellow-legged gulls. This study highlights the importance of further developing ecological-based approaches to the factors determining the circulation of infectious agents in species such as the yellow-legged gull, which exist at the interface between diverse biological communities and human activities. PMID:21919723

  15. Dyslipidemia Prevalence in Iranian Adult Men: The Impact of Population-Based Screening on the Detection of Undiagnosed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Moshiri, Esamil; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dyslipidemia has been established as one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslipidemia in males, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iranian urban men. Materials and Methods A screening program was conducted in 845 Iranian men 25 years of age and older in 2014. A health interview survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported dyslipidemia and to collect demographic data, as well as serum lipid profile screening by a reference laboratory. Lipoprotein levels was categorized based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and the data were analyzed using the chi-square test and analysis of variance. Results The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 51.8%, and the prevalence of various forms of dyslipidemia was as follows: hypercholesterolemia (?240 mg/dL), 11.4%; hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (?160 mg/dL), 9.6%; hypertriglyceridemia (?200 mg/dL), 25%; and hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), 34.3%. With the exception of hypo-HDL, all forms of dyslipidemia were significantly less common in men over 65 years of age (p<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of hypo-HDL and hypertriglyceridemia was higher than expected in Iranian adult men, with half of men 25 years of age and older affected by at least one form of dyslipidemia. A large gap in primary and secondary care was observed, because nearly 80% of patients with dyslipidemia were unaware of their status. Urgent preventive programs and lifestyle changes are necessary to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26770936

  16. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. Methods In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ?18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. Results The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ?1, ?2, and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ?2 and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become a major disease burden among Tibetans. PMID:26047133

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Prehypertension and Hypertension among Adults in Northeastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Wang, Shibin; Su, Yingying; Rao, Wenwang; Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Kou, Changgui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prehypertension is a category between normotension and hypertension that is becoming increasingly common in China. However, limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of prehypertension in northeastern China. Methods: A cross-sectional study using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods was performed on 17,584 participants. Results: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 36.0% and 30.8% in northeastern China, respectively. As age increased, the prevalence of prehypertension in males declined (p-trend < 0.001), in parallel to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (p-trend < 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension for females increased as age increased (p-trend < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, location, drinking, Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia correlated with prehypertension and hypertension (p-trend < 0.05). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in an adult population of northeastern China and some correlates of prehypertension and hypertension. PMID:26712776

  18. Prevalence of osteoporosis according to nutrient and food group intake levels in Korean postmenopausal women: using the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young-Suk; Lee, Sang-Wha; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Jeong, So-Yeon; Go, Gyeongah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Women's bone health status is closely related with environmental factors and lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dietary risks of osteoporosis and osteopenia for Korean postmenopausal women. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from 1,433 subjects from the 2010 KNHANES were used and divided into three groups: normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis group using bone mineral density (BMD). Nutrient intakes and food intake frequency were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the odds ratios for osteoporosis and osteopenia. RESULTS The RNI percentage of each nutrient and food intake frequency from 12 food groups decreased as bone mineral density status deteriorated. Risk for osteoporosis of low calcium (Ca) intake, under the EAR, showed an odds ratio of 2.13(95% CI; 1.26-3.61, P < 0.05). Higher intake frequency showed preventive effect from osteoporosis compared to lower intake frequency in such food group as dairy products (ORs 0.40, CI 0.21-0.75), beans (ORs 0.49, CI 0.29-0.83), seaweeds (ORs 0.55, CI 0.32-0.94), fish (ORs 0.56, CI 0.32-0.98), and fruits (ORs 0.42, CI 0.23-0.79) after adjusting for age. CONCLUSION To prevent osteoporosis in later life, sufficient Ca intake and more frequent intakes of foods containing Ca such as dairy products, beans, fish, seaweeds, and fruits, which help in Ca absorption, should be stressed for Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:26425285

  19. Effects of number and gender of offspring on quality of life among older adults: evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlations between number and gender of offspring and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults. Setting We used data from the 2006–2012 data sets of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants There were 10 242, 8680, 7907 and 7480 participants in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Interventions Number and gender of offspring. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured participants’ QoL and HRQoL using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korea Labour Institute and which is similar to the EQ-VAS, a European measure. Results We estimated the HRQoL and QoL of individuals with offspring. Estimates for the HRQoL and QoL of parents with no offspring were −7.762 and −9.384, respectively (both p<0.0001) versus parents with two offspring. For parents with five or more offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −1.529 and 0.885, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.017, respectively) compared with parents with two offspring. For fathers with no offspring compared with fathers with two offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −6.143 and −7.492, respectively (both p<0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that number of offspring is associated with both HRQoL and QoL. Those with no offspring showed the lowest HRQoL and QoL. Although having five or more children had positive associations with QoL, it had negative associations with HRQoL. Public health services for those with poor quality of life should provide effective support programmes and services based on these findings. PMID:26063566

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

  1. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in Korean adolescents and adults using fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test.

    PubMed

    Han, S B; Kang, K R; Huh, D H; Lee, H C; Kim, J H; Kang, J H; Ma, S H

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in 2012-2013 to determine the seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in adolescents and adults living in Korea, where varicella vaccination has been recommended universally at age 12-15 months since 2005. Residual serum samples were collected from 1196 healthy adults and adolescents aged ?10 years between November 2012 and March 2013. The fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to determine the seroprevalence of VZV. The seroprevalences of VZV were compared between six age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ?60 years. The seroprevalence of VZV in the entire study cohort was 991% according to the FAMA test and 931% as determined by ELISA. The seroprevalences of the six age groups were as follows: 960%, 995%, 995%, 995%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, by the FAMA test, and 833%, 930%, 930%, 975%, 945%, and 975%, respectively, by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P < 0001); moreover, the seroprevalence in subjects aged 10-19 years was significantly lower than in other age groups (P < 0001), as measured by both the FAMA test and ELISA. Thus, strategies to increase protective immunity against VZV in teenagers are necessary. PMID:25234331

  2. Frailty prevalence and related factors in the older adult-FrailTURK Project.

    PubMed

    Eyigor, S; Kutsal, Y G; Duran, E; Huner, B; Paker, N; Durmus, B; Sahin, N; Civelek, G M; Gokkaya, K; Doğan, A; Günaydın, R; Toraman, F; Cakir, T; Evcik, D; Aydeniz, A; Yildirim, A G; Borman, P; Okumus, M; Ceceli, E

    2015-06-01

    Frailty is one of the geriatric syndromes and has an important relationship with mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to present the characteristics, prevalence, and related factors of frailty in older adults in our country. The study included 1126 individuals over 65 years of age from 13 centers. Frailty was evaluated using the Fried Frailty criteria, and patients were grouped as "frail," "pre-frail," and "non-frail." Nutritional status was assessed with "Mini Nutritional Test," psychological status with the "Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-CES-D," and additional diseases with the "Charlson Comorbidity index." Approximately 66.5 % of the participants were between 65 and 74 years of age and 65.7 % were women. Some 39.2 and 43.3 % of the participants were rated as frail and pre-frail, respectively. The multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with frailty. It was observed that age, female gender, low education level, being a housewife, living with the family, being sedentary, presence of an additional disease, using 4 or more drugs/day, avoiding to go outside, at least one visit to any emergency department within the past year, hospitalization within the past year, non-functional ambulation, and malnutrition increased the risk of frailty (p < 0.05). Establishing the factors associated with frailty is highly important for both clinical practice and national economy. This is the first study on this subject in our country and will provide guidance in determining treatment strategies. PMID:25948502

  3. The prevalence of previously diagnosed and undiagnosed psoriasis in US adults: Results from NHANES 20032004

    PubMed Central

    Kurd, Shanu Kohli; Gelfand, Joel M

    2016-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a predictor of morbidity. It is important to determine the extent to which psoriasis remains undiagnosed. Objective To determine the prevalence of psoriasis Methods Cross-sectional study using the National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey 20032004. Results The prevalence of diagnosed psoriasis was 3.15% (95% CI 2.18, 4.53), corresponding to 5 million adults. The prevalence of undiagnosed active psoriasis by conservative estimate was 0.4% (95% CI 0.19, 0.82) corresponding to approximately 600,000 US adults. Undiagnosed patients had a trend towards being more likely to be male, non white, less educated and unmarried compared to patients who had received a diagnosis. Limitations The method for determining the presence of psoriasis had limited ability to detect mild disease and only fair inter-rater agreement. Conclusion Over 5 million adults have been diagnosed with psoriasis. A large number have undiagnosed psoriasis and there are important disparities which may be associated with not receiving medical attention. PMID:19022533

  4. Prevalence data on all Ghent features in a cross-sectional study of 87 adults with proven Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rand-Hendriksen, Svend; Lundby, Rigmor; Tjeldhorn, Lena; Andersen, Kai; Offstad, Jon; Semb, Svein Ove; Smith, Hans-Jrgen; Paus, Benedicte; Geiran, Odd

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of each single feature in the Ghent criteria in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) is not known. To elucidate this, a cross-sectional study of 105 adults with presumed MFS was carried out. All patients were examined by the same group of investigators with standardized and complete assessment of all features in the Ghent criteria. Eighty-seven (83%) fulfilled the criteria in 56 different variants. The most prevalent major criterion in Ghent-positive persons was dural ectasia (91%), followed by major genetic criterion (89%) and ectopic lenses (62 %). In 14 persons (16%), the diagnosis was dependent on the dural findings. In all, 79% fulfilled both major dural and major genetic (positive family history and/or FBN1 mutation) criteria, suggesting that most patients with MFS might be identified by investigating these criteria. A history or finding of ascending aortic disease was present in 46 patients (53%). This low prevalence might partly reflect a high number of diagnosed patients encompassing the whole spectrum of the syndrome. The study confirms the need to examine for the complete set of features in the Ghent criteria to identify all patients with MFS. The majority of persons with MFS might be identified by the combined assessment of dura mater and family history, supplemented with DNA analysis in family-negative cases. The low prevalence of ascending aortic disease might indicate better future prospects in an adult population than those traditionally considered. PMID:19293838

  5. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. Results One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5) was 19.2% in Dakar and 26.3% in Ziguinchor. Severe food insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01) and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02). Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01). Conclusions Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population. PMID:26529509

  6. Estimating the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use among Black and White Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas over Time (19922002): Estimation Methods and Prevalence Trends

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Gostnell, Karla; Flom, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    No adequate data exist on patterns of injection drug use (IDU) prevalence over time within racial/ethnic groups in U.S. geographic areas. The absence of such prevalence data limits our understanding of the causes and consequences of IDU and hampers planning efforts for IDU-related interventions. Here, we (1) describe a method of estimating IDU prevalence among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adult residents of 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually over an 11-year period (19922002); (2) validate the resulting prevalence estimates; and (3) document temporal trends in these prevalence estimates. IDU prevalence estimates for Black adults were calculated in several steps: we (1) created estimates of the proportion of injectors who were Black in each MSA and year by analyzing databases documenting injectors encounters with the healthcare system; (2) multiplied the resulting proportions by previously calculated estimates of the total number of injectors in each MSA and year (Brady et al., 2008); (3) divided the result by the number of Black adults living in each MSA each year; and (4) validated the resulting estimates by correlating them cross-sectionally with theoretically related constructs (Black- and White-specific prevalences of drug-related mortality and of mortality from hepatitis C). We used parallel methods to estimate and validate White IDU prevalence. We analyzed trends in the resulting racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence estimates using measures of central tendency and hierarchical linear models (HLM). Black IDU prevalence declined from a median of 279 injectors per 10,000 adults in 1992 to 156 injectors per 10,000 adults in 2002. IDU prevalence for White adults remained relatively flat over time (median values ranged between 86 and 97 injectors per 10,000 adults). HLM analyses described similar trends and suggest that declines in Black IDU prevalence decelerated over time. Both sets of IDU estimates correlated cross-sectionally adequately with validators, suggesting that they have acceptable convergent validity (range for Black IDU prevalence validation: 0.27 < r < 0.61; range for White IDU prevalence: 0.38 < r < 0.80). These data give insight, for the first time, into IDU prevalence trends among Black adults and White adults in large U.S. MSAs. The decline seen here for Black adults may partially explain recent reductions in newly reported cases of IDU-related HIV evident in surveillance data on this population. Declining Black IDU prevalence may have been produced by (1) high AIDS-related mortality rates among Black injectors in the 1990s, rates lowered by the advent of HAART; (2) reduced IDU incidence among Black drug users; and/or (3) MSA-level social processes (e.g., diminishing residential segregation). The stability of IDU prevalence among White adults between 1992 and 2002 may be a function of lower AIDS-related mortality rates in this population; relative stability (and perhaps increases in some MSAs) in initiating IDU among White drug users; and social processes. Future research should investigate the extent to which these racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence trends (1) explain, and are explained by, recent trends in IDU-related health outcomes, and (2) are determined by MSA-level social processes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9304-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18709555

  7. Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults 1980-2013: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Marie; Fleming, Tom; Robinson, Margaret; Thomson, Blake; Graetz, Nicholas; Margono, Christopher; Mullany, Erin C; Biryukov, Stan; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry P; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME; Achoki, Tom; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso, Rafael; Ali, Mohammed K; Ali, Raghib; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Banerjee, Amitava; Barquera, Simon; Basu, Sanjay; Bennett, Derrick A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blore, Jed; Cabral, Norberto; Nonato, Ismael Campos; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cundiff, David K; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C; Dandona, Lalit; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Ding, Eric L; Durrani, Adnan M; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek FJ; Feigin, Valery L; Flaxman, Abraham; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Goto, Atsushi; Green, Mark A; Gupta, Rajeev; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hankey, Graeme J; Harewood, Heather C; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon; Hernandez, Lucia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Islami, Farhad; Jahangir, Eiman; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeffreys, Mona; Jonas, Jost B; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinge, Jonas M; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Kwan, Gene; Lai, Taavi; Leinsalu, Mall; Li, Yichong; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shiwei; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lu, Yuan; Ma, Jixiang; Mainoo, Nana Kwaku; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Mokdad, Ali H; Moschandreas, Joanna; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Nand, Devina; Narayan, KM Venkat; Nelson, Erica Leigh; Neuhouser, Marian L; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Oti, Samuel O; Pedroza, Andrea; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Roy, Nobhojit; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Seo, Hyeyoung; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shibuya, Kenji; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Stapelberg, Nicolas JC; Sturua, Lela; Sykes, Bryan L; Tobias, Martin; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; van de Vijver, Steven; Vasankari, Tommi J; Veerman, J Lennert; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wang, Claire; Wang, Sharon XiaoRong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Werdecker, Andrea; Wright, Jonathan L; Yang, Y Claire; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yoon, Jihyun; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Shankuan; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3.4 million deaths, 3.9% of years of life lost, and 3.8% of DALYs globally. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparative, up-to-date information on levels and trends is essential both to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision-makers to prioritize action. Methods We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n = 1,769) that included information on height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. Mixed effects linear regression was used to correct for the bias in self-reports. Age-sex-country-year observations (n = 19,244) on prevalence of obesity and overweight were synthesized using a spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings Globally, the proportion of adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater increased from 28.8% (95% UI: 28.4-29.3) in 1980 to 36.9% (36.3-37.4) in 2013 for men and from 29.8% (29.3-30.2) to 38.0% (37.5-38.5) for women. Increases were observed in both developed and developing countries. There have been substantial increases in prevalence among children and adolescents in developed countries, with 23.8% (22.9-24.7) of boys and 22.6% (21.7-23.6) of girls being either overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is also rising among children and adolescents in developing countries as well, rising from 8.1% (7.7-8.6) to 12.9% (12.3-13.5) in 2013 for boys and from 8.4% (8.1-8.8) to 13.4% (13.0-13.9) in girls. Among adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeds 50% among men in Tonga and women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has stabilized. Interpretation Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Contrary to other major global risks, there is little evidence of successful population-level intervention strategies to reduce exposure. Not only is obesity increasing, but there are no national success stories over the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is required to assist countries to more effectively intervene. PMID:24880830

  8. Insomnia in North Korean Refugees: Association with Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Jin G.; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, So Hee; Yu, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence of insomnia and its clinical characteristics in North Korean refugees. Methods North Korean refugees living in South Korea (48 males, 129 females; mean age 38.2212.24 years) and South Koreans (112 males, 203 females; mean age 39.4810.32 years) completed the following questionnaires: the Self-reported Questionnaire on Insomnia, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Trauma Exposure Check List for North Korean Refugees, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results North Korean refugees had insomnia more often than South Koreans did (38.42% vs. 8.89%). Depression combined with insomnia was also more prevalent in North Korean refugees (28.25% vs. 3.17%). Compared with South Koreans with insomnia, North Korean refugees with insomnia showed higher CES-D scores. The North Korean refugees with insomnia had experienced a larger number of traumatic events, and had higher CES-D and IES-R scores compared to North Korean refugees without insomnia. Insomnia in North Korean refugees was also associated with the presence of significant depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Conclusion Insomnia was common in North Korean refugees and was closely associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms. Our study suggests that complaints of insomnia may indicate more severe psychopathology, especially in refugees. PMID:26766948

  9. Relationship between the intensity of physical activity and depressive symptoms among Korean adults: analysis of Korea Health Panel data

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Lee, Sang Ah; Choi, Hyo Jin; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Min Hee; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the intensity of physical activity and symptoms of depression. [Subjects and Methods] We analyzed the influence of different intensities of physical activity on depressive symptoms using the data of 12,350 adults over the age of 20 years who had completed the 2011 Korea Health Panel. After controlling for confounding variables, a multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between the intensity of physical activity and depressive symptoms. [Results] The results showed that vigorous physical activity had a significant effect on depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms was 1.487 (95% CI 1.137, 1.943) OR higher among people who did not participate in regular activity than it was among those who took part in regular intense physical activity. [Conclusion] It appears that physical activity affects depressive symptoms, a result which is in agreement with previous studies. However, we also showed a difference in influence according to activity intensity. Thus, the intensity of physical activity should be considered when developing physical activity programs for improving depressive symptoms. PMID:25995596

  10. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  11. The relationship between distribution of body fat mass and carotid artery intima-media thickness in Korean older adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Kee; Park, Hyuntae; Kim, Kwi-Baek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the amount and distribution of body fat and the carotid intima-media thickness to explore whether coronary artery disease risk may be mediated through effects on the amount of fat mass in older adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 200 elderly females was participated. The percentage of body fat mass was measured by the bioelectrical impedance analysis method, and the carotid intima-media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasound. Analysis of covariance was performed to assess independent associations between the four categories of percentage of body fat mass and the carotid intima-media thickness after multivariate adjustment. Logistic regression analyses were utilized to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for examining independent associations between percentage of body fat mass and the estimated risk of coronary artery disease. [Results] Analysis of covariance showed that the carotid intima-media thickness was significantly thick in both obesity and overweight groups. When multivariate-adjusted OR for the estimated risk of coronary artery disease, the odds ratios for the obesity and overweight groups were 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 8.7) and 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 6.1), respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that elderly females with a high body fat mass are more likely to have the estimated risk of CAD than who fit body fat mass in elderly female. PMID:26633917

  12. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 g/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (?18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 2009 (n?=?271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 0.46 g/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI] ?=?1.08 [0.98?1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98?1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n?=?153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 0.46 g/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  13. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gronner, M F; Bosi, P L; Carvalho, A M; Casale, G; Contrera, D; Pereira, M A; Diogo, T M; Torquato, M T C G; Souza, G M D; Oishi, J; Leal, A M O

    2011-07-01

    The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively). Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ≥100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education. PMID:21755260

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Srinivas, Marmamula; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR) for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293) for this study. Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ?40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < ?0.5 D) 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.136.1), high-myopia (SE < ?5.0 D) 4.5% (95% CI: 3.85.2), hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D) 18.4% (95% CI: 17.119.7), astigmatism (cylinder < ?0.5 D) 37.6% (95% CI: 3639.2), and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D) 13.0% (95% CI: 11.914.1). The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001). There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001). Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.513.95) and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.031.49). The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia. Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously reported association between myopia, hyperopia, and nuclear opacity. PMID:19668540

  16. Prevalence of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Adults - 23 States and the District of Columbia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Xu, Fang; Town, Machell; Blanck, Heidi M

    2016-01-01

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that the daily intake of calories from added sugars not exceed 10% of total calories.* Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are significant sources of added sugars in the diet of U.S. adults and account for approximately one third of added sugar consumption (1). Among adults, frequent (i.e., at least once a day) SSB intake is associated with adverse health consequences, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (2). According to the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), an in-person and phone follow-up survey, 50.6% of U.S. adults consumed at least one SSB on a given day (3). In addition, SSB intake varies by geographical regions (4,5): the prevalence of daily SSB intake was higher among U.S. adults living in the Northeast (68.4%) and South (66.7%) than among persons living in the Midwest (58.8%). In 2013, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone survey, revised the SSB two-item optional module to retain the first question on regular soda and expand the second question to include more types of SSBs than just fruit drinks. Using 2013 BRFSS data, self-reported SSB (i.e., regular soda, fruit drinks, sweet tea, and sports or energy drinks) intake among adults (aged ≥18 years) was assessed in 23 states and the District of Columbia (DC). The overall age-adjusted prevalence of SSB intake ≥1 time per day was 30.1% and ranged from 18.0% in Vermont to 47.5% in Mississippi. Overall, at least once daily SSB intake was most prevalent among adults aged 18-24 years (43.3%), men (34.1%), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) (39.9%), unemployed adults (34.4%), and persons with less than a high school education (42.4%). States can use the data for program evaluation and monitoring trends, and information on disparities in SSB consumption could be used to create targeted intervention efforts to reduce SSB consumption. PMID:26914018

  17. Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more

  18. Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

  19. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with…

  20. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with

  1. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  2. A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  3. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively). Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160) and severe VI (VA ≤20/200) had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63) group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye. Conclusions The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches should also focus on the subjective perception and better management of health condition. PMID:26192763

  4. Sex-age-specific association of body mass index with all-cause mortality among 12.8 million Korean adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Shin, Soon-Ae; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite differences in body shape and adiposity characteristics according to sex and age, a single range of healthy weight [body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) of 18.5–24.9) regardless of sex and age has been recommended. The aim of the study is to examine whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by sex and age, and, if relevant, to estimate sex-age-specific optimal BMIs associated with a minimal risk of death. Methods: A total of 12 832 637 Korean adults aged 18–99 years who participated in health examinations during 2001–04 were followed up until 2013. Hazard ratios of death in sex-age groups were calculated using Cox regression models after adjustment for age, smoking status and known pre-existing illness. Results: During follow-up, 456 175 men and 241 208 women died. Among men, the age-specific optimal BMI was 23.0–25.9 (kg/m2) at 18–34 years, 24.0–27.9 at 45–54 year, and 25.0–28.9 at 65–74 years. Among women, it was 15.5–24.9 at 18–34 years, 21.0–26.9 at 45–54 years and 24.0–28.9 at 65–74 years. Patterns of sex-age-specific association generally did not differ between never-smokers with no known illness and all participants. Progressively increased risks above and below sex-age-specific optimums were observed (reverse J-curve). Smoking had a limited impact on the observed associations. Conclusions: Women had a lower optimal BMI than men, especially at younger ages. The optimal BMI increased with age. Change in optimal BMI with age, however, was more profound in women than in men. Sex-age-specific optimums were generally higher than the current normal weight (BMI of 18.5–24.9), except in women below 50 years. Sex-age-specific guidelines related to body weight may be needed to guide people for better health. PMID:26208807

  5. Prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors of osteonecrosis of the femoral head among adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Mukisi-Mukaza, M; Elbaz, A; Samuel-Leborgne, Y; Kéclard, L; Le Turdu-Chicot, C; Christophe-Duchange, E; Mérault, G

    2000-04-01

    This prospective study examined the prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors of osteonecrosis of the femoral head among adult sickle cell disease patients in Guadeloupe. Screening of osteonecrosis of the femoral head was performed using radiography, bone scintigraphy, and tomodensitometry. One hundred thirteen adults with sickle cell disease (67 SS and 46 SC patients) comprised the study population. Forty-two (37.2%) patients had osteonecrosis of one or both hips (67 [29.6%] hips) without association to a particular genotype, although bilateral involvement was more frequent among SS patients. While the prevalence of femoral head osteonecrosis increased with age, patients of all ages were affected, particularly young SC adults. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head was diagnosed at preradiographic stages (stage I) in 30% of hips and was frequently asymptomatic (60% of all cases; 95% and 90% of stages I and II, respectively). Osteonecrosis of the femoral head was significantly associated with a history of leg ulcer and osteonecrosis of the humeral head. SS patients with higher hemoglobin levels had an increased risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. PMID:10791585

  6. Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

  7. Prevalence and Racial Differences in Pterygium: A Cross-Sectional Study in Han and Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Ding, Lin; Shan, Guangliang; Ke, Limujiang; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the prevalence and associated risk factors of pterygium in Han and Uygur population in Xinjiang, China and to assess the racial differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural and three urban regions of Xinjiang. A multistage and stratified sampling method was used to select representative samples. Risk factors associated with pterygium were screened in logistic regression models. Results. Among 4617 participants aged 30 years and older, 2452 were Han and 2165 were Uygur Nationality adults. The overall prevalence of pterygium was 11.95% (n = 546), with 4.27% (n = 197) were bilateral and 7.56% (n = 349) were unilateral. Multivariate analysis indicated that race, age, and rural residence were significantly associated with any pterygium (P < 0.001 for all). The prevalence of pterygium (P < 0.01) in Han subjects was higher than that of Uygur subjects. Both age and rural residence were associated with any pterygium in Han and Uygur. Low education level had significant positive association with pterygium in Han population (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Pterygium affects approximately one-ninth of Han and Uygur population. Compared with Uygur, Han ethnicity is a significant risk factor of pterygium. Our results indicated a higher prevalence of pterygium in rural areas of Xinjiang, China compared with urban cities. Age increase was also associated with presence of pterygium. Strategies are warranted to prevent the serious effects caused by pterygium. PMID:25626966

  8. Direct estimates of prevalent HIV infection in adults in England and Wales for 1991 and 1993: an improved method.

    PubMed Central

    Petruckevitch, A; Nicoll, A; Johnson, A M; Bennett, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of prevalent HIV infections in England and Wales at the end of 1991 and 1993. METHOD: A direct method was used whereby population estimates derived from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyle (NATSAL) and prevalence data from the Unlinked Anonymous HIV Prevalence Monitoring Programme (UAPMP) were combined to produce estimates of the number of adults infected and alive in the population. RESULTS: In the population of England and Wales the numbers of prevalent infections for defined transmission categories, at the end of 1993, were as follows: 12,600 through sex between men, 2500 through injecting drug use, and 6900 through heterosexual intercourse. The overall estimate was 22,800 HIV seropositive individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The direct method attempts to provide an estimate of the number of HIV infections using population based survey data. These estimates are consistent with other approaches using independent methods. Such methods are essential for inferring recent HIV incidence, projecting future AIDS cases, and for healthcare planning. PMID:9534742

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province of China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wanzhen; Zhou, Chengchao; Wang, Ting; Yang, Shaoyuan; Bi, Hongsheng; Liu, Liping; Li, Yan; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province, eastern China, a population-based, cross-sectional study was performed from April to July 2008. By means of cluster random sampling methods, a total of 19,583 people aged 50 years or above were randomly selected from four rural counties. Out of 19,583 people, 1,767 residents were excluded mainly because they were migrant workers when this study was performed. Finally, 17,816 (90.98%) people were included as eligible subjects. They received a comprehensive eye examination and a structured questionnaire voluntarily. Patients with pterygium were defined as having pterygium at the time of survey or pterygium surgery had been performed. 1,876 people were diagnosed as pterygium, either unilateral (1,083) or bilateral (793), which is equivalent to a prevalence of 10.53% (95% CI, 10.08-10.98). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that pterygium was independently associated with older age, areas, outdoor time, educational level, and use of hat and/or sunglasses. The prevalence of pterygium increased with age and hours spent under sunshine per day. Meanwhile, the higher the educational level and the more use of hat and/or sunglasses, the lower the pterygium prevalence. PMID:25165711

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Pterygium in Rural Older Adults in Shandong Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Wanzhen; Zhou, Chengchao; Wang, Ting; Yang, Shaoyuan; Bi, Hongsheng; Liu, Liping; Li, Yan; Wang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province, eastern China, a population-based, cross-sectional study was performed from April to July 2008. By means of cluster random sampling methods, a total of 19,583 people aged 50 years or above were randomly selected from four rural counties. Out of 19,583 people, 1,767 residents were excluded mainly because they were migrant workers when this study was performed. Finally, 17,816 (90.98%) people were included as eligible subjects. They received a comprehensive eye examination and a structured questionnaire voluntarily. Patients with pterygium were defined as having pterygium at the time of survey or pterygium surgery had been performed. 1,876 people were diagnosed as pterygium, either unilateral (1,083) or bilateral (793), which is equivalent to a prevalence of 10.53% (95% CI, 10.0810.98). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that pterygium was independently associated with older age, areas, outdoor time, educational level, and use of hat and/or sunglasses. The prevalence of pterygium increased with age and hours spent under sunshine per day. Meanwhile, the higher the educational level and the more use of hat and/or sunglasses, the lower the pterygium prevalence. PMID:25165711

  11. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in Asian adults: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease, affecting approximately 2% of women and 4% of men residing in Western communities. No systematically reviewed data are available about the prevalence of this disease in Asia, the most heavily populated continent. Methods PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from 1993 to May 2012 that reported the prevalence of OSA diagnosed via sleep monitoring and the prevalence of patients at risk for OSA as assessed by symptomatology and/or sleep questionnaires. We have also searched abstract database of major pulmonary and sleep scientific societies for relevant abstracts presented from 2010 to 2012. The following inclusion criteria were used: articles published in English, age???18 years, ??100 participants in studies using sleep monitoring for the diagnosis of OSA, ??300 participants in studies using questionnaires to detect patients at high risk for OSA. Exclusion criteria: duplicate publications, studies reporting the prevalence of central sleep apnea only, hospital based studies as well as studies assessing OSA prevalence among patients with resistant arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure and in patients with concomitant neurological disease. Results Twenty four articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, covering 47,957 subjects (26,042 men and 21,915 women) and four relevant abstracts were noted. OSA prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 97.3%. Male gender, older age, a higher BMI and waist to hip ratio, greater neck circumference, arterial hypertension, smoking, snoring and daytime sleepiness were associated with OSA. Sample size, difference between the populations studied and the fact that some works included patients with a high pre-test probability of OSA explain the difference in prevalence rates. Conclusion This systematic review highlights the lack of data regarding the prevalence of OSA in Asians. Only a few studies provide an approximate estimate of the OSA burden in some Asian communities. PMID:23433391

  12. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone and the Glomerular Filtration Rate in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sung-Jin; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases with age, while parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases. There are a few reports only on the relationship between GFR and PTH under the category of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, a cross-sectional study was conducted on the association between serum 25(OH)D concentration, GFR and PTH in Korean adults aged 50 years or older. Serum PTH concentration was compared to the tertiles of GFR after adjustment for relevant variables. In addition, the serum PTH concentration was compared with the GFR under the category of serum 25(OH) D concentration (<20, 20-30, >30 ng/mL). Results The mean estimated GFR (eGFR) was 74.8 mL/min in men and 73.1 mL/min in women. The mean PTH and 25(OH) D was 66.8 pg/mL, 20.5 ng/mL in men and 69.0 pg/mL, 18.2 ng/mL in women. The serum PTH concentration showed a significant negative correlation with the serum 25(OH) D and eGFR in both genders. The serum PTH concentration significantly increased at the lower tertile of eGFR in male adults In addition, a decrease of serum PTH concentration was marked in the vitamin D sufficient male adults (>30 ng/mL). Conclusion This present study demonstrated that serum PTH concentration showed negative correlation with eGFR, however, serum PTH increase may be minimized by maintaining proper serum 25(OH)D concentrations under similar eGFR status in Korean adults aged 50 and above. PMID:24724005

  13. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Methods: Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Results: Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75.5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77.3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76.7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Conclusions: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand. PMID:25146935

  14. Prevalence of malnutrition and associated metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older adults from Northwest Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alemn-Mateo, Heliodoro; Esparza-Romero, Julin; Romero, Rene Urquidez; Garca, Humberto Astiazarn; Prez Flores, Flavia A; Ochoa Chacn, Blanca V; Valencia, Mauro E

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease in 287 apparently healthy older adults from Northwest Mexico. Also, the impact of overweight and obesity on metabolic risk factors was assessed. Nutritional status was determined using serum albumin levels and anthropometry. Vitamin status was also assessed. Metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease were evaluated. The prevalence of undernutrition was 15.3%. Also, vitamin E deficiency was common (18%). On the contrary, 44.9% of men and women were in overweight and 24% were obese. A 50.9% of the older adults had hypertension, 52.6% hypercholesterolemia (HC), 38.3% hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), 26.1% impaired fasting glucose and 26.1% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HC and low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly more prevalent in women than in men. Mean adjusted values of fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio > or = 5, triglycerides (TG) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly higher in subjects with body mass index (BMI) > or = 25.0 kg/m(2). Undernutrition, obesity and vitamin E deficiency, as well as several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease coexisted in this studied group. Overweight and obesity were the most prevalent findings. BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) was the common factor explaining most of the metabolic abnormalities. However, due to the sample size and the design of the study, the results must be seen with caution and cannot be generalized. PMID:17597234

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome among Chinese Adults in a Rural Community of Shanghai in China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Yu, Peimin; Wu, Dongyan; Hong, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Aims The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in an adult Chinese population living in a rural community. We also aimed to determine the predictive diagnostic value of the 4-item screening questionnaire for RLS in this population. Methods This study was designed as a 2-phase survey. In phase 1 we performed a face-to-face interview of eligible individuals living in a rural community in Shanghai using a 4-item screening questionnaire. In phase 2, sleep specialists performed a phone interview of the individuals who screened positive to diagnosis RLS. Results Forty-one RLS cases were confirmed among 2941 eligible individuals 18 years of age or older in the study community. The prevalence of RLS was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) =1.0-1.9%), with a significantly higher rate observed in females (1.9% [95%CI =1.3-2.7%]) than that in males (0.9% [95%CI =0.5-1.5%], p=0.019). The prevalence rate increased significantly with age, from 0.2% (95% CI =0.08-0.6%) in those 18-39 years old to 4.1% (95% CI =2.1-7.9%) in those ?70 years old (p<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gastritis, anemia and hypertension were risk factors for RLS. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4-item screening questionnaire used in this study were 63.4% and 97.5%, respectively. Conclusion RLS prevalence is relatively low among Chinese adults living in rural Shanghai. Furthermore, population-based studies with a larger sample size and a longitudinal follow-up may help to determine the risk factors of RLS and potential interventions for RLS. PMID:25803876

  16. Population-based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in an urban slum in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezeala-Adikaibe, B A; Orjioke, C; Ekenze, O S; Ijoma, U; Onodugo, O; Okudo, G; Okwara, C; Chime, P; Mbadiwe, N; Eddy, A; Onyekonwu, C; Onyebueke, G; Ulasi, I; Mba, A U

    2016-04-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), rapid urbanization and changing lifestyle have modified the profile and pattern of various medical disorders. Apart from high prevalence rates, recent trends with regard to hypertension in Africa include: low levels of awareness, treatment and control. Although a large number of studies provide data about hypertension in SSA, few studies focused on special populations such as urban slum dwellers. The WHO STEP-wise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable diseases was used to access the prevalence of hypertension among adults in one of the urban slums in Enugu. Out of the 811 individuals aged 20 years and above surveyed, 774 (95.4%) cases were analyzed. About 4.7% and 2.7% reported a past history of diabetes and stroke, respectively, whereas 15% had a positive family history of hypertension. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) body mass index (BMI) was 23.7 (23.2-24.2) kg m(-2) among males and 26.6 (25.7-26.7) kg m(-2) among females (P<0.0001). The prevalence of hypertension was 52.5% (95% CI: 48.9-56.0) and 55.4% (95% CI: 49.5-61.3) in males and 50.8% (95% CI: 46.4-55.1) in females (P=0.23). It increased with age peaking at 45-54 years in females and ⩾55 years in males. About 40.1% were aware of their hypertension and 28.8% of those aware had normal blood pressure. In regression analysis, systolic (R(2)=0.192) and diastolic (R(2)=0.129) blood pressures increased with age and BMI. The prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Enugu slums is very high and a cause for concern, and calls for urgent attention. PMID:26016595

  17. Prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders causing unfitness for military service among young adultmen: Anepidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Ekinci, ?afak; Kocak, Necmettin; Aydin, Ibrahim; Koca, Kenan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Ersen, Omer; Kilic, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional epidemiologic study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders causing unfitness to Turkish Military Service. Methods: This study has been carried out by examining the medical reports of 1.777.500 people who applied to the Turkish Armed Forces for military service between 2009-2011. Age and geographic region of individuals were compiled and organized in groups. Musculoskeletal disorders were classified mainly as fracture sequel, spine disorders, absence of phalanges, extremity amputation, aggressive or multiple benign tumors of bones and pes planus. Results: Unfitness to military service caused by musculoskeletal disorders was found to be 6.53 in 2009, 7.10 in 2010 and 7.28 in 2011. The prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases has increased by years. The prevalence of fracture squeal by years was found to be 2.83 in 2009, 3.10 in 2010 and 3.03 in 2011. In this study, the most common musculoskeletal disorders were: limitation of joint mobility (0.89), degeneration of joint surface (0.69), lower and upper limb discrepancies (0.60), posterior fusion surgery (0.59) and the absence of the phalanges in hand (0.51). We found an increase in both the prevalence of posterior fusion surgery and the absence of the phalanges in study group. Conclusion: These results has given information about severe musculoskeletal disorders among young adult male in Turkey. New studies including young adult female will add important information to our knowledge about musculuskelatal problems in our community. PMID:25878612

  18. The Prevalence and Determinants of Undiagnosed and Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Irish Adults

    PubMed Central

    O Connor, Jennifer M.; Millar, Sen R.; Buckley, Claire M.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes within the Republic of Ireland is poorly defined, although a recent report suggested 135,000 cases in adults aged 45+, with approximately one-third of these undiagnosed. This study aims to assess the prevalence of undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes in middle-aged adults, and compare features related to either condition, in order to investigate why certain individuals remain undetected. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving a sample of 2,047 men and women, aged between 5069 years, randomly selected from a large primary care centre. Univariate logistic regression was used to explore socio-economic, metabolic and other health related variable associations with undiagnosed or diagnosed diabetes. A final multivariate analysis was used to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having undiagnosed compared to diagnosed diabetes, adjusted for gender, age and significant covariates determined from univariate models. Principle Findings The total prevalence of diabetes was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.4%8.8%); 72 subjects (3.5%) had undiagnosed diabetes (95% CI: 2.8%4.4%) and 102 subjects (5.0%) had diagnosed diabetes (95% CI: 4.1%6.0%). Obesity, dyslipidaemia, and family history of diabetes were positively associated with both undiagnosed and diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Compared with diagnosed subjects, study participants with undiagnosed diabetes were significantly more likely to have low levels of physical activity and were less likely to be on treatment for diabetes-related conditions or to have private medical insurance. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes within the Cork and Kerry Diabetes and Heart Disease Study is comparable to recent estimates from the Sln National Health and Lifestyle Survey, a study which was nationally representative of the general population. A considerable proportion of diabetes cases were undiagnosed (41%), emphasising the need for more effective detection strategies and equitable access to primary healthcare. PMID:24282548

  19. Prevalence and determinants of asthma in adult male leather tannery workers in Karachi, Pakistan: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Khurram; Akhtar, Saeed; Mahmud, Sadia

    2006-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to identify some risk factors of adult asthma in male leather tannery workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2003 to March 2004 on leather tannery workers of Karachi, Pakistan. Data were collected from 641 workers engaged in 95 different tanneries in Korangi industrial area selected as sample of convenience. Face to face interviews were performed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire by trained data collectors. Results Prevalence of adult asthma was 10.8% (69/641) in this study population. The prevalence of perceived work-related asthma was 5.3% (34/641). Multivariable logistic regression model showed that after taking into account the age effect, the leather tannery worker were more likely to be asthmatic, if they were illiterate (adjusted OR = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.173.88), of Pathan ethnicity (adjusted OR = 2.69; 95% CI: 1.355.36), ever-smoked (adjusted OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.164.26), reportedly never used gloves during different tanning tasks (OR = 3.28; 95% CI : 1.726.26). Also, the final model showed a significant interaction between perceived allergy and duration of work. Those who perceived to have allergy were more likely to have asthma if their duration of work was 8 years (adjusted OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19 4.29) and this relationship was even stronger if duration was 13 years (adjusted OR = 3.67; 95% CI: 1.986.79). Conclusion Prevalence of asthma in leather tannery workers appears to be high and is associated with educational status, ethnicity, smoking, glove use, perceived to have allergy and duration of work. PMID:17144930

  20. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

  1. The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =

  2. The Prevalence and Severity of Physical Mobility Limitations in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Shaun; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Hunter, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The population of older adults with intellectual disabilities is growing, creating new challenges for individuals, families and service providers. Although there has been increased research into the ageing process for adults with intellectual disabilities, there is little focused research investigating physical mobility. Materials and

  3. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.

  4. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of

  5. The Prevalence and Correlates of Mental and Emotional Health Among American Indian Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Melissa L.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Soper, Garrett V.; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental and emotional health factors among a sample of American Indian (Indigenous) adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Methods Data are from a community-based participatory research project involving two Indigenous reservation communities. Data were collected from 218 Indigenous adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes via in-person paper-and-pencil survey interviews. Results Reports of greater numbers of mental/emotional health problems were associated with increases in self-reported hyperglycemia, comorbid health problems, and health-impaired physical activities. Conclusions This study addresses a gap in the literature by demonstrating the associations between various mental/emotional health factors and diabetes-related health problems for Indigenous Americans. Findings underscore the importance of holistic, integrated primary care models for more effective diabetes care. PMID:24562607

  6. Adult physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world: Analysis of 38 countries

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity surveillance informs policy and treatment options toward meeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of a 10% reduction in its prevalence by 2025. We currently do not know the aggregate prevalence for Muslim-majority countries, many of which have extremely high rates of comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. Method Based on data for 163,556 persons in 38 Muslim countries that were collected by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, unweighted and weighted physical inactivity prevalence estimates were calculated. I used two-proportion Z tests to determine gender and ethnic differences within the sample and between the sample and 94 non-Muslim countries and odds ratios to determine the magnitude of significant differences. Results Total physical inactivity prevalence was 32.3% (95% CI: 31.9, 32.7). Prevalence among males and females was 28.8% and 35.5%, respectively. Prevalence among non-Arabs and Arabs was 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. Females and Arabs were more likely physically inactive than their respective counterparts [OR=1.36 (1.33, 1.39) and OR=1.94 (1.90, 1.98)]. Muslim countries were more likely physically inactive [OR=1.23 (1.22, 1.25)] than non-Muslim ones, which was primarily due to the influence of Arabs [OR=2.01 (1.97, 2.04)], and in particular female Arabs [OR=2.22 (2.17, 2.27)]. Conclusion Physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world is higher than non-Muslim countries and the difference is primarily due to higher rates among Arabs. PMID:26844051

  7. Prevalence of Spirometrically-defined Restrictive Ventilatory Defect in Korea: The Fourth-2, 3, and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Hwang, Yong Il; Park, Yong Bum; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Ki Uk; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Yoon, Ho Il; Sheen, Sueng Su; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Heung Bum; Lim, Sung Chul; Jung, Sung Soo; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Yuna; Chun, Chaemin; Yoo, Kwang Ha

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect and to determine the risk factors in subjects with spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect. We used the population-based, fourth-2, 3 (2008, 2009) and fifth (2010-2012) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to analyze 15,073 subjects, aged ≥40 yr who underwent spirometry. Chest radiographs were also analyzed to identify restrictive lung disease. Spirometrically-defined restrictive ventilatory defect (FEV1/FVC≥70% and FVC<80% of mean predicted value) was detected in 11.3% (n= 1,709) of subjects aged ≥40 yr. The prevalence increased to 12.3% on using the lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria. Approximately 99.4% of subjects were classified as mild restrictive. Among these, 11.3% had inactive tuberculosis (TB) lesion, 2.2% cardiac disease, 2.0% previous operation scar or radiation injury and/or mediastinal disease, and 7.4% other pulmonary disease suggestive of restrictive lung diseases on chest radiograph. Evidence of previous TB history was independently associated with restrictive ventilatory defect (odds ratios [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-2.18) after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, area for residence and body mass index. The prevalence of restrictive ventilatory defect among the nationwide population in Korea was 11.3% with fixed ratio criterion and 12.3% with LLN criterion. Most cases were of the mild restrictive category and previous TB history is the independent risk factor for restrictive ventilatory defect. PMID:26028924

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 2049 years included in Indias third National Family Health Survey, 20052006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.62.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.82.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.732.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.362.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.121.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.051.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

  9. Prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of pertussis in adults with acute cough: a prospective, observational study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Teepe, Jolien; Broekhuizen, Berna DL; Ieven, Margareta; Loens, Katherine; Huygen, Kris; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; de Melker, Hester; Butler, Chris C; Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Verheij, Theo JM

    2015-01-01

    Background Most cases of adult pertussis probably remain undiagnosed. Aim To explore the prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of acute pertussis infection in adult patients presenting with acute cough. Design and setting Prospective observational study between 2007 and 2010 in primary care in 12 European countries. Method Adults presenting with acute cough (duration of ≤28 days) were included. Bordetella pertussis infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (from nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and sputa) and by measurement of immunoglobulin G antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in venous blood at day 28. An antibody titre to PT of ≥125 IU/ml or PCR positive result in a respiratory sample defined recent infection. Patients completed a symptom diary for 28 days. Results Serum and/or respiratory samples were obtained in 3074 patients. Three per cent (93/3074) had recent B. pertussis infection. Prior cough duration >2 weeks discriminated to some extent between those with and without pertussis (adjusted odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 3.07; P = 0.010). Median cough duration after presentation was 17 and 12 days in patients with and without pertussis, respectively (P = 0.008). Patients with pertussis had longer duration of phlegm production (P = 0.010), shortness of breath (P = 0.037), disturbed sleep (P = 0.013) and interference with normal activities or work (P = 0.033) after presentation. Conclusion Pertussis infection plays a limited role among adults presenting with acute cough in primary care, but GPs should acknowledge the possibility of pertussis in uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection. As in children, pertussis also causes prolonged symptoms in adults. However, pertussis is difficult to discern from other acute cough syndromes in adults at first presentation. PMID:26412843

  10. High mortality and prevalence of HIV and tuberculosis in adults with chronic cough in Malawi: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, P.; Mukaka, M.; Mdolo, A.; Mwapasa, M.; Kaswaswa, K.; Msefula, C.; Chipungu, G.; Mwandumba, H. C.; Corbett, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Adults with suspected tuberculosis (TB) in health facilities in Africa have a high risk of death. The risk of death for adults with suspected TB at community-level is not known but may also be high. METHODS: Adults reporting cough of ⩾ 2 weeks (coughers) during a household census of 19 936 adults in a poor urban setting in Malawi were randomly sampled and age-frequency matched with adults without cough ⩾ 2 weeks (controls). At 12 months, participants were traced to establish vital status, offered human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and investigated for TB if symptomatic (sputum for Xpert® MTB/RIF, smear microscopy and culture). RESULTS: Of 345 individuals with cough, 245 (71%) were traced, as were 243/345 (70.4%) controls. TB was diagnosed in 8.9% (16/178) of the coughers and 3.7% (7/187) of the controls (P = 0.039). HIV prevalence among coughers was 34.6% (56/162) and 18.8% (32/170) in controls (P = 0.005); of those who were HIV-positive, respectively 26.8% and 18.8% were newly diagnosed. The 12-month risk of death was 4.1% (10/245) in coughers and 2.5% (6/243) in controls (P = 0.317). CONCLUSION: Undiagnosed HIV and TB are common among adults with chronic cough, and mortality is high in this urban setting. Interventions that promote timely seeking of HIV and TB care are needed. PMID:26792472

  11. Prevalence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in adults with acute gastroenteritis in Huzhou, China, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Han, Jiankang; Chen, Liping; Xu, Deshun; Shen, Yuehua; Zha, Yunfeng; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Ji, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) infection is the most common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis, which affects both adults and children. However, the molecular epidemiology of NoV in adults with acute gastroenteritis in China has not been investigated extensively. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of NoV infections and analyzed the genetic diversity of NoV in adults with acute gastroenteritis in Huzhou, China. A total of 796 fecal samples were collected from outpatients (?16 years of age) between March 2013 and February 2014. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect NoV genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). For genotyping, the capsid and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes were partially amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. NoVs were detected in 26.51% (211/796) of the specimens, with GII being predominant, representing 96.20% of the NoV infections. At least nine genotypes were identified among GI and GII specimens, including GI.P2/GI.2, GI.P3/GI.3, GI.P4/GI.4, GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney_2012, GII.P12/GII.3, GII.P7/GII.6, GII.P16/GII.13, GII.Pe, and GII.Pg (RdRp only). This is the first report of a GII.P16/GII.13 recombinant virus in adults in China. GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney_2012 was the most prevalent genotype and the only GII.4 variant identified during the study period. Our findings suggested that NoV was a common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in adults in Huzhou, China. During the study period, the NoVs circulating in adults in Huzhou were predominantly GII.4 Sydney_2012 variants and GII NoV recombinants. PMID:25951970

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bastiaanse, Luc P; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Echteld, Michael A; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in this group. To identify the associations of sarcopenia, logistic regression analyses were performed with patient characteristics, mobility, physical activity, intake of energy and proteins, body mass index (BMI) and levels of CRP, albumin and vitamin D in serum. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.3% in the total group. In the age group 50-64 years prevalence was 12.7%. Sarcopenia was positively associated with mobility impairment and inflammation and negatively with BMI. The next thing to do is collecting longitudinal data to study the relation between sarcopenia and negative outcomes in older people with ID. PMID:22750356

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Problematic Internet Experiences and Computer-Using Time: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study in Korean School Children

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence. Methods A two-year, prospective school survey was performed with 1,173 children aged 13 at baseline. Data collected included demographic factors, bullying experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, psychopathology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and school performance. These factors were investigated in relation to problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time at age 15. Results The prevalence of online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, academic-purpose computer overuse, and game-purpose computer overuse was 31.6%, 19.2%, 8.5%, and 21.8%, respectively, at age 15. Having older siblings, more weekly pocket money, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and passive coping strategy were associated with reported online sexual harassment. Male gender, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were associated with reported cyber-bullying victimisation. Female gender was associated with academic-purpose computer overuse, while male gender, lower academic level, increased height, and having older siblings were associated with game-purpose computer-overuse. Conclusion Different environmental and psychological factors predicted different aspects of problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time. This knowledge is important for framing public health interventions to educate adolescents about, and prevent, internet-derived problems. PMID:24605120

  14. Prevalence of chronic medical conditions in adults with mental retardation: comparison with the general population.

    PubMed

    Kapell, D; Nightingale, B; Rodriguez, A; Lee, J H; Zigman, W B; Schupf, N

    1998-08-01

    We interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome, 45 to 74 years of age. Standardized morbidity ratios were used to compare frequency of medical disorders in these adults to frequency in the general population. In adults with mental retardation, the frequency of common age-related disorders was comparable to that in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment. Surveillance of health status and increased access to health care for screening and treatment of age-related disorders that are more frequent in adults with mental retardation would be important to prevent the development or delay the impact of these conditions and to promote healthy aging. PMID:9713183

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Pica among Adults with Intellectual Disability in Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Melody; Martin, Lynn; Hirdes, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Increased knowledge of complex behaviors such as pica is needed to improve the support and services in the community for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Though the prevalence of pica has been documented extensively in institutionalized settings, few studies have explored its etiology. The aim of this study is to explore the

  16. Prevalence and risk of migraine headaches in adult fragile X premutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Au, J; Akins, R S; Berkowitz-Sutherland, L; Tang, H-T; Chen, Y; Boyd, A; Tassone, F; Nguyen, D V; Hagerman, R

    2013-12-01

    FMR1 premutation carriers are common in the general population (1/130-260 females and 1/250-810 males) and can be affected by fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, anxiety, depression, hypertension, sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, and hypothyroidism. Here we report the results of a pilot study to assess the prevalence and risk of migraine in FMR1 premutation carriers. Three hundred fifteen carriers (203 females; 112 males) and 154 controls (83 females; 71 males) were seen sequentially as part of a family study. A standardized medical history, physical examination and confirmation of diagnosis of migraine headaches were performed by a physician. The prevalence of migraine was 54.2% in female carriers (mean age/SD: 49.60/13.73) and 26.79% in male carriers (mean age/SD: 59.94/14.27). This prevalence was higher compared to female (25.3%; mean age/SD: 47.60/15.21; p =? 0.0001) and male controls (15.5%; mean age/SD; 53.88/13.31; p =? 0.0406) who underwent the same protocol and were confirmed to be negative for the FMR1 mutation by DNA testing. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of migraine headaches in FMR1 premutation carriers is likely related to the mitochondrial abnormalities that have recently been reported. Screening for migraine should be considered when evaluating FMR1 premutation carriers in the future. PMID:23373759

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

  19. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension among Adults in Southern China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Yan, Jing; Tang, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoling; Yu, Wei; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of hypertension and their associated factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 cities of urban areas and 5 counties of rural areas in Southern China in 2013, a stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select a representative sample. Recruitment included a total of 19254 participants aged 15 or older. Socio-demographic profiles, examinations were administrated on each subject. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension are 24.59% and 32.11%, respectively in southern China. Among all the hypertensive patients, 67.43% were aware of their condition, 55.76% took anti-hypertension medication recent two weeks, and 30.79% had their blood pressure controlled. Compared with male, female hypertensive patients had higher rates of hypertension awareness, treatment and control. Age, gender, marital status, living areas, education, BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose index (VAI), high body fat percentage (BFP) and family hypertension history correlated with the prevalence of hypertension. SBP/DBP increased with VAI and BFP increasing. There is an increasing prevalence of hypertension and high pre-hypertension in the general population in southern China, but levels of awareness, treatment, and control remain relatively low, especially for young and middle-aged population. Innovative strategies including of adopting appropriate anti-hypertensive medication therapy and healthy lifestyles should be taken. PMID:26784948

  20. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension among Adults in Southern China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoling; Yu, Wei; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of hypertension and their associated factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 cities of urban areas and 5 counties of rural areas in Southern China in 2013, a stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select a representative sample. Recruitment included a total of 19254 participants aged 15 or older. Socio-demographic profiles, examinations were administrated on each subject. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension are 24.59% and 32.11%, respectively in southern China. Among all the hypertensive patients, 67.43% were aware of their condition, 55.76% took anti-hypertension medication recent two weeks, and 30.79% had their blood pressure controlled. Compared with male, female hypertensive patients had higher rates of hypertension awareness, treatment and control. Age, gender, marital status, living areas, education, BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose index (VAI), high body fat percentage (BFP) and family hypertension history correlated with the prevalence of hypertension. SBP/DBP increased with VAI and BFP increasing. There is an increasing prevalence of hypertension and high pre-hypertension in the general population in southern China, but levels of awareness, treatment, and control remain relatively low, especially for young and middle-aged population. Innovative strategies including of adopting appropriate anti-hypertensive medication therapy and healthy lifestyles should be taken. PMID:26784948

  1. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more

  2. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with different gastrointestinal parasites in Tanta City district.

    PubMed

    Sabah, Ahmed Ali; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb; Saleh, Naglaa Mostafa Kamel

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with different gastrointestinal symptoms. Two hundred and six patients were collected from outpatient clinic of medical department from March to June 2014. The age was ranged between 15 years old up to 60 years old. 76 males with mean age (33.2 ± 13.5) and 130 females with mean age (32.8 ± 14.9). All patients were submitted to full clinical examination and stool examination was performed to detect Helicobacter pylori antigen and other intestinal parasites. After getting a full history, the patient was asked specifically for history of taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, presence of heart burn, epigastric pain, flatulence, nausea or vomiting passing black stool hematemesis and presence of other diseases. The results showed that 69.4% of the patients were positive for Helicobacter pylori antigen (143/206). The prevalence among males and females was the same (69.7%-69.2%). The prevalence among different age groups was not significant but; some-how high among age group of 15 up to 25 years old (70%). 72 patients out of 140 were associated with Co-infection with Entamaeba histolytica mainly or Giardia lamblia (51.4%). Epigastric pain and heart burn were representing about 90% of symptoms in patients with positive Helicobacter pylori antigen. Consequently, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is high in and around Tanta City in the Nile Delta (about 70%). PMID:26012224

  3. Metabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Prevalence in Young Adults at 3 Land-Grant Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Dent, Amanda; Carey, Gale B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study examines metabolic syndrome (MetS) among college students at 3 geographically distinct US campuses. Participants: Undergraduates ("N" = 360; 68% women), 18 to 24years of age, were recruited at each public university in January and February 2011. MetS prevalence was evaluated in 83% ("n"= 299)

  4. Metabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Prevalence in Young Adults at 3 Land-Grant Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Dent, Amanda; Carey, Gale B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study examines metabolic syndrome (MetS) among college students at 3 geographically distinct US campuses. Participants: Undergraduates ("N" = 360; 68% women), 18 to 24 years of age, were recruited at each public university in January and February 2011. MetS prevalence was evaluated in 83% ("n" = 299)…

  5. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

  6. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease and Characterization of its Extent and Severity in an Adult Population An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Kalpak Prafulla; Pitale, Unnati Mahesh; Shetty, Sujan; HC, Shashikiran; Satpute, Pranali Shirish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in an adult population and to further characterize the extent and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 700 randomly selected individuals reporting to out patient department of dental college and hospital. Demographic details and lifestyle characteristics of the all the subjects were recorded and a thorough oral examination was performed. In order to evaluate the periodontal status of subjects, five indices (CAL, PD, OHI, PI and GI) were assessed and subjects having at least one site with clinical attachment loss (CAL) ?3mm were diagnosed as having periodontitis. Further, to analyse the extent of disease, subjects having periodontitis were divided into two groups as having at least one site with CAL ?5mm and having at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Results: Results showed that there was a high prevalence of periodontitis amongst population with almost 72% of the individuals having at least one site with CAL ?3mm. A trend was noted in which periodontal status worsened as the age increased. Analysing the extent and severity of disease amongst the population, results revealed that almost 41% of population had at least one site with CAL ?5mm whereas almost 21% of individuals had at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Conclusion: Present study provides with evidence of high prevalence of periodontal disease amongst the population. Importantly, this study also unveils the lack of awareness for dental health amidst the population. PMID:25654019

  7. Prevalence and Perceived Preventability of Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events A Population-Based Survey of 7099 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hgg, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and often preventable among inpatients, but self-reported ADEs have not been investigated in a representative sample of the general public. The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-month prevalence of self-reported ADEs among the adult general public, and the perceived preventability of 2 ADE categories: adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a postal survey was sent in October 2010 to a random sample of 13 931 Swedish residents aged ?18 years. Self-reported ADEs experienced during the past month included ADRs, STEs, drug dependence, drug intoxications and morbidity due to drug-related untreated indication. ADEs could be associated with prescription, non-prescription or herbal drugs. The respondents estimated whether ADRs and STEs could have been prevented. ADE prevalences in age groups (1844, 4564, or ?65 years) were compared. Results Of 7099 respondents (response rate 51.0%), ADEs were reported by 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 18.520.3%), and the prevalence did not differ by age group (p>0.05). The prevalences of self-reported ADRs, STEs, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indications were 7.8% (7.28.4%), 7.6% (7.08.2%) and 8.1% (7.58.7%), respectively. The prevalence of self-reported drug dependence was 2.2% (1.92.6%), and drug intoxications 0.2% (0.10.3%). The respondents considered 19.2% (14.823.6%) of ADRs and STEs preventable. Although reported drugs varied between ADE categories, most ADEs were attributable to commonly dispensed drugs. Drugs reported for all and preventable events were similar. Conclusions One-fifth of the adult general public across age groups reported ADEs during the past month, indicating a need for prevention strategies beyond hospitalised patients. For this, the underlying causes of ADEs should increasingly be investigated. The high burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from widely used drugs across care settings supports redesigning a safer healthcare system to adequately tackle the problem. PMID:24023828

  8. Prevalence and correlates of adult overweight in the Muslim world: analysis of 46 countries.

    PubMed

    Kahan, D

    2015-04-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index???25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations?>50% Muslim; N?=?46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide environments that are conducive to negative energy balance. PMID:25755091

  9. Prevalence, nature and potential preventability of adverse drug events a population-based medical record study of 4970 adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja M; Gyllensten, Hanna; Jnsson, Anna K; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hgg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the 3 month prevalence of adverse drug events (ADEs), categories of ADEs and preventable ADEs, and the preventability of ADEs among adults in Sweden. Further, to identify drug classes and organ systems associated with ADEs and estimate their seriousness. Methods A random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council in 2008 was drawn from the Total Population Register. All their medical records in 29 inpatient care departments in three hospitals, 110 specialized outpatient clinics and 51 primary care units were reviewed retrospectively in a stepwise manner, and complemented with register data on dispensed drugs. ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), sub-therapeutic effects of drug therapy (STEs), drug dependence and abuse, drug intoxications from overdose, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indication, were detected during a 3 month study period, and assessed for preventability. Results Among 4970 included individuals, the prevalence of ADEs was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1, 12.9%), and preventable ADEs 5.6% (95% CI 5.0, 6.2%). ADRs (6.9%; 95% CI 6.2, 7.6%) and STEs (6.4%; 95% CI 5.8, 7.1%) were more prevalent than the other ADEs. Of the ADEs, 38.8% (95% CI 35.841.9%) was preventable, varying by ADE category and seriousness. ADEs were frequently associated with nervous system and cardiovascular drugs, but the associated drugs and affected organs varied by ADE category. Conclusions The considerable burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from commonly used drugs across care settings warrants large-scale efforts to redesign safer, higher quality healthcare systems. The heterogeneous nature of the ADE categories should be considered in research and clinical practice for preventing, detecting and mitigating ADEs. PMID:24372506

  10. Prevalence and correlates of electronic-cigarette use in young adults: Findings from three studies over five years

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to examine prevalence and correlates of past-month electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and use of e-cigarettes to aid a cessation attempt in three samples of young adult smokers recruited online in 20092010 (Study 1), 20102011 (Study 2), and 2013 (Study 3). Methods Participants were young adults aged 18 to 25 who smoked at least one cigarette in the previous month (Study 1, N=1987 and Study 2, N=570) or smoked 3 or more days each week and used Facebook 4 or more days per week (Study 3, N=79). We examined both past-month e-cigarette use and ever use of e-cigarettes to quit conventional cigarettes. Results Prevalence of past-month use of e-cigarettes was higher in each subsequent study: Study 1 (6%), Study 2 (19%), Study 3 (41%). In multivariate analyses, significant correlates of past-month e-cigarette use were identified for Study 1 (male sex OR=2.1, p=.03; past-year quit attempt OR=1.6, p=.03) and Study 2 (male sex, OR=1.7, p=.03; younger age OR=0.88, p=.05), but not Study 3. In multivariate analyses, significant correlates of ever use of e-cigarette to quit conventional cigarettes were identified for Study 1 (education, OR=1.2, p=.02; smoking within 30 minutes of waking, OR=2.8, p=.02; past year quit attempt OR=4.1, p=.02), and Study 3 (desire to quit smoking, OR=1.3, p=.02), but not Study 2. Conclusions E-cigarette use is increasingly common among young adults, particularly men. E-cigarette use for quitting conventional cigarettes appears more common among those more nicotine dependent and interested in quitting. PMID:25452058

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Prehypertension by Gender and Age in a Korean Population in the KNHANES 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Youngbum; LEE, Seunghee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prehypertension frequently progresses into hypertension and is related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We studied the prevalence of prehypertension and their determinants by gender and age. Methods: The study used nationally representative data from 11,754 participants aged 20–91 years collected between 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). Results: Prehypertension was more prevalent in men than women (aOR = 2.48, CI = 2.11–2.92). Aging was positively associated with prehypertension (40–59 vs. 20–39, aOR = 1.79, CI = 1.55–2.05; 60+ vs. 20–39, aOR = 2.89, CI = 2.35–3.56). In women aged ≥60, prehypertension was associated with WC (aOR = 1.04, CI = 1.00–1.07), whereas in both men and women aged 20–39, it was associated with BMI (men, aOR = 1.14, CI = 1.04–1.24; women, aOR = 1.08, CI = 1.01–1.16). In subjects aged 40–59, age (men, aOR = 1.03, CI = 1.01–1.06; women, aOR = 1.05, CI = 1.02–1.07) was the significant factor increasing the risk of prehypertension, whereas smoking (men, aOR = 0.55, CI = 0.38–0.80; women, aOR = 0.43, CI = 0.24–0.76) showed an inverse association with prehypertension. Alcohol intake showed a positive association with prehypertension in only men aged 40–59. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that different gender/age groups may have different patterns of risk factors associated with prehypertension. Thus, healthcare providers should consider both gender and age when designing community-based interventions for controlling BP and reducing prehypertension. PMID:26811810

  12. Prevalence and social burden of active chronic low back pain in the adult Portuguese population: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of active chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the adult Portuguese population; to compare the active CLBP population with the population without CLBP; and to explore factors associated with active CLBP. The present study was conducted under the scope of EpiReumaPt a population-based study. Active CLBP was self-reported and considered if present on the day of the interview and for ≥90 days. Prevalence estimates were calculated. Association of active CLBP with quality of life, functional ability and healthcare consumption were evaluated. Factors associated with active CLBP were identified through logistic regression. Among 10.661 EpiReumaPt subjects, 1487 self-reported active CLBP. The prevalence of active CLBP was 10.4 % (95 % CI 9.6; 11.9 %). After adjustment, active CLBP subjects had a higher likelihood for anxiety symptoms (OR 2.77), early retirement due to disease (OR 1.88) and more physician visits (β = 2.65). Factors significantly and independently associated with the presence of active CLBP were: female gender (OR 1.34), overweight/obesity (OR 1.27), presence of self-reported rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) (OR 2.93), anxiety symptoms (OR 2.67), age (OR 1.02) and higher number of self-reported comorbidities (OR 1.12). Active CLBP is highly prevalent in the Portuguese population and is associated with disability and with a high consumption of healthcare resources. Female gender, older age, anxiety symptoms, overweight/obesity, the presence of other RMD and the number of comorbidities were independently associated with the presence of active CLBP. These factors should be taken into account when new cohort prospective studies will be developed. PMID:26661091

  13. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Maimela, Eric; Alberts, Mariannes; Choma, Solly; Dikotope, Sekgothe

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas. Aim To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa. Setting Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ? 140 or ? 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ? 0.05. Results A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 20.9 years(range 1598 years), 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province. PMID:26842512

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimating the prevalence of hardcore smoking and identifying linked factors is fundamental to improve planning and implementation of effective tobacco control measures. Given the paucity of data on that topic, we aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a representative, cross-sectional, household based survey conducted in Poland between 2009 and 2010. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations of socio-demographic and smoking related variables with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Results The prevalence of hardcore smoking was 10.0% (13.0% among men and 7.3% among women) in the whole population of Poland at age 26 years and above. Hardcore smokers constitute 39.9% (41.6% among men and 37.7% among women) of all daily smokers in analyzed age frame. Being older, having started smoking at earlier ages, living in large cities (in women only), being less aware of negative health effects of smoking, having less restrictions on smoking at home was associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker. Educational attainment and economic activity were not associated with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Conclusions High prevalence of hardcore smokers may be a grand challenge for curbing non-communicable diseases epidemic in Poland. Our findings should urge policy makers to consider hardcore smoking issues while planning and implementing tobacco control policies. Prevention of smoking uptake, education programs, and strengthening cessation services appeared to be the top priorities. PMID:24916122

  15. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Cataract Surgery among Older Adults in the City of Lodz, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michal Szymon; Smigielski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the prevalence of age-related eye diseases and cataract surgery among older adults in the city of Lodz, in central Poland. Material and Methods. The study design was cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1107 women and men of predominantly Caucasian origin were successfully enumerated and recruited for the study. All selected subjects were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations. Results. Overall 8.04% (95% CI 6.449.64) subjects had cataract surgery in either eye. After excluding subjects with bilateral cataract surgery, the prevalence of cataract was 12.10% (95% CI 10.1814.03). AMD was found in 4.33% (95% CI 3.145.54 ) of all subjects. Of them 3.25% (95% CI 2.214.30 ) had early AMD and 1.08% (95% CI 0.471.69) had late AMD. Various types of glaucoma were diagnosed in 5.51% (95% CI 4.176.85) of subjects and 2.62% (95% CI 1.683.56) had OHT. The prevalence rates of DR and myopic macular degeneration were 1.72% (95% CI 0.952.48) and 0.45% (95% CI 0.060.85), respectively. All multiple logistic regression models were only significantly associated with older age. The highest rate of visual impairment was observed among subjects with retinal diseases. Conclusions. The study revealed high prevalence of age-related eye diseases in this older population. PMID:25789169

  16. Trends in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control in an Adult Type 2 Diabetes Spanish Population between 2003 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Jimnez-Garca, Rodrigo; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; Gmez-Campelo, Paloma; Gil, ngel; Abnades-Herranz, Juan C.; Crdenas-Valladolid, Juan; del Cura-Gonzlez, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of hypertension is higher than in non-diabetic subjects. Despite the high cardiovascular risk involving hypertension in these patients, its prevalence and control are not well known. The aims of this study were: to estimate the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes attended in Primary Care; and to analyse its time trend from 2003 to 2009. A serial cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2009 was performed in 21 Primary Care Centres in Madrid. The study population comprised all patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in their computerised medical history. Overall annual prevalence during the period 20032009 was calculated from and according to sex and age groups. Linear trend tests, regression lines and coefficients of determination were used. In 2003 89.78% (CI 87.9291.64) of patients with type 2 diabetes suffered hypertension and 94.76% (CI: 92.8596.67) in 2009. This percentage was greater for women and for patients over 65 years old. 30% of patients suffered previously undiagnosed hypertension in 2003 and 23.1% in 2009. 97% of diagnosed patients received pharmacological treatment and 28.79% reached the blood pressure objective in 2009. The average number of antihypertensive drugs taken was 2.72 in 2003 and 3.27 in 2009. Only 5.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes show blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg. Although significant improvements have been achieved in the diagnosis and control of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes, these continue to remain far from optimum. PMID:24475171

  17. Genetic Variation in Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence in Costa Rican Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; McGarvey, Stephen; Wu, Zhijin; Goldberg, Robert; Baylin, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity, a key regulator of lipid metabolism, may be associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined the association of genetic variation in the SCD1 gene with the occurrence of MetS and its five components in a population of Costa Rican adults (n = 2152; mean age, 58 y; range, 18–86 y). Associations of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNP) of the SCD1 gene with prevalence of MetS and its five components were analyzed by use of log-Poisson models with robust variance estimates and linear regression models, respectively. The likelihood ratio was used to test potential gene-fatty acid interactive effects with adipose tissue α-linolenic acid. One tagSNP (rs1502593) was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of MetS in the total study sample. Compared with the common homozygous CC genotype, the CT and TT genotypes for rs1502593 were associated with higher prevalence ratios (PR) of MetS for CT vs. CC: [PR = 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03, 1.44)] and for TT vs. CC [PR = 1.24 (95% CI = 1.01, 1.52)]. Among women, we observed borderline positive associations between systolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar levels and rs1502593 (P = 0.05 and 0.06). Compared to the common haplotype (frequency ≥ 5%) with no minor alleles of SCD1 tagSNP, the other two observed common haplotypes carrying the rs1502593 minor allele were significantly associated with elevated prevalence of MetS. No gene-fatty acid interactive effects were observed. Our results suggest that genetic variation in the SCD1 gene may play a role in the development of MetS. PMID:22049297

  18. Dientamoeba fragilis is more prevalent than Giardia duodenalis in children and adults attending a day care centre in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L; Fonzo, G; Lalle, M; Cacciò, S M; Pozio, E

    2005-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a well recognised enteropathogen, while Dientamoeba fragilis is rarely detected and consequently it is not recognised as an important human pathogen. In 2002-2003, a survey has been carried out on enteroparasites in faecal samples of outpatients attending a day care centre in the town of Perugia (Central Italy). To improve the detection level, at least three samples from each patient were collected at different days and within two hours from defecation. The coproparasitological examination has been carried out by direct microscopic examination, faecal concentration, and Giemsa and modified Ziehl-Nielsen stainings of faecal smears. The genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolates were determined by PCR of the beta-giardin gene. Of 1,989 enrolled people (966 children, 1,023 adults), 165 persons (8.3%; 153 adults, 15.0%; 12 children, 1.2%), were positive for parasites, but only 1 12 adults (73.2% of those infected) and eight children (66.7% of those infected) harboured D. fragilis and G. duodenalis. Both the Assemblages A and B were detected in 18 G. duodenalis isolates examined at the beta-giardin gene. The higher prevalence of D. fragilis infections than that of G. duodenalis is probably related to the method used, a procedure, which is rarely followed in laboratories for the diagnosis of enteric parasites. These epidemiological data suggest that when faecal samples are examined after a period of time and without Giemsa staining, most D. fragilis infections goes undetected. PMID:15991830

  19. Prevalence of tooth wear on buccal and lingual surfaces and possible risk factors in young European adults.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D W; Lussi, A; West, N X; Bouchard, P; Sanz, M; Bourgeois, D

    2013-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of tooth wear on buccal/facial and lingual/palatal tooth surfaces and identify related risk factors in a sample of young European adults, aged 18-35 years. Calibrated and trained examiners measured tooth wear, using the basic erosive wear examination (BEWE) on in 3187 patients in seven European countries and assessed the impact of risk factors with a previously validated questionnaire. Each individual was characterized by the highest BEWE score recorded for any scoreable surface. Bivariate analyses examined the proportion of participants who scored 2 or 3 in relation to a range of demographic, dietary and oral care variables. The highest tooth wear BEWE score was 0 for 1368 patients (42.9%), 1 for 883 (27.7%), 2 for 831 (26.1%) and 3 for 105 (3.3%). There were large differences between different countries with the highest levels of tooth wear observed in the UK. Important risk factors for tooth wear included heartburn or acid reflux, repeated vomiting, residence in rural areas, electric tooth brushing and snoring. We found no evidence that waiting after breakfast before tooth brushing has any effect on the degree of tooth wear (p=0.088). Fresh fruit and juice intake was positively associated with tooth wear. In this adult sample 29% had signs of tooth wear making it a common presenting feature in European adults. PMID:24004965

  20. Eosinophilic esophagitis prevalence in an adult population undergoing upper endoscopy in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz-Patio, E; Ruz Jurez, I; Meixueiro Daza, A; Grube Pagola, P; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Remes-Troche, J M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) prevalence fluct