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1

Arsenic exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ? 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ? 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (? = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Woo, Jeong-taek; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

2013-06-01

2

Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ? 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ? 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (? = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

2013-01-01

3

Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend?=?0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend?=?0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

2014-01-01

4

Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), measured by a simple step test, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults, in a cross sectional design. Methods A total of 1,007 Korean adults (488 men and 519 women) who underwent routine health checkups were recruited. CRF was measured by Tecumseh step test. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III guideline was used to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. A logistic regression was performed to reveal possible associations. Results The results of the study showed that a lower level of CRF was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men, but not in women. On the other hand, higher BMI was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. However, BMI was not associated with fasting glucose nor hemoglobinA1c in men. When the combined impact of BMI and CRF on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was analyzed, a significantly increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found in both men (odds ratio [OR]: 18.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 5.0 - 70.5) and women (OR: 8.1, 95% CI: 2.8 - 23.9) who had high BMI and low cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was only increased 7.9 times (95% CI: 2.0 - 31.2) in men and 5.4 times (95% CI: 1.9 - 15.9) in women who had high level of CRF and high BMI. Conclusion In conclusion, the current study demonstrated the low CRF and obesity was a predictor for metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. PMID:24886636

2014-01-01

5

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korean Children: Inverse Relation to Socioeconomic Status Despite a Uniformly High Prevalence in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in US adults was shown to be inversely correlated with the socioeconomic status of the family during childhood, and it was suggested that this was additional evidence of transmission occurring in childhood. The present study of H. pylori infection was conducted in South Korea, which has emerged as a developed country in the last

Hoda M. Malaty; Jong G. Kim; Soon D. Kim; David Y. Graham

6

Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

Kim, Eunhyun

2010-01-01

7

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

8

Prevalence of premature ejaculation in young and middle-aged men in Korea: a multicenter internet-based survey from the Korean Andrological Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and perception of premature ejaculation (PE) in young and middle-aged Korean men. The study was conducted using an Internet-assisted questionnaire. A total of 2 037 Korean male adults, aged 20 years or older, were randomly sampled based on age and residency. The questionnaire developed by the PE Study Group of the

Hyun Jun Park; Jong Kwan Park; Sung Won Lee; Sae-Woong Kim; Dae Yul Yang; Du Geon Moon; Kweon-Sik Min; Ki-Hak Moon; Sang-Kuk Yang; Jae Seog Hyun; Nam Cheol Park

2010-01-01

9

Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

10

Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among Korean children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediculus humanus capitis is an ectoparasite, which causes scalp pruritus particularly among children. A total of 15,373 children including 8,018 boys\\u000a and 7,355 girls from 26 primary schools and 15 kindergartens attached to the primary schools and a total of 33 children from\\u000a an orphanage were examined for head lice infestation (HLI). The overall prevalence of HLI in this study

Jeong-Min Oh; In Yong Lee; Won-Ja Lee; Min Seo; Sol-Ah Park; Seung Hyun Lee; Jang Hoon Seo; Tai-Soon Yong; Soon-Jung Park; Myeong Heon Shin; Ki-Soo Pai; Jae-Ran Yu; Seobo Sim

2010-01-01

11

Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among Korean children.  

PubMed

Pediculus humanus capitis is an ectoparasite, which causes scalp pruritus particularly among children. A total of 15,373 children including 8,018 boys and 7,355 girls from 26 primary schools and 15 kindergartens attached to the primary schools and a total of 33 children from an orphanage were examined for head lice infestation (HLI). The overall prevalence of HLI in this study was 4.1% including 3.7% of the urban areas and 4.7% of the rural areas. Head lice were found more frequently in girls than in boys with prevalence of 6.5% and 1.9%, respectively. The infestation rate by school grade was 3.2%, 4.7%, 4.2%, 5.0%, 4.9%, 3.8%, and 2.1% for kindergarten, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, respectively. The infestation rate of the children in an orphanage was 66.7%. The prevalence of HLI has decreased especially in the rural areas. However, HLI is a still health problem of kindergarteners and primary schoolchildren in Korea. PMID:20683614

Oh, Jeong-Min; Lee, In Yong; Lee, Won-Ja; Seo, Min; Park, Sol-Ah; Lee, Seung Hyun; Seo, Jang Hoon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Park, Soon-Jung; Shin, Myeong Heon; Pai, Ki-Soo; Yu, Jae-Ran; Sim, Seobo

2010-11-01

12

Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

Kwon, Hyuckhoon

2009-01-01

13

Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.  

PubMed

Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity from various diseases, some of which have rarely been explored in previous epidemiologic studies. PMID:24906069

Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2014-08-01

14

Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Symptoms in North Korean Defectors  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and associated factors in North Korean Defectors (NKDs). Methods One hundred forty-four NKDs (male: 20; female: 124; average age: 40.4±11.7 yrs.) completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). A stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate factors associated with the psychiatric symptoms of the participants. Results NKDs mainly reported somatization (42.4%) and depressive symptoms (38.9%). Female NKDs showed higher prevalence of somatization (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.020), hostility (p=0.026) and psychoticism (p=0.022) than males. The presence of physical illness was strongly related to most psychiatric symptoms on the SCL-90-R including somatization (p<0.001), obsessive-compulsive symptoms (p=0.020), interpersonal sensitivity (p=0.031), depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001), hostility (p=0.011), paranoid ideation (p=0.015) and psychoticism (p<0.001). Younger age, unemployment, lower income, and longer duration of defection were found to be the risk factors of psychiatric symptoms. In regard to mental health service utilization, we found that most (83.3%) of the participants had not received any form of psychiatric help. Conclusion Somatization and depression were the most prevalent psychiatric symptoms in NKDs. Our results suggest that psychiatric symptoms accompany certain sociodemographic and clinical characteristics that are associated with susceptibility to acculturation stressors. An understanding of these factors will be helpful providing appropriate mental health services to NKDs. PMID:21994503

Kim, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Seog Ju; Bae, Seung-Min; Cho, Seong-Jin

2011-01-01

15

Symptoms Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity Dimensions in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean adults who were recruited by means of advertisements requesting volunteers for the psychological assessments. Materials and Methods: Participants completed measures of AS, anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression equations were constructed. Results: It was found that PC and SC showed specificity to anxiety after adjusting for depression, while CC showed specificity to depression after controlling for anxiety. Conclusions: The findings suggest specificity of PC and SC to anxiety and of CC to depression when their relationship was explored with the more reliable measurement. The present findings clarify the nature of dimensions of AS in Korean adults. PMID:24860222

Lim, Young-Jin

2014-01-01

16

Place matters in perceived tobacco exposure among korean american young adults: mixed methods approach.  

PubMed

A sequential mixed methods study was conducted to identify factors influencing perceived norms about smoking and to examine the association of acculturative contexts and normative beliefs among Korean American young adults (KAYA) who face increased risk of smoking. Content analysis of data from 67 participants in 10 focus groups in 2010 led to the development of an online survey in 2012 (N = 475). KAYA overestimated smoking prevalence, reporting Korean-owned businesses (KOB) as primary places of exposure. Our findings revealed that visits to KOB predicted perceived norms about smoking. Modifying perceptions about social norms and involuntary tobacco exposure may be critical in reducing smoking among KAYA. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:24779505

Huh, Jimi; Paul Thing, James; Abramova, Zarina Sabrina; Sami, Mojgan; Beth Unger, Jennifer

2014-06-01

17

Korean American Adult Children's Beliefs about What Their Parents Want at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the beliefs of Korean American adult children about their parents' wishes regarding life-support treatments and the children's attitudes toward advance care planning. Data were collected from 115 Korean-American adult children (mean age = 44.5 years). Results indicated that Korean American adult children tended to believe that their parents would want life support treatments and had positive attitudes

Minju Kim; Marquis D. Foreman

2011-01-01

18

Smoking on Both Sides of the Pacific: Home Smoking Restrictions and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Korean Adults and Children in Seoul and California  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study, informed by ecological frameworks, compared the prevalence, predictors, and association of home smoking restrictions with secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) between Koreans in Seoul, South Korea, and Korean Americans in California, United States. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was drawn from telephone interviews with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2,830) during 2001–02. Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. Results: Koreans, compared with Korean Americans, had significantly fewer complete home smoking bans, 19% (95% CI: 16–23) versus 66% (95% CI: 64–68), and were more likely to not have a home smoking restriction, 64% (95% CI: 60–69) versus 5% (95% CI: 4–6). Home smoking restrictions were associated with lower home SHSe; however, the impact was consistently larger among Korean Americans. Households with more SHSe sources were less likely to have the strongest home smoking restrictions, where the difference in complete bans among Korean Americans versus Koreans was largely among those at low risk of SHSe, 82% (95% CI: 76–86) versus 36% (95% CI: 17–57), while high-risk Korean American and Koreans had similar low probabilities, 10% (95% CI: 7–13) versus 7% (95% CI: 3–13). Conclusions: Consistent with ecological frameworks, exposure to California’s antismoking policy and culture was associated with stronger home smoking restrictions and improved effectiveness. Interventions tailored to Korean and Korean American SHSe profiles are needed. Behavioral interventions specifically for high-risk Korean Americans and stronger policy controls for Koreans may be effective at rapidly expanding home smoking restrictions. PMID:20924042

Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Park, Haeryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Irvin, Veronica L.; Lee, Jooeun; Juon, Hee-Soon; Latkin, Carl; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2010-01-01

19

Generalized Joint Hypermobility in Healthy Female Koreans: Prevalence and Age-Related Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective Objective To evaluate the prevalence of generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) in healthy female Koreans and to determine whether the degree of GJH differs between children and adults. Methods Two groups of females were enrolled, a group of girls from an elementary school (n=404) and women from a call center (n=266). GJH was diagnosed using the Beighton score, which is composed of an evaluation of bilateral knees, elbows, thumbs, and fifth fingers as well as thoracolumbar joint. The GJH and localized hypermobility of each joint was compared between the two groups, and the pattern of hypermobility according to age and dominant hand was investigated. Results Total prevalence of GJH was 50.0% (335/750), and it was more frequently observed in the group of girls (58.9%, 238/404) than women (36.5%, 97/266). The degree of GJH expressed in terms of Beighton score was inversely correlated with age (p<0.05). Significant differences in localized hypermobility of the thumb and fifth finger were found between the two groups and were postulated as the cause for the decline in GJH with age. The pattern of decreased mobility proportional to aging differed between the two joints. Decreased mobility occurred equally on both sides of the thumb but was biased toward the fifth finger of the dominant side (mostly the right). Conclusion The female Koreans appeared to have a high prevalence of GJH. The incidence of GJH decreased as age increased as a result of decreased mobility of the fifth finger on the dominant side. PMID:24466518

Kwon, Ji-Won; Park, Si-Bog; Kim, Mi Jung; Jang, Seong Ho; Choi, Chang Kweon

2013-01-01

20

An integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults.  

PubMed

Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. PMID:21053789

Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie

2010-12-01

21

Community-Based Home Healthcare Project for Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the effects of community-based home healthcare projects that influence service performances with regard to Korean national long-term care insurance services in older adults. Methods The project's applicants were 18 operational agencies in national long-term care institutions in Korea, and participants were care recipients (n = 2263) registered in long-term care institutions. We applied our healthcare system to the recruited participants for a 3-month period from October 2012 to December 2012. We measured the community-based home healthcare services such as long-term care, health and medical service, and welfare and leisure service prior to and after applying the community-based home healthcare system. Results After the implementation of community-based home healthcare project, all community-based home healthcare services showed an increase than prior to the project implementation. The nutrition management service was the most increased and its increase rate was 628.6%. A comparison between the long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries showed that health and medical services’ increase rate of nonbeneficiaries was significantly higher than beneficiaries (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our community-based home healthcare project might improve the service implementation for older adults and there was a difference in the increase rate of health and medical services between Korean national long-term care insurance beneficiaries and nonbeneficiaries. PMID:24298438

Lee, TaeBum

2013-01-01

22

Association between alcohol consumption and bone strength in Korean adults: the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between alcohol consumption and bone health. A growing body of research has shown that chronic alcoholism leads to osteopenia and increased incidence of skeletal fractures, but some studies have concluded that alcohol consumption may be associated with higher bone mineral density in elderly populations. However, most studies showing a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone status have been in Western countries; and subjects have usually been postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption with bone strength in Korean adults. Data were from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study, which is an ongoing population-based study of adults aged 40 to 70 years from 5 regions. A total of 7713 participants (3368 men, 4345 women) were surveyed about their annual consumption of alcohol such as soju, beer, makkolli, wine, and whisky. Bone strength was measured by stiffness index using the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound method. Overall, the annual age-specific decrease rate in the stiffness index of women was 2.7 times higher than that of men (0.463% for women, 0.169% for men).After adjustment for eligible covariates, the association between alcohol consumption and risk of reduced bone strength showed a J-shaped curve for both men and women. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of reduced bone strength was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.83) in men who drank 4 to 5 cups of soju for an amount of 29.626 to 49.375 g of alcohol per day and 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.86) in men who drank 6 to 7 cups of soju for an amount of 49.376 to 69.125 g of alcohol per day. We found no significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone strength in any other group of men. For women, results suggested that the risk of reduced bone strength was lower in the moderate-consumption group; but no significant relationship was found between alcohol consumption at any level and bone strength. Among Korean adults, alcohol consumption has a J-shaped relationship with risk of reduced bone strength. PMID:20359726

Jin, Li Hua; Chang, Sei Jin; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Ki Soon; Lee, Tae Yong; Ryu, So Yeon; Song, Jae Seok; Park, Jong Ku

2011-03-01

23

Alcohol consumption and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: the 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Light and mod- erate alcohol consumption have been associated with reduced car- diovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and the metabolic syndrome. Design: The study sample comprised 7962 Korean adults (3597 men, 4365

Yeong Sook Yoon; Sang Woo Oh; Hyun Wook Baik; Hye Soon Park; Wha Young Kim

24

Recommended immunization schedule for adults in Korea, by the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, 2012  

PubMed Central

This guideline contains the recommended immunization schedule for adults in Korea, updated in 2012. In 2007, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases (KSID) published a textbook on adult immunization, titled 'Vaccination for Adult.' In 2012, when the second edition of the book was published, the KSID revised its previous recommendations on adult immunization. PMID:24427768

2014-01-01

25

Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. Methods We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics. Results The prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women); moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women); regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women); healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women); and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women). The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age), low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health. Conclusions Further research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults. PMID:24744828

Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah

2014-01-01

26

Prevalence of Birth Defects in Korean Livebirths, 2005-2006  

PubMed Central

We investigated the livebirths prevalence and occurrence pattern of birth defects in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was done in 2,348 medical institutions around the nation, the birth defect prevalence of livebirths in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of livebirths in Korea was 883,184 from 2005-2006, and 25,335 cases of birth defects were notified to our study, equivalent to a prevalence of 286.9 per 10,000 livebirths. Anomalies of the circulatory system were the most common defects, accounting for 43.4% of birth defects with a prevalence of 124.5 per 10,000 livebirths. It was followed by the musculoskeletal system anomalies, the digestive system anomalies, and the urinary system anomalies. The five major birth defects based on the ranking of prevalence were atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, hydronephrosis, patent ductus arteriosus, and cleft lip/palate. Birth defects in livebirths were associated with a high proportion of low birthweight, prematurity, multiple births and advanced maternal age. The prevalence of birth defects in Korea is similar to or lower than those reported in developed countries. Our study suggests baseline data to explain the current status of birth defects and to establish a registry system of birth defects in Korea. PMID:23091323

Kim, Min-A; Yee, Nan Hee; Choi, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jung Yun

2012-01-01

27

Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

28

Urinary Arsenic Concentrations and their Associated Factors in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) is a well-known human carcinogen and its dietary exposure has been found to be the major route of entry into general population. This study was performed to assess the body levels of As and their associated factors in Korean adults by analyzing total As in urine. Urine and blood samples were collected from 580 adults aged 20 years and older, who had not been exposed to As occupationally. Demographic information was collected with the help of a standard questionnaire, including age, smoking, alcohol intake, job profiles, and diet consumed in the last 24 hrs of the study. Total As, sum of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), in urine was determined using atomic absorption spectrometer involving hydride generation method. The geometric mean concentration of total As in urine was 7.10 ?g/L. Urine As was significantly higher in men (7.63 ?g/L) than in women (6.75 ?g/ L). Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and job profiles of study subjects did not significantly affect the concentration of As in urine. No significant relationship was observed between body mass index (BMI), Fe, and total cholesterol in serum and urinary As. Urine As level was positively correlated with seaweeds, fishes & shellfishes, and grain intake. A negative correlation between urinary As level and HDL-cholesterol in serum and meat intake was observed. Overall, these results suggest that urinary As concentration could be affected by seafood consumption. Therefore, people who frequently consume seafood and grain need to be monitored for chronic dietary As exposure. PMID:24278640

Bae, Hye-Sun; Ryu, Doug-Young; Choi, Byung-Sun

2013-01-01

29

Prevalence of School Bullying in Korean Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Schoolbullyingisthemostcommontype of school violence. Victimization by or perpetration of school bullying has frequently been associated with a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional, and social problems. pated in school bullying. By category, the prevalence of victims, perpetrators, and victim-perpetrators was 14%, 17%, and 9%, respectively. The most common subtypes of victimization were exclusion (23%), verbal abuse (22%), physical abuse (16%), and

Young Shin Kim; Yun-Joo Koh; Bennett L. Leventhal

2004-01-01

30

Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

2014-01-01

31

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and subclinical RBD in the Korean elderly population. Design: A community-based Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia and time-synchronized video-polysomnography (vPSG) in a laboratory. Setting: Sleep laboratory in a university hospital. Participants: 348 individuals aged 60 years or older. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Among 696 subjects who were invited to participate in a vPSG study, 348 completed the vPSG. RBD was diagnosed when subjects showed REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) in the vPSG, and had history of complex and vigorous behaviors during sleep or abnormal REM sleep behaviors in the vPSG. Subjects with RSWA but no abnormal REM sleep behaviors were diagnosed with subclinical RBD. Seven subjects (5 male, 2 female) had RBD, three of whom (1 male, 2 female) had Parkinson disease. Two subjects reported history of sleep-related injury. The crude prevalence of RBD and idiopathic RBD was 2.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54% to 3.49%) and 1.15% (95% CI = 0.03% to 2.27%). An age and sex-adjusted prevalence estimate of RBD and idiopathic RBD in the Korean elderly was 2.01% and 1.34%. Eighteen subjects were diagnosed with subclinical RBD, and the prevalence of subclinical RBD was estimated to be 4.95%. Conclusions: RBD and subclinical RBD are not rare in the elderly in the community with abnormal REM sleep behaviors of RBD being mild to injurious and violent. The clinical significance and long-term progression of subclinical RBD needs to be further explored, given the prevalence and its possible relation to RBD. Citation: Kang SH; Yoon IY; Lee SD; Han JW; Kim TH; Kim KW. REM sleep behavior disorder in the Korean elderly population: prevalence and clinical characteristics. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1147-1152. PMID:23904674

Kang, Suk-Hoon; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Sang Don; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

2013-01-01

32

Prevalence and sociodemographic trends of weight misperception in Korean adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid physical and emotional growth occurs during youth. Adolescence is one of the most important periods for adapting to body change and establishing an ideal body image. Body change is an important and sensitive concern for adolescents, and the values and self-conception established at this time affect various aspects of the entire life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and trends of weight misperception among adolescents in Korea. Methods We analyzed raw data from the 2011 Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey-VII (KYRBWS-VII), in which 73,474 adolescents from the middle-school first grade to the high-school third grade (aged 12–18) participated. For the multivariate logistic regression model, the dependent variable was existence of misperception (yes/no) and independent variables were sociodemographic factors. Results We found that the prevalence of weight misperception was 49.3% (overestimation, 23.7%; underestimation, 25.6%). Among male students, 65.0% underestimated their weight, whereas 62.2% of female students overestimated their weight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that gender (OR?=?1.254; 95% CI?=?1.214–1.294; p?

2014-01-01

33

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults: United States, 2011-2012  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Brief Number 131, October 2013 Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults: United States, 2011–2012 On This ... Nutrition Examination Survey What was the prevalence of obesity among adults in 2011–2012? More than one- ...

34

Advance directives among Korean American older adults: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.  

PubMed

The study objective was to explore knowledge, attitudes, and behavior about advance directives and how cultural values influence these beliefs. Three focus groups with 23 Korean American older adults were conducted. Advance directives were seen as helpful for ensuring that preferences for unwanted end-of-life treatment are honored and for relieving the decision-making burden on family members. However, some viewed completing advance directives as contrary to focusing on living. Culturally competent education about advance directives for Korean American older adults is necessary to help them make informed decisions about end-of-life care and informing family and health care providers of these preferences. PMID:22852992

Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

2012-01-01

35

Prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in traditional Korean string instrument players.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in players of a variety of traditional Korean classical instruments: gayageum, geomungo, ajaeng, and haegeum. A large percentage of these musicians suffer from musculoskeletal pain of various body parts. However, there has been no research regarding the extent of musculoskeletal disorders in players of these instruments. Through a focus group interview, a questionnaire was developed to investigate musculoskeletal disorders. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: demographic factors, performance factors, musculoskeletal disorder symptoms, and musculoskeletal disorder experiences. Eighty-six expert players participated in this survey. The data from the survey were analyzed by correlation analysis and chi-squared analysis. Musculoskeletal disorders symptoms and severe pain were reported in the neck, shoulder, back and knee. These problems were statistically related to height for players of the gayageum and geomungo. In addition, the musculoskeletal disorder experience of geomungo players was correlated with age and career length. The symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders in traditional Korean music players were reported as being mostly observed in the neck, shoulder, back, and knee. In addition, these symptoms were related to various demographic factors such as age, height, career length, and hobby styles. The results of this study can be used as preliminary data for developing guidelines to prevent traditional Korean musical instrument players from developing musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:23247878

Kim, Jung-Yong; Kim, Mi-Sook; Min, Seung-Nam; Cho, Young-Jin; Choi, Junhyeok

2012-12-01

36

Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p?=?0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p?=?0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination. PMID:24884673

2014-01-01

37

Gender differences on the MMPI across American and Korean adult and adolescent normative samples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether gender differences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) items are comparable across 2 distinctive cultural samples: Americans and Koreans. Using large, representative adult and adolescent samples from both cultures, we found that the American samples were associated with a higher proportion of items with gender differences than the Korean samples. The American adult sample produced gender differences on a higher proportion of items than did the American adolescent sample, but no such age difference was found between the Korean samples. Despite these differences between cultures and between age groups, content dimensions underlying items with gender differences were very similar across cultures and age groups, centering on stereotypical gender interests, behaviors, and emotions. PMID:23410238

Han, Kyunghee; Park, Hyung In; Weed, Nathan C; Lim, Jeeyoung; Johnson, Adam; Joles, Christopher

2013-01-01

38

Are Korean Adults Meeting the Recommendation for Physical Activity during Leisure Time?  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine if Korean adults meet their physical activity recommendations during their leisure time to promote a healthy living. [Subjects and Methods] The sample included South Korean adults, aged over 20, who were currently residing in K City, South Korea. The author used a quota sampling technique to select 1,000 samples. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 845 questionnaires were used to conduct a ?2 test. [Results] It was revealed by the questionnaire that there was a clear distinction in the categories of very high level activity (11.0%), high level activity (29.1%), acceptable level activity (12.9%), low level activity (9.7%), and inactive level of physical activity (38.3%) in Korean adults’ leisure time. [Conclusions] The most interesting finding was that more than half of Korean adults do reach the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of moderate activity, on three or more days a week for at least three months. The other interesting finding was that the questionnaire is a useful instrument suitable for analyzing the recommendations of physical activity, comprising frequency, intensity, time, and overall duration. PMID:25013279

Cho, Min-Haeng

2014-01-01

39

Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.  

PubMed

Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated. PMID:23374980

Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

2013-10-30

40

Spirituality, depression, living alone, and perceived health among Korean older adults in the community.  

PubMed

Both theoretical and empirical studies have documented the protective effect of religiosity and spirituality on general health in older adults in community and hospital settings; however, no study has documented the relationship between spirituality and depression among older adults living alone in communities in Korea. We tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Korean older adults living alone would be more depressed and less healthy than older adults living with family, and Hypothesis 2: Individuals who are more religious and spiritual would report a lower level of depression and a higher level of general health even when other demographic and living status variables are controlled. A descriptive, comparative, and correlational design with a convenience sampling method was conducted among community-dwelling Korean older adults in Chounbook Providence, South Korea. This study included 152 men and women older than 65 years old. Hypothesis 1 was supported as Korean older adults living alone were significantly more depressed than were older adults living with family (P<.01). However, for Hypotheses 2, only spirituality activities and Spirituality Index of Well-Being scores were significantly associated with general health and/or depression (P<.01), but there were no relationships between the variables of attendance and importance of religion with general health and depression. PMID:19631109

You, Kwang Soo; Lee, Hae-Ok; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Kim, Susie; Marui, Eiji; Lee, Jung Su; Cook, Paul

2009-08-01

41

The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version  

PubMed Central

Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673

Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho

2013-01-01

42

Role of Children in End-of-Life Treatment Planning Among Korean American Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make

Eunjeong Ko; Cathy S. Berkman

2010-01-01

43

Comparison of Lipid-Related Ratios for Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3 or More in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Dyslipidemia is implicated in increased cardiovascular risk associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in the progression of renal damage. This study compared 4 different lipid-related ratios (total cholesterol [TC]/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], triglyceride [TG]/HDL-C, calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [c-LDL-C]/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratio) for prediction of CKD stage 3 or more to investigate the association between them. This cross-sectional study included 8,650 adults who participated in the 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The overall prevalence of CKD stage 3 or more was 6.4%. For TG/HDL-C, the prevalence with CKD stage 3 or more increased with increasing quartile group in both sexes (P value for trend = 0.046 in men, 0.002 in women) while other lipid-related ratios showed increasing prevalence only in women. In comparison with the lowest quartile of the lipid-related ratios, only the fourth quartile of TG/HDL-C was associated with the prevalence of CKD stage 3 or more in both sexes after adjustment for multiple covariates (odds ratio [OR] for TG/HDL-C-Q4, 1.82; 95% CI [confidence interval], 1.09-3.03 in men, OR 2.45; 95% CI, 1.52-3.95 in women). In conclusion, TG/HDL-C is the only lipid-related ratio that is independently associated with CKD stage 3 or more in both sexes of Koreans. PMID:23255852

Kim, Ji-Young; Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Yong-Jae

2012-01-01

44

ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

2007-01-01

45

Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2013-01-01

46

Prevalence of Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction and Its Risk Factors: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Population-based studies for olfactory dysfunction are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction and its risk factors in the Korean general population. Methods The data were obtained from the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), which was a cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized population all around the country (n?=?10,533). All interviewees underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, endoscopic examination and blood/urine tests. Whether sense of smell has been normal or abnormal during the last 3 months was asked. Complete olfaction data were obtained from 7,306 participants and the participants were divided into normosmic and hyposmic group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify its risk factors. Results The weighted prevalence of subjective olfactory dysfunction was 4.5%. Its increased prevalence was significantly associated with the increasing age for both men and women. In the multivariate analyses, low income (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?1.43, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]?=?1.01–2.03), habitual exposure to air pollutants (adjusted OR?=?2.18, CI?=?1.33–3.55), a history of hepatitis B (adjusted OR?=?3.10, CI?=?1.25–7.68), rhinitis (adjusted OR?=?1.78, CI?=?1.26–2.51) and chronic sinusitis (adjusted OR?=?14.55, CI?=?10.06–21.05) were risk factors of olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion Our population-based study showed that olfactory dysfunction was quite prevalent and several risk factors were associated with impaired sense of smell. Given its prevalence, further researches for its prevention and management are required. PMID:23671628

Lee, Woo Hyun; Wee, Jee Hye; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Lee, Chul Hee; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Si Whan; Lee, Ari; Kim, Jeong-Whun

2013-01-01

47

What and when Korean American older adults want to know about serious illness.  

PubMed

The aim of this exploratory study was to describe disclosure preferences about serious illness among Korean American older adults. Three focus groups (N = 6, 8, and 9) were conducted with Korean Americans age 65+ from two senior centers and a primary care practice in NYC. Six themes were identified: (1) Disclosure allows patients to make decisions and preparations, (2) Disclosure may cause emotional distress and hasten death, (3) Disclosure may be based on physician error or inability to know prognosis, (4) Disclosure should be based on severity of illness and the need to maintain hope, (5) Disclosure should be based on age, and (6) Disclosure practices of physicians vary by culture. Providing culturally competent care to East Asian older adults requires understanding the importance of family values and traditions, but not making assumptions about the degree to which the patient adheres to these beliefs. PMID:20432115

Berkman, Cathy S; Ko, Eunjeong

2010-01-01

48

Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males  

PubMed Central

Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (?eGFR/yr). The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ?eGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8%) of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years), 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years), and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years). The median decrease in ?eGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ?eGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with <5.3% decrease in ?eGFR/yr (3.16% versus 0.00%; P = 0.049). The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decrease in ?eGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ?eGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice. PMID:24895568

Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

2014-01-01

49

Association between Urinary Bisphenol A and Waist Circumference in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, and food and beverage containers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between urinary concentrations of BPA and waist circumference in Korean adults. A total of 1,030 Korean adults (mean age, 44.3 ± 14.6 years) were enrolled in the study on the integrated exposure to hazardous materials for safety control, conducted by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety from 2010 to 2012. Abdominal obesity was defined as having a waist circumference of at least 90 cm and 85 cm for men and women, respectively. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the urinary BPA concentration quartile. Waist circumference was significantly higher among subjects with a urinary BPA concentration in the highest quartile relative to those in the lowest quartile (p = 0.0071). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant positive association between urinary BPA concentrations and body mass index, body fat, after adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover, subjects with urinary BPA concentrations in the fourth quartile were more likely to be obese compared to those with urinary BPA concentrations in the first quartile (odds ratio, 1.938; 95% CI: 1.314~2.857; p for trend = 0.0106). These findings provide evidence for a positive association between urinary BPA concentration and waist circumference in Korean adults. PMID:24795798

Ko, Ahra; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Park, Jae-Hong; Kang, Hui-Seung; Lee, Hee-Seok

2014-01-01

50

Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults.  

PubMed

A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40-79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

51

Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults  

PubMed Central

A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

52

Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults  

PubMed Central

The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

2014-01-01

53

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Three Latitudinal Regions of the Korean Peninsula  

PubMed Central

A large-scale survey was conducted to investigate the infection status of fresh water fishes with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by latitudinal levels of the Korean peninsula. A total of 4,071 freshwater fishes were collected from 3 regions, i.e., northern (Gangwon-do: 1,543 fish), middle (Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1,167 fish), and southern areas (Jeollanam-do, Ulsan-si, and Gyeongsangnam-do: 1,361 fish). Each fish was examined by the artificial digestion method from 2003 to 2010. In northern areas, only 11 (0.7%) fish of 2 species, Pungtungia herzi and Squalidus japonicus coreanus from Hantan-gang, Cheolwon-gun, Gangwon-do were infected with av. 2.6 CsMc. In middle areas, 149 (12.8%) fish were infected with av. 164 CsMc. In southern areas, 538 (39.5%) fish were infected with av. 159 CsMc. In the analysis of endemicity in 3 regions with an index fish, P. herzi, 9 (6.2%) of 146 P. herzi from northern areas were infected with av. 2.8 CsMc. In middle areas, 34 (31.8%) of 107 P. herzi were infected with av. 215 CsMc, and in southern areas, 158 (92.9%) of 170 P. herzi were infected with av. 409 CsMc. From these results, it has been confirmed that the infection status of fish with CsMc is obviously different among the 3 latitudinal regions of the Korean peninsula with higher prevalence and burden in southern regions. PMID:22355206

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Eom, Keeseon; Seok, Won-Seok; Lee, Taejoon

2011-01-01

54

The Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Men Aged 40 Years or Older: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Korean men aged ?40 years. Methods We performed a population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey on a geographically stratified random sample of men aged ?40 years. All respondents were asked about the presence of individual LUTS using a questionnaire based on 2002 International Continence Society definitions. For comparison, we also defined nocturia as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to assess LUTS severity. Results Responses from 1,842 subjects were analyzed. The overall prevalence of LUTS was 83.4%. Storage LUTS (70.1%) were more prevalent than voiding (60.4%) or postmicturition LUTS (38.3%). When nocturia was defined as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night, voiding symptoms became most prevalent (storage, 39.7%; voiding, 60.4%; and postmicturition, 38.3%). More than 90% of our population described the severity of their urinary symptoms as moderate (8-19) or severe (20-35). The prevalence and severity of LUTS increased with age. Conclusions LUTS are highly prevalent among Korean men, and its prevalence increases with age. Increased public awareness and a larger number of treatment options are needed to appropriately manage symptoms and their consequences. PMID:25279239

Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun

2014-01-01

55

HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

2014-07-01

56

Oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life among Korean older adults.  

PubMed

Oral health affects older adults and their quality of life. Oral care is reported to have a low priority in nursing care of older adults, and repeated assessments to detect oral health problems are seldom performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among level of oral health, nutrition, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) and to identify predictors of OHRQL in Korean older adults. The design was a descriptive, correlational study. The level of oral pain contributed most significantly to OHRQL, followed by nutrition and number of teeth. These three predictor variables explained 46.4% of the variance in OHRQL. Older adults could benefit from oral health care, such as routine screening for oral health and nutritional status. Nurses are at the forefront in providing such services, and it is recommended they integrate oral health care into their routine nursing care plans. PMID:18942537

Jung, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Soo

2008-10-01

57

Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future. PMID:24954336

Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

2014-01-01

58

The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

Nho, Sung Hyun

2012-01-01

59

Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and stylized ORNL phantom. The armless KTMAN-1 can be applied to dosimetry for computed tomography or lateral x-ray examination, while the whole body KTMAN-2 can be used for radiation protection dosimetry.

Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, NSC 202, Gainesville, Florida 32606 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang, Sungdong, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-02-15

60

Psychosocial, Physical, and Autonomic Correlates of Depression in Korean Adults: Results from a County-Based Depression Screening Study  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial and neurophysiological correlates of depression in a large county-based cohort of Korean adults. Methods We recruited 2355 adults from a rural county-based health promotion program. The following psychometric scales were used: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to evaluate stress, and the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) was used to determine perceived social support. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess neurophysiological properties. The psychosocial and neurophysiological variables of adults with depression (CES-D score ?25) and without depression (CES-D score <25) were statistically compared. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors independently associated with depression. Results We estimated that 17.7% of the subjects had depression, which was associated with old age, being female, being single, less religious affiliation, high education, low body mass index (BMI), low levels of aerobic exercise, low social support, and a low HRV triangular index. The explanatory factors of depression included high education, less religious affiliation, low levels of current aerobic exercise, low BMI, and low social support. Conclusion Given the relatively high prevalence of overall depression, subsyndromal depression should also be regarded as an important issue in screening. The independent factors associated with depression suggest that practical psychosocial intervention, including brief psychotherapy, aerobic exercise, and other self-help methods should be considered. In addition, the HRV results suggest that further depression screening accompanied by neurophysiological features would require fine methodological modifications with proactive efforts to prevent depressive symptoms. PMID:25395971

Kim, Ki Won; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Shin, Jin Ho; Choi, Bo Yul; Nam, Jung Hyun

2014-01-01

61

Prevalence of Disc Degeneration in Asymptomatic Korean Subjects. Part 3 : Cervical and Lumbar Relationship  

PubMed Central

Objective There are many cases in which degenerative changes are prevalent in both the cervical and lumbar spine, and the relation between both spinal degenerative findings of MRI is controversial. The authors analyzed the prevalence of abnormal findings on MRI, and suggested a model to explain the relationship between cervical and lumbar disc in asymptomatic Korean subjects. Methods We performed 3 T MRI sagittal scans on 102 asymptomatic subjects (50 men and 52 women) who visited our hospital between the ages of 14 and 82 years (mean age 46.3 years). Scores pertaining to herniation (HN), annular fissure (AF), and nucleus degeneration (ND) were analyzed. The total scores for the cervical and lumbar spine were analyzed using correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression with various predictive parameters, including weight, height, sex, age, smoking, occupation, and sedentary fashion. Results The correlation coefficients of HN, AF, and ND were 0.44, 0.50, and 0.59, respectively. We made the best model for relationship by using multiple linear regression. Conclusion The results of the current study showed that there was a close relationship between the cervical score (CS) and lumbar score (LS). In addition, the correlation between CS and LS, as well as the LS value itself, can be altered by other explanatory variables. Although not absolute, there was also a linear relationship between degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine. Based on these results, it can be inferred that degenerative changes of the lumbar spine will be useful in predicting the degree of cervical spine degeneration in an actual clinical setting. PMID:23634267

Lee, Tae Hoon; Yi, Seong

2013-01-01

62

Association between the Ratio of Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Chronic Kidney Disease in Korean Adults: The 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ratio of triglycerides (TG, mg\\/dl) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, mg\\/dl) is a reliable indicator of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between TG\\/HDL-C and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 5,503 subjects (?19 years of age) who

Hee-Taik Kang; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Eun Lee; John A. Linton; Jong-Koo Kim; Hye-Ree Lee

2011-01-01

63

[Prevalence of anal incontinence in adults].  

PubMed

Inquiries were conducted to determine the prevalence of anal incontinence in a) the general population over 45 by a gallup poll studying 1,100 persons (A); b) 3,914 patients seen by their general practitioner or their gastroenterologist during the same week (B); c) 500 patients consulting for urinary stress incontinence (C1); d) 1,136 neurological patients suffering from micturation disorders (C2); and e) 10,157 elderly persons living in retirement homes or in hospital (D). In the general community (A), the prevalence of anal incontinence, including gas and stool incontinence, was 11 percent, the prevalence of fecal incontinence, 6 percent, the prevalence of daily or weekly fecal incontinence, 2 percent; prevalences were respectively 15.5 percent, 7.9 percent, and 3.2 percent in group B, and 27 percent, 9 percent and 3.8 percent in group C1. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 18 percent in group C2 and 33 percent in group D. Prevalence did not depend on age in group A and C1, but was twofold higher in group C1 than in group A. The prevalence increased with age in groups B and D. PMID:1397855

Denis, P; Bercoff, E; Bizien, M F; Brocker, P; Chassagne, P; Lamouliatte, H; Leroi, A M; Perrigot, M; Weber, J

1992-01-01

64

Knee Pain and Its Severity in Elderly Koreans: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impact on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the epidemiology (prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life) of knee pain and its severity in elderly Koreans. The subjects (n=3,054) were participants aged ?50 yr from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010. Knee pain was defined as pain in the knee lasting ?30 days during the most recent 3 months; severity was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. EQ-5D was used to measure quality of life. The prevalence of knee pain was 23.1% (11.7% in men, 31.9% in women). The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe knee pain were 4.3%, 9.1%, and 9.7%, respectively (2.8%, 5.4%, and 3.5% in men and 5.4%, 12.0%, and 14.4% in women). Old age, female gender, a low level of education, a manual occupation, obesity, and radiographic osteoarthritis were risk factors for knee pain, and were associated with increased severity of knee pain. Excluding men with mild knee pain, people with knee pain had significantly lower quality of life than those without knee pain. Early interventional approaches are needed to reduce the medical, social, and economic burden of knee pain in elderly Koreans. PMID:24339713

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Sung, Nak-Jeong

2013-01-01

65

Thyroid dimensions of Korean adults on routine neck computed tomography and its relationship to age, sex, and body size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to establish a “normal” range of dimensions of the thyroid gland on routine neck computed tomography in the Korean population and to investigate the possible influence of some physiological factors on the thyroid dimension. Neck computed tomography scans of 100 adults (57 males, 43 females; mean age=55.2 years) were reviewed retrospectively to measure the size

Dong-Hee Lee; Kwang-Jae Cho; Dong-Il Sun; Sung-Jae Hwang; Dong-Kee Kim; Min-Sik Kim; Seung-Ho Cho

2006-01-01

66

Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ?16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ?16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesus Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

2014-01-01

67

A study on the trend analysis regarding the rice consumption of Korean adults using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1998, 2001 and 2005  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to provide information regarding trends of rice consumption of Korean adults based on different meal types. Respondent reports 24-hour recall data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess daily rice consumption and intake ratios of rice for different meal types and places of preparation. Rice intake had gradually decreased from 224.6 g in 1998 to 190 g in 2001 and to 179.4 g in 2005. The rice consumption of Korean adults decreased every year in all ages for all places of meal preparation in 2001 and 2005 compare to 1998. Analysis for each meal type showed that rice intake at breakfast had not considerably changed, but rice intake had decreased at lunch and dinner. While the rice consumption ratio at lunch and dinner decreased, it also decreased or did not change at snack times except for the 19-29 age groups. All the age groups revealed comparable change in the analysis for meal types. There was some diversity between all age divisions in daily rice intake depending on place of meal preparation. The rice consumption by place of meal preparation was generally highest at home, lowest at other places, but it decreased in all places. The rice consumption at home was highest in the over 50 age group, lowest in the 20-30 age group. These changes seem to be related to food intake patterns of rice and substitutional foods in the diets and development regarding socio-economic status. So the need for further study on differences in rice intake based on socioeconomic levels and age group are indicated. PMID:22808351

Cha, Ho-Myoung; Han, Gyusang

2012-01-01

68

The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire as an Effective Mental Health Screening Tool for General Korean Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Objective The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been used extensively in various settings across different cultures. This study was conducted to determine the thresholds associated with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the GHQ-12 in Korean adults. Methods Data was acquired from a sample of 6,510 Korean adults, ages 18 to 64 years old, who were selected from the 2005 Census (2,581 men and 3,929 women). Participants completed the GHQ-12 and the Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted. Results The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 1.63 (SD 1.98). The internal consistency of the GHQ-12 was good (Cronbach's ?=0.72). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 yielded greater accuracy when identifying mood and anxiety disorders than when identifying all mental disorders as a whole. The optimal threshold of the GHQ-12 was either 1/2 or 2/3 point depending on the disorder, but was mainly 2/3. Conclusion The Korean version of the GHQ-12 could be used to screen for individuals at high risk of mental disorders, namely mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:24474983

Kim, Young Ju; Cho, Maeng Je; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Hae Woo

2013-01-01

69

Prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus infection in Korean women as determined by restriction fragment mass polymorphism assay.  

PubMed

The development of a prophylactic vaccine that targets human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 to prevent cervical cancer has increased interest in the ethnic and geographical distributions of HPV genotypes. We investigated HPV prevalence and type distribution by restriction fragment mass polymorphism (RFMP) testing a total of 60,775 specimens (aged 18-79 yr, median 44) taken from liquid-based cytology. Overall HPV positive rate of total patients was 34.2%. Among the positive patients, 87.7% was single type infections, and 12.3% was multiple HPV types. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype observed in 2,307 (26.0%), followed by type 52 in 2,269 (25.5%), type 58 in 1,090 (12.3%), type 18 in 633 (7.1%), type 56 in 436 (4.9%). The pattern of high risk-HPV positive rate according to age showed U-shape with a peak in HPV prevalence among women less than 30 yr of age, and a second peak among the older females aged 70 to 79 yr. The leading four high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV-16, HPV-52, HPV-58, and HPV-18 in descending order. In conclusion, this study provides the most representative prevalence and type-specific distribution of HPV among Korean women, and demonstrates that the epidemiology of HPV infection is different from that of other regions of the world. PMID:22969258

Lee, Eun Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Hong, Young-Joon; Cha, Young Joo

2012-09-01

70

Health Conditions Sensitive to Retirement and Job Loss Among Korean Middle-aged and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to examine the association between health condition and leaving the labor market among middle-aged and older adults in South Korea. Methods Data was obtained from individuals aged 45 years and older participating in the 2006 and 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We used various health measures including chronic diseases, comorbidities, traffic accident injuries, disabilit of instrumental activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, and self-rated health. The odds ratios of job loss, and retirement, versus employment were calculated using multinomial logistic regression by each health measure. Results In our cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, health problems related to physical disabilities had the greatest effect on leaving the worksite. A shift in health condition from good to poor in a short period was a predictor of increased risk of unemployment but a persistent pattern of health problems was not associated with unemployment. Women with health problems showed a high probability of retirement, whereas among men, health problems instantly the possibility of both job loss and retirement. Conclusions Health problems of middle aged and older workers were crucial risk factors for retirement and involuntarily job loss. Especially functional defect and recent health problems strongly and instanty affected employment status. PMID:22712046

Park, Susan; Cho, Sung-Il

2012-01-01

71

Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI<18.5 kg/m2. Results Of the total sample, 19.5% of males and 10.1% of females were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2). The wealth index showed that 30.9% of the adult population with low a BMI belongs to the poorest 20% of the households while only 9.6% comprised of the richest 20% of the households. Results from logistic regression analysis indicated that both adult men and women who had no education and belonged to the low socioeconomic group had a statistically significant association with low BMI. Among the female adult population, being young and not having watched TV at least once a week were significantly associated with low BMI. For the male adult population, being unmarried was significantly associated with low BMI. Conclusions Programme interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status of adults can use these findings to make appropriate policy, to establish baselines and study nutritional changes over time and its covariates. PMID:25054546

Letamo, Gobopamang; Navaneetham, Kannan

2014-01-01

72

Clinical features and outcomes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis pathologic variants in Korean adult patients  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have shown that clinical characteristics and outcomes differ depending on pathologic variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, these are not well defined in Asian populations. Methods This retrospective study evaluated clinical features and outcomes of pathologic FSGS variants in 111 adult patients between January 2004 and December 2012. Primary outcome was the composite of doubling of baseline serum creatinine concentrations (D-SCr) or onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcome included complete (CR) or partial remission (PR). Results There were 70 (63.1%), 20 (18.0%), 17 (15.3%), 3 (2.7%), and 1 (0.9%) patients with not-otherwise specified (NOS), tip, perihilar, cellular, and collapsing variants, respectively. At presentation, nephrotic-range proteinuria occurred more commonly in tip lesion than in other variants. The overall 5-year renal survival rate was 76.8%. During a median follow-up of 34.5 months, only 1 (5.0%) patient with a tip lesion reached the composite end point compared to 2 (11.8%) and 12 (17.1%) patients in perihilar and NOS variants, but this difference was not statistically significant in an adjusted Cox model. However, tip lesion was associated with a significantly increased probability of achieving CR (P?=?0.044). Conclusion Similar to other populations, Korean adult patients with FSGS have distinct clinical features with the exception of a rare frequency of cellular and collapsing variants. Although pathologic variants were not associated with overall outcome, the tip variant exhibited favorable outcome in terms of achieving remission. Further studies are required to delineate long-term outcome and response to treatment of the pathologic variants. PMID:24666814

2014-01-01

73

Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase level is an independent predictor of incident hypertension in Korean adults.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) level within the normal range and incident hypertension according to drinking and obesity status in nonhypertensive individuals. We followed up 4783 normotensive adults (mean age = 44 years) who had serum GGT levels within the normal range at baseline for 3 years. Subjects were divided into four GGT quartile groups according to their serum GGT level at baseline. The overall incidence of hypertension was 8.1%, and the incidence increased with increasing GGT quartile (3.8%, 6.9%, 9.0%, and 12.4% in the lowest, second, third, and highest GGT quartiles, respectively; P < .001). In the logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, lifestyle factors, glucose, uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and baseline systolic blood pressure, the odds ratio (ORs) for incident hypertension increased with increasing GGT quartile (P for trend = .030). In the above model, the highest quartile group showed increased ORs compared with those in the lowest quartile group (ORs [95% confidence interval], 2.638 [1.259-5.528]). Subgroup analyses revealed a significant association between GGT quartile and the incidence of hypertension in the drinker and non-overweight groups. Our results indicate that elevated serum GGT levels within the normal range are associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension in Korean adults, particularly, in drinkers and non-overweight individuals, suggesting possible different pathophysiologic mechanisms in the incidence of alcohol- and obesity-related hypertension. PMID:22471622

Kim, Nan Hee; Huh, Jung Kwon; Kim, Byung Jin; Kim, Min Woong; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

2012-01-01

74

Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, ?-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake. PMID:21103089

Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung

2010-01-01

75

A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon

2011-10-01

76

A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

2011-01-01

77

Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ?40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of???40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ?50 (OR?=?3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR?=?1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR?=?1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR?=?2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR?=?1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI???30 Kg/meter squared (OR?=?2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

2014-01-01

78

Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

2014-01-01

79

Association between urinary levels of bisphenol-A and estrogen metabolism in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Bisphenol-A (BPA) possesses estrogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo as an endocrine disrupting chemical. Humans experience a long-term and cumulative exposure to BPA. BPA was detectable in 97.3% of 1904 urine specimens from Korean adults. We investigated urinary estrogen concentrations in subjects with low and high BPA concentrations and its possible association with estrogen metabolism. Urine samples were collected from a high BPA concentration group (BPA-H; n=100, 11.05 ± 20.47 ?g/g creatinine) and a low BPA concentration group (BPA-L; n=100, 0.70 ± 0.22 ?g/g creatinine) from Korea Biomonitoring Program of Hazardous Materials Survey 2009-2010. Urinary estrogens were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted, and then derivatized for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estrogen levels were higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group. Concentrations of estrone, 17?-estradiol, and their hydroxylated metabolites in both men and women were significantly higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group (p<0.04). Furthermore, in the BPA-H group, estrogen metabolism to 4-hydroxy-estrone and 4-hydroxy-17?-estradiol was more active than that to 2-hydroxy-estrone and 2-hydroxy-17?-estradiol. Although single measurement and/or single spot urine samples limit the measurement of long-term exposure to BPA, we found significant differences of estrogen metabolism in the BPA-H and the BPA-L groups. The increase of hydroxyestrogens, especially 4-hydroxyestrogens, can be an important factor resulting negative effects of prolonged exposure to BPA. PMID:23954212

Kim, Eun Jee; Lee, Dongho; Chung, Bong Chul; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Jeongae

2014-02-01

80

Recurrent falls among community-dwelling older Koreans: prevalence and multivariate risk factors.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to determine the risk factors for nonfallers versus fallers (1+ falls) and nonfallers/one-time fallers versus recurrent fallers (2+ falls) using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC(©)). Community-dwelling Koreans 65 and older (N = 411) comprised the sample. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors predictive of fallers and recurrent fallers. Eight predictive factors were statistically significant with regard to recurrent falls: unsteady gait, low scores related to performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs), high pain scores, number of housing environmental hazards, use of an assistive device, fear of falling, and reduced vision. Based on the findings, it is important to assess the risk factors for recurrent falls and develop differentiation strategies that help prevent recurrent falls, including management of gait problems, pain control, use of appropriate assistive devices, a fear management program, regular eye examinations, making improvements to ADLs and IADLs, and creating a safer home environment. In addition, using a standardized tool such as the RAI-HC would help assess multivariate fall risk factors to facilitate comparisons across different community care settings. PMID:21634315

Yoo, In-Young

2011-09-01

81

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in South Korean wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus).  

PubMed

Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite and a commonly encountered pathogen in humans and animals. The wild boar (Sus scrofa coreanus) is considered a good indicator when monitoring environmental contamination by T. gondii. We surveyed the prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in wild boars from South Korea. Blood samples were collected from 426 wild boars captured in eight provinces of South Korea during the hunting seasons in 2008-12. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in samples from 152 of boars, indicating an overall antibody prevalence of 36% (95% confidence interval=31-40%). PMID:25014905

Jeong, Wooseog; Yoon, Hachung; Kim, Yong Kwan; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Kim, Do-Soon; An, Dong-Jun

2014-10-01

82

Weight Control Attempts in Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight refers to the weight range in which health risk can increase, since the weight is lower than a healthy weight. Negative attitudes towards obesity and socio-cultural preference for thinness could induce even underweight persons to attempt weight control. This study was conducted to investigate factors related to weight control attempts in underweight Korean adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 690 underweight adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Body image perception, weight control attempts during the past one year, various health behaviors, history of chronic diseases, and socioeconomic status were surveyed. Results Underweight women had a higher rate of weight control attempts than underweight men (25.4% vs. 8.1%, P < 0.001). Among underweight men, subjects with the highest physical activity level (odds ratio [OR], 7.75), subjects with physician-diagnosed history of chronic diseases (OR, 7.70), and subjects with non-manual jobs or other jobs (OR, 6.22; 12.39 with reference to manual workers) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Among underweight women, subjects who did not perceive themselves as thin (OR, 4.71), subjects with the highest household income level (OR, 2.61), and unmarried subjects (OR, 2.08) had a higher likelihood of weight control attempts. Conclusion This study shows that numbers of underweight Korean adults have tried to control weight, especially women. Seeing that there are gender differences in factors related to weight control attempts in underweight adults, gender should be considered in helping underweight adults to maintain a healthy weight. PMID:24340161

Choi, O Jin Ee; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Yim, Hyun Ji

2013-01-01

83

Three distinct clustering patterns in metabolic syndrome abnormalities are differentially associated with dietary factors in Korean adults.  

PubMed

Dietary factors are not consistently associated with metabolic syndrome abnormalities. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that distinct clustering patterns exist in metabolic syndrome abnormalities and that those patterns are differentially associated with dietary factors. To test this hypothesis, we examined distinct clustering patterns of metabolic syndrome abnormalities and their association with dietary factors in Korean adults. A total of 141 subjects were recruited through the Family Medicine Division of the General Hospital in Seoul. Subjects who had complete data on waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid indicators, and no medication usage were included in this study. Dietary intake data were obtained by multiple 24-hour recalls (2-4 days) through on-site or telephone interviews. To identify clustering patterns of metabolic syndrome abnormalities, factor analysis was used for waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three distinct clustering patterns were identified: (1) high blood pressure, (2) dyslipidemia, and (3) high blood glucose. The high blood pressure pattern was significantly associated with higher alcohol intake and lower carbohydrate intake. The dyslipidemia pattern was significantly associated with a diet of high glycemic index and glycemic load. The high blood glucose pattern was associated with lower carbohydrate intake. Metabolic syndrome abnormalities had 3 distinct clustering patterns independently associated with dietary factors. Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load were strongly linked with the dyslipidemia pattern, and high alcohol intake was linked with the high blood pressure pattern in Korean adults. PMID:24916551

Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee Young; Song, Won O; Park, Minseon; Song, YoonJu

2014-05-01

84

Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety

Yuri Jang; David A. Chiriboga; Sumie Okazaki

2009-01-01

85

Alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure in Korean adults aged 50 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies of the association between alcohol consumption and carotid artery structure have reported conflicting results. We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and carotid atherosclerosis by evaluating the effects of alcohol intake on carotid artery enlargement. METHODS: The study population consisted of 4302 community-dwelling Koreans (1577 men and 2725 women) aged 50 years and over. All the subjects

Young-Hoon Lee; Min-Ho Shin; Sun-Seog Kweon; Sung-Woo Choi; Hye-Yeon Kim; So-Yeon Ryu; Bok-Hee Kim; Jung-Ae Rhee; Jin-Su Choi

2009-01-01

86

Prevalence of eating disorders in adults with celiac disease.  

PubMed

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V; Siniscalchi, M; Zingone, F; Bucci, C; Tortora, R; Iovino, P; Ciacci, C

2013-01-01

87

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

2013-01-01

88

Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Its Subtypes Are Influenced by the Application of Diagnostic Criteria: Results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We investigated the influence of varying applications of diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling Korean elders. Methods: A study population of 1,118 Korean elders was randomly sampled from the residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea. Standardized face-to-face interviews, with neurological and physical examinations, were conducted with 714 respondents. Cognitive

Seok Bum Lee; Ki Woong Kim; Jong Choul Youn; Joon Hyuk Park; Jung Jae Lee; Myoung-Hee Kim; Eun Ae Choi; Jin Hyeong Jhoo; Il Han Choo; Dong Young Lee; Jong Inn Woo

2009-01-01

89

The mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between health literacy and health status in Korean older adults: A short report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Limited health literacy has been shown to be associated with poor health status. However, research to date has not elucidated the factors that mediate the relationship between low literacy and poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between health literacy and health status in Korean older adults.Method:

Su Hyun Kim; Xu Yu

2010-01-01

90

Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.  

PubMed

Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ? 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

2013-01-01

91

Assessing the Prevalence of Recurrent Neck and Shoulder Pain in Korean High School Male Students: A Cross-sectional Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Neck and shoulder pain (NSP) is fairly common in adolescents, which is associated with a high prevalence of NSP found during adulthood as well; therefore, its significance during adolescence should not be underestimated. We surveyed the prevalence of recurrent NSP, lifestyle, and risk factors in Korean high school students, and examined the influence of recurrent NSP on the quality of life. Methods Nine hundred thirty one male students (16-19 years old) from two academic high schools in Seoul were included in this study. The survey consisted of a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of recurrent NSP, with questions regarding having an occurrence more than once a week, characteristics of NSP, activity and lifestyle of the students, and the risk factors for recurrent NSP. A 36-item Short Form questionnaire was also examined. Results We found that 44.3% of the high school students surveyed had recurrent NSP (more than once a week) and the overall prevalence of NSP was 79.1%. The average sitting time was 10.2 ± 2.7 h/day. 59.0% did not sit straight, 14.7% used assisting devices during reading, and 11.9% answered that they stretched regularly. Found from their self assessed health, frequent fatigue and frequent depressed mood presented significant associations with the higher prevalence of recurrent NSP. Conclusions Korean high school students had a high prevalence of recurrent NSP. Clinical attention is needed for the prevention and resolution of recurrent NSP found in high school students. PMID:22787546

Koh, Min Jung; Woo, Young Sun; Kang, Sung Hyun; Park, Sang Hoon; Chun, Hye Jung; Park, Eun Jung

2012-01-01

92

Gender-specific influence of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache: the results from the Korean headache survey  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic status plays an important role in pain coping strategy. Its influence on migraine and tension-type headache may differ by gender. This study aimed to evaluate how socioeconomic status affects the prevalence of migraine and tension-type headache by gender. Methods We used data from the Korean Headache Survey, a population-based sample of Koreans aged 19–69 years. Education level, district size, and household income were evaluated as socioeconomic variables. Results Among 1507 participants, the 1-year prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-4.6%] and 29.1% (95% CI 25.7-32.5%) in women and 3.2% (95% CI 1.9-4.6%) and 32.5% (95% CI 29.1-35.9%) in men, respectively. In women, multiple regression analysis found that living in rural areas was related to higher prevalence of migraine [odds ratio (OR) 4.52, 95% CI 1.85-11.02] and lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.58) and college-level education was related to lower prevalence of tension-type headache (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18–0.74). In men, multiple regression analysis failed to reveal significant influences of any socioeconomic variable on the prevalence of migraine or tension-type headache. Conclusions The influence of socioeconomic status on migraine and tension-type headache differs by gender, with women being more susceptible to socioeconomic influence. PMID:24093215

2013-01-01

93

Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ? 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. PMID:24929722

Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2014-09-01

94

Anxiety Disorders 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Anxiety Disorders Prevalence � 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult population1 � Severe: 22 of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

Baker, Chris I.

95

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Prevalence � 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult population, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey

Baker, Chris I.

96

It's Others, Not the Police: Smoking, Reprimand, and Fines among Adults of Korean Descent in California  

PubMed Central

Objective This study assesses the association of immediate social and legal reprimand and current smoking status among Californians of Korean descent. Design Data were drawn from a population-based probability sample using a telephone survey conducted by bilingual, professional interviewers (N=2085). About 85.0% of eligible respondents completed interviews and 86.3% of participants preferred to be interviewed in Korean. Main Outcome Measure Smoking status was measured using CDC criteria, ever smoked 100 cigarettes and currently smoke every day or some days. Results and Conclusion Reports of immediate criticism by others in several settings was associated with non-smoking, but likelihood of immediate legal penalties was unrelated. Participants were far less likely to expect legal than social sanction. Results were replicated after controlling for reinforcers of smoking and ecologically relevant variables including models of smoking, primary group social support for smoking, acculturation, gender, acculturation by gender (male) interaction, age, and education. It may be efficacious to target public health interventions encouraging appropriate social sanctions of smoking in public among persons of Korean descent, and to encourage strict enforcement of legal penalties for smoking in public places. PMID:20496979

Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne; Kang, Sunny

2009-01-01

97

Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28 years. Former smokers were more likely to have smoked fewer cigarettes per day and to have smoked for significantly less time than current smokers. DISCUSSION: Given the fact that free education is provided at all levels by the government, anti-tobacco education and awareness should be included as an integral part of the curriculum in schools and colleges. PMID:11143190

Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

2000-01-01

98

The estimated prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a German community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research on the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD has been conducted outside the United States. The aim of the\\u000a present study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in a large representative sample of the German population\\u000a aged 18–64 years (n = 1,655). Two self-rating screening instruments to assess childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology were used to estimate

Martina de ZwaanBarbara; Barbara Gruß; Astrid Müller; Holmer Graap; Alexandra Martin; Heide Glaesmer; Anja Hilbert; Alexandra Philipsen

99

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with\\u000a the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level,\\u000a and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem behaviours compared with the whole\\u000a adult population with intellectual disabilities, compared with individually

Craig A. Melville; Sally-Ann Cooper; Jill Morrison; Elita Smiley; Linda Allan; Alison Jackson; Janet Finlayson; Dipali Mantry

2008-01-01

100

Higher Glycated Hemoglobin Level Is Associated with Increased Risk for Ischemic Stroke in Non-Diabetic Korean Male Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The role of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the prediction of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic subjects is not clear. We performed a study to analyze the role of HbA1c in the risk prediction of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic Korean males adult. Methods A total of 307 non-diabetic male patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled, and 253 age-matched control subjects without a history of diabetes, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease were selected from a Health Check-up database. Anthropometric measurement data, fasting glucose level, lipid profile, and HbA1c level were available for all subjects. Associations of the variables and the presence or absence of ischemic stroke were analyzed. Results The ischemic stroke patient group had significantly higher HbA1c levels (5.8±0.5% vs. 5.5±0.5%, P<0.01) and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Among the variables, smoking, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c were the significant determinants for ischemic stroke. The highest quartile of HbA1c showed a 9.6-fold increased odds ratio for ischemic stroke compared with the lowest quartile of HbA1c (odds ratio, 9.596; 95% confidence interval, 3.859 to 23.863, P<0.01). The proportion of ischemic stroke patients showed a significant trend for increment as the deciles of HbA1c increased (P for trend <0.01). Conclusion Higher HbA1c indicated a significantly increased risk for ischemic stroke after adjusting for other confounding variables in non-diabetic Korean adult males. HbA1c might have significance in predicting the risk for ischemic stroke even in the non-diabetic range. PMID:22111048

Oh, Hyung Geun; Kim, Tae-Woong; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Jeong-Ho; Yang, Kwang-Ik; Jeong, Dushin; Park, Hyung-Kook

2011-01-01

101

Prevalence, views, and impact of advance directives among older adults.  

PubMed

This article reviews the literature on advance directives among U.S. older adults published from 2008 through 2013, with a focus on advance directive prevalence, implications of advance directives on patient care, and impact of interventions to increase advance directive completion. Advance directive completion varies by demographic characteristics and is affected by patient attitudes toward advance directives and end-of-life care. Patients with advance directives are less likely to receive feeding tubes, experience burdensome transitions between nursing homes and hospitals, and die in the hospital. Advance directive completion increases when health care providers ask culturally sensitive questions and educate patients about advance directives, but better documentation and communication of advance directives are needed to ensure adherence to these measures. Despite increasing advance directive completion as patients move from community to nursing homes to hospice, advance directives are often insufficiently detailed and current for health care professionals to be confident they are acting in accordance with what patients would choose for themselves. PMID:24640958

Kossman, Debra A

2014-07-01

102

Korean and American Music Reduces Pain in Korean Women After Gynecologic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women

Marion Good; Sukhee Ahn

2008-01-01

103

Mental health service use in a nationwide sample of Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  An understanding of the factors leading to the use of mental health services is important in improving access to mental health-care.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to assess the use of mental health services, determinants of use and barriers to use.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data were derived from a representative sample of the general population, aged 18–64 years. The Korean version of the

Seong Jin Cho; Jun Young Lee; Jin Pyo Hong; Hochang B. Lee; Maeng Je Cho; Bong Jin Hahm

2009-01-01

104

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

E-print Network

Lien, S-C, Zhang, Y.B., & Hummert, M. L. (2009). Older adults in prime-time television in Taiwan: Prevalence, portrayal, and communication interaction. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 24, 355-372. Publisher’s official version: http...-C, Zhang, Y.B., & Hummert, M. L. (2009). Older adults in prime-time television in Taiwan: Prevalence, portrayal, and communication interaction. Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 24, 355- 372. Abstract: A content and thematic analysis of 109...

Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

2009-09-01

105

Mental Health of Rural Young Adults: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders, Comorbidity, and Service Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies estimate rural psychiatric disorder rates. No study has reported either DSM-III-R or DSM IV disorder prevalence\\u000a and mental health service use among US rural young adults. This paper reports psychiatric disorder prevalence, comorbidity,\\u000a service utilization, and disorder correlates in a community sample of 536 young adults, aged 19 to 23 years, living in the\\u000a rural Midwestern US. More than

Martha A. Rueter; Kristen E. Holm; Rebecca Burzette; Kee Jeong Kim; Rand D. Conger

2007-01-01

106

The prevalence of weight loss maintenance among American adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that few individuals achieve long-term weight loss maintenance. Because most of these studies were based on clinical samples and focused on only one episode of weight loss, these results may not reflect the actual prevalence of weight loss maintenance in the general population.DESIGN: A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted to determine the point prevalence

MT McGuire; RR Wing; JO Hill

1999-01-01

107

Association of the Estimated 24-H Urinary Sodium Excretion with Albuminuria in Adult Koreans: The 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium intake and albuminuria have important roles in blood pressure and renal progression. Although their relationship has been reported, the results have not been consistent and all studies have examined small populations. Objective This study investigated the role of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake and albuminuria. Design This investigation included 5,187 individuals age 19 years and older from a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2), in 2011. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio ?30 mg/g. The 24-h urinary sodium excretion was estimated from a spot urine. Results On classifying our participants into quartiles based on the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion, the prevalence of albuminuria increased with the 24-h urinary sodium excretion (5.3, 5.7, 7.5, and 11.8% in the first through fourth quartiles, respectively, p for trend <0.001). Even after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, the significance persisted. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the second and third quartiles of the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion were not associated with the presence of albuminuria with the first quartile as a control. However, the fourth quartile was significantly associated with the presence of albuminuria (odds ratio 1.61 [95% confidence interval 1.71–2.21], p?=?0.003) after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Conclusions These findings suggest that salt intake is associated with the presence of albuminuria in the general Korean adult population. PMID:25313865

Han, Sang Youb; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

108

Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,…

van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

2009-01-01

109

Bipolar Disorder 12-month Prevalence: 2.6% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Bipolar Disorder Prevalence � 12-month Prevalence: 2.6% of U.S. adult population1 � Severe: 82 years old4 Treatment/Services Use6 12-month Healthcare Use: 48.8% of those with disorder are receiving minimally adequate treatment (18.8% of those with disorder) 12-month Any Service Use (including Healthcare

Baker, Chris I.

110

Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

2011-01-01

111

Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

2013-01-01

112

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

2006-01-01

113

Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

2005-01-01

114

Are psychological disorders most prevalent among older adults? examining the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A persistent popular and professional perception is the high rate of psychological disorders among older adults (age 65 +), especially higher than among younger adults. To examine the perception's accuracy, data from all psychiatric epidemiology studies conducted since 1950 with random community samples were reviewed. The studies were divided into categories according to type of disorder and instrument used. Prevalence

Marjorie Chary Feinson

1989-01-01

115

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

116

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age,\\u000a sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated\\u000a the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The data of 7,801 adults aged 19

Bo-Eun Lee; Eun-Hee Ha

2011-01-01

117

Teaching English Pronunciation to Koreans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides teachers of Korean children and adults with information on the problems Koreans encounter in learning to pronounce English. Principles of contrastive analysis and error analysis are used to give insight into these pronunciation problems. The first section dealing with problem sounds covers the following: (1) an explanation of…

Robson, Barbara

118

Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency could be linked to several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its correlates to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency was common in the US population, especially in certain minority groups. The National Health and Nutrition

Kimberly Y. Z. Forrest; Wendy L. Stuhldreher

2011-01-01

119

Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?  

PubMed

A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

2008-01-01

120

Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.  

PubMed

Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects. PMID:21715284

Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

2011-06-01

121

Nutritional issues of Korean Americans.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional, descriptive study examined factors influencing healthy eating of Korean Americans in a convenience sample of 517 Korean adults in a Midwestern city. Participants completed a self-administered survey written in either English or Korean as their preferences, which measured health, acculturation, healthy eating benefits, barriers, and self-efficacy as well as healthy eating practice. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and structural equation modeling were used for analysis. Participants reported retaining elements of the traditional Korean diet regardless of acculturation. The worst eating habits were seen in participants who were younger (t = 4.57), currently not married (t = 3.10), less educated (F = 5.03), and acculturated to American society (F = 5.93) at the p < .05. Clinicians should provide culturally sensitive interventions targeting Korean Americans with poor dietary habits by providing population-specific, tailored interventions about the benefits of healthy eating and modeling healthier recipes for traditional Korean dishes. PMID:21160079

Shin, Cha-Nam; Lach, Helen

2011-05-01

122

Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga’s decomposition method. Results Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35–49 in men and aged 25–39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25–29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. Conclusions The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy. PMID:24897953

2014-01-01

123

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose absorption capacity was estimated in 820 apparently healthy, well nourished, Hungarian adults and adolescents (560 females, 260 males, aged 16–54 years) using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. The test identified 497 lactose absorbers with low, and 323 lactose malabsorbers with high hydrogen excretion 120–150 min after an oral load of 50 g

A. Czeizel; G. Flatz; Sibylle D. Flatz

1983-01-01

124

Prevalence of body dissatisfaction among United States adults: review and recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

As the evidence supporting the role of body dissatisfaction (BD) in chronic disease risk factors and health behaviors increases, documenting the prevalence of BD is an essential first step in determining to what degree BD is a public health problem. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to critically evaluate research examining the population prevalence of BD among U.S. adults. Seven studies were located and provided estimates of prevalence of BD among U.S. adults that were extremely varied (11%-72% for women, and 8%-61% for men). While some of the variation may be due to increases in BD over time, the literature is also clouded by a lack of randomly selected samples, lack of consistency in measurement tools, lack of consistency in operational definitions of BD, and lack of standardized cut-off points for BD. Recommendations for improving BD prevalence research to enable public health research are provided. PMID:25064281

Fiske, Lauren; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Blissmer, Bryan; Redding, Colleen A

2014-08-01

125

Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Visceral Obesity in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance. Research Design and Methods A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation) was <5 Hounsfield Units. Results In subjects with diabetes (n?=?282), 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OH)D. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0–6.2)]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D was observed in the high HOMA-IR (?2.5) group [n?=?207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4–10.3)], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5) group [n?=?592, OR 0.8 (0.3–1.9)]. Conclusions Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance. PMID:24130687

Seo, Ji A.; Eun, Chai Ryoung; Cho, Hyunjoo; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Yim, Hyung Joon; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

2013-01-01

126

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in Poland.  

PubMed

Lactose-absorption capacity was examined in 275 apparently healthy Polish adolescents and adults (214 females and 61 males with an average age of 29.1 years) using a field version of the lactose-tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. In the total group, 172 lactose absorbers (62.5%) and 103 lactose malabsorbers (37.5%) were identified. Reported milk intolerance and symptoms of lactose intolerance were significantly more frequent in lactose malabsorbers. Subdivision according to the birthplaces of the probands' grandparents did not reveal significant regional differences. The unexpectedly high frequency of lactose malabsorption is further evidence for concentric genetic clines of lactase gene frequencies extending from southern Scandinavia, the area with the lowest observed frequencies of selective adult hypolactasia, to the south and the east. PMID:6465837

Socha, J; Ksiazyk, J; Flatz, G; Flatz, S D

1984-01-01

127

Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in an Adult Normal Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The vitamin D status of a general adult urban population was estimated between November and April in 1569 subjects selected\\u000a from 20 French cities grouped in nine geographical regions (between latitude 43° and 51° N). Major differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin\\u000a D (25(OH)D) concentration were found between regions, the lowest values being seen in the North and the greatest in the

M.-C. Chapuy; P. Preziosi; M. Maamer; S. Arnaud; P. Galan; S. Hercberg; P. J. Meunier

1997-01-01

128

Prevalence of GERD symptoms in a representative Israeli adult population.  

PubMed

The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in the general population is lower in Asian than Western countries. Data are lacking for countries in the Middle East. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms among Israeli Jews. A questionnaire including 8 specific questions for GERD symptoms was administered by telephone interview to a representative sample of the population. One thousand two hundred twenty-one of 1839 individuals were successfully contacted and 981 had valid, complete data. The mean age was 45.0 years and 55% were females. Over the previous year 34.8% of the respondents reported suffering any GERD symptom. Of these 11.6% reported retrosternal burning, 11.7% retrosternal pain, 19.0% an acid taste in the mouth, and 17.5% reflux of gastric content. In all, 6.5%, 5.2%, 10.4%, and 7.9%, respectively, suffered these symptoms at least once a week, and 2.0%, 1.8%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively, defined their symptoms as frequent and severe. Male sex (P=0.01) and a functional lower gastrointestinal (GI) disorder (P<0.0001) contributed significantly to the severity of upper GI reflux-like symptoms. In conclusion, GERD symptoms are common among Israeli Jews. The symptoms are generally of mild-to-moderate severity and are significantly associated with lower functional GI disorders. PMID:17450026

Sperber, Ami D; Halpern, Zamir; Shvartzman, Pesach; Friger, Michael; Freud, Tami; Neville, Anat; Fich, Alex

2007-01-01

129

Prevalence of Food Insecurity and Comprehensiveness of Its Measurement for Older Adult Congregate Meals Program Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food insecurity prevalence was assessed for 189 community-dwelling older adults participating in congregate meals, using the national CPS-FSSM survey, based on economics, and augmented items, including such factors as ability to prepare and\\/or shop for food. Results showed that 80.4% were food secure; lower than the national rate for older adult households (92.4%). Age, gender, and educational level were found

Lynn Duerr

2007-01-01

130

Prevalence of anxiety disorders among adults seeking speech therapy for stuttering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the prevalence of anxiety disorders among adults seeking speech therapy for stuttering. Employing a matched case–control design, participants included 92 adults seeking treatment for stuttering, and 920 age- and gender-matched controls from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios for Diagnostic and Statistical

Lisa Iverach; Sue O’Brian; Mark Jones; Susan Block; Michelle Lincoln; Elisabeth Harrison; Sally Hewat; Ross G. Menzies; Ann Packman; Mark Onslow

2009-01-01

131

The effect of education on decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain: a longitudinal study in Korean male adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents. Methods A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education. Results The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Of the 570 students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months. Conclusions Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up. PMID:25301193

Koh, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Park, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Hea Rim; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

2014-01-01

132

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Australian Adults: Prevalence, Persistence, Conduct Problems and Disadvantage  

PubMed Central

Background The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP) are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP. Methodology Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i) full DSM-IV criteria; (ii) excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion); (iii) participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms). Results Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP. Conclusion The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study. PMID:23071800

Ebejer, Jane L.; Medland, Sarah E.; van der Werf, Julius; Gondro, Cedric; Henders, Anjali K.; Lynskey, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G.; Duffy, David L.

2012-01-01

133

Prevalence and reasons for initiating use of electronic cigarettes among adults in montana, 2013.  

PubMed

We used data from the 2013 Montana Adult Tobacco Survey to estimate the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and reasons for initiation among Montana adults. More than 1 in 10 (11.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-13.2%) adults reported ever using e-cigarettes, and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.9%) reported current use. Most respondents reported "trying something new" (64%) or "trying to quit or reduce cigarette use" (56%) as a reason for initiating use. Ongoing surveillance of these addictive products is needed. PMID:25412027

Schmidt, Lisa; Reidmohr, Alison; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

2014-01-01

134

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

135

A prevalence study of suicide ideation among older adults in Hong Kong SAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective The objective of this paper is to ascertain estimates of the prevalence, and associated risk factors for, suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method The study was conducted as part of the General Household Survey (GHS), using face to face interviews of ethnic Chinese people aged 60 or above living in the community. Elders living

Paul S. F. Yip; Iris Chi; Helen Chiu; Kwan Chi Wai; Yeates Conwell; Eric Caine

2003-01-01

136

Caries prevalence and tooth loss in Hungarian adult population: results of a national survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oral health is basicly important for the well-being of people. Thus, it is strongly suggested to organize epidemiological surveys in order to gain representative data on oral condition of the given population. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to determine the results on tooth loss and caries prevalence of Hungarian adults in different age groups. METHODS: Altogether 4606

Melinda Madléna; Péter Hermann; Marianna Jáhn; Pál Fejérdy

2008-01-01

137

Prevalence and Correlates of Pica Among Adults with Intellectual Disability in Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased knowledge of complex behaviors such as pica is needed to improve the support and services in the community for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Though the prevalence of pica has been documented extensively in institutionalized settings, few studies have explored its etiology. The aim of this study is to explore the correlates of pica among institutionalized adults with ID.

Melody Ashworth; Lynn Martin; John P. Hirdes

2008-01-01

138

Prevalence and Correlates of Postsecondary Residential Status among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the prevalence and correlates of three living arrangements (with a parent or guardian, independently or with a roommate, or in a supervised setting) among a nationally representative sample of postsecondary young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. We assessed living arrangements since leaving high school. Compared with…

Anderson, Kristy A.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Roux, Anne M.; Wagner, Mary

2014-01-01

139

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

Hove, Oddbjorn

2004-01-01

140

Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia in Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation without Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been…

Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K.; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne

2004-01-01

141

Prevalence of oesophageal eosinophils and eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults: the population-based Kalixanda study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis may be increasing but the prevalence in the general population remains unknown. Our aim was to assess this and the presence of eosinophils in the distal oesophageal epithelium in the community.Methods: Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in a random sample (n = 1000) of the adult Swedish population (mean age 54 years, 49% men). Oesophageal biopsy samples were obtained

Jukka Ronkainen; Nicholas J Talley; Pertti Aro; Tom Storskrubb; Sven-Erik Johansson; Tore Lind; Elisabeth Bolling-Sternevald; Manfred Stolte; Marjorie M Walker; Lars Agre?us

2007-01-01

142

Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions in an adult turkish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions in a Turkish adult population. Material and methods: Five thousand consecutive patients were examined during routine dental treatment. Some of the mucosal changes were diagnosed solely by clinical examination. When clinical features were not diagnos- tic, a biopsy was undertaken. Chi-square test was

Ali-Riza-?lker Cebeci; Büyük-Kaan Orhan

2009-01-01

143

E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison.  

PubMed

Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ?18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ?18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors. PMID:24680203

Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

2014-07-01

144

Prevalent Multidrug-resistant Nonvaccine Serotypes in Pneumococcal Carriage of Healthy Korean Children Associated with the Low Coverage of the Seven-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our previous longitudinal multicenter-based carriage study showed that the average carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 16.8% in 582 healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school in Seoul, Korea. We assessed serotype-specific prevalence and antimicrobial resistance among colonizing pneumococcal isolates from young children in the era of low use of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Methods Serotypes were determined by an agglutination test with specific antisera or by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed with broth microdilution in Korean 96-well panels from Dade-MicroScan (Sacramento, CA, USA). Results Pneumococcal colonization patterns were dynamic and longterm persistent carriage was rare, which indicated a sequential turnover of pneumococcal strains. Of the 369 pneumococci (except for 23 killed isolates), 129 (34.9%) isolates were PCV7 vaccine serotypes (VTs); 213 (57.8%) isolates were nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs); and the remaining 27 (7.2%) isolates were nontypable (NT). The highest rates of multidrug resistance (MDR) were observed in VTs (86.0%; 111/129 isolates) and NVTs (70.0%; 149/213 isolates). Conclusion This study overall showed the frequent carriage of VTs and NVTs with MDR in healthy children attending kindergarten or elementary school. Efforts should be directed toward reducing the extensive prescription of antibiotics and using new broader vaccines to reduce the expansion of MDR strains of NVTs in our community. PMID:24524020

Lee, Sungkyoung; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Seong-Han; Park, Misun; Bae, Songmee

2013-01-01

145

Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]). Conclusions Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects. PMID:25360593

Yoon, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hoon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Han, Kyung-Do; Jung, Dong-Wook; Park, Sang-Woon; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Su; Kim, Yang-Hyun

2014-01-01

146

Prevalence and Trends of Adult Obesity in the US, 1999-2012.  

PubMed

Aim. To provide national estimates of obesity among US adults aged 20 years and older in 2011-2012 and track its trends from 1999 to 2012. Methods. Measured weight/height from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2012 waves was used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and prevalence measures. Piecewise logistic regressions were conducted to test the differential trends before and after 2010. Results. In 2011-2012, the age-adjusted prevalence of overweight and obesity combined (BMI ? 25) was 71.1% (95% CI: 68.0%-74.2%) among men and 65.5% (61.8%-69.3%) among women, and the prevalence of obesity (BMI ? 30) was 33.3% (30.5%-36.2%) among men and 35.8% (32.3%-39.4%) among women. From 1990-2000 to 2009-2010, the prevalence of overweight and obesity combined, obesity, grades 2 and 3 obesity combined (BMI ? 35), and grade 3 obesity (BMI ? 40) increased by 7.2%, 17.8%, 17.6%, and 33.0%, respectively. Compared to 2009-2010, most gender- and race/ethnicity-specific prevalence measures remained unchanged or slightly decreased in 2011-2012. No significant difference in trends among prevalence measures was found before and after 2010. Conclusions. Concurrent evidence on the leveling off of obesity in the US is thin. Given its high prevalence and profound socioeconomic consequences, close monitoring of the trend is warranted. PMID:25002986

An, Ruopeng

2014-01-01

147

Prevalence of selected clinical problems in older adults with autism and intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Background Originally described as a disorder of childhood, evidence now demonstrates the lifelong nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite the increase of the population over age 65, older adults with ASD remain a scarcely explored subpopulation. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of clinically relevant behaviors and medical problems in a sample of US adults aged 30 to 59 with ASD and intellectual disability (ID), in comparison to those with ID only. Methods A cross-sectional study, with both an exploratory and replication analysis, was conducted using National Core Indicators (NCI) multi-state surveys from 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011. There were 4,989 and 4,261 adults aged 30–59 with ID examined from the 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011 samples, respectively. The two consecutive annual samples consisted of 438 (9%) and 298 (7%) individuals with ASD and ID. Variables were chosen from the NCI data as outcomes, including medication use for behavior problems, severe or aggressive behavior problems and selected medical conditions. Results No age-associated disparities were observed between adults with ASD and ID versus adults with ID only in either sample. For the 2009 to 2010 sample, the prevalence of support needed to manage self-injurious, disruptive and destructive behavior in subjects with ASD and ID ranged from 40 to 60%. Similarly, the prevalence estimates of self-injurious, disruptive and destructive behavior were each almost double in adults with ASD and ID relative to those with ID only. These results were replicated in the 2010 to 2011 sample. Conclusions The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for research on the nature and treatment of severe behavior problems in the rapidly increasing population of older adults with ASD. They also suggest the importance of developing policies that expand our capacity to care for these individuals. PMID:24066979

2013-01-01

148

Peripheral Artery Disease in Korean Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Prevalence and Association with Coronary Artery Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an important marker for the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the prevalence of PAD in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CAD and the relationship between ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and CAD severity. A total of 711 patients undergoing PCI for CAD from August 2009 to August 2011 were enrolled. PAD diagnosis was made using the ABPI. The prevalence of PAD was 12.8%. In PAD patients, mean values of right and left ABPI were 0.71 ± 0.15 and 0.73 ± 0.15. Patients with PAD had a higher prevalence of left main coronary disease (14.3% vs 5.8%, P = 0.003), more frequently had multivessel lesions (74.9% vs 52.1%, P < 0.001) and had higher SYNTAX score (18.2 ± 12.3 vs 13.1 ± 8.26, P = 0.002). Using multivariate analysis, we determined that left main CAD (OR, 2.954; 95% CI, 1.418-6.152, P = 0.004) and multivessel CAD (OR, 2.321; 95% CI, 1.363-3.953, P = 0.002) were both independently associated with PAD. We recommend that ABPI-based PAD screening should be implemented in all patients undergoing PCI with CAD, especially in severe cases. PMID:23341717

Kim, Eun Kyoung; Song, Pil Sang; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Duk-kyung

2013-01-01

149

Sociocultural Dynamics of ESL Learning (De)Motivation: An Activity Theory Analysis of Two Adult Korean Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their…

Kim, Tae-Young

2011-01-01

150

Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their cardiometabolic comorbidities in Hispanic adults living in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

This study characterized the prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed their cardiometabolic comorbidities in the population aged 21–79 years living in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico. We analyzed data from a household survey conducted in Puerto Rico between 2005 and 2007 that used a representative sample of 840 non-institutionalized adults living in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. Body mass index categories were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to estimate the prevalence ratio to assess the association of each cardiometabolic comorbidity (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, prediabetes, systemic inflammation, prothrombotic state, and coronary heart disease) with overweight and obesity. Age-standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35.9% and 41.5%, respectively, figures higher than the combined prevalence for the U.S. adult population (68.8%) but similar to all mainland Hispanics (78.8%). Men were more likely to be overweight than women (40.4% versus 33.4%), whereas more women than men were obese (43.7% versus 37.6%). Prevalence of all cardiometabolic comorbidities was significantly (p<0.05) higher among overweight and obese adults than those of normal weight after adjusting for age, sex, years of education, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. A considerable proportion of adults in this population are overweight or obese. In view of the wide-ranging effects that overweight and obesity have on health, preventive actions to avert the rise of excess body weight as well as the design of lifestyle interventions are largely needed in this population. PMID:23846388

Pérez, Cynthia M.; Sánchez, Hesmy; Ortiz, Ana P.

2013-01-01

151

Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome among rural original adults in NingXia, China  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is combination of medical disorders that increase people's risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Little data exists on the prevalence of MS of rural original adults in Ningxia of China. Methods A cross-sectional survey method was used and the participants were interviewed by trained health workers under a structured questionnaire in rural of Ningxia in 2008. The number of research subjects was 1612. MS was defined by International Diabetes Federation IDF (2005). Results The age-adjusted prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 11.8%, whereas ethnic-specific prevalence was 10.3% in Han ethnic group and 13.7% in Hui ethnic group. Components of MS and MS were more common in Hui ethnic group than Han ethnic group. The mean levels and prevalence of abnormal value increased with increasing age in both ethnic groups (Cochran-Artimage test for trend, Hui ethnic group P < 0.05, Han ethnic group P < 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of MS was high in rural residents' adults in Ningxia. Clustering of MS components and MS was increased with age. The components of MS have big differences among different ethnic groups. PMID:20233456

2010-01-01

152

Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain  

PubMed Central

Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809 PMID:21777478

2011-01-01

153

The High Prevalence of Symptomatic Degenerative Lumbar Osteoarthritis in Chinese Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Design. A population-based study. Objective. To study the prevalence and features of symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults. Summary of Background Data. Lumbar osteoarthritis adversely affects individuals and is a heavy burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis. Methods. A representative, multistage sample of adults was collected. Symptomatic degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations, and imaging examinations. Personal information was obtained by face-to-face interview. Information included the place of residence, age, sex, income, type of medical insurance, education level, body mass index, habits of smoking and drinking, type of work, working posture, duration of the same working posture during the day, mode of transportation, exposure to vibration, and daily amount of sleep. Crude and adjusted prevalence was calculated. The features of populations were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression in total and subgroup populations. Results. The study included 3859 adults. The crude and adjusted prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was 9.02% and 8.90%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis between urban, suburban, and rural populations (7.66%, 9.97%, and 9.44%) (P = 0.100). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis was higher in females (10.05%) than in males (9.1%, P = 0.021). The prevalence of lumbar osteoarthritis increased with increasing age. Obese people (body mass index >28 kg/m2), those engaged in physical work, those who maintained the same work posture for 1 to 1.9 hours per day, those who were exposed to vibration during daily work, and those who got less than 7 hours of sleep per day had a higher prevalence. These features differed by subgroup. Conclusion. This study established epidemiological baseline data for degenerative lumbar osteoarthritis in adults, especially for people younger than 45 years. Lumbar osteoarthritis is epidemic in Beijing and will become a more severe problem in aging society. Different populations have different features that require targeted interventions. Level of Evidence: 2 PMID:24825154

Liu, Yajun; Xiao, Bin; Han, Xiao

2014-01-01

154

Prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among adults in WHO South-East Asia.  

PubMed

Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is an understudied problem in South-East Asia. Information on SLT use among the adult population was collected from various available sources. SLT use prevalence varies among countries in the region. The prevalence of SLT use is known for all countries at national level in the region with the exception of Bhutan and DPR Korea. For Bhutan, data pertains to Thimphu only. There is no available data on SLT use for DPR Korea. Using all available data from Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, SLT use was found to be higher among males as compared to females; however, in Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Thailand, SLT use was higher among females as compared to males. Among males, prevalence of SLT use varied from 51.4% in Myanmar to 1.1% in Thailand. Among females, the prevalence of SLT use varied from 27.9% in Bangladesh to 1.9% in Timor-Leste. The prevalence also varies in different parts of countries. For instance, the prevalence of current use of SLT in India ranges from 48.7% in Bihar to 4.5% in Himachal Pradesh. In Thailand, prevalence of current use of tobacco use varies from 0.8% in Bangkok to over 4% in the northern (4.1%) and northeastern (4.7%) region. Among all SLT products, betel quid was the most commonly used product in most countries including Bangladesh (24.3%) and Thailand (1.8%). However, Khaini (11.6%) chewing was practiced most commonly in India. Nearly 5% of the adult population used tobacco as dentifrice in Bangladesh and India. SLT is more commonly used in rural areas and among disadvantaged groups. Questions from standard "Tobacco Questions for Surveys (TQS)" need to be integrated in routine health system surveys in respective countries to obtain standardized tobacco use data at regular intervals that will help in providing trends of SLT use in countries. PMID:23442396

Sinha, D N; Gupta, P C; Ray, Cecily; Singh, P K

2012-01-01

155

North Korean \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today some foreign observers have begun to claim significant changes in the North Korean ‘‘socialist realism’’ literary tradition, such as a broadening of the permissible range of topics and even some concessions to alternative discourses. This article investigates whether the most favored branch of contemporary North Korean literature, namely, ‘‘rural fiction,’’ has indeed become a conduit of political liberalization and,

Tatiana Gabroussenko

2009-01-01

156

Hearing Loss Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Older Adults in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background. Hearing loss has been associated with cognitive and functional decline in older adults and may be amenable to rehabilitative interventions, but national estimates of hearing loss prevalence and hearing aid use in older adults are unavailable. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2005–2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, which is the first cycle to ever incorporate hearing assessment in adults aged 70 years and older. Audiometry was performed in 717 older adults, and data on hearing aid use, noise exposure, medical history, and demographics were obtained from interviews. Analyses incorporated sampling weights to account for the complex sampling design and yield results that are generalizable to the U.S. population. Results. The prevalence of hearing loss defined as a speech frequency pure tone average of more than 25 dB in the better ear was 63.1% (95% confidence interval: 57.4–68.8). Age, sex, and race were the factors most strongly associated with hearing loss after multivariate adjustment, with black race being substantially protective against hearing loss (odds ratio 0.32 compared with white participants [95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.53]). Hearing aids were used in 40.0% (95% confidence interval: 35.1–44.8) of adults with moderate hearing loss, but in only 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.8–6.0) of those with a mild hearing loss. Conclusion. Hearing loss is prevalent in nearly two thirds of adults aged 70 years and older in the U.S. population. Additional research is needed to determine the epidemiological and physiological basis for the protective effect of black race against hearing loss and to determine the role of hearing aids in those with a mild hearing loss. PMID:21357188

Thorpe, Roland; Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Ferrucci, Luigi

2011-01-01

157

Changing patterns in the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience according to gender and age: A multilevel study in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the effects of socio-environmental factors on dental caries in different demographic situations in Asian populations. We investigated whether the nature of the association between regional socio-economic context and dental caries experience differed according to gender and age groups in Korean adults. Methods We obtained a linked data set containing individual information from the 2000 Korean National Oral Health Survey and regional information from the “Major statistical indices of Si-Gun-Gu” (city-county-ward), published by the Korean Statistical Office. We stratified participants into women and men and into four 10-year-interval age groups (19–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55–64 years) and analysed the linked data using a multilevel analysis. In total, 5,259 individuals were included in the final study population. Results Regional socio-economic context was significantly associated with dental caries experience in men, but not in women. The patterns of the association between regional contextual variables and dental caries experience differed among age groups. People 35–44 years of age living in areas less dependent on the manufacturing industry and those 45–54 years of age living in areas where local government was relatively poor were more prone to have caries experience. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that socio-economic factors affecting residents’ dental health status may operate through different mechanisms or degrees according to geographic location, suggesting that some gender- and age-defined subgroups may be likely to benefit from different types of intervention, including the development of specific health policies. PMID:22839762

2012-01-01

158

Prevalence and clinical features of Thought-Perception-Sensitivity Symptoms: results from a community survey of Korean high school students.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic research indicates that psychosis and depression most frequently develop during adolescence. Hence, an efficient strategy for improving youth mental health would be to focus on detection of early-stage psychosis and depression in adolescence. In this study, 1461 high school students were surveyed using self-report scales. Students who scored equal to or above the cut-off value on any of the scales and who agreed to a further examination proceeded to a second assessment, using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States along with self-reporting scales. The estimated prevalence of adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and of depression-spectrum disorders was 1.26 and 3.69% respectively. Compared with the normal group, experiences of bullying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were significantly higher in these two groups; the subjects at UHR for psychosis were found to have significantly lower academic performance and lower ratings on SCRS; and submissive behavior was more prevalent in the depression-spectrum group. Our results reveal several clinical features of adolescents at UHR for psychosis and with depression-spectrum disorder and underscore the importance of accurate assessment of and early appropriate care for these adolescents. PMID:22475525

Kang, Nam-In; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Oh, Keun-Young; Shim, Shi-Ha; Chung, Young-Chul

2012-08-15

159

Prevalence of Obesity Among Children and\\/or Grandchildren of Adult Bariatric Surgery Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Clinical experience suggests that some adults who undergo bariatric surgery have children who are obese. Childhood obesity\\u000a is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in later life. This study examined the prevalence of obesity among children\\u000a and grandchildren (?12 years of age) of adult bariatric surgery patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients in a prospective database of morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery between

Jean J. Bao; Vikas Desai; Katherine Kaufer Christoffel; Patrick Smith-Ray; Alex P. Nagle

2009-01-01

160

Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population. PMID:24183140

Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

2013-12-01

161

Prevalence and Demographic Distribution of Adult Survivors of Child Abuse in Japan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted with a national epidemiological survey to investigate the prevalence and demographic distribution of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure the history of child abuse and the demographic characteristics. The participants reported the following 4 types of child abuse: physical abuse (3%), sexual abuse (0.6%), neglect (0.8%), and psychological abuse (4%). Significant unequal distribution of child abuse was found to be associated with sex, living region, marital status, job status, and educational status. We determined the prevalence of adult survivors of child abuse in Japan and found that their demographic characteristics were unequally distributed. Policy makers and public health providers should take these demographic disparities into account in considering effective public health interventions for survivors of child abuse. PMID:23687257

Tsuboi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Honami; Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamura, Kunio

2013-05-16

162

Association between executive function and physical performance in older Korean adults: Findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced executive function and physical performance are common age-related conditions. This study evaluated the associations between executive function and physical performance in a representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from a population-based sample of 629 men and women aged 65 or older and living in one typical city in Korea. Specific aspects of executive function were assessed

Yoonseok Huh; Eun Joo Yang; Seung Ah Lee; Jae-Young Lim; Ki Woong Kim; Nam-Jong Paik

2011-01-01

163

Prevalence of hypothyroidism in adults: An epidemiological study in eight cities of India  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypothyroidism is believed to be a common health issue in India, as it is worldwide. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in adult population of India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, multi-centre, epidemiological study was conducted in eight major cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Kolkata) of India to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult population. Thyroid abnormalities were diagnosed on the basis of laboratory results (serum FT3, FT4 and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone [TSH]). Patients with history of hypothyroidism and receiving levothyroxine therapy or those with serum free T4 <0.89 ng/dl and TSH >5.50 ?U/ml, were categorized as hypothyroid. The prevalence of self reported and undetected hypothyroidism, and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody positivity was assessed. Results: A total of 5376 adult male or non-pregnant female participants ?18 years of age were enrolled, of which 5360 (mean age: 46 ± 14.68 years; 53.70% females) were evaluated. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 10.95% (n = 587, 95% CI, 10.11-11.78) of which 7.48% (n = 401) patients self reported the condition, whereas 3.47% (n = 186) were previously undetected. Inland cities showed a higher prevalence of hypothyroidism as compared to coastal cities. A significantly higher (P < 0.05) proportion of females vs. males (15.86% vs 5.02%) and older vs. younger (13.11% vs 7.53%), adults were diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Additionally, 8.02% (n = 430) patients were diagnosed to have subclinical hypothyroidism (normal serum free T4 and TSH >5.50 ?IU/ml). Anti – TPO antibodies suggesting autoimmunity were detected in 21.85% (n = 1171) patients. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism was high, affecting approximately one in 10 adults in the study population. Female gender and older age were found to have significant association with hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism and anti-TPO antibody positivity were the other common observations. PMID:23961480

Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Kalra, Sanjay; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathi; John, Mathew; Tewari, Neeraj

2013-01-01

164

Older Adult Patients with Both Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Disorders: Prevalence and Health Service Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and service use among older adults with concurrent psychiatric and substance abuse disorders (the “dually diagnosed”) was examined in a cross-sectional survey of a representative national sample of Department of Veterans Affairs mental health program patients (N = 91,752). Rates of dual diagnosis declined significantly (P = 0.001) as the age of the respondents increased (26.7% of patients

Holly G. Prigerson; Rani A. Desai; Robert A. Rosenheck

2001-01-01

165

Prevalence and Correlates of Mental Distress Among Working Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of mental distress and its correlates among working Ethiopian adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 2,180 individuals (1,316 men and 864 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of participants. Mental distress was assessed using the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ). Logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: The prevalence of mental distress in the study sample was 17.7% (25.9% in women and 12.4% in men). Younger participants (age ?24 years) had the highest prevalence of mental distress (35.5% in women and 16.7% in men). The odds of mental distress was 2.47-fold higher among women as compared with men (OR=2.47, 95% CI 1.97-3.09). Participants reporting excellent health status had a 50% reduced odds of mental distress (OR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.38-0.59); and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a slight increased odds of mental distress (OR=1.26; 95%CI: 1.00-1.67). Conclusion: A high prevalence of mental distress was observed among working adults in Ethiopia. Our findings suggest that the workforce institutions should provide targeted prevention and intervention programs to improve the mental health state of their employees. National mental health policy that clearly outlines and addresses mental distress among working adults is also warranted. PMID:23166564

Gelaye, Bizu; Lemma, Seblewengel; Deyassa, Negussie; Bahretibeb, Yonas; Tesfaye, Markos; Berhane, Yemane; Williams, Michelle A

2012-01-01

166

Prevalence of hypertransaminasemia in adult celiac patients and effect of gluten-free diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of hypertransaminasemia and the effect of gluten-free diet (GFD) were evaluated in 158 consecutive adult celiac patients, 127 women and 31 men, aged 18 to 68 years (mean, 32). At diagnosis, 67 patients (42%) had raised aspartate and\\/or alanine transaminase levels (AST and ALT; mean, 47 IU\\/L, range, 30 to 190; and 61 IU\\/L, range, 25 to 470,

Maria Teresa Bardella; Mirella Fraquelli; Maurizio Quatrini; Nicoletta Molteni; Paolo Bianchi; Dario Conte

1995-01-01

167

Sexual Media Use by Young Adults in Hong Kong: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of sexual media use, and factors associated with it, among Chinese young adults were studied in Hong Kong. Questions on use of sexual media were asked as part of a youth sexuality study conducted by the Family Planning Association in 1996. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 517 men and 447 women aged 18–27 years completed an anonymous structured

Mohsen Janghorbani; Tai Hing Lam

2003-01-01

168

Prevalence and Determinants of Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants' demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7%) reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31), drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63), subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08), and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87) were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury. PMID:25371674

Orces, Carlos H.

2014-01-01

169

Prevalence and correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults from a French community sample.  

PubMed

Validated tools are lacking in languages such as French to diagnose attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The Adult ADHD Symptoms Self-Report (ASRS) was filled out by 1171 parents of 900 school-aged youths in the context of the Children and Parents With ADHD and Related Disorders study. Prevalence estimates based on three scoring methods are compared (6-item screener, all 18 items, or the screener followed by the 12 remaining items). On the basis of the recommended and more conservative scoring method, the overall prevalence of ADHD symptoms is estimated to be 2.99%, without significant group differences between sexes or between younger and older adults. Potential correlates of ADHD symptoms were also examined in their relatives (children, brothers/sisters, uncles/aunts, and parents) as follows: birth order, level of education, body mass index categories, enuresis, suicide attempts, depression, and learning disabilities. Adults can be screened for ADHD symptoms using the ASRS; negative long-term outcomes should be assessed in patients' relatives too. PMID:24647218

Caci, Hervé M; Morin, Alexandre J S; Tran, Antoine

2014-04-01

170

Prevalence, Course, and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depression in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: (1) To describe the prevalence and prospective course of insomnia in a representative young-adult sample and (2) to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between insomnia and depression. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Community of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Representative stratified population sample. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: The Zurich Study prospectively assessed psychiatric, physical, and sleep symptoms in a community sample of young adults (n = 591) with 6 interviews spanning 20 years. We distinguished 4 duration-based subtypes of insomnia: 1-month insomnia associated with significant distress, 2- to 3-week insomnia, recurrent brief insomnia, and occasional brief insomnia. The annual prevalence of 1-month insomnia increased gradually over time, with a cumulative prevalence rate of 20% and a greater than 2-fold risk among women. In 40% of subjects, insomnia developed into more chronic forms over time. Insomnia either with or without comorbid depression was highly stable over time. Insomnia lasting 2 weeks or longer predicted major depressive episodes and major depressive disorder at subsequent interviews; 17% to 50% of subjects with insomnia lasting 2 weeks or longer developed a major depressive episode in a later interview. “Pure” insomnia and “pure” depression were not longitudinally related to each other, whereas insomnia comorbid with depression was longitudinally related to both. Conclusions: This longitudinal study confirms the persistent nature of insomnia and the increased risk of subsequent depression among individuals with insomnia. The data support a spectrum of insomnia (defined by duration and frequency) comorbid with, rather than secondary to, depression. Citation: Buysse DJ; Angst J; Gamma A; Ajdacic V; Eich D; Rössler W. Prevalence, Course, and Comorbidity of Insomnia and Depression in Young Adults. SLEEP 2008;31(4):473-480. PMID:18457234

Buysse, Daniel J.; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Eich, Dominique; Rossler, Wulf

2008-01-01

171

Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Phosphate Tablets and Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Bowel Cleansing in Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bowel cleansing is generally regarded as time-consuming and unpleasant among patients. Patients commonly state that bowel preparation provokes more discomfort than the actual colonoscopic examination. The purpose of this study was to compare two regimens of sodium phosphate (NaP) tablets versus polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel preparation in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods This was a single center, prospective, open-label, investigator-blinded, randomized, controlled-pilot study. A total of 62 healthy Korean subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (NaP vs. PEG). Efficacy, safety, and patient-related outcomes, as well as procedural parameters, were evaluated. Results Although there were no significant differences in total Ottawa bowel quality score, fluid scores and the rate of adequate bowel preparation were significantly better in the NaP group than the PEG group. Additionally, the NaP group showed better results regarding patient tolerance, satisfaction, preference, and rate of adverse events than the PEG group. Significant fluctuations in specific serum electrolytes were common and of a greater magnitude in the NaP group than the PEG group. However, these abnormalities were transient and did not result in serious complications and side effects. Conclusion In this study, NaP tablets were shown to be an effective, well-tolerated, and acceptable regimen for bowel preparation. Also, our study suggests that NaP tablets may be safe and can be used as a bowel cleansing agent in healthy adults undergoing elective colonoscopy. Further multicenter, large scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25323890

Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Seo, Sang-Wook; Kang, Joon-Koo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Lee, Dong-Ryul

2014-01-01

172

The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status), Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373). Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013), ethnicity (p = 0.001), religion (p = 0.002), schooling (p = 0.020), educational level (p = 0.016), marital status (p = 0.001) and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken. PMID:19358728

Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj

2009-01-01

173

National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2%) in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4%) in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9%) in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1%) in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6%) and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%). Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set targets for obesity prevalence as requested at the United Nations high-level meeting on Prevention and Control of NCDs. PMID:23167948

2012-01-01

174

Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples  

E-print Network

CI] Reference P \\ 0.10; * P \\ 0.05; ** P \\ 0.01 Table 3 Prevalence of couple-level child and adultadult sexual abuse, N = 1070 participants Exposures Demographics a a a a a CSA Estimate (95% CI)CI [0.81, 1.59]). Discussion This study reports the prevalence of child and adult

2010-01-01

175

State-specific prevalence and trends in adult cigarette smoking--United States, 1998-2007.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking in the United States results in an estimated 443,000 premature deaths and $193 billion in direct health-care expenditures and productivity losses each year. During 2007, an estimated 19.8% of adults in the United States were current smokers. To update 2006 state-specific estimates of cigarette smoking, CDC analyzed data from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey and examined trends in cigarette smoking from 1998-2007. Results of these analyses indicated substantial variation in current cigarette smoking during 2007 (range: 8.7%-31.1%) among the 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), Guam, Puerto Rico (PR), and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). Trend analyses of 1998-2007 data indicated that smoking prevalence decreased in 44 states, DC, and PR, and six states had no substantial changes in prevalence after controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. However, only Utah and USVI met the Healthy People 2010 target for reducing adult smoking prevalence to 12% (objective 27-1a). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) calls for full implementation of comprehensive, evidence-based tobacco control programs at CDC-recommended funding levels to achieve substantial reductions in tobacco use in all states and areas. PMID:19282813

2009-03-13

176

Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex. Results The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa?=?0.52 and 0.64, respectively), whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa?=?0.83). The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively). The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS. Conclusions MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS. PMID:24614618

Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Yuying

2014-01-01

177

The prevalence and epidemiology of genetic renal disease amongst adults with chronic kidney disease in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background There are an established and growing number of Mendelian genetic causes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, though estimates of prevalence have been speculative. The CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD) registry enables partial clarification of this through the study of adults with CKD receiving nephrology care throughout Queensland, Australia. Methods Data from the first 2,935 patients consented to the CKD.QLD registry across five sites was analysed, with a comparison between those with and without Genetic Renal Disease (GRD). Prevalence of GRD amongst those with diagnosed CKD, the general population, and commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) was calculated using the CKD.QLD registry, national census data and extracted Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation (ANZDATA) registry report data respectively. Results Patients with GRD constituted 9.8% of this Australian adult CKD cohort (287/2935). This was lower than in local incident RRT cohorts (2006–2011: 9.8% vs 11.3%, x2?=?0.014). Cases of adult CKD GRD were more likely to be female (54.0% vs 45.6%; x2?=?0.007), younger (mean 52.6 yrs vs 69.3 yrs, p?adult CKD population in specialty renal practice is similar to past estimations. GRD is a significant cause for CKD and for RRT commencement, presenting opportunities for ongoing longitudinal study, directed therapeutics and clinical service redesign. PMID:24980890

2014-01-01

178

Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction and pain in adult general practice patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. To analyse the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and related pain (TMD-pain) among adult recall patients in general dental practice. Materials and methods. From November 2006 to September 2008, all adults attending a Swedish Public Dental Service (PDS) clinic for recall examination were asked two standardized questions about temporomandibular pain and dysfunction. Mouth-opening capacity was measured. The responses to the questions and mouth-opening capacity were combined to give a TMD-pain score, on a scale of 0-3. The patients' acceptance of their TMD condition was also noted. Results. The subjects comprised 2837 adults (53% females, 47% men). Of the total sample, 4.9% reported a TMD-pain score of 1-3. The gender difference was significant: women predominated (p < 0.003). Forty-three per cent of those with TMD-pain scores of 1-3 (36% men, 47% women) considered that the condition warranted treatment, especially those registering a pain score (significant difference between pain and dysfunction groups, p < 0.000). Conclusions. The TMD-pain score shows promise as a useful instrument for detecting and recording TMD-pain. The prevalence of TMD disclosed in the study is high enough to be considered a public health concern. Most of the subjects with lower scores on the TMD-pain scale accepted their condition as not severe enough to require treatment. PMID:24866918

Adèrn, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Christer; Sahlqvist, Lotta; Tegelberg, Ake

2014-11-01

179

Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

2014-01-01

180

High prevalence of chronic non-communicable conditions among adult refugees: implications for practice and policy.  

PubMed

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2012-10-01

181

High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy  

PubMed Central

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2013-01-01

182

The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

2013-01-01

183

Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

2008-01-01

184

The Prevalence, Incidence, and Factors Predictive of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Profound Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are no previous studies of the prevalence and incidence of mental ill-health in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Method: In this population-based prospective cohort study, adults with profound intellectual disabilities underwent psychiatric assessment (n = 184), with further assessment after 2 years (n = 131).…

Cooper, Sally-Ann; Smiley, Elita; Finlayson, Janet; Jackson, Alison; Allan, Linda; Williamson, Andrew; Mantry, Dipali; Morrison, Jillian

2007-01-01

185

Subjective cognitive failures after stroke in young adults: prevalent but not related to cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Few studies exist on subjective cognitive failures after a stroke in young adults (?50 years) and their relation to objective cognitive performance is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients with a stroke in young adulthood and their relation with objective cognitive impairment. This study is part of the "Follow-Up of Transient ischemic attack and stroke patients and Unelucidated Risk factor Evaluation"-study (FUTURE study), including patients, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980 and 2010 with a first-ever TIA or ischemic stroke. The prevalence of subjective cognitive failures in patients was determined and compared with 146 age- and sex-matched stroke-free controls. The relation of subjective failures with objective cognitive performance was investigated with linear and logistic regression analysis. 160 patients with a TIA and 277 with an ischemic stroke were included. After a mean follow-up of 10.1 (SD 8.3) years, the prevalence of subjective memory failures was 86.4% and that of subjective executive failures was 67.4% in patients, versus 69.7% (p = 0.008) and 41.4% (p = 0.002) in controls. A weak association between subjective memory failures and objective immediate (beta -0.12, p = 0.011) and delayed memory performance (beta -0.13, p = 0.010) was observed in patients. Subjective cognitive failures are prevalent after stroke in young adults, but not strongly related to objective cognitive impairment. Therefore, extensive neuropsychological assessment is essential for determination of objective cognitive impairment. However, it is important that subjective cognitive failures are recognized as they may indicate underlying psychosocial problems. PMID:24740819

Maaijwee, Noortje A M M; Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Arntz, Renate M; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

2014-07-01

186

Prevalence and correlates of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance among adults in Luzon, Philippines.  

PubMed

Recognizing the problem posed by diabetes mellitus, the National Diabetes Commission was created by Republic Act 8191 in 1996. The Commission identified the need for a Second National Diabetes Survey to have an updated estimate of the magnitude of the disease in the country and to have the needed information for developing a diabetes prevention and control program. This paper reports the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in adults and the factors associated with the prevalence of these conditions. A cross-sectional population-based study assessed the occurrence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance among a random sample of 7044 adults, aged 20-65 years who were residents of urban and rural areas in Luzon. Blood glucose level was measured by OGTT using the current WHO criteria. The crude diabetes prevalence of 5.1% represented a 54% increase over the figure (3.3%) for a similar population in Luzon in 1982. An increase was also noted in the magnitude of IGT which almost doubled from 4.1% in 1982 to 8.1% in the present survey. Only one in three diabetics reported that they had diabetes. The frequency of diabetes and IGT in urban and rural areas were about the same, although a substantial increase from the earlier survey was noted in rural areas. Women registered a higher prevalence for both conditions than men. Aside from age and gender, the other correlates of diabetes mellitus were hypertension, family history of diabetes, WHR, BMI, and physical inactivity. IGT had similar correlates as diabetes except physical inactivity. The present findings which are consistent with those of other studies underscore the role of lifestyle behaviors in diabetes and should be the target of intervention to prevent further increase in disease frequency. PMID:15063603

Baltazar, Jane C; Ancheta, Caridad A; Aban, Inmaculada B; Fernando, Ricardo E; Baquilod, Marina M

2004-05-01

187

Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

2014-01-01

188

Digestive symptoms in older adults: Prevalence and associations with institutionalization and mortality  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Digestive symptoms are common in adults. However, little is known about their prevalence in older adults and the association of digestive symptoms with institutionalization and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of digestive symptoms among older adults in Canada and whether they are associated with increased risk of institutionalization and mortality, independent of the effect of potential confounders. METHODS: The present study was a secondary analysis of data collected from community-dwelling participants 65 years of age and older in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Measures incuded age, sex, presence of digestive symptoms, cognition, impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) and self-reported health. Outcome measures included death or institutionalization over the 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: Digestive symptoms were found in 2288 (25.6%) of the 8949 subjects. Those with digestive symptoms were older, with a mean difference in age of six months (P=0.007). Digestive symptoms were more common among women (28.4%) than men (20.3%), among individuals with poor self-reported health and those with an increased number of impairments in their ADLs (P<0.001). The presence of digestive symptoms was associated with higher mortality (HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.05 to 1.25] adjusted for age, sex, cognitive function and ADL impairment); however, this association was not statistically significant after adjusting for self-reported health. CONCLUSION: Although digestive symptoms were associated with increased mortality independent of age and sex, cognition and function, this association was largely explained by poor self-assessed health. Digestive symptoms were not associated with institutionalization PMID:23248787

AlAmeel, Turki; Basheikh, Mohammed; Andrew, Melissa K

2012-01-01

189

Prevalence of adult domestic violence among women seeking routine care in a Native American health care facility.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and sociodemographic factors associated with, adult domestic violence within a Native American community. METHODS: Adult women in the community were surveyed. RESULTS: Of 371 eligible women, 341 (92%) were surveyed. Among respondents, 179 reported a history of at least 1 episode of domestic violence. Fifty-six (16.4%) reported violence within the previous 12 months. Age under 40 years and living in a household receiving governmental financial assistance were independently associated with 1-year prevalence of adult domestic violence. CONCLUSIONS: Adult domestic violence is prevalent within this Native American community. Additional research is required to characterize further the relationship between domestic violence and socioeconomic status. PMID:9772854

Fairchild, D G; Fairchild, M W; Stoner, S

1998-01-01

190

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

2012-01-01

191

Adult depression screening in Saudi primary care: prevalence, instrument and cost  

PubMed Central

Background By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. Depression is a mental illness which causes persistent low mood, a sense of despair, and has multiple risk factors. Its prevalence in primary care varies between 15.3-22%, with global prevalence up to 13% and between 17-46% in Saudi Arabia. Despite several studies that have shown benefit of early diagnosis and cost-savings of up to 80%, physicians in primary care setting continue to miss out on 30-50% of depressed patients in their practices. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at three large primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aiming at estimating point prevalence of depression and screening cost among primary care adult patients, and comparing Patient Health Questionnaires PHQ-2 with PHQ-9. Adult individuals were screened using Arabic version of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9. PHQ-2 scores were correlated with PHQ-9 scores using linear regression. A limited cost-analysis and cost saving estimates of depression screening was done using the Human Capital approach. Results Patients included in the survey analysis were 477, of whom 66.2% were females, 77.4% were married, and nearly 20% were illiterate. Patients exhibiting depressive symptoms on the basis of PHQ9 were 49.9%, of which 31% were mild, 13.4% moderate, 4.4% moderate-severe and 1.0% severe cases. Depression scores were significantly associated with female gender (p-value 0.049), and higher educational level (p-value 0.002). Regression analysis showed that PHQ-2 & PHQ-9 were strongly correlated R = 0.79, and R2 = 0.62. The cost-analysis showed savings of up to 500 SAR ($133) per adult patient screened once a year. Conclusion The point prevalence of screened depression is high in primary care visitors in Saudi Arabia. Gender and higher level of education were found to be significantly associated with screened depression. Majority of cases were mild to moderate, PHQ-2 was equivocal to PHQ 9 in utility and that screening for depression in primary care setting is cost saving. PMID:24992932

2014-01-01

192

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

2014-01-01

193

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination. Results The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI?28 kg/m2) was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as “fat” (OR?=?3.78 in men, OR?=?2.91 in women). Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise. Conclusion Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic. PMID:25225884

Cai, Li; Han, Xiaoyan; Qi, Zhi; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping

2014-01-01

194

Prevalence and determinants of obesity - a cross-sectional study of an adult Northern Nigerian population  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is assuming an epidemic dimension globally. It is important to appreciate factors associated with the disease so that a holistic approach can be taken in tackling the rising burden. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the factors independently associated with obesity in an urban Nigerian population. Methods A cross-sectional study of 300 healthy adult subjects was conducted in the urban city of Katsina, northern Nigeria. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were obtained. Screening for obesity was done using the Body Mass Index while relevant laboratory investigations were conducted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of obesity. Results Overweight and obesity was found in 53.3% and 21.0% respectively with a significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (overweight: 62.0% vs 41.9%, p < 0.001; obesity: 29.8% vs 9.3%, p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, the odds of obesity were higher in women and in the presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperuricaemia. However, in multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with obesity were female sex (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.705-13.842, p < 0.001), hypercholesterolaemia (OR 2.138, 95% CI 1.109-4.119, p = 0.023) and hyperuricaemia (OR 2.906, 95% CI 1.444-5.847, p = 0.003). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of obesity in northern Nigeria and women are significantly more affected. The high prevalence is independently associated with female sex, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperuricaemia. Public health education is urgently needed in order to reduce this burden and prevent other non-communicable cardiovascular disorders. PMID:21362196

2011-01-01

195

Prevalence of comorbid substance use disorder during long-term central stimulant treatment in adult ADHD.  

PubMed

Central stimulant (CS) therapy is a cornerstone in treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Substance use disorder (SUD) is a common comorbid disorder of ADHD and might complicate the treatment. Our main objectives were to investigate the prevalence of SUD during CS treatment, and identify variables associated with SUD during the treatment. The collection of data was based on a naturalistic, retrospective approach using the medical records of a cohort of all adult ADHD patients (N = 117) starting treatment with CS in a specific catchment area in the period 1997 to May 2005. A logistic regression model was applied to identify possible predictors of SUD during CS treatment. The study showed no onset of SUD during the CS treatment in the group of patients without comorbid SUD at baseline (mean CS treatment length 41.1 months). In the group of patients with comorbid SUD at baseline, 58.5 % had one or more relapses of SUD during treatment (mean CS treatment length 27.9 months). Younger age and comorbid antisocial personality disorder were associated with relapse. In a logistic regression analysis, cannabis abstinence for more than 12 months was a negative predictor for relapse of SUD. CS treatment does not precipitate onset of SUD in adults without previous SUD. PMID:23104523

Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjørn; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Vaaler, Arne; Nordahl, Hans M

2013-03-01

196

The prevalence of dental caries among adult population of different regions of georgia.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of dental caries in adult population of Georgia according to their regional distribution. The survey was carried out by pathfinder survey, based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34 years, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ years, the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of dental status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 'Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and an explorer. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk-factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people's attitude towards oral hygiene (tooth brushing, using dental floss) accessibility and acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The study revealed the high prevalence of dental caries in Georgia's adult population (96-100%) Caries intensity and severity was seen as the highest in Mtskheta- Mtianeti - 13.26±5.97, Guria - 12.79±8.92, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 12.62±8.44, Shida Qartli - 12.03±7.22 and Achara - 12.23±7.89 regions, relatively lower in Tbilisi - 11.64±7.8; Qvemo Qartli - 10.96±7.07; Imereti - 10.79±7.63 Samegrelo - 10.54±7.95 and in Kakheti - 9.86±7.02. By the mean number of caries decayed teeth Mckheta-Mtianeti - 4.26±3.51, Samckhe-Javakheti - 3.52±3.51 and Imereti - 3.05±3.1 were distinguished. The mean number of caries missing teeth was noted to be highest in Guria - 5.49±7.42, Samckhe-Javakheti - 5.31±6.97 and Achara - 5.32±6.73. Mckheta-Mtianeti - 2.62±3.05, Shida Qartli - 2.39±2.8 and Tbilisi - 2.28±2.09 were the leading regions by the mean number of filled teeth, the lowest value of filled teeth variable was seen in Imereti - 0.67±1.39. In summary behavioral factors (unsatisfactory oral hygiene and less acceptability of dental service due to low medical educational background) play substantial role in occurrence and prevalence of dental caries among adult population of Georgia in all regions, though the financial problem seems to be a considerable contributor in caries prevalence. Reliable statistical data obtained in the study allowed to conclude that in spite of small differences in prevalence in different regions of Georgia dental caries is very widespread throughout the country (96-100%). It represents a major problem in Georgia and needs serious attention and preventive measures to be carried out to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and improve medical educational background of the population. PMID:25214266

Tsitaisvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelasvili, V

2014-01-01

197

Low prevalence of islet autoimmunity in adult diabetes and low predictive value of islet autoantibodies in the general adult population of northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis. To assess the prevalence of islet autoimmunity in adult-onset diabetes mellitus and the predictive value of islet autoantibodies\\u000a in the general adult population of northern Italy. Methods. A sample of 2076 people aged 40 years or more participating in the population-based Cremona Study and classified in 1990\\u000a as having diabetes mellitus, impaired and normal glucose tolerance according to WHO

E. Bosi; M. P. Garancini; F. Poggiali; E. Bonifacio; G. Gallus

1999-01-01

198

Prevalence and trends of alcohol use and misuse among adolescents and young adults in the Netherlands from 1993 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an overview of Dutch studies on prevalence of alcohol use and adds findings from our own study on prevalence of drinking among adolescents and young adults aged 12–30 years in the Netherlands. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study by the Netherlands Twin Register in 1993 (n=3885), 1995 (n=4814), 1997 (n=3772) and 2000 (n=4090). Measures

Evelien A. P. Poelen; Ron H. J. Scholte; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Dorret I. Boomsma; Gonneke Willemsen

2005-01-01

199

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among Panamanian Adults. 1982-2010  

PubMed Central

Background In Central America, there has been a marked increase in obesity in the last 30 years. Over this time frame, in Panama, there have been lifestyle changes associated with economic development and urbanization that may have facilitated increases in body weight. The aim of the study is to describe the change in the prevalence of obesity in the country since 1982 and to analyze the association of obesity with gender, place of residence and socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed three nationally representative cross-sectional studies and one sub-national study of Panamanian adults that evaluated anthropometric and socioeconomic variables; ENPA-1982 (n?=?11 611), ENV-II 2003 (n?=?14 737), ENV-III 2008 (n?=?15 484), PREFREC-2010 (n ?=?3 590). We also evaluated one nationally representative study that evaluated people’s perception of their body weight, ENSCAVI-2007 (n?=?25 748). Results In 1982, the prevalence in males of a body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2 was 3.8% (3.3 – 4.2) and in females 7.6% (6.9 – 8.2). In 2003, the prevalence in males increased to 14.4% (13.6 – 15.2) and in females to 21.8% (20.8 – 22.7). In 2008, the prevalence in males was 16.9% (16.0 – 17.7) and in females it was 23.8% (22.8 – 24.7). Nevertheless, in 2007, the national perception of being obese was only 4% among males and 6.7% among females. The highest prevalence of obesity was noted in urban areas. Female gender and higher income were found to be positively associated with obesity. Income level was positively associated with abdominal obesity in men but not in women. Conclusions There has been a marked increase of obesity in Panama in the last 3 decades. Initiatives to control this problem will have to take into consideration the observed gender difference and the lifestyle changes that have contributed to the rise of this problem. PMID:24621825

Sasson, Morris; Lee, Marcos; Jan, Carmen; Fontes, Flavia; Motta, Jorge

2014-01-01

200

Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-01-01

201

Immunogenicity and safety of a single intramuscular dose of a diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (Td) vaccine (GC1107) in Korean adults.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a newly developed diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (Td) vaccine, GC1107 (Green Cross Corporation, Yongin, Korea), in comparison with placebo and active comparator (licensed Td vaccine) in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo and active comparator-controlled study was conducted. Forty subjects were randomly administered a single intramuscular dose of GC1107, active comparator or placebo in a ratio of 2:1:1. At 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination, anti-diphtheria antibody levels in the GC1107 group increased 9.2 and 9.3 times, respectively, compared to predose titers. The corresponding values were 9.3 and 8.3 times for the active comparator group. Anti-tetanus antibody levels increased 39.0 and 37.9 fold at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, after GC1107 administration, and 12.2 and 14.7 fold after active comparator administration. No increases in tetanus or diphtheria antibody were observed for the placebo group. Adverse events in the GC1107 and active comparator groups were more frequent than for the placebo group, but there were no significant differences between the two active treatments. In conclusion, GC1107 was well tolerated and provided significant boosts of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies. PMID:21864613

Lee, SeungHwan; Park, Wan Beom; Shin, Kwang-Hee; Ahn, Dong Ho; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Shin, Sang-Goo; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

2011-10-13

202

Self-reported Snoring and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-aged and Older Adults: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods In total, 7330 community-dwelling subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study were included in the analysis. Common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and plaque were evaluated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Snoring status was evaluated using a structured interview. Results Snorers had a significantly greater average CCA-IMT than non-snorers (0.726 vs 0.713 mm; P < 0.001), after adjusting for age and gender. The odds ratios (OR) for high CCA-IMT (fifth quintile) were significantly higher for snorers than for non-snorers in multivariate-adjusted analysis (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–1.42). However, there was no significant relationship between snoring and carotid plaques. Conclusions Our data suggest that self-reported snoring is significantly associated with increased IMT, but not with the presence of plaques. These findings suggest that early screening and intervention for snoring in the general population are needed to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:24727753

Lee, Young-Hoon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho

2014-01-01

203

Acute HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in Ugandan adults with suspected malaria  

PubMed Central

Objectives Acute febrile illnesses consistent with malaria are the most common presentation at health clinics in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 30–50% of outpatient visits. The symptoms of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can mimic acute malaria. We investigated whether acute HIV infections could be identified among adults with suspected malaria at rural health centers in Uganda. Design Cross-sectional study of 1,000 consecutive patients referred for malaria blood smears at each of 7 government health centers, of which 2893 (41%) were age 13 years or older and tested for HIV. Methods HIV EIA antibody testing was performed on dried blood spots and confirmed by Western blot (WB). EIA non-reactive and EIA reactive, WB-unconfirmed samples were pooled (10/pool) and tested for HIV RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. We defined acute HIV infection as HIV-1 RNA positive with a negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot pattern and early HIV infection as HIV-1 RNA positive with a positive Western blot pattern, but with a BED corrected optical density (ODn) of <0.8. Results Of 2893 patients evaluated, 324 (11%) had test results indicating HIV infection. Overall, 30 patients (1.0%) had acute HIV infection, 56 (1.8%) had early HIV infection, and 238 (8%) had established HIV infection. Acute HIV infections were more prevalent at sites with higher HIV prevalence and lower malaria endemicity. Conclusions At multiple sites in Uganda, 1–3% of adults with suspected malaria had acute or early HIV infection. These findings highlight a major opportunity for expanding recognition of acute and early HIV infection in Africa. PMID:20543656

BEBELL, Lisa M.; PILCHER, Christopher D.; DORSEY, Grant; HAVLIR, Diane; KAMYA, Moses R.; BUSCH, Michael P.; WILLIAMS, Joan DUNN; NUGENT, Charles T.; BENTSEN, Christopher; ROSENTHAL, Philip J.; CHARLEBOIS, Edwin D.

2010-01-01

204

Family history of type 2 diabetes and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians  

PubMed Central

Background: Our objective was to test the association between familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult Asian Indians. Materials and Methods: A total of 448 adult (>30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Familial risk of T2DM was classified into three groups viz., 1=both parents affected; 2=parent and/or siblings affected and 3=none or no family history for T2DM. Anthropometric measures, blood pressures, fasting blood glucose and metabolic profiles were studied using standard techniques. MS was defined accordingly. The prevalence of MS phenotypes was estimated and compared among the three familial risk strata. Results: Individuals with a history of both parents affected from diabetes had significantly higher (P<0.001) body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting blood glucose (FBG; P=0.035) than individuals having no family history of T2DM. Significant difference was also noticed between individuals with and without MS according to the family history of diabetes (P<0.001). Differences were evident between individuals who fulfilled all the MS criteria (P=0.001) and individuals with only one or two criteria (phenotypes) according to family history of T2DM. Conclusion: Family history of T2DM had significant effect on individuals with MS as compared to their counterparts (individuals having no family history of T2DM). It therefore seems reasonable to argue that family history of T2DM could be useful as a predictive tool for early diagnosis and prevention of MS in Asian Indian population. PMID:22629026

Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab

2012-01-01

205

Changing Patterns of Bacterial Strains in Adults and Children With Otitis Media in Korean Tertiary Care Centers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Otitis media (OM) is an infectious disease that affects all age brackets. Aural discharge is a typical symptom, occurring in all subtypes of OM. We have compared the identity and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from aural discharges of adults and children with various types of OM, including acute OM (AOM), OM with effusion (OME), chronic OM (COM), and cholesteatomatous OM (CSOM). Methods The study involved 2,833 patients who visited five tertiary hospitals between January 2001 and December 2010 and were diagnosed with AOM, OME, COM, or CSOM. The patients were divided into a pediatric group and an adult group, and the distribution of cultured bacteria and their antibiotic sensitivity were compared in the two groups. Results Bacterial detection rates were higher in adults than in children with OME and COM (P=0.000 each). The majority of the bacteria cultured from patients with AOM and OME bacteria were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics (P=0.002) and had higher antibiotic sensitivity (P=0.001) than were bacteria cultured from adults. The majority of bacteria culture from patients with COM and CSOM were MSSA and pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher in adults than in children, and more strains of bacteria isolated from adults were sensitive to the antibiotics septrin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Conclusion Bacteria cultured from children were more susceptible to antibiotics and had higher antibiotic sensitivity than did bacteria cultured from adults. PMID:24917902

Lee, Jun Seok; Kim, Myung Gu; Hong, Seok Min; Na, Se Young; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh

2014-01-01

206

Prevalence and correlates of coronary calcification in black and white young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas cardiovascular risk factor levels are substantially different in black and white Americans, the relative rates of cardiovascular disease in the 2 groups are not always consistent with these differences. To compare the prevalence of coronary calcification, an indicator of coronary atherosclerosis, in young adult blacks and whites, we performed electron-beam computed tomography of the heart in 443 men and

Diane E. Bild; Aaron R. Folsom; Lynn P. Lowe; Stephen Sidney; Catarina I. Kiefe; Andrew O. Westfall; Zhi-Jie Zheng; John Rumberger

2001-01-01

207

Prevalence of sapovirus infection among infant and adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Aim This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in patient with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. Background Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting both children and adult individuals. There isn't enough data about prevalence and genotypes of sapovirus infection in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Patients and methods A total of 42 fecal samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis from May to July 2009. RT nested- PCR was performed for screening. To genotype the sapovirus isolates, some positive samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by sequencing of fragments of viral capsid gene region. Results Sapovirus was detected in 5 of 42 stool specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis. Sapovirus detected in this study was clustered into only one distinct genogroup I/2. Sapovirus GI/2 was predominant. Conclusion Our results show that among the studied viruses responsible for this disease, sapovirus was a major viral isolate virus. PMID:24834197

Romani, Sara; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Bozorgi, Sajad Majidizadeh; Zali, Narges; Jadali, Farzaneh

2012-01-01

208

Prevalence and clinical characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in an adult inpatient setting†  

PubMed Central

Objective Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, is an often-severe, understudied disorder. We determined BDD’s prevalence and clinical features on a general adult psychiatric inpatient unit. To our knowledge, only one previous prevalence study has been done in this setting. Method One hundred patients completed 3 self-report measures: the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDD-Q), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Those who screened positive for BDD were interviewed to confirm DSM-IV BDD and its clinical features. Charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical information. Results BDD was diagnosed in 16.0% (95% CI=8.7–23.3%) (n=16) of patients. A high proportion of those with BDD reported that BDD symptoms contributed to suicidality. Patients revealed BDD symptoms to a mean of only 15.1%±33.7% lifetime mental health clinicians; only one (6.3%) reported symptoms to his current inpatient psychiatrist. Most did not disclose their symptoms due to embarrassment. Those with BDD were younger (P=.008) and had higher CES-D scores (P=.008). The two groups did not significantly differ on BAI score, demographic characteristics or discharge diagnoses. Conclusions BDD is relatively common but underdiagnosed in psychiatric inpatients and is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. PMID:18164943

Conroy, Michelle; Menard, William; Fleming-Ives, Kathryn; Modha, Poonam; Cerullo, Hilary; Phillips, Katharine A.

2008-01-01

209

Prevalence of norovirus infection in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis, Tehran, Iran, 2008-2009.  

PubMed

Noroviruses are one of important agents that cause acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. These viruses are belonging to Caliciviridae family and are genetically diverse. To date, there is no valuable data about prevalence of norovirus infection and the dominant genogroup/genotype among Iranian population. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of norovirus infection in Iranian patients with gastroenteritis referred to three hospitals of Tehran and to specify the dominant genogroup/genotype of this virus among our study population. A total of 293 patients with acute gastroenteritis were included in the study. Detection of norovirus was performed using RT-PCR method and confirmed by direct sequencing with specific designed primers for capsid region of norovirus genome. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method. Norovirus strains identified in our study were subsequently categorized according to previously defined genogroup/genotypes. Of these, norovirus GII was dominant genogroup. Sixty-five percent (17 of 26) of positive samples were determined as GII and 35% (9 of 26) were determined as GI, respectively, in 2008-2009. And among 8 sequenced strains of genogroup II the most frequent genotype was GII.3. The results of this study indicated that norovirus must be considered as one of the infectious causes of acute gastroenteritis among Iranian population. We also found that GII.3 is more prevalent in our study population. To the best of our knowledge there is limited data about the role of noroviruses in children and adults' acute gastroenteritis among Iranian patients and this prevalence and genotyping report of norovirus infection could be remarkable for further studies. PMID:23412762

Romani, Sara; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Vahedi, Mohsen; Derakhshan, Faramarz; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-03-01

210

Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

Bu, So-Young

2012-01-01

211

Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code ?10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure. PMID:24840377

Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2014-01-01

212

Successful Aging in Older Adults with Schizophrenia: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective This study contrasts the prevalence of successful aging in older adults with schizophrenia with their age peers in the community, and examines variables associated with successful aging in the schizophrenia group. Methods The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 community-dwelling persons aged ?55 years who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (N = 113) was recruited using randomly selected block-groups. The three objective criteria proposed by Rowe and Kahn were operationalized using a 6-item summed score. The association of 16 predictor variables with the successful aging score in the schizophrenia group was examined. Results The community group had significantly higher successful aging scores than the schizophrenia group (4.3 vs. 3.0; t =8.36, df =309, p< .001). Nineteen percent of the community group met all 6 criteria on the Successful Aging Score versus 2% of the schizophrenia group. In regression analysis, only two variables –fewer negative symptoms and a higher quality of life index—were associated with the successful aging score within the schizophrenia group. Conclusion Older adults with schizophrenia rarely achieve successful aging, and do so much less commonly than their age peers. Only two significant variables were associated with successful aging, neither of which are easily remediable. The elements that comprise the components of successful aging, especially physical health, may be better targets for intervention. PMID:20808093

Ibrahim, Fayaz; Cohen, Carl I.; Ramirez, Paul M.

2010-01-01

213

A Standardized Assessment of Thyroid Nodules in Children Confirms Higher Cancer Prevalence Than in Adults  

PubMed Central

Context: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, but due to its rare occurrence in the pediatric population, the cancer risk of childhood thyroid nodules is incompletely defined, and optimal management of children with suspected nodules is debated. Objective: The aim was to study the presenting features and cancer risk of sporadic childhood thyroid nodules using a standardized clinical assessment and management plan. Design and Setting: Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital collaborated to create a multidisciplinary pediatric thyroid nodule clinic and implement a standardized assessment plan. Upon referral for a suspected nodule, serum TSH was measured and hypothyrotropinemic patients underwent 123I scintigraphy. All others underwent thyroid ultrasonography, and if this confirmed nodule(s) ? 1 cm, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and compared to a control population of 2582 adults evaluated by identical methods. Patients and Results: Of 300 consecutive children referred for the initial evaluation of suspected thyroid nodules from 1997 to 2011, 17 were diagnosed with autonomous nodules by scintigraphy. Neck ultrasonography performed in the remainder revealed that biopsy was unnecessary in over half, either by documenting only sub-centimeter nodules or showing that no nodule was present. A total of 125 children met criteria for thyroid biopsy, which was performed without complication. Their rate of cancer was 22%, significantly higher than the adult rate of 14% (P = .02). Conclusions: Neck ultrasonography and biopsy were key to the evaluation of children with suspected thyroid nodules. Although the relative cancer prevalence of sonographically confirmed nodules ? 1 cm is higher in pediatric patients than adults, most children referred for suspected nodules have benign conditions, and efforts to avoid unnecessary surgery in this majority are warranted. PMID:23737541

Gupta, Anjuli; Ly, Samantha; Castroneves, Luciana A.; Frates, Mary C.; Benson, Carol B.; Feldman, Henry A.; Wassner, Ari J.; Smith, Jessica R.; Marqusee, Ellen; Alexander, Erik K.; Barletta, Justine; Doubilet, Peter M.; Peters, Hope E.; Webb, Susan; Modi, Biren P.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Kozakewich, Harry; Cibas, Edmund S.; Moore, Francis D.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Larsen, P. Reed

2013-01-01

214

Prevalence and Associations of Incomplete Posterior Vitreous Detachment in Adult Chinese: The Beijing Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine prevalence and associations of incomplete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Incomplete PVD was differentiated into type 1 (shallow PVD with circular perifoveal vitreous attachment), type 2 (PVD reaching fovea but not foveola), type 3 (shallow PVD with pinpoint vitreous attachment at the foveola), and type 4 (PVD completely detached from the macula, attached to the optic disc). Results An incomplete PVD was detected in 3948 eyes (prevalence: 60.5±0.6%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 59.3%,61.7%) of 2198 subjects (67.1±0.8%;95%CI: 65.6%,68.7%). Type 1 PVD was seen in 3090 (78.3%) eyes, type 2 PVD in 504 (12.8%) eyes, type 3 PVD in 70 (1.8%) eyes, and type 4 PVD in 284 (7.2%) eyes. Prevalence of incomplete PVD was associated with younger age (P<0.001;OR:0.91), male gender (P<0.001;OR:0.64), rural region of habitation (P<0.001;OR:0.49), larger corneal diameter (P?=?0.04;OR:0.91), better best corrected visual acuity (P?=?0.02;OR:0.41), and hyperopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:1.15). The type of incomplete PVD was associated with higher age (P<0.001), urban region of habitation (P<0.001), myopic refractive error (P?=?0.001), thinner cornea (P?=?0.005), and better best corrected visual acuity (P?=?0.056). Conclusions In adult Chinese in Greater Beijing, prevalence of an incomplete PVD (detected in 67.1% subjects) was associated with younger age, male gender, rural region of habitation, larger corneal diameter, better best corrected visual acuity and hyperopic refractive error. PMID:23544043

Shao, Lei; Xu, Liang; You, Qi Sheng; Wang, Ya Xing; Chen, Chang Xi; Yang, Hua; Zhou, Jin Qiong; Jonas, Jost B.; Wei, Wen Bin

2013-01-01

215

Alcohol prevalence and attitudes among adults and adolescents: Their relation to early adolescent alcohol use in rural communities  

PubMed Central

Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community supportiveness, and the prevalence of community alcohol use exhibited by adolescents and adults. Multilevel analyses were applied to 1,424 6th through 8th grade students residing in 22 rural communities in the Northern Plains. Perceptions of tolerance, prevalence, and support from 790 parents, teachers, and community leaders were also collected. Analyses revealed that community supportiveness and controls against drinking reduced both the decision to try alcohol and past month use among early adolescents. Adolescents were more likely to have ever tried alcohol if they lived in a community with higher peer prevalence than higher levels of adult alcohol prevalence, but in communities where peer drinking was lower; adolescents were more likely to have tried alcohol if they lived in a high adult-prevalence community. Perceived peer drinking was not related to past month use. PMID:20823945

DeHaan, Laura; Boljevac, Tina

2010-01-01

216

Prevalence and time trends in diabetes and physical inactivity among adult West African populations: The epidemic has arrived  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the prevalence and distribution of, and trends in, physical inactivity and diabetes in adult West African populations. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Literature searches were conducted using four electronic databases. journal hand searches and examination of citations of relevant articles were also undertaken. To be included, studies had to be population based, use clearly defined criteria

A. R. Abubakari; W. Lauder; M. C. Jones; A. Kirk; C. Agyemang; R. S. Bhopal

2009-01-01

217

Substance Use Among Adults 35 Years of Age: Prevalence, Adulthood Predictors, and Impact of Adolescent Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

- Objectives. We examined the prevalence of substance use among American adults aged 35 years, and we considered adulthood predictors and the impact of adolescent substance use. Methods. National panel data were drawn from the Monitoring the Future study. Lo- gistic regressions were conducted to assess the impact of demographics, life experi- ences, and adolescent substance use on smoking, heavy

I Alicia; C. Merline; Patrick M. O'Malley; John E. Schulenberg; Jerald G. Bachman; Lloyd D. Johnston

2004-01-01

218

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

219

PREVALENCE OF PERSISTENT COUGH AND PHLEGM IN YOUNG ADULTS IN RELATION TO LONG-TERM AMBIENT SULFUR OXIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

In early 1976, a survey of persistent cough and plegm (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 micrograms per cubic meter. Corresponding m...

220

A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability, 2003-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research regarding the prevalence of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with intellectual disability in adults was reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the qualities of sampling and diagnostic methodology, which have been identified as needs in two recent reviews. Sixteen articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2009…

Buckles, Jason; Luckasson, Ruth; Keefe, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

221

Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. METHODS: A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on

Christos Pitsavos; George A Milias; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Dimitra Xenaki; George Panagopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

222

The prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A lot of empirical studies have been conducted to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the prevalence and odds ratios of depression and anxiety in Chinese adults with cancer compared with those without. Methods The three most comprehensive computerized Chinese academic databases-CNKI, Wangfang and Vip databases-were systematically screened through September 2012. PubMed and Web of Science (SCIE) were also searched from their inception until September 2012 without language restrictions, and an internet search was also used. Case–control studies assessing the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer were analyzed. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors. The non-weighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were all calculated. Results Seventeen eligible studies with a total of 3497 subjects were included. The prevalence of depression and anxiety were significantly higher in adults with cancer compared with those without (Depression: 54.90% vs. 17.50%, OR?=?7.85, 95% CI?=?5.56-11.07, P?=?0.000; Anxiety: 49.69% vs. 18.37%, OR?=?6.46, 95% CI?=?4.36-9.55, P?=?0.000), the same situation was also observed in subgroup of control groups, assessment methods and cancer types. Although no difference of depression was observed in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis compared with self-report, the OR of anxiety in adults with cancer compared with those without was higher in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis (OR?=?8.42, 95% CI?=?4.83-14.70) than self-reports (OR?=?5.83, 95% CI?=?3.64-9.34). The ORs of depression and anxiety in cancer patients compared with disease group (Depression: OR?=?6.03, 95% CI?=?4.23-8.61; Anxiety: OR?=?4.40, 95% CI?=?3.05-6.36) were lower than in those compared with normal group (Depression: OR?=?13.58, 95% CI?=?6.26-29.46; Anxiety: OR?=?15.47, 95% CI?=?10.00-23.95). Conclusions We identified high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. The findings support that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adults with cancer should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. PMID:23967823

2013-01-01

223

Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in acute ischemic stroke as determined using a portable sleep apnea monitoring device in Korean subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  It has been suggested that there is a strong association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and stroke. However, this\\u000a connection has not been studied in Korean subjects.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixty-one patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI) and 13 patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) were consecutively\\u000a enrolled. SDB was evaluated within 48 h of stroke or TIA onset using a portable screening device, which

Byung-Euk Joo; Hung Youl Seok; Sung-Wook Yu; Byung-Jo Kim; Kun-Woo Park; Dae-Hie Lee; Ki-Young Jung

2011-01-01

224

Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 +  

E-print Network

Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 7.1 8.1 7.2 7.6 8.6 8.7 10.2 8.2 7.8 8.5 9.0 8.0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Percent IL U.S. Adult current asthma prevalence was highest among adults aged 18-24 years throughout the U.S. Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Sex, BRFSS

225

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Durame Town, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background To date, non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are becoming severe public health challenges particularly in developing countries. Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor that contributes the leading role for mortality. The problem is significant in low- and middle-income countries like sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are limited studies in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, determining the magnitude of hypertension and identifying risk groups are important. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in April 2013 among adults (age>31 years) old. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 518 study participants. Data were collected after full verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to control the effect of confounding. Adjusted Odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to measure associations. Variables having P-value <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension in Durame town was 22.4% (95% CI: 18.8–26.0). Nearly 40% of hypertensive patients were newly screened. Male sex [AOR ?=?2.03, 95% CI; 1.05–3.93], age [AOR ?=?29.49, 95% CI; 10.60–81.27], salt use [AOR ?=?6.55, 95% CI; 2.31–18.53], eating vegetable three or fewer days per week [AOR ?=?2.3,95% CI; 1.17–4.51], not continuously walking at least for 10 minutes per day [AOR ?=?7.82, 95% CI; 2.37–25.82], having family history of hypertension [AOR ?=?2.46, 95%CI; 1.31–4.61] and being overweight/obese [AOR ?=?15.7, 95% CI 7.89–31.21)] were found to be risk factors for hypertension. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Older age, male sex, having family history of hypertension, physical inactivity, poor vegetable diet, additional salt consumption and obesity were important risk factors associated with hypertension among adults. Community level intervention measures with a particular emphasis on prevention by introducing lifestyle modifications are recommended. PMID:25415321

Helelo, Tsegab Paulose; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Adane, Akilew Awoke

2014-01-01

226

Prevalence and risk factors of sleep disturbances in a large HIV-infected adult population  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in HIV-infected patients but there is a lack of large studies on prevalence and risk factors, particularly in the context of current improved immuno-clinical status and use of the newest antiretrovirals (ARV). Method Cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbance in adult HIV-infected patients in six French centres of the region “Pays de la Loire”. Patients filled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behaviour, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index PSQI), quality of life (WHO QOL HIV BREF questionnaire) and depression (Beck depression Inventory (BDI)-II questionnaire). Socio-demographic and immunovirologic data, medical history, ARVs were collected. Results From November 2012 to May 2013, 1354 consecutive non-selected patients were enrolled. Patients’ characteristics were: 73.5% male, median age 47 years, active employment 56.7%, France-native 83% and Africa-native 14.7%, CDC stage C 21%, hepatitis co-infection 13%, lipodystrophy 11.8%, dyslipidemia 20%, high BP 15.1%, diabetes 3%, tobacco smokers 39%, marijuana and cocaine users, 11.7% and 1.7% respectively, and excessive alcohol drinkers 9%. Median (med) duration of HIV infection was 12.4 years, med CD4 count was 604/mm3; 94% of Patients were on ARVs, 87% had undetectable viral load. Median sleeping time was 7 hours. Sleep disturbances (defined as PSQI score >5) were observed in 47% of the patients, more frequently in female (56.4%) than in male (43.9%) (p<0.05) and moderate to serious depressive symptoms (BDI score>19) in 19.7% of the patients. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with sleep disturbances (p<0.05) were depression (odds ratio [OR] 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–6.8), male gender (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9), active employment (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9), living single (OR 1.5; CI 1.2–2.0), tobacco-smoking (OR 1.3; CI 1.0–1.8), duration of HIV infection (>10 vs. <10 y.) (OR 1.5; CI 1.1–2.0), ARV regimen containing nevirapine (OR 0.7; CI 0.5–0.9) or efavirenz (OR 0.5; CI 0.3–0.7). Conclusions Prevalence of sleep disturbances is high in this HIV population and roughly similar to the French population. Associated factors are rather related to social and psychological status than HIV infection. Depression is frequent and should be taken in care to improve sleep quality. PMID:25394083

Allavena, Clotilde; Guimard, Thomas; Billaud, Eric; de la Tullaye, Sylvie; Reliquet, Véronique; Pineau, Solène; Hüe, Hervé; Supiot, Christelle; Marie Chennebault, Jean; Michau, Christophe; Hitoto, Hikombo; Vatan, Rémi; Raffi, François

2014-01-01

227

Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6%) were males, 84 (32.4%) were farmers, and 111 (42.9%) were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents). Seventeen (6.6%) had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2%) had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1%) undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5%) had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6%) claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI) among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6%) had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5%) had a BMI ? 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P < 0.05), while no relationship existed between age and BMI or between gender and hypertension (P > 0.05). Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI ? 25 had at least a three times greater likelihood of developing hypertension than those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 0.007–0.056, P = 0.011). Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension is high in this study population and we recommend scaling up primary prevention efforts to reduce this in Nigerian communities. PMID:23641157

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Akinwusi, PO; Adebimpe, WO; Isawumi, MA; Hassan, MB; Olowe, OA; Makanjuola, OB; Alebiosu, CO; Adewole, TA

2013-01-01

228

Dietary Intake Ratios of Calcium-to-Phosphorus and Sodium-to-Potassium Are Associated with Serum Lipid Levels in Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to identify food sources for major minerals such as calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K), and to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of these minerals and serum lipids in healthy Korean adults. A total of 132 healthy men and women completed a physical examination and dietary record and provided blood samples for lipid profile analysis. Results showed the following daily average mineral intakes: 373.4 mg of calcium, 806.0 mg of phosphorous, 3685.8 mg of sodium, and 1938.3 mg of potassium. The calcium-to-phosphorus and sodium-to-potassium ratio was about 0.5 and 2.0, respectively. The primary sources for each mineral were: vegetables (24.9%) and fishes (19.0%) for calcium, grains (31.4%) for phosphorus, seasonings (41.6%) and vegetables (27.0%) for sodium, and vegetables (30.6%) and grains (18.5%) for potassium. The correlation analysis, which has been adjusted for age, gender, total food consumption, and energy intake, showed significantly positive correlations between Ca/P and serum HDL cholesterol levels, between Na intake and the level of serum total cholesterol, and between Na/K and the level of serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Our data indicates that the level of mineral consumption partially contributes to serum lipid profiles and that a diet consisting of a low Ca/P ratio and a high Na/K ratio may have negative impacts on lipid metabolism. PMID:24471069

Bu, So-Young; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Jin; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

2012-01-01

229

Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

Kim, Jihye

2014-01-01

230

Prevalence of oesophageal eosinophils and eosinophilic oesophagitis in adults: the population-based Kalixanda study  

PubMed Central

Background Eosinophilic oesophagitis may be increasing but the prevalence in the general population remains unknown. Our aim was to assess this and the presence of eosinophils in the distal oesophageal epithelium in the community. Methods Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in a random sample (n?=?1000) of the adult Swedish population (mean age 54 years, 49% men). Oesophageal biopsy samples were obtained from 2?cm above, and at, the Z?line. Any eosinophil infiltration of the epithelium was defined as “eosinophils present”. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was defined as ?20, probable as 15–19, and possible as 5–14 eosinophils/high?power field (HPF, at magnification ×40) in oesophageal biopsy specimens. Results Eosinophils were present in 48 subjects (4.8%, 95% CI 3.5 to 6.1%, mean age 54 years, 63% men), in 54% without troublesome reflux symptoms. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was present in four subjects (0.4%, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.8%, mean age 51 years, 75% men) and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis in seven subjects (0.7%, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.2%, mean age 58 years, 43% men). Erosive oesophagitis (OR?=?2.99, 95% CI 1.58 to 5.66) and absence of dyspepsia (OR?=?0.23, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR?=?0.41, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.92) were independent predictors for “eosinophils present”. Definite eosinophilic oesophagitis was associated with dysphagia (2/66 vs 2/926, p?=?0.025), and probable eosinophilic oesophagitis with narrowing of the oesophageal lumen (2/15 vs 5/978, p?=?0.005). Conclusions Oesophageal eosinophils were present in nearly 5% of the general population; approximately 1% had definite or probable eosinophilic oesophagitis. Oesophageal eosinophils may be a manifestation of reflux disease in adults, but the condition is as likely to be asymptomatic and go unrecognised. PMID:17135307

Ronkainen, Jukka; Talley, Nicholas J; Aro, Pertti; Storskrubb, Tom; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Lind, Tore; Bolling-Sternevald, Elisabeth; Vieth, Michael; Stolte, Manfred; Walker, Marjorie M; Agreus, Lars

2007-01-01

231

Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults aged 19 years and older in Basrah, Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background Six of the top ten countries in the world with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus are in the Middle East. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Southern Iraq. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, simple random study screened 5,445 persons aged 19–94 years in Basrah, with glycated hemoglobin measured in 88.3% of the population and fasting plasma glucose in 18.7%. Body mass index and other demographic parameters were also measured. Results Of the 5,445 persons screened, 8.7% had already been diagnosed with diabetes and 11% were found by screening to have undiscovered diabetes, giving an age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes of 19.7%, with 55.7% of those with diabetes being previously undiagnosed. In addition, 29.1% of the screened population had prediabetes, giving a prevalence of dysglycemia of 48.8%, with only 51.2% of the persons screened being normoglycemic. The prevalence of diabetes in both sexes peaked at age 46–60 years. Diabetes was slightly more prevalent in females than in males, and about 70.3% of diabetic individuals had a body mass index ?25 kg/m2. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Iraq, is very high, affecting one in five adults. The epidemic of diabetes will result in strain on the financial resources of health care systems. PMID:24833912

Mansour, Abbas Ali; Al-Maliky, Ahmed A; Kasem, Bashar; Jabar, Abdulsatar; Mosbeh, Khalid Abdulabass

2014-01-01

232

Prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm in young adults in relation to long-term ambient sulfur oxide exposure  

SciTech Connect

In early 1976, a survey of persistent co gh and plegma (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 ug/mT. Corresponding mean suspended sulfate levels had been 5, 7, 8, and 14 g/mT No intercommunity exposure gradient of total suspended particulates or suspended nitrates was observed. In mothers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was 4.2% in the high-exposure community and about 2.0% in all other communities. In smoking mothers, PCP prevalence was 21.8% in the high-exposure community and about 15.0% elsewhere. In fathers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was about 8.0% in the high-exposure community and averaged about 3.0% elsewhere. In smoking fathers, PCP prevalence was less strongly associated with sulfur oxide exposure. PCP prevalence rates estimated in a categorical logistic regression model were qualitatively consistent with the prevalences presented above.

Chapman, R.S.; Calafiore, D.C.; Hasselblad, V.

1985-01-01

233

Community-based colorectal cancer intervention in underserved Korean Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite evidence of a decline in both incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer nationwide, it remains the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of mortality among Asian Americans, including Korean Americans. This community-based and theoretically guided study evaluated a culturally appropriate intervention program that included a bilingual cancer educational program among Korean Americans including information

Grace X. Ma; Steve Shive; Yin Tan; Wanzhen Gao; Joanne Rhee; Micah Park; Jaesool Kim; Jamil I. Toubbeh

2009-01-01

234

Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire  

PubMed Central

Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV). Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%). The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%). Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8%) of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4%) of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias. PMID:16042761

Mallen, Christian; Peat, George; Thomas, Elaine; Croft, Peter

2005-01-01

235

Epidemiological Aspects of Pertussis among Adults and Adolescents in a Korean Outpatient Setting: A Multicenter, PCR-Based Study.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data of Bordetella pertussis infection among adolescents and adults are limited in Korea. Patients (? 11 yr of age) with a bothersome cough for less than 30 days were enrolled during a 1-yr period at 22 hospitals in Korea. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteriologic culture. In total, 490 patients were finally enrolled, and 34 (6.9%) patients tested positive for B. pertussis; cough duration (14.0 days [7.0-21.0 days]) and age distribution were diverse. The incidence was the highest in secondary referral hospitals, compared to primary care clinics or tertiary referral hospitals (24/226 [10.6%] vs. 3/88 [3.4%] vs. 7/176 [4.0%], P = 0.012), and the peak incidence was observed in February and August (15.8% and 15.9%), with no confirmed cases between March and June. In the multivariate analysis, post-tussive vomiting was significantly associated with pertussis (odds ratio, 2.508; 95% confidence interval, 1.146-5.486) and secondary referral hospital showed a borderline significance. In conclusion, using a PCR-based method, 6.9% of adolescent and adult patients with an acute cough illness had pertussis infection in an outpatient setting. However, hospital levels and seasonal trends must be taken into account to develop a better strategy for controlling pertussis. PMID:25246741

Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Sun Hwa; Seo, Ki-Hyun; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Myung Goo; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Hui Jung; Park, Jae Seuk; Cho, Jae Hwa; Ko, Yongchun; Lee, Soo-Keol; Cheon, Ki Tae; Kim, Do Il; Ha, Jun Wook; Lee, Jae-Myung; Suhr, Ji-Won; Jeong, Eui Hun; Jung, Ki-Suck

2014-09-01

236

Epidemiological Aspects of Pertussis among Adults and Adolescents in a Korean Outpatient Setting: A Multicenter, PCR-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data of Bordetella pertussis infection among adolescents and adults are limited in Korea. Patients (? 11 yr of age) with a bothersome cough for less than 30 days were enrolled during a 1-yr period at 22 hospitals in Korea. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteriologic culture. In total, 490 patients were finally enrolled, and 34 (6.9%) patients tested positive for B. pertussis; cough duration (14.0 days [7.0-21.0 days]) and age distribution were diverse. The incidence was the highest in secondary referral hospitals, compared to primary care clinics or tertiary referral hospitals (24/226 [10.6%] vs. 3/88 [3.4%] vs. 7/176 [4.0%], P = 0.012), and the peak incidence was observed in February and August (15.8% and 15.9%), with no confirmed cases between March and June. In the multivariate analysis, post-tussive vomiting was significantly associated with pertussis (odds ratio, 2.508; 95% confidence interval, 1.146-5.486) and secondary referral hospital showed a borderline significance. In conclusion, using a PCR-based method, 6.9% of adolescent and adult patients with an acute cough illness had pertussis infection in an outpatient setting. However, hospital levels and seasonal trends must be taken into account to develop a better strategy for controlling pertussis. Graphical Abstract

Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Myung Goo; Kim, Hui Jung; Cheon, Ki Tae; Jeong, Eui Hun

2014-01-01

237

Pattern of blood pressure distribution and prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia: disclosing the hidden burden  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is the 3rd cause of death accounting for one in eight deaths worldwide. Hypertension was thought to be rare in Africa, but it is now recognized as one of the most important cerebrovascular diseases contributing to about 40% of these diseases in the continent. The aims of this study were to describe the pattern of blood pressure distribution among adults, and determine prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia. Method The study was done on a community-based sample of 1183 adults of 697 (58.8%) urban and 486 (41.1%) rural residents using statistical multistage sampling procedures. The study was based on the recent WHO and JNC-7 classification of blood pressure. Multi-item structured questionnaires were also developed to elicit additional information on the subjects. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in the study population was 18.1% and 37.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension positively correlated with body mass index and age in both urban and rural residents (P?=?0.001). Sex and age adjusted mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically higher in urban than in rural population (P?=?0.001). Conclusion Hypertension was found to have high prevalence in the study region. However, people’s awareness and control of hypertension was found to be very poor. Lack of a clear hypertension prevention guidelines and strategies nationwide can aggravate the impact of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24592854

2014-01-01

238

North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study: study design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the health status of North Korean refugees (NKRs), and changes in health during the resettlement process, is important from both the humanitarian standpoint and the scientific perspective. The NOrth Korean Refugee health iN South Korea (NORNS) study aims to document the health status and health determinants of North Korean refugees, to observe various health outcomes as they occur while adapting to the westernized lifestyle of South Korea, and to explain the mechanisms of how health of migrants and refugees changes in the context of new environmental risks and opportunities. Methods The NORNS study was composed of an initial survey and a follow-up survey 3.5 years apart. Participants were recruited voluntarily among those aged 30 or more living in Seoul. The survey consists of a health questionnaire and medical examination. The health questionnaire comprises the following six domains: 1) demographic and migration information 2) disease history, 3) mental health, 4) health-related lifestyle, 5) female reproductive health, and 6) sociocultural adaptation. The medical examination comprises anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and atherosclerosis, and various biochemical measurements. Prevalence of several diseases able to be diagnosed from the medical examination, the changes between the two surveys, and the association between the outcome and other measurements, such as length of stay and extent of adaptation in South Korea will be investigated. Furthermore, the outcome will be compared to a South Korean counterpart cohort to evaluate the relative health status of NKRs. Discussion The NORNS study targeting adult NKRs in South Korea is a valuable study because various scales and medical measurements are employed for the first time. The results obtained from this study are expected to be utilized for developing a health policy for NKRs and North Korean people after unification. Additionally, since NKRs are an immigrant group who are the same race and have the same genetic characteristics as South Koreans, this study has the characteristics of a unique type of migrant health study. PMID:22401814

2012-01-01

239

Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991-2009  

PubMed Central

We determined the prevalence of obesity in Thai adults aged 20 and over in 2009 and examined trends of body mass index (BMI) between 1991 and 2009. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey for 19,181 adults in 2009 and 64,480 adults between 1991 and 2004 were used to calculate age-adjusted mean and prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of obesity with education level. In 2009, age-adjusted prevalence of obesity classes I (BMI 25–29.9?kg/m2) and II (BMI ?30?kg/m2) in Thai adults aged ?20 years were 26.0% and 9.0%, respectively. Compared with primary education, the odds of obesity class I were highest in men with university education. For women, the odds of obesity classes I and II were highest in those with primary education. BMI significantly increased from 21.6?kg/m2 in men and 22.8?kg/m2 in women in 1991 to 23.3?kg/m2 and 24.4?kg/m2 in 2009, respectively. The average BMI increases per decade were highest in men with secondary education (1.0?kg/m2, P < 0.001) and in women with primary education with the same rate. There were increasing trends in BMI with slight variation by SES groups in Thai men and women during 1991–2009. PMID:24757561

Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

2014-01-01

240

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in three populations of northern China.  

PubMed

Lactose absorption capacity was examined in 641 apparently healthy adolescents and adults (447 males and 194 females with an average age of 22.9 years and an age range of 16-46 years) using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. In the total sample, 89 lactose absorbers and 552 lactose malabsorbers were identified. Lactose malabsorption was most frequent in a subgroup of Han (Chinese) from northeastern China (229 of 248 subjects, 92.3%). Among 198 Mongols from Inner Mongolia, there were 174 lactose malabsorbers (87.9%). The frequency of lactose malabsorption was lowest in a group of Kazakhs, traditional herders from the northwestern region of Xinjiang (149 of 195 subjects, 76.4%). Reported symptoms of lactose intolerance were significantly more frequent in lactose malabsorbers. The findings in northern Han are similar to the reported lactose malabsorption frequency in southern (mainly overseas) Chinese, and correspond with the absence of animal milk from traditional Chinese diets. The relatively low prevalence of lactose malabsorption among the Kazakhs suggests that lactose persistence may be frequent in herding pastoralist populations of southwest Asia. PMID:6235167

Wang, Y G; Yan, Y S; Xu, J J; Du, R F; Flatz, S D; Kühnau, W; Flatz, G

1984-01-01

241

Correlation between Frailty and Cognitive Function in Non-Demented Community Dwelling Older Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background Frailty and cognitive impairment are considered the most common and yet least understood conditions in older adults. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between frailty and cognitive function in non-demented older Koreans. Methods Korean Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) scores and Cardiovascular Health Study Frailty Indices were obtained for 486 older adults aged 65 and over who registered at six senior welfare centers in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify the association between frailty and K-MMSE scores. Results Of the 486 older adults, 206 (42.4%) were robust, 244 (50.2%) were prefrail, and 36 (7.4%) were frail. Prevalence of cognitive impairment (K-MMSE ? 23) was 6.3% in the robust group, 16.8% in the prefrail group, and 30.6% in the frail group (P < 0.001), and mean K-MMSE score was 27.5 ± 2.2, 26.5 ± 3.1, and 23.7 ± 5.3, respectively (P < 0.001). Frailty tended to be associated with lower MMSE scores (B = -1.92, standard error, 0.52; P < 0.001). Conclusion Frailty was found to be correlated with cognitive impairment in non-demented older Koreans. However, further cohort studies are required to determine the association between frailty and cognitive function. PMID:25426279

Kim, Sun; Park, Jun Li; Hwang, Hwan Sik

2014-01-01

242

Prevalence of chronic idiopathic neutropenia of adults among an apparently healthy population living on the island of Crete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of chronic idiopathic neutropenia of adults (CINA) among an\\u000a apparently healthy population born and living on the island of Crete. The study was carried out with 778 subjects, 392 men\\u000a aged 16–78?years (median 43?years) and 386 women aged 15–79?years (median 40?years). All were employees of the Medical School\\u000a or

H. A. Papadaki; I. Xylouri; S. Coulocheri; M. Kalmanti; A. Kafatos; G. D. Eliopoulos

1999-01-01

243

PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES INCLUDING MICROSPORIDIA IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED ADULTS IN CAMEROON: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected adults in Cameroon, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Detection of parasites was performed in 181 stool samples from 154 HIV-infected patients with a mean CD4 cell count of 238 cells\\/mm3. Only 35 patients (22%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of stool sampling,

CLAUDINE SARFATI; ANKE BOURGEOIS; JEAN MENOTTI; FLORIAN LIEGEOIS; ROGER MOYOU-SOMO

244

The Psychometric Properties of the DS14 in Hebrew and the Prevalence of Type D Personality in Israeli Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the psychometric properties of the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14) in Hebrew, and to estimate the prevalence of Type D personality (high negative affectivity and social inhibition) in Israeli adults. Methods: 1,350 consecutive community volunteers were recruited and completed questionnaires that included the DS14, the 140-item Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-140), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the

Ada H. Zohar; Johan Denollet; Lilac Lev Ari; C. Robert Cloninger

2011-01-01

245

Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless and Unstably Housed Adults Living with HIV: Prevalence and Associated Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the prevalence and risks associated with interpersonal (physical and sexual) abuse among HIV-seropositive homeless\\u000a or unstably housed adults. Data were obtained from the Housing and Health Study of participants living in Baltimore, Chicago,\\u000a and Los Angeles (n = 644). We used logistic regression to identify risks associated with abuse. About 77% of men and 86% of women reported ever\\u000a experiencing

Kirk D. Henny; Daniel P. Kidder; Ron Stall; Richard J. Wolitski

2007-01-01

246

Prevalence of epilepsy and health status of adults with epilepsy in Georgia and Tennessee: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral risk factors associated with comorbidity in people with epilepsy are largely unknown. We studied a population-based sample of 8057 adults through the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, in Georgia and Tennessee, ascertaining a lifetime epilepsy prevalence of 2.1% in this population. This structured interview revealed that those with epilepsy had significantly worse self-reported fair or poor health status

Rosemarie Kobau; Colleen A. DiIorio; Patricia H. Price; David J. Thurman; Linda M. Martin; David L. Ridings; Thomas R. Henrye

2004-01-01

247

Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake after 1 year: prevalence and correlates.  

PubMed

This study investigates the prevalence and predictors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in adult survivors 1year after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Check List-Civilian (PCL-C), and PTG was assessed using the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). A total of 2,300 individuals were involved in the survey with 2,080 completing the questionnaire, a response rate of 90.4%. The PTSD prevalence estimate in this study was found to be 40.1%, and the prevalence for PTG among the participants was measured at 51.1%. A bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive association between PTG and PTSD. In the conclusions, possible explanations for the findings and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24506990

Jin, Yuchang; Xu, Jiuping; Liu, Hai; Liu, Dongyue

2014-02-01

248

Accounting for Korean-Speaking Students. Student Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for limited-English speaking, Korean-speaking adult students, this manual contains a 12-chapter course in accounting. It is written in Korean with key terms/concepts and limited amounts of other information (such as proper names and occupation-related vocabulary) in English. Examples are provided in English only. Information provided in…

Chicago City Colleges, IL. Truman Coll. UF-Truman Coll., Chicago, IL.

249

Segmental Properties of Input to Infants: A Study of Korean  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more…

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L.; MacNeilage, Peter F.

2008-01-01

250

High prevalence of polyclonal hypergamma-globulinemia in adult males in Ghana, Africa  

PubMed Central

Chronic antigenic stimulation is associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. Higher rates of hypergamma-globulinemia in tropical populations are maintained even with migration to temperate regions. We conducted a population-based screening study to assess the prevalence and risk factors for hypergamma-globulinemia in Ghana, Africa. 917 Ghanaian males (50–74 years) underwent in-person interviews and health examinations. Serum from all persons was analyzed by electrophoresis performed on agarose gel; serum with a discrete/localized band was subjected to immunofixation. 54 persons with monoclonal proteins were excluded and 17 samples were insufficient for analysis. Using logistic regression and Chi-square statistics we analyzed patterns of hypergamma-globulinemia. Among 846 study subjects, the median ?-globulin level was 1.86 g/dL. On the basis of a U.S. reference, 616 (73%) had hypergamma-globulinemia (>1.6 g/dL) and 178 (21%) had ?-globulin levels >2.17 gm/dl. On multivariate analyses, lower education status (P = 0.0013) and never smoking (P = 0.038) were associated with increased ?-globulin levels. Self-reported history of syphilis was associated with hypergamma-globulinemia. We conclude that three quarters of this population-based adult Ghanaian male sample had hypergamma-globulinemia with ?-globulin levels >1.6 g/dL. Future studies are needed to uncover genetic and environmental underpinnings of our finding, and to define the relationship between hypergamma-globulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and multiple myeloma. PMID:21674575

Buadi, Francis; Hsing, Ann W.; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Waxman, Adam; Yeboah, Edward D.; Biritwum, Richard B.; Tettey, Yao; Adjei, Andrew; Chu, Lisa W.; DeMarzo, Angelo; Netto, George J.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kyle, Robert A.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Landgren, Ola

2013-01-01

251

Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007  

PubMed Central

Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

2011-01-01

252

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

2013-01-01

253

Estimating the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use among Black and White Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas over Time (1992-2002): Estimation Methods and Prevalence Trends  

PubMed Central

No adequate data exist on patterns of injection drug use (IDU) prevalence over time within racial/ethnic groups in U.S. geographic areas. The absence of such prevalence data limits our understanding of the causes and consequences of IDU and hampers planning efforts for IDU-related interventions. Here, we (1) describe a method of estimating IDU prevalence among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White adult residents of 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually over an 11-year period (1992–2002); (2) validate the resulting prevalence estimates; and (3) document temporal trends in these prevalence estimates. IDU prevalence estimates for Black adults were calculated in several steps: we (1) created estimates of the proportion of injectors who were Black in each MSA and year by analyzing databases documenting injectors’ encounters with the healthcare system; (2) multiplied the resulting proportions by previously calculated estimates of the total number of injectors in each MSA and year (Brady et al., 2008); (3) divided the result by the number of Black adults living in each MSA each year; and (4) validated the resulting estimates by correlating them cross-sectionally with theoretically related constructs (Black- and White-specific prevalences of drug-related mortality and of mortality from hepatitis C). We used parallel methods to estimate and validate White IDU prevalence. We analyzed trends in the resulting racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence estimates using measures of central tendency and hierarchical linear models (HLM). Black IDU prevalence declined from a median of 279 injectors per 10,000 adults in 1992 to 156 injectors per 10,000 adults in 2002. IDU prevalence for White adults remained relatively flat over time (median values ranged between 86 and 97 injectors per 10,000 adults). HLM analyses described similar trends and suggest that declines in Black IDU prevalence decelerated over time. Both sets of IDU estimates correlated cross-sectionally adequately with validators, suggesting that they have acceptable convergent validity (range for Black IDU prevalence validation: 0.27 < r < 0.61; range for White IDU prevalence: 0.38 < r < 0.80). These data give insight, for the first time, into IDU prevalence trends among Black adults and White adults in large U.S. MSAs. The decline seen here for Black adults may partially explain recent reductions in newly reported cases of IDU-related HIV evident in surveillance data on this population. Declining Black IDU prevalence may have been produced by (1) high AIDS-related mortality rates among Black injectors in the 1990s, rates lowered by the advent of HAART; (2) reduced IDU incidence among Black drug users; and/or (3) MSA-level social processes (e.g., diminishing residential segregation). The stability of IDU prevalence among White adults between 1992 and 2002 may be a function of lower AIDS-related mortality rates in this population; relative stability (and perhaps increases in some MSAs) in initiating IDU among White drug users; and social processes. Future research should investigate the extent to which these racial/ethnic-specific IDU prevalence trends (1) explain, and are explained by, recent trends in IDU-related health outcomes, and (2) are determined by MSA-level social processes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-008-9304-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18709555

Brady, Joanne E.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Tempalski, Barbara; Gostnell, Karla; Flom, Peter L.

2008-01-01

254

Interspecific variability of prevalence in blood parasites of adult passerine birds during the breeding season in Alaska.  

PubMed

Blood parasite prevalence based on microscopic examination of stained blood smears was determined in adults of 11 passerine bird species sampled during their breeding season (May and June 1997-98) in interior Alaska (USA). These species included primarily Nearctic migratory species such as the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) and neotropical migratory species such as the blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata), alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum), Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), northern waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis), and bank swallow (Riparia riparia) as well as one long-distance palearctic migrant, the arctic warbler (Phylloscopus borealis). The more prevalent parasites were Leucocytozoon dubreuili (73% of the sampled turdinids), L. fringillinarum (42% of the sampled fringillids and parulids), and Trypanosoma avium (39% of the sampled hosts). Other parasites (H. fallisi: 18% of the sampled turdinids; Haemoproteus paruli: 14% of the sampled parulids; H. fringillae: 5% of the sampled fringillids; microfilariae: 4% of the sampled hosts) were observed less frequently. Plasmodium vaughani was found only in two yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia). Overall parasite prevalence varied between 0% in the alder flycatcher to >80% in Swainson's thrush, arctic warbler, and Townsend's warbler (Dendroica townsendi). Prevalence of various hematozoa also was bird species-dependent. No relationship was observed between prevalence and either foraging (aerial versus trees/shrubs) or nesting habits (ground versus arboreal) or general location of the wintering area of the different species examined. Prevalence also was unrelated to average dates of arrival on breeding grounds and, therefore, to potential duration of exposure to local insect vectors before capture. Differences in blood parasite prevalence among species breeding in a same region and in the same type of habitat may result from differences in host specificity such as immunological resistance to infection or blood meal preference by potential vectors and/or in behavioral adjustments/physiological traits that alter exposure to vectors. PMID:11272501

Deviche, P; Greiner, E C; Manteca, X

2001-01-01

255

Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Simmons D, McKenzie A, Eaton S, Cox N, Khan MA, Shaw J, Zimmet P. Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia.

256

Prevalence of Dentin Hypersensitivity and Related Factors Among Adult Patients Visiting a Dental School in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common problem which may disturb the patient during eating, drinking, brushing and sometimes even breathing. It is a painful condition highly prevalent in the general adult population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DH and to examine some associated factors such as initiating stimuli among adult patients. Materials and Methods: The study is done under two phases. In the first phase a cross-sectional study was carried out in 665 study volunteers. Only 212 adult patients who were meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conveniently selected to the study. A detailed demographic data and a structured questionnaire regarding type of response, sensitivity episodes, and duration of sensation, and stimulus for initiation were recorded by the examiner. Evidence of DH was confirmed by the use of air blast and water from the air-water jet of the dental chair and scratching the suspected tooth surfaces which is indicated by study subjects with a dental probe and noting the responses by using visual analog scale (VAS). In the second phase the related factors or characteristics of DH were surveyed. Statistical analysis preformed by using methods of descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: The overall prevalence of DH was found to be 32%. The most common cause was consuming cold food or drinks (92%) and common predisposing factor was gingival recession (28%). Probe method yields a higher VAS score followed by Air at 10 seconds and Water at 10 seconds which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of DH in present study was 32% which is attributed to gingival recession as predisposing factor and cold stimuli. PMID:25386522

Ram K, Chaitanya; Sirisha, N R; Sree Y, Sandhya; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Satti, Narayana Reddy; Thatimatla, Chandrasekar

2014-01-01

257

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study.  

PubMed

The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively). Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ?100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education. PMID:21755260

Gronner, M F; Bosi, P L; Carvalho, A M; Casale, G; Contrera, D; Pereira, M A; Diogo, T M; Torquato, M T C G; Souza, G M D; Oishi, J; Leal, A M O

2011-07-01

258

Dental caries' experience, prevalence and severity in Mexican adolescents and young adults Experiencia, prevalencia y severidad de caries dental en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes mexicanos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Determining dental caries' experience, prevalence and severity in students applying for degree courses at San Luis Potosi University (UASLP). Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving adolescents and young adults (16 to 25 years old) applying for undergraduate courses at UASLP (~10 %, n=1 027). Two standardized examiners undertook dental examinations; DMFT index, prevalence (DMFT>0), severity

José O. García-Cortés; Carlo E. Medina-Solís; Juan P. Loyola-Rodriguez; Jorge A. Mejía-Cruz; Eduardo Medina-Cerda; Nuria Patiño-Marín; América P. Pontigo-Loyola

2009-01-01

259

Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Adults with Disabilities Based on a Community Health Check Up Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in society gradually and has important implications for public health in recent years. The present study aims to examine the gender effect on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults with disabilities. A cross-sectional study was conduct to analyze annual health check-up chart of 419 people with…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liou, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Liu, Chien-Ting

2013-01-01

260

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. METHODS: A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages

Trevor S Ferguson; Marshall K Tulloch-Reid; Novie OM Younger; Jennifer M Knight-Madden; Maureen Samms-Vaughan; Deanna Ashley; Jan Van den Broeck; Rainford J Wilks

2010-01-01

261

A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.  

PubMed

Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

2014-01-01

262

A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime  

PubMed Central

Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k?=?23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k?=?16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k?=?8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

2014-01-01

263

Content Analysis of Diet Advertisements: A Cross-National Comparison of Korean and U.S. Women's Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content analysis of diet advertisements was performed to examine how diet advertisements portray the Western ideal of feminine beauty and promote dieting in Korean women's magazines in comparison with U.S. women's magazines. Results showed that the Western cultural ideal of feminine beauty and dieting were prevalent in Korean women's magazines. Diet advertisements in Korean magazines appear to promote more passive

Minjeong Kim; Sharron J. Lennon

2006-01-01

264

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

2013-01-01

265

Prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province of China: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province, eastern China, a population-based, cross-sectional study was performed from April to July 2008. By means of cluster random sampling methods, a total of 19,583 people aged 50 years or above were randomly selected from four rural counties. Out of 19,583 people, 1,767 residents were excluded mainly because they were migrant workers when this study was performed. Finally, 17,816 (90.98%) people were included as eligible subjects. They received a comprehensive eye examination and a structured questionnaire voluntarily. Patients with pterygium were defined as having pterygium at the time of survey or pterygium surgery had been performed. 1,876 people were diagnosed as pterygium, either unilateral (1,083) or bilateral (793), which is equivalent to a prevalence of 10.53% (95% CI, 10.08-10.98). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that pterygium was independently associated with older age, areas, outdoor time, educational level, and use of hat and/or sunglasses. The prevalence of pterygium increased with age and hours spent under sunshine per day. Meanwhile, the higher the educational level and the more use of hat and/or sunglasses, the lower the pterygium prevalence. PMID:25165711

Jiao, Wanzhen; Zhou, Chengchao; Wang, Ting; Yang, Shaoyuan; Bi, Hongsheng; Liu, Liping; Li, Yan; Wang, Lihua

2014-01-01

266

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Pterygium in Rural Older Adults in Shandong Province of China: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in rural older adults in Shandong Province, eastern China, a population-based, cross-sectional study was performed from April to July 2008. By means of cluster random sampling methods, a total of 19,583 people aged 50 years or above were randomly selected from four rural counties. Out of 19,583 people, 1,767 residents were excluded mainly because they were migrant workers when this study was performed. Finally, 17,816 (90.98%) people were included as eligible subjects. They received a comprehensive eye examination and a structured questionnaire voluntarily. Patients with pterygium were defined as having pterygium at the time of survey or pterygium surgery had been performed. 1,876 people were diagnosed as pterygium, either unilateral (1,083) or bilateral (793), which is equivalent to a prevalence of 10.53% (95% CI, 10.08–10.98). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that pterygium was independently associated with older age, areas, outdoor time, educational level, and use of hat and/or sunglasses. The prevalence of pterygium increased with age and hours spent under sunshine per day. Meanwhile, the higher the educational level and the more use of hat and/or sunglasses, the lower the pterygium prevalence. PMID:25165711

Jiao, Wanzhen; Zhou, Chengchao; Wang, Ting; Yang, Shaoyuan; Bi, Hongsheng; Liu, Liping; Li, Yan; Wang, Lihua

2014-01-01

267

Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition\\u000a parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity,\\u000a headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were\\u000a studied. Lifetime prevalences $$\\\\permille$$ (95% CI)

O. S. A. Oluwole

2010-01-01

268

Behavioural Addictions in Adolescents and Young Adults: Results from a Prevalence Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender\\u000a and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in\\u000a order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise\\u000a Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and

Corrado Villella; Giovanni Martinotti; Marco Di Nicola; Maria Cassano; Giuseppe La Torre; Maria Daniela Gliubizzi; Immacolata Messeri; Filippo Petruccelli; Pietro Bria; Luigi Janiri; Gianluigi Conte

2011-01-01

269

Prevalence of Premorbid Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Adult Workers Using IDF and ATPIII Diagnostic Criteria: Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined as a cluster of interconnected risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood glucose levels. Premorbid metabolic syndrome (PMetS) is defined by excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus from those suffering MetS. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PMetS in a working population, and to analyse the relationship between the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII). The relationship between the presence of PMetS and cardiovascular risk factors was also analysed. Research Methodology/Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24,529 male and 18,736 female Spanish (white western European) adult workers (20–65 years) randomly selected during their work health periodic examinations. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum parameters were measured. The presence of MetS and PMetS was ascertained using ATPIII and IDF criteria. Cardiovascular risk was determined using the Framingham-REGICOR equation. The results showed MetS had an adjusted global prevalence of 12.39% using ATPIII criteria and 16.46% using IDF criteria. The prevalence of PMetS was slightly lower (11.21% using ATPIII criteria and 14.72% using IDF criteria). Prevalence in males was always higher than in females. Participants with PMetS displayed higher values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression models reported lower PMetS risk for females, non-obese subjects, non-smokers and younger participants. Cardiovascular risk determined with Framingham-REGICOR was higher in participants with PMetS. Conclusions PMetS could be a reliable tool for the early identification of apparently healthy individuals who have a significant risk for developing cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24586656

Tauler, Pedro; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Morales-Asencio, Jose M.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Angel A.; Vicente-Herrero, Teofila; De Pedro-Gomez, Joan; Royo, Vanessa; Pericas-Beltran, Jordi; Aguilo, Antoni

2014-01-01

270

The Prevalence and Determinants of Undiagnosed and Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Irish Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes within the Republic of Ireland is poorly defined, although a recent report suggested 135,000 cases in adults aged 45+, with approximately one-third of these undiagnosed. This study aims to assess the prevalence of undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes in middle-aged adults, and compare features related to either condition, in order to investigate why certain individuals remain undetected. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving a sample of 2,047 men and women, aged between 50–69 years, randomly selected from a large primary care centre. Univariate logistic regression was used to explore socio-economic, metabolic and other health related variable associations with undiagnosed or diagnosed diabetes. A final multivariate analysis was used to determine odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having undiagnosed compared to diagnosed diabetes, adjusted for gender, age and significant covariates determined from univariate models. Principle Findings The total prevalence of diabetes was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.4%–8.8%); 72 subjects (3.5%) had undiagnosed diabetes (95% CI: 2.8%–4.4%) and 102 subjects (5.0%) had diagnosed diabetes (95% CI: 4.1%–6.0%). Obesity, dyslipidaemia, and family history of diabetes were positively associated with both undiagnosed and diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Compared with diagnosed subjects, study participants with undiagnosed diabetes were significantly more likely to have low levels of physical activity and were less likely to be on treatment for diabetes-related conditions or to have private medical insurance. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes within the Cork and Kerry Diabetes and Heart Disease Study is comparable to recent estimates from the Slán National Health and Lifestyle Survey, a study which was nationally representative of the general population. A considerable proportion of diabetes cases were undiagnosed (41%), emphasising the need for more effective detection strategies and equitable access to primary healthcare. PMID:24282548

O Connor, Jennifer M.; Millar, Sean R.; Buckley, Claire M.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Perry, Ivan J.

2013-01-01

271

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors by habitat: a study on adult Asian Indians in West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

The present community based cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate whether or not increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adult Asian Indian population are associated with increasing urbanization. The 'urban group' was comprised of 224 individuals including 122 males and 102 females being inhabitants of Kolkata (erstwhile Calcutta) under the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) area. The 'rural group' comprised 224 individuals including 135 males and 89 females and was living in a village council located about 80 kilometers from Kolkata. Therefore, a total of 448 adult (> or = 30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Anthropometric measures, lipids profiles, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure measures were taken from participants. Obesity and body composition measures were subsequently calculated from the anthropometric measures. Accepted cut-offs were used to define metabolic syndrome (MS), lipids abnormalities, increased adiposity and high blood pressure in the study. It was found that 58.7% participants were engaged in sedentary work which includes 60.7% males and 56% females. It was further observed that the prevalence of high blood pressure was as high as 70.6% in urban females compared to 55.1% in rural females. However, the prevalence of low HDLc was remarkably high in females ofboth rural and urban areas. The prevalence ofMS was significantly higher in urban females (57.8%) than in their rural counterparts (34.8%). It seems reasonable to argue that people with changing lifestyles due to growing urbanization are associated with adverse CVD risk factors irrespective of their habitat (rural vs. urban). This in turn warranted a comprehensive risk stratification protocol at the national level for the effective management of CVD risk factors in this part of the world. PMID:21905415

Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab

2011-01-01

272

REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS FOR ADULT PREVALENCE STUDY Preliminary Document Submission Deadline  

E-print Network

-risk, problem and pathological gambling in the State of Florida among the adult population, 18 years of age Among Adolescents in Florida, A Report to the Florida Council on Compulsive Gambling, Inc., University of Florida, 2002. , as well as with the studies prepared #12;among young adults (i.e., college students2

McQuade, D. Tyler

273

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While there is considerable literature on adults with Down syndrome who have dementia, there is little published on the epidemiology of other types of mental ill-health in this population. Method: Longitudinal cohort study of adults with Down syndrome who received detailed psychiatric assessment (n = 186 at the first time point; n =…

Mantry, D.; Cooper, S. -A.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Williamson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Jackson, A.

2008-01-01

274

Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

1998-01-01

275

Prevalence and risk factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescents and young adults in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.\\u000a Objective  To estimate the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse among adolescent and young adults in Poland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  3 687 men (48.2%) and women (51.8%), median age 23 (interquartile range 19–20 years) participated in a survey via a ”pop-up\\u000a window-which appeared on two popular Polish internet portals during one month. Questions concerning their body image, exercise\\u000a behaviour, education level and use

Dominik Racho?; Leszek Pokrywka; Krystyna Suchecka-Racho?

2006-01-01

276

Prevalence and Correlates of Problematic Internet Experiences and Computer-Using Time: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study in Korean School Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the prevalence of and factors associated with online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, and computer-using time in early adolescence. Methods A two-year, prospective school survey was performed with 1,173 children aged 13 at baseline. Data collected included demographic factors, bullying experience, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, self-esteem, psychopathology, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and school performance. These factors were investigated in relation to problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time at age 15. Results The prevalence of online inappropriate sexual exposure, cyber-bullying victimisation, academic-purpose computer overuse, and game-purpose computer overuse was 31.6%, 19.2%, 8.5%, and 21.8%, respectively, at age 15. Having older siblings, more weekly pocket money, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and passive coping strategy were associated with reported online sexual harassment. Male gender, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were associated with reported cyber-bullying victimisation. Female gender was associated with academic-purpose computer overuse, while male gender, lower academic level, increased height, and having older siblings were associated with game-purpose computer-overuse. Conclusion Different environmental and psychological factors predicted different aspects of problematic Internet experiences and computer-using time. This knowledge is important for framing public health interventions to educate adolescents about, and prevent, internet-derived problems. PMID:24605120

Stewart, Robert; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

2014-01-01

277

Standardized Prevalence Ratios for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Adult Japanese Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have estimated the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody among hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, the prevalence of HCV core antigen—which indicates the presence of chronic HCV infection—is not known. Methods Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen among HD patients (n = 1214) were calculated on the basis of data from the general population (n = 22 472) living in the same area. Results The prevalences of anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen were 12.5% and 7.8%, respectively, in male hemodialysis patients, and 8.5% and 4.1% in female hemodialysis patients. The SPRs (95% confidence interval) for anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen were 8.39 (6.72–10.1) and 12.9 (9.66–16.1), respectively, in males, and 5.42 (3.67–7.17) and 8.77 (4.72–12.8) in females. Conclusions The prevalences of chronic HCV infection among male and female HD patients were 13-fold and 9-fold, respectively, those of the population-based controls. Further studies should therefore be conducted to determine the extent of chronic HCV infection among HD patients in other populations and to determine whether chronic HCV infection contributes to increased mortality in HD patients. PMID:19881229

Ohsawa, Masaki; Kato, Karen; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Tanno, Kozo; Fujishima, Yosuke; Konda, Ryuichiro; Okayama, Akira; Abe, Koichi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Kawamura, Kazuko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujioka, Tomoaki

2010-01-01

278

Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in older adults with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in this group. To identify the associations of sarcopenia, logistic regression analyses were performed with patient characteristics, mobility, physical activity, intake of energy and proteins, body mass index (BMI) and levels of CRP, albumin and vitamin D in serum. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.3% in the total group. In the age group 50-64 years prevalence was 12.7%. Sarcopenia was positively associated with mobility impairment and inflammation and negatively with BMI. The next thing to do is collecting longitudinal data to study the relation between sarcopenia and negative outcomes in older people with ID. PMID:22750356

Bastiaanse, Luc P; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; Echteld, Michael A; Evenhuis, Heleen M

2012-01-01

279

Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15

280

Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.  

PubMed

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

2008-09-01

281

Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Adults in a Rural Sub-District of South India  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a survey to estimate point prevalence of bacteriologically positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a rural area in South India, implementing TB program DOTS strategy since 2002. Methods Survey was conducted among persons ?15 years of age in fifteen clusters selected by simple random sampling; each consisting of 5–12 villages. Persons having symptoms suggestive of PTB or history of anti-TB treatment (ATT) were eligible for sputum examination by smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis; two sputum samples were collected from each eligible person. Persons with one or both sputum specimen positive on microscopy and/or culture were labeled suffering from PTB. Prevalence was estimated after imputing missing values to correct for bias introduced by incompleteness of data. In six clusters, registered persons were also screened by X-ray chest. Persons with any abnormal shadow on X-ray were eligible for sputum examination in addition to those with symptoms and ATT. Multiplication factor calculated as ratio of prevalence while using both screening tools to prevalence using symptoms screening alone was applied to entire study population to estimate prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray. Results Of 71,874 residents ?15 years of age, 63,362 (88.2%) were screened for symptoms and ATT. Of them, 5120 (8.1%) - 4681 (7.4%) with symptoms and an additional 439 (0.7%) with ATT were eligible for sputum examination. Spot specimen were collected from 4850 (94.7%) and early morning sputum specimens from 4719 (92.2%). Using symptom screening alone, prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically positive PTB in persons ?15 years of age was 83 (CI: 57–109), 152 (CI: 108–197) and 196 (CI :145–246) per 100,000 population respectively. Prevalence corrected for non-screening by X-ray was 108 (CI: 82–134), 198 (CI: 153–243) and 254 (CI: 204–301) respectively. Conclusion Observed prevalence suggests further strengthening of TB control program. PMID:22956993

Chadha, Vineet K.; Kumar, Prahlad; Anjinappa, Sharada M.; Singh, Sanjay; Narasimhaiah, Somashekar; Joshi, Malathi V.; Gupta, Joydev; Lakshminarayana; Ramchandra, Jitendra; Velu, Magesh; Papkianathan, Suganthi; Babu, Suseendra; Krishna, Hemalatha

2012-01-01

282

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 h) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature\\u000a of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed that older\\u000a characters, regardless of sex, appeared less frequently and in less prominent roles than other adult characters, but not in\\u000a comparison to adolescents and children. The

Shu-Chin Lien; Yan Bing Zhang; Mary Lee Hummert

2009-01-01

283

Prevalence of intracellular galectin-1-expressing lymphocytes in umbilical cord blood in comparison with adult peripheral blood.  

PubMed

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a promising alternative for the treatment of hematological malignancies. The lower immune reactivity of UCB lymphocytes is a well-known phenomenon; however, immune tolerance mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Galectin-1 has strong immunosuppressive properties and plays a key role in the regulation of immune reactivity. We aimed to determine the properties of intracellular galectin-1 (Gal-1)-producing cells within CD3, CD4, CD8, regulatory T (Treg), and natural killer (NK) cells in UCB compared to adult peripheral blood (APB). We took peripheral blood samples from 22 healthy adults and cord blood samples from 19 healthy, term neonates. Intracellular Gal-1 expression was determined by flow cytometry in the above subsets. Furthermore, we assessed the prevalence of naive and memory T cells that play a role in the regulation of immune reactivity. We also performed functional analyses to assess the effect of exogenous Gal-1 on the rate of proliferation of T lymphocytes isolated from APB and UCB. The prevalence of intracellular Gal-1-expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, Treg and NK lymphocytes was lower in UCB than in APB. However, their capability to produce Gal-1 reaches the level seen in adults. The prevalence of naive cells was higher, whereas that of central and effector memory T cells was lower in UCB compared with APB. Lower Gal-1-producing cell proportion might be due to the naivety of neonatal lymphocytes, as indicated by the positive correlation detected between the number of CD3 lymphocytes expressing intracellular Gal-1 and the prevalence of memory T cells. The intracellular expression of Gal-1 may be down-regulated in neonatal lymphocytes due to the already reduced immune reactivity of UCB. In contrast with previous findings, our results indicate that the administration of exogenous Gal-1 failed to decrease the rate of proliferation in T lymphocytes isolated from either APB or UCB. This suggests that Gal-1-expressing lymphocytes are unlikely to play a major role in mitigating the immune reactivity of UCB. PMID:22609846

Kollár, Szonja; Sándor, Noémi; Molvarec, Attila; Stenczer, Balázs; Rigó, János; Tulassay, Tivadar; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Toldi, Gergely

2012-10-01

284

Prevalence and Perceived Preventability of Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events - A Population-Based Survey of 7099 Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and often preventable among inpatients, but self-reported ADEs have not been investigated in a representative sample of the general public. The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-month prevalence of self-reported ADEs among the adult general public, and the perceived preventability of 2 ADE categories: adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a postal survey was sent in October 2010 to a random sample of 13 931 Swedish residents aged ?18 years. Self-reported ADEs experienced during the past month included ADRs, STEs, drug dependence, drug intoxications and morbidity due to drug-related untreated indication. ADEs could be associated with prescription, non-prescription or herbal drugs. The respondents estimated whether ADRs and STEs could have been prevented. ADE prevalences in age groups (18–44, 45–64, or ?65 years) were compared. Results Of 7099 respondents (response rate 51.0%), ADEs were reported by 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 18.5–20.3%), and the prevalence did not differ by age group (p>0.05). The prevalences of self-reported ADRs, STEs, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indications were 7.8% (7.2–8.4%), 7.6% (7.0–8.2%) and 8.1% (7.5–8.7%), respectively. The prevalence of self-reported drug dependence was 2.2% (1.9–2.6%), and drug intoxications 0.2% (0.1–0.3%). The respondents considered 19.2% (14.8–23.6%) of ADRs and STEs preventable. Although reported drugs varied between ADE categories, most ADEs were attributable to commonly dispensed drugs. Drugs reported for all and preventable events were similar. Conclusions One-fifth of the adult general public across age groups reported ADEs during the past month, indicating a need for prevention strategies beyond hospitalised patients. For this, the underlying causes of ADEs should increasingly be investigated. The high burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from widely used drugs across care settings supports redesigning a safer healthcare system to adequately tackle the problem. PMID:24023828

Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hagg, Staffan

2013-01-01

285

Adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse: Prevalence, sexual abuse characteristics, and long-term effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the plethora of research literature on female victims of childhood sexual abuse, it is only recently that male victims have received some attention. The present paper critically reviews the literature on men who had been sexually abused in childhood. It examines the issues of prevalence, nature of the abuse, and the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse. Where provided,

Robert R. Ross

1996-01-01

286

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

2012-01-01

287

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has scarcely been researched in the elderly. There is no population-based information on prevalence and risk factors in older persons. Patients with PTSD are often not recognized or incorrectly diagnosed. As the disorder has great implications for the quality of life, a correct diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Increased knowledge on vulnerability factors for PTSD

Willeke H. van Zelst; Edwin de Beurs; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Richard van Dyck

2003-01-01

288

Perceived taste disturbance in adults: prevalence and association with oral and psychological factors and medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste disturbance may cause subjective discomfort and impair appetite and food intake. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of perceived taste disturbance and analyze its association to age, gender, whole salivary flow rate, subjective oral dryness, burning mouth, medication, and psychological factors. Five hundred forty-seven men and 656 women aged 20 to 69 years were randomly

Maud Bergdahl; J. Bergdahl

2002-01-01

289

Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

Kvam, Marit Hoem

2005-01-01

290

Metabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Prevalence in Young Adults at 3 Land-Grant Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study examines metabolic syndrome (MetS) among college students at 3 geographically distinct US campuses. Participants: Undergraduates ("N" = 360; 68% women), 18 to 24 years of age, were recruited at each public university in January and February 2011. MetS prevalence was evaluated in 83% ("n" = 299)…

Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Dent, Amanda; Carey, Gale B.

2014-01-01

291

Prevalence and risk of migraine headaches in adult fragile X premutation carriers.  

PubMed

FMR1 premutation carriers are common in the general population (1/130-260 females and 1/250-810 males) and can be affected by fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, anxiety, depression, hypertension, sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, and hypothyroidism. Here we report the results of a pilot study to assess the prevalence and risk of migraine in FMR1 premutation carriers. Three hundred fifteen carriers (203 females; 112 males) and 154 controls (83 females; 71 males) were seen sequentially as part of a family study. A standardized medical history, physical examination and confirmation of diagnosis of migraine headaches were performed by a physician. The prevalence of migraine was 54.2% in female carriers (mean age/SD: 49.60/13.73) and 26.79% in male carriers (mean age/SD: 59.94/14.27). This prevalence was higher compared to female (25.3%; mean age/SD: 47.60/15.21; p =? 0.0001) and male controls (15.5%; mean age/SD; 53.88/13.31; p =? 0.0406) who underwent the same protocol and were confirmed to be negative for the FMR1 mutation by DNA testing. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of migraine headaches in FMR1 premutation carriers is likely related to the mitochondrial abnormalities that have recently been reported. Screening for migraine should be considered when evaluating FMR1 premutation carriers in the future. PMID:23373759

Au, J; Akins, R S; Berkowitz-Sutherland, L; Tang, H-T; Chen, Y; Boyd, A; Tassone, F; Nguyen, D V; Hagerman, R

2013-12-01

292

[A case of a Korean adult affected by type B Niemann-Pick disease: secondary sea-blue histiocytosis and molecular characterization].  

PubMed

Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase coded by SMPD1 gene. In contrast with type A NPD, a severe neurodegenerative disease of infancy, type B NPD patients have little or no neurodegeneration, and frequently survive into adulthood. Although over 100 mutations have been found within the SMPD1 gene causing NPD, there was only one report about SMPD1 mutation status of a Korean NPD patient. We report a case of a 32-yr-old female, who presented with thrombocytopenia without any neurologic involvement. Hepatosplenomegaly was detected by both physical examination and imaging studies, and a thoracic radiograph examination showed a pattern of interstitial lung disease. Biochemical tests revealed increased liver enzymes, cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol, and decreased HDL-cholesterol. Sea-blue or foamy vacuolated histiocytes occurred in bone marrow and liver. Sequencing analysis of SMPD1 using genomic DNA from peripheral leukocytes identified a compound heterozygote of two mutations at exon 2: p.E246K and p.A357V. The former is a known mutation in an Italian patient, and the latter has not been reported yet. She has received oral rosuvastatin to treat hyperlipidemia at a dose of 10 mg per day for 4 months. This is the second report in which the mutation of SMPD1 gene was detected in a Korean NPD patient. The active genetic analysis of SMPD1 gene in patients with typical findings of type B NPD would enable us to facilitate diagnosis as well as to accumulate data on molecular characteristics of Korean NPD patients. PMID:19411774

Cho, Young-Uk; Chae, Jeong Don; Lee, Won Mi; Woo, Jeong Joo; Lee, Hong Bock; Gong, Soo Jung; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

2009-04-01

293

Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and sleep problems in Korean children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a single institution study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder in school-aged children. Patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) often present with ADHD symptoms and vice versa. This study was the first to attempt to identify the prevalence of RLS and sleep problems in children with ADHD in Korea. Methods Patients diagnosed with ADHD were asked to complete a sleep questionnaire. The sleep questionnaire included items to help identify the presence of four typical symptoms that are used as diagnostic criteria for RLS. Results A total of 56 patients, including 51 boys and 5 girls (mean age, 10.7 years old) participated. Of these, 24 complained of pain, discomfort, or an unpleasant sensation in the legs. Based on the RLS diagnostic criteria, 2 patients were diagnosed with definite RLS and 4 with probable RLS. There were no significant differences in age, medication dosage, or neuropsychological test scores between the patients with and without RLS symptoms. Conclusion Approximately 42.9% of patients with ADHD presented with RLS symptoms and 7.1% of these were diagnosed with RLS. Patients with ADHD also experienced various other sleep disorders. Thus, appropriate assessment and treatment for sleep disorders in patients with ADHD is essential. PMID:25114692

Kwon, Soonhak; Sohn, Youngsoo; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Chung, Un-Sun

2014-01-01

294

The prevalence of anatomical variations that can cause inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block in Koreans: a study using magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the anatomical abnormalities that can induce inadvertent dural puncture when performing caudal block. The anatomy of the lumbo-sacral area was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. In 2462 of the 2669 patients imaged, the dural sac terminal was located between the upper half of the 1st sacral vertebra and the lower half of the 2nd sacral vertebra. In 22 cases (0.8%), the dural sac terminal and the spinal canal were located at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra, and these were cases of simple anatomical variations. As regards pathologic conditions, there was one case of sacral meningocoele and 46 cases of sacral perineural cyst. In 21 cases (0.8%) out of the 46 perineural cyst cases, the cyst could be found at or below the 3rd sacral vertebra level. Inadvertent dural puncture may happen when performing caudal block in patients with such abnormal anatomy. PMID:19922508

Joo, J; Kim, J; Lee, J

2010-01-01

295

Trends in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control in an Adult Type 2 Diabetes Spanish Population between 2003 and 2009  

PubMed Central

In patients with type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of hypertension is higher than in non-diabetic subjects. Despite the high cardiovascular risk involving hypertension in these patients, its prevalence and control are not well known. The aims of this study were: to estimate the hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Spanish adults with type 2 diabetes attended in Primary Care; and to analyse its time trend from 2003 to 2009. A serial cross-sectional study from 2003 to 2009 was performed in 21 Primary Care Centres in Madrid. The study population comprised all patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in their computerised medical history. Overall annual prevalence during the period 2003–2009 was calculated from and according to sex and age groups. Linear trend tests, regression lines and coefficients of determination were used. In 2003 89.78% (CI 87.92–91.64) of patients with type 2 diabetes suffered hypertension and 94.76% (CI: 92.85–96.67) in 2009. This percentage was greater for women and for patients over 65 years old. 30% of patients suffered previously undiagnosed hypertension in 2003 and 23.1% in 2009. 97% of diagnosed patients received pharmacological treatment and 28.79% reached the blood pressure objective in 2009. The average number of antihypertensive drugs taken was 2.72 in 2003 and 3.27 in 2009. Only 5.2% of patients with type 2 diabetes show blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg. Although significant improvements have been achieved in the diagnosis and control of hypertension in people with type 2 diabetes, these continue to remain far from optimum. PMID:24475171

de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Jimenez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Salinero-Fort, Miguel A.; Gomez-Campelo, Paloma; Gil, Angel; Abanades-Herranz, Juan C.; Cardenas-Valladolid, Juan; del Cura-Gonzalez, Isabel

2014-01-01

296

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Adults in Community Settings in Taiwan ?  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the prevalence of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among adults in community settings in Taiwan and identify its risk factors, we conducted the present study. For a 3-month period, we enrolled all adults who attended mandatory health examinations at three medical centers and signed the informed consent. Nasal swabs were taken for the isolation of S. aureus. For each MRSA isolate, we performed multilocus sequence typing, identification of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, tests for the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, and tests for drug susceptibilities. Risk factors for MRSA colonization were determined. The results indicated that the MRSA colonization rate among adults in the community settings in Taiwan was 3.8% (119/3,098). Most MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59 (84.0%). Independent risk factors for MRSA colonization included the presence of household members less than 7 years old (P < 0.0001) and the use of antibiotics within the past year (P = 0.0031). Smoking appeared to be protective against MRSA colonization (P < 0.0001). PMID:19625471

Wang, Jann-Tay; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lai, Mei-Shu; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Lee, Wen-Sen; Huang, Jeng-Hua; Chang, Shan-Chwen

2009-01-01

297

Prevalence of vocal fry in young adult male American English speakers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed. PMID:24315658

Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne

2014-03-01

298

Prevalence of binge eating disorder, obesity, and depression in a biracial cohort of young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examined the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED), obesity, and depressive symptomatology in a biracial,\\u000a population-based cohort of men and women participating in a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk factor development.\\u000a The Revised Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns was used to establish BED status among the 3,948 (55% women, 48% Black)\\u000a participants (age 28–40 years). Body mass

Delia E. Smith; Marsha D. Marcus; Cora E. Lewis; Marian Fitzgibbon; Pamela Schreiner

1998-01-01

299

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease across levels of glycemia among adults in Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Few population-based studies have examined the relationship between glycemic status and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. We examined the prevalence of CKD across categories of glycemia [diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes (fasting plasma glucose [FPG]???126 mg/dL), prediabetes (FPG 100–126 mg/dL) and normal glycemia (FPG <100 mg/dL)] among Chinese adults and assessed the relative contribution of dysglycemia (prediabetes and/or diabetes) to the burden of CKD. Methods 5,584 Chinese adults aged 20–79 years were selected from the Pudong New Area of Shanghai through a multistage random sampling. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure were measured. Biochemical assays included FPG, serum creatinine and lipids, urinary creatinine and albumin. Prevalence of albuminuria [urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)???30 mg/g], decreased kidney function and CKD (either decreased kidney function or albuminuria) across levels of glycemia were estimated. Results The prevalence of albuminuria, decreased kidney function and CKD each increased with higher glycemic levels (P?prevalence was 30.9%, 28.5%, 14.1% and 9.2% in those with diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and normoglycemia, respectively. The corresponding age-, gender- and hypertension-adjusted CKD prevalence were 25.8%, 25.0%, 12.3% and 9.1%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, the factors associated with CKD were hypertension (Odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.03), dysglycemia (OR 1.65, 95% CI: 1.39-1.95), female gender (OR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.25-1.75), higher triglycerides (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08-1.20 per mmol/L), higher body mass index (OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10 per kg/m2), and older age (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 -1.03 per year). The population attributable risks (PARs) associated with diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycemia (diabetes and prediabetes) and hypertension were 18.4%, 19.7%, 30.3% and 44.5% for CKD as defined by the MDRD study equation, and 15.8%, 24.4%, 29.2% and 10.0% with the CKD-EPI equation. Estimates of prevalence and ORs of the relative contribution of various risk factors to CKD obtained with the CKD-EPI equation were similar. Conclusions As much as 30% of the CKD burden may be associated with dysglycemia among Chinese adults, independent of age, gender and hypertension status. Prevention and control of diabetes and prediabetes should be a high priority in reducing the CKD burden in China. PMID:24238578

2013-01-01

300

High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, Joao Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Leticia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

2013-01-01

301

Elevated post-transfusion serum transaminase values associated with a highly significant trend for increasing prevalence of anti-Vesivirus antibody in Korean patients.  

PubMed

A highly significant increase in anti-Vesivirus (family Caliciviridae) antibody prevalence, along the axis from healthy blood donors; donors with elevated transaminase; patients with clinical hepatitis; and patients with post-transfusion/dialysis hepatitis, has been reported in human sera from the USA and Europe. Asian samples have now been tested retrospectively using serology and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a Vesivirus partial-capsid antigen expressed as a fusion protein. Anti-vesiviral antibodies were measured by optical densities (OD(650)) and compared in patients separated by age, gender and Groups A-F as follows: Control Group A, an Experimental Group B, which was divided further into Group C, patients with elevated enzymes (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT); Group D, patients receiving transfused blood; Group E, patients with high enzyme levels after transfusion; and Group F, hepatitis B and C positive patients. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving transfusion(s), were positive for anti-Vesivirus antibody compared with non-transfused patients (P = 0.008; OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.43-10.43). Also, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly associated with elevated biochemical liver function tests: ALT ? 20?IU or AST ? 120?IU (P = 0.017; OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 1.30-13.80). In the blood transfusion group, anti-Vesivirus antibody was significantly correlated with high enzyme levels (ALT, P = 0.018; AST, P = 0.010; ?-GT, P = 0.020). These data provide serologic evidence of vesiviral transfusion-transmission-associated disease, which could include infection of any organ system where cytopathology resulted in high levels of either ALT or AST. PMID:23080501

Lee, Heetae; Cho, You-Hee; Park, Jeong Su; Kim, Eui-Chong; Smith, Alvin W; Ko, GwangPyo

2012-12-01

302

Has Dental Caries Prevalence Some Connection with Caries Index Values in Adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

DMF index values have been used for 70 years and were originally meant to describe both dental status and treatment need in elementary school children. Since then its application to caries experience and severity determination has expanded. Today, WHO has standardized its use in oral health surveys in describing past and present caries experience in adults and the elderly as

M. Larmas

2010-01-01

303

Costing adult male circumcision in high HIV prevalence, low circumcision rate countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic evidence that male circumcision has a substantial effect in preventing HIV infection might be the most important medical finding in the course of the AIDS epidemic since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The transition from clinical trails to implementation of a general adult male circumcision (AMC) program is beginning, and this paper uses an AMC

John Vincent Fieno

2008-01-01

304

Older adults and smoking: Characteristics, nicotine dependence and prevalence of DSM-IV 12-month disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: There are few studies investigating the characteristics of older smokers. Research on younger adults has determined that (1) the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) diagnosis of nicotine dependence (ND) excludes a sizable portion of the smoking population, and (2) younger smokers have high rates of comorbid DSM disorders. In this study, we sought to replicate these results in an

Natalie Sachs-Ericsson; Nicole Collins; Brad Schmidt; Mike Zvolensky

2011-01-01

305

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption in three populations of northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactose absorption capacity was examined in 641 apparently healthy adolescents and adults (447 males and 194 females with an average age of 22.9 years and an age range of 16–46 years) using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. In the total sample, 89 lactose absorbers and 552 lactose malabsorbers were identified. Lactose malabsorption was

Wang Yongfa; Yan Yongshan; Xu Jiujin; Du Ruofu; S. D. Flatz; W. Kiihnan; G. Flatz

1984-01-01

306

Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption and awareness of milk intolerancein ltaly?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 308 healthy Italian adults ( I 92 females, I I 6 males; mean age 29.2 yr) were examined using a field version of the lactose tolerance test with breath hydrogen determination. Two geographical groups were formed according to the birth places of the probands' grandparents: 208 subjects from northern Italy (mainly from the regions of Piemonte, Lombardia,

G Roberto Burgio; Gebhard Flatz; Cristiana Barbera; Rosario Patan; Attilio Boner; Cinzia Cajozzo; Sibylle D Flaiz

307

Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ?18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (?2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Leger, D.

2012-01-01

308

High prevalence of central hypothyroidism in adult patients with ?-thalassemia major.  

PubMed

The commonest form of thyroid dysfunction seen in subjects with TM is primary hypothyroidism due to abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Central hypothyroidism (CH) has been reported as an uncommon clinical entity in TM patients although the anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical oxidative stresses. Diagnosis is usually made on a biochemical basis showing low circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone associated with an inappropriately low TSH levels. The diagnosis is not clinically obvious and a basal normal TSH level does not exclude the diagnosis of CH. Therefore, it is important that clinicians accurately interpret thyroid function tests. In TM patients, CH prevalence differs at different ages is unknown and it is not easy to diagnose because most of the symptoms of symptoms of CH are non specific and are frequently attributed to anaemia or other associated complications . We performed a cross-sectional analysis on a large database using the clinical records of our TM patients to explore the prevalence of CH in prepubertal (<11 years: 25 patients; 13 males) peripubertal (between 11 and 16 years: 9 patients; 3 males), and pubertal TM subjects (>16 years: 305 patients; 164 males). Central hypothyroidism was present in 26 (7,6%) TM patients. Their mean age was 29.9 ± 8.4 years, 14 (53.8%) were males and 12 (46.1%) were females. The prevalence of CH was 6% in patients with a chronological age below 21 years and 7.9% in those above 21 years. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of CH through accurate interpretation of thyroid function tests. We recommend L-thyroxine therapy if the level of FT4 is consistently low provided that the patient has normal cortisol levels. PMID:24099820

De Sanctis, V; Soliman, A; Candini, G; Campisi, S; Anastasi, S; Iassin, M

2013-09-01

309

Trends in Caries Prevalence in Dutch Adults between 1983 and 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, a dental survey was performed among adults aged 25–54 in the Dutch city of ’s-Hertogenbosch. A similar study was performed in the same city in 1983 and the aim of the present study was to describe trends in oral health from 1983 to 1995. National data show that the percentage of edentulous persons aged 30–39 and 40–49 decreased

H. Kalsbeek; G. J. Truin; G. M. J. M. van Rossum; H. M. van Rijkom; J. H. G. Poorterman; G. H. Verrips

1998-01-01

310

Comorbidity of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder: prevalence and clinical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity\\u000a with lifetime bipolar disorder, and the influence of this comorbidity on various demographic and clinical variables in patients.\\u000a Patients (n = 159) with a previous diagnosis of bipolar disorder (79 female, 80 male) were included in this study. All patients were\\u000a interviewed for the

Lut Tamam; Gonca Karakus; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

2008-01-01

311

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Diabetes Complications High Blood Sugar ?? ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual ... ?? - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations MRSA MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) MRSA (???? ?? ...

312

Prevalence of Root Dilaceration in Adult Patients Referred to Shiraz Dental School (2005-2010)  

PubMed Central

Statement of Problem: Dilaceration is defined as a sudden change in the axial inclination of root or between the crown and the root of a tooth. There is no previous study evaluating its prevalence in south of Iran. Purpose: This study evaluates the prevalence of root dilaceration on the basis of its location in dental arch in a sample of dental patients referring to Shiraz dental school, Iran. Materials and Method: This retrospective study was performed using full mouth periapical radiographs of 250 patients who were referred to Shiraz dental school. Buccal and lingual dilaceration was determined by its known” bull’s eye” appearance in the radiographs or if the deviation was in the mesial or distal directions; the angle of 90 degree or greater between the deviation and the axis of root was the inclusion criteria. Results: Root dilaceration was detected in 0.3% of teeth and 7.2% of patients. It was distributed equally between the maxilla and mandible. Mandibular second molar was the most frequent dilacerated tooth (1.6%) followed by maxillary first molar (1.3%) and mandibular first molar (0.6%). The alveolar nerve was the most common anatomic structure near dilacerated teeth. Conclusion: According to this study, root dilaceration is an uncommon developmental anomaly which occurs mostly in the posterior teeth. PMID:24724139

Nabavizadeh, MR; Sedigh Shamsi, M; Moazami, F; Abbaszadegan, A

2013-01-01

313

Prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in Latin America, India and China: cross-cultural study  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety is a common mental disorder among older people who live in the Western world, yet little is known about its prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Aims We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and its correlates among older adults in low- and middle-income countries with diverse cultures. Method Cross-sectional surveys of all residents aged 65 or over (n = 15 021) in 11 catchment sites in 7 countries (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru) were carried out as part of the 10/66 collaboration. Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT) diagnostic algorithm. Results The age- and gender-standardised prevalence of anxiety varied greatly across sites, ranging from 0.1% (95% CI 0.0–0.3) in rural China to 9.6% (95% CI 6.2–13.1) in urban Peru. Urban centres had higher estimates of anxiety than their rural counterparts with adjusted (age, gender and site) odds ratios of 2.9 (95% CI 1.7–5.3). Age, gender, socioeconomic status and comorbid physical illnesses were all associated with a GMS/AGECAT diagnosis of anxiety, and so was disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II). Conclusions Anxiety is common in Latin America. Estimates from this region are similar to the ones from high-income European countries found in the literature. As demographic change will occur more rapidly in these countries, further research exploring the mental health of older people in developing areas is vital, with the inclusion of other specific anxiety disorders, along with evidence for strategies for supporting those with these disorders. PMID:22016438

Prina, A. Matthew; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Brayne, Carol; Prince, Martin

2011-01-01

314

Prevalence and correlated factors of lifetime suicidal ideation in adults in Ningxia, China  

PubMed Central

Aim Compare the prevalence and associated factors of lifetime suicidal ideation, plans and attempts in the Hui and Han ethnic groups in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China. Methods Using a probability proportionate to size sampling method and villages (in rural areas) or neighborhoods (in urban areas) as primary sampling units, 5880 residents aged 18 and over were sampled. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a computer-administered Chinese version of the World Health Organization’s Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Factors associated with self-reported lifetime suicidal ideation were identified using logistic regression models. Results Of the 4789 (81.4%) persons who completed the survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans and suicide attempts were 5.30% (95% confidence interval [CI]=4.66-5.93%), 1.52% (CI=1.17-1.86%), and 0.77% (CI=0.52-1.02%), respectively. The age standardized rate of lifetime suicidal ideation and lifetime suicidal planning were significantly higher in the largely Muslim Hui ethnic group (n=1955) than in the largely atheist Han ethnic group (n=2834); the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempt was also higher in the Hui group, but only at the trend level (p=0.20). Factors independently associated with lifetime suicidal ideation were female gender (odds ratio [OR]=2.07), being divorced or widowed (OR=2.02), rural residence (OR=1.95), mood disorder in the prior year (OR=1.96), other mental disorder in the prior year (OR=2.99), and self-reported poor physical health in the prior year (OR=2.21). After adjustment for these factors, ethnicity was not independently associated with lifetime suicidal ideation, but stratified analyses by ethnic group found some differences in the factors associated with lifetime suicidal ideation between Hui and Han respondents. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, we found that lifetime suicidal ideation was more common in a Muslim ethnic group than in a non-Muslim ethnic group of Ningxia, but this difference did not persist in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for gender, mental disorders and other factors. PMID:24991168

Wang, Zhizhong; QIN, Ying; ZHANG, Yuhong; ZHANG, Bo; LI, Lin; DING, Li

2013-01-01

315

Age Is the Strongest Effector for the Relationship between Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered one of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a potential mechanism that explains the association between renal function and cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association between renal function and CAC in apparently healthy Korean subjects. Methods A total of 23,617 participants in a health-screening program at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were included in the study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured via multidetector computed tomography. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the CKD Staging system with eGFR grade: stage 1, eGFR ?90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stage 3, eGFR 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results The mean age of the participants was 41.4 years and the mean eGFR was 103.6±21.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. Hypertension and diabetes were noted in 43.7% and 5.5% of the participants, respectively. eGFR showed a weakly negative but significant association with CACS in bivariate correlation analysis (r=-0.076, P<0.01). Mean CACS significantly increased from CKD stage 1 to 3. The proportion of subjects who had CAC significantly increased from CKD stage 1 to 3. Although the odds ratio for CAC significantly increased from stage 1 to 3 after adjustment for confounding factors, this significance was reversed when age was included in the model. Conclusion In early CKD, renal function negatively correlated with the degree of CAC in Korean subjects. Age was the strongest effector for this association. PMID:25309790

Chae, Hyun Beom; Lee, Shin Yeoung; Kim, Nam Hee; Han, Ki Joong; Lee, Tae Hoon; Jang, Choel Min; Yoo, Kyung Mo; Park, Hae Jung; Lee, Min Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Moon, Heui-Soo; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

2014-01-01

316

Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.  

PubMed

The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

2013-12-01

317

The prevalence of ocular defects and the provision of eye care in adults with learning disabilities living in the community.  

PubMed

Most people with learning disabilities now live in the community rather than in institutions, and community services need to be targeted appropriately. Vision screening was carried out in community Day Care Centres for adults with learning disabilities. One hundred and fifty four subjects took part, and screening was successful in 148 subjects, using retinoscopy and standard acuity tests, including preferential looking. The previously reported high prevalence of refractive errors, strabismus and pathological defects amongst people with learning disabilities was confirmed. Over 60% of subjects had below-normal distance acuity, which in many cases was exacerbated by uncorrected refractive errors. In all, 41% of subjects could have benefited from distance spectacles, and 56% from spectacles for near tasks. The lack of adequate spectacles was particularly high amongst adults with more severe learning disabilities. The study highlights the current lack of adequate eye care for people with learning disabilities, and demonstrates that eye examinations are possible for the majority of individuals. There is a need for greater awareness amongst families/carers and amongst optometrists to address this important issue. PMID:10829129

Woodhouse, J M; Griffiths, C; Gedling, A

2000-03-01

318

The prevalence of nursing staff stress on adult acute psychiatric in-patient wards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Concerns about recent changes in acute in-patient mental healthcare environments have led to fears about staff stress and\\u000a poor morale in acute in-patient mental healthcare staff.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To review the prevalence of low staff morale, stress, burnout, job satisfaction and psychological well-being amongst staff\\u000a working in in-patient psychiatric wards.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Systematic review.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Of 34 mental health studies identified, 13 were specific to

David A. Richards; Penny Bee; Michael Barkham; Simon M. Gilbody; Jane Cahill; Julie Glanville

2006-01-01

319

Older adults in prime-time television dramas in Taiwan: prevalence, portrayal, and communication interaction.  

PubMed

A content and thematic analysis of 109 episodes (94.9 h) of prime-time dramas examined the portrayals of aging and the nature of intergenerational interaction involving older adults on Taiwanese television. The content analysis revealed that older characters, regardless of sex, appeared less frequently and in less prominent roles than other adult characters, but not in comparison to adolescents and children. The older characters who did appear, however, were predominantly portrayed as cognitively sound and physically healthy. The thematic analysis provided a different picture, showing that older characters talked about age explicitly, strategically linking it to death and despondence, to influence younger characters. Communication behavior themes identified included supporting, superiority, and controlling for older characters, and reverence/respect for younger characters. Findings are compared to those from similar studies of U.S. media and discussed from a Cultivation Theory perspective in terms of their reinforcement of Chinese age stereotypes and the traditional values of filial piety and age hierarchy in the context of globalization and culture change. PMID:19757005

Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

2009-12-01

320

Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O'Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

2008-01-01

321

High risk prescribing in older adults: prevalence, clinical and economic implications and potential for intervention at the population level  

PubMed Central

Background High risk prescribing can compromise independent wellbeing and quality of life in older adults. The aims of this project are to determine the prevalence, risk factors, clinical consequences, and costs of high risk prescribing, and to assess the impact of interventions on high risk prescribing in older people. Methods The proposed project will utilise data from the 45 and Up Study, a large scale cohort of 267,153 men and women aged 45 and over recruited during 2006–2009 from the state of New South Wales, Australia linked to a range of administrative health datasets. High risk prescribing will be assessed using three indicators: polypharmacy (use of five or more medicines); Beers Criteria (an explicit measure of potentially inappropriate medication use); and Drug Burden Index (a pharmacologic dose-dependent measure of cumulative exposure to anticholinergic and sedative medicines). Individual risk factors from the 45 and Up Study questionnaire, and health system characteristics from health datasets that are associated with the likelihood of high risk prescribing will be identified. The main outcome measures will include hospitalisation (first admission to hospital, total days in hospital, cause-specific hospitalisation); admission to institutionalised care; all-cause mortality, and, where possible, cause-specific mortality. Economic costs to the health care system and implications of high risk prescribing will be also investigated. In addition, changes in high risk prescribing will be evaluated in relation to certain routine medicines-related interventions. The statistical analysis will be conducted using standard pharmaco-epidemiological methods including descriptive analysis, univariate and multivariate regression analysis, controlling for relevant confounding factors, using a number of different approaches. Discussion The availability of large-scale data is useful to identify opportunities for improving prescribing, and health in older adults. The size of the 45 and Up Study, along with linkage to health databases provides an important opportunity to investigate the relationship between high risk prescribing and adverse outcomes in a real-world population of older adults. PMID:23388494

2013-01-01

322

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Their Associations with Socioeconomic Status in a Rural Han Chinese Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity and examine their associations with socioeconomic status in a rural Chinese adult population. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 15,236 participants ? 35 years of age (6,313 men [41.4%] and 8,923 women [58.6%]). Each participant’s weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hipline circumference (HC) were measured, and demographic and socioeconomic data were collected using questionnaires. Results The mean body mass index (BMI) values were 23.31 ± 2.96 and 23.89 ± 3.23 kg m-2 and the mean WC values were 79.13 ± 8.43 and 79.54 ± 8.27 cm for men and women, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence rates of overweight (BMI ? 24.0 kg m-2), general obesity (BMI ? 28.0 kg m-2), and abdominal obesity (WC ? 85 cm for men and ? 80 cm for women) were 32.0%, 6.7%, and 27.0% for men and 35.1%, 9.7%, and 48.3% for women, respectively. All gender differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In addition, the age-specific prevalence rates of general and abdominal obesity slowly decreased among men but sharply increased among women as age increased (p < 0.001). In subsequent logistic regression analysis, educational level was negatively associated with both general obesity and abdominal obesity among women but positively associated with abdominal obesity among men. No significant correlation was found between obesity and income. Conclusions These results suggest a high prevalence of obesity which might differ by gender and age, and an inverse association among women and a mixed association among men noted between education and obesity in our locality. Preventive and therapeutic programs are warranted to control this serious public health problem. The gender-specific characteristics of populations at high-risk of developing obesity should be taken into consideration when designing interventional programs. PMID:24224024

Jin, Ming-Juan; Chen, Bing-Bing; Mao, Ying-Ying; Zhu, Yi-Min; Yu, Yun-Xian; Wu, Yin-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Wu; Zhu, Shan-Kuan; Chen, Kun

2013-01-01

323

Hepatitis B Vaccination Prevalence and its Predictors Among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial Adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccination prevalence and its predictors were estimated among Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American,\\u000a and Multiracial (A-PI-NA-M) adults. Using 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, estimates of HBV vaccination\\u000a among A-PI-NA-M adults (N = 233) were compared with all other racial\\/ethnic groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate predictors\\u000a of vaccination. Among A-PI-NA-M adults 42% (95%CI

John W. AyersHee-Soon; Hee-Soon Juon; Sunmin Lee; Eunmi Park

2010-01-01

324

Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or…

Herek, Gregory M.

2009-01-01

325

A General Practice-Based Prevalence Study of Epilepsy among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and of Its Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Behaviour Disturbance and Carer Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the elevated occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is well recognized, the nature of seizures and their association with psychopathology and carer strain are less clearly understood. The aims were to determine the prevalence and features of epilepsy in a community-based population of adults with…

Matthews, T.; Weston, N.; Baxter, H.; Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2008-01-01

326

Secular trends in heart rate, blood presure components and hypertension prevalence in young adults, 1949 to 2004: analyses of cross-sectional studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As few studies have comprehensively examined hemodynamic cardiovascular risk factors in youth, this study was designed to investigate the trends in blood pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate levels and hypertension prevalence in young adults between 1949 and 2004.We studied 5 240 (55% male and 45% female) students who entered Queen's University Belfast (QUB) as first year undergraduates between 1975 and

Amanda Black; Liam Murray; GeorgeDavey Smith; Chris Cardwell; Peter McCarron

2005-01-01

327

Lifetime prevalence and incidence of parasomnias in a population of young adult Nigerians.  

PubMed

Lifetime prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for parasomnias were determined. Past experiences of non-REM, REM, and sleep-transition parasomnias were recorded. Diaries of night sleep duration, parasomnias, perception of aliens, levels of physical activity, headaches and intake of all substances, drugs, and tobacco were kept for 14 consecutive days. A total of 276 subjects were studied. Lifetime prevalences (95% CI) were 725 (668-776) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 43 (25-74) for sleepwalking, 112 (80-155) for sleep terror, 475 (416-533) for nightmares, 225 (179-277) for sleep paralysis, 43 (25-74) for sleep starts, 322 (270-380) for sleep talking, and 344 (291-402) for enuresis. Incidences (95% CI) were 210 (166-262) for occurrence of any parasomnia, 14 (6-37) for sleepwalking, 11 (4-31) for sleep terror, 170 (131-219) for confusional arousal, 18 (8-42) for nightmares, 14 (6-37) for sleep paralysis, 33 (17-61) for sleep starts, and 4 (1-20) for sleep enuresis. Multivariate analysis showed associations of increase occurrence of parasomnias and duration of sleep >7 h (p < 0.05) and intake of alcohol (p < 0.001), but heavy workload before sleep was associated with decreased occurrence of parasomnias (p < 0.01). Gender, smoking, caffeinated drinks, hypnotics, and headaches were not associated with parasomnias. Incidence of presence of aliens (95% CI) in the room was 25(0/infinity) (12-51). This study shows that more than 70% of the population have experienced parasomnias at any time in the past. Nightmares, enuresis, sleep paralysis and night terrors are the commonest parasomnias experienced in the past, while confusional arousal, sleep starts, and nightmares are the commonest parasomnias currently experienced. Incidence estimates show that all parasomnias persist into adulthood at reduced rates, but reduction of occurrence was greatest for enuresis. Long duration of night sleep and intake of alcohol predisposed subjects to higher occurrence of parasomnias. PMID:20143107

Oluwole, O S A

2010-07-01

328

Prevalence of insomnia in a survey of 12,778 adults in France.  

PubMed

This study was an epidemiological questionnaire survey of a representative sample of the French population that included 12 778 individuals and in which adapted DSM-IV criteria for the definition of insomnia were used. Our goals were not only to assess the prevalence of 'insomnia' using these criteria, but also to compare the results obtained with those of prior studies using different definitions of 'insomnia'. The aim of this study was also to identify where areas of agreement and disagreement existed, as we believe that it is important to emphasize these points because DSM-IV recommendations are supposedly reflected in clinical practice. Seventy-three per cent of the individuals surveyed complained of a nocturnal sleep problem, but only 29% reported at least one sleep problem three times per week for a month, and 19% (2428 subjects) had at least one sleep problem three times per week for a month and complained of daytime consequences (DSM-IV criteria). Only 9% had two or more nocturnal sleep problems with daytime consequences and were classified as 'severe insomniacs'. Our study indicates that if DSM-IV criteria are used, the diagnosis of 'insomnia' is lower than in other epidemiological studies. The DSM criteria have an advantage in that they emphasize the daytime consequences of nocturnal sleep disturbances, which seem to be responsible for the most important socio-economic costs of the problem. PMID:10733687

Leger, D; Guilleminault, C; Dreyfus, J P; Delahaye, C; Paillard, M

2000-03-01

329

Prevalence of loss of all teeth (edentulism) and associated factors in older adults in china, ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.  

PubMed

Little information exists about the loss of all one's teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO's) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%-21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%-9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. PMID:25361046

Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E; Kowal, Paul

2014-01-01

330

Prevalent and Incident HIV Diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-Infected Adult Males: A Changing Epidemiology Associated with Sexual Transmission -- Taiwan, 2006-2013  

PubMed Central

Background Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P?=?0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P?=?0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI. PMID:25299178

Lo, Yi-Chun; Ji, Dar-Der; Hung, Chien-Ching

2014-01-01

331

Prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in adults aged 25 years and above  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing and impacted third molars in people aged 25 years and above. Materials and Methods The study sample of 3,799 patients was chosen randomly from patients who visited Pusan National University Dental Hospital and had panoramic radiographs taken. The data collected included presence and impaction state, angulation, and depth of impaction of third molars, and radiographically detected lesions of third molars and adjacent second molars. Results A greater percentage of men than women retained at least one third molar. The incidence of third molars decreased with increasing age. The incidence of partially impacted third molars greatly declined after the age of 30. Vertically impacted maxillary third molars and horizontally impacted mandibular third molars were most frequent in all age groups. Among the maxillary third molars, those impacted below the cervical line of the second molar were most frequent in all age groups, and among the mandibular third molars, deeply impacted third molars were most frequent in those aged over 40. Dental caries was the most common radiographic lesion of the third molars. Mesioangularly impacted third molars showed radiographic lesions in 13 (9.5%) adjacent maxillary second molars and 117 (27.4%) mandibular second molars. Conclusion The number of remaining third molars decreased and the percentage of Class C depth increased with age. Caries was the most frequent lesion in third molars. Partially impacted mesioangular third molars showed a high incidence of caries or periodontal bone loss of the adjacent second molar. Regular oral examination will be essential to keep asymptomatic third molars in good health. PMID:24380060

Jung, Yun-Hoa

2013-01-01

332

Prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders in a group of Mexican adolescents and youth adults.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a university sample of Campeche, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 506 subjects aged 14-25 years. The subjects were requested to answer questionnaires concerning sociodemographic variables, history of stress, lifestyle, and anxiety. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) was used as TMD diagnostic system by four examiners capacitated and standardized. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression in STATA. The results showed that 46.1% of the subjects exhibited some grade of TMD. Logistic regression analysis with TMD as the dependent variable identified sex (women odds ratio [OR]=1.7), bruxism (OR=1.5), anxiety (OR=1.6), unilateral chewing (OR=1.5), and an interaction between number of tooth loss and stress as the most significant associated variables, thus (1) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects without tooth loss (OR=1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.7-1.8) and (2) the effect of having high levels of stress in the group of subjects with at least one tooth lost (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.01-5.9). The variables associated with diagnosis of pain were principally psychosocial (stress and anxiety), whereas for the non-pain diagnosis group, the variables were clinical, such as bruxism, chewing site preference, and restorations in mouth. We found associations among variables that were similar to findings in other studies, such as bruxism, tooth loss, stress, and anxiety. The final model explains that the effect of stress on TMD depends of the tooth loss, controlling for sex, bruxism, unilateral chewing, and anxiety. Finally, it can be concluded that the variables associated with pain and non-pain diagnosis were of distinct nature. PMID:16311741

Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Hernández-Prado, Bernardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia

2006-03-01

333

Prevalence and clinical features of HIV and malaria co-infection in hospitalized adults in Beira, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background Mozambique presents a very high prevalence of both malaria and HIV infection, but the impact of co-cancel infection on morbidity in this population has been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and clinical characteristics of malaria in hospitalized adult HIV-positive patients, treated and untreated with combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole (CTX)-based chemoprophylaxis, compared to HIV negatives. Methods From November to December 2010, all adult patients consecutively admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine of Beira Central Hospital, Sofala Province, Mozambique, were submitted to HIV testing, malaria blood smear (MBS) and, in a subgroup of patients, also to the rapid malaria test (RDT). Socio-demographical and clinical data were collected for all patients. The association of both a positive MBS and/or RDT and diagnosis of clinical malaria with concomitant HIV infection (and use of CTX and/or ART) was assessed statistically. Frequency of symptoms and hematological alterations in HIV patients with clinical malaria compared to HIV negatives was also analysed. Sensitivity and specificity for RDT versus MBS were calculated for both HIV-positive and negative patients. Results A total of 330 patients with available HIV test and MBS were included in the analysis, 220 of whom (66.7%) were HIV-positive. In 93 patients, malaria infection was documented by MBS and/or RDT. RDT sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 96%, respectively. According to laboratory results, the initial malaria suspicion was discarded in about 10% of cases, with no differences between HIV-positive and negative patients. A lower malaria risk was significantly associated with CTX prophylaxis (p=0.02), but not with ART based on non nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Overall, severe malaria seemed to be more common in HIV-positive patients (61.7%) compared to HIV-negatives (47.2%), while a significantly lower haemoglobin level was observed in the group of HIV-positive patients (9.9±2.8mg/dl) compared to those HIV-negative (12.1±2.8mg/dl) (p=0.003). Conclusions Malaria infection was rare in HIV-positive individuals treated with CTX for opportunistic infections, while no independent anti-malarial effect for NNRTIs was noted. When HIV and malaria co-infection occurred, a high risk of complications, particularly anaemia, should be expected. PMID:22835018

2012-01-01

334

High Prevalence of Haplorchiasis in Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, Proven by Adult Worm Recovery from Suspected Opisthorchiasis Cases  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchiasis, a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in humans, is of public health importance in Thailand. The Annual Surveillance Reports from Nan and Lampang Provinces, Thailand, for the year 2011 showed an opisthorchiasis prevalence of over 70% by recovery of eggs in the feces. This study investigated whether most cases are actually due to minute intestinal flukes (MIF) rather than Opisthorchis viverrini, as the eggs of both can hardly be differentiated by morphology. Fifty and 100 cases from residents in Nan and Lampang, respectively, had stools positive for eggs initially assumed to be those of O. viverrini. Each patient was given praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose. After 2 hr, 30-45 ml of the purgative magnesium sulfate was given, and stools were collected up to 4 times sequentially. The stools were examined for adult worms by simple sedimentation. It was found that 39 of 50 cases (78.0%) from Nan Province had Haplorchis taichui, with intensities ranging from 5 to 1,250 with an average of 62 worms/case. Taenia saginata (7 cases) and Enterobius vermicularis (1 case) were other helminths recovered as the co-infectants. In Lampang Province, H. taichui was recovered from 69 cases (69.0%). The number of flukes recovered ranged from 1 to 4,277, with an average of 326 worms/case. Four cases had Phaneropsolus bonnei, and 10 T. saginata as the co-infectants. Adult specimens of O. viverrini were not recovered from any stool. Clearly, MIF infection, especially haplorchiasis, is more common in northern Thailand. These findings should encourage the Public Health Office to employ more specific tools than Kato's method for surveillance of opisthorchiasis in Thailand. PMID:24516289

Morakote, Nimit; Klinchid, Jaewwaew

2013-01-01

335

State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults and secondhand smoke rules and policies in homes and workplaces--United States, 2005.  

PubMed

Smoking causes premature death and disease in children and adults who do not smoke but are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). To assess the state-specific prevalence of current smoking among adults in the United States and the proportions of adults who report having smoke-free home rules and smoke-free policies in their workplace, CDC analyzed data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated a threefold difference (from lowest to highest) in self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence in 50 states, the District of Columbia (DC), Puerto Rico (PR), and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) (range: 8.3%-28.7%). Wide variations also were observed in USVI and the 14 states that assessed prevalence of smoke-free home rules (from 63.6% [Kentucky] to 82.9% [Arizona]) and smoke-free workplace policies (from 54.8% [Nevada] to 85.8% [West Virginia]). Evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs that focus on decreasing smoking initiation, increasing smoking cessation, and establishing smoke-free workplaces, homes, and other venues should be continued and expanded to reduce smoking prevalence, exposure of nonsmokers to SHS, and smoking-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:17065980

2006-10-27

336

The Impact of DSM-IV Symptom and Clinical Significance Criteria on the Prevalence Estimates of Subthreshold and Threshold Anxiety in the Older Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Objectives Subthreshold anxiety refers to a condition where individuals do not meet the full symptom criteria (i.e., the number of symptoms required for a formal diagnosis is not reached) and/or do not report significant impairment or distress in functioning (i.e., the clinical significance criterion is not met). The purpose of this study was to examine how the symptom and the clinical significance criteria may affect the prevalence estimates of anxiety problems in the older adult population and whether applying these criteria results in an identifiable older group showing more severe anxiety. Setting and Participants Data came from a large representative sample of community-dwelling older adults age 65 years and older (N = 2,784). Results Results showed that the 12-month prevalence rate of any anxiety problem varied from 5.6% when DSM-IV criteria for anxiety disorders were used to 26.2% when all subthreshold manifestations of anxiety were considered. Findings also indicated that when compared with respondents without anxiety, older adults presenting different manifestations of subthreshold or threshold anxiety appear to be more similar than different in their health and health behavior characteristics. Conclusions Subthreshold anxiety has a high prevalence and may cause significant impairment. Both symptom and clinical significance criteria do not perfectly discriminate between older adults with or without a severe anxiety problem presenting comorbid disorders and needing psychiatric help. PMID:21427640

Grenier, Sebastien; Preville, Michel; Boyer, Richard; O'Connor, Kieron; Beland, Sarah-Gabrielle; Potvin, Olivier; Hudon, Carol; Brassard, Joelle

2013-01-01

337

Segmental properties of input to infants: a study of Korean.  

PubMed

Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more use of mid and low central vowels in IDS as well as more use of language-specific Korean phonemes. Mothers produced significantly more fortis and geminate and less lenis consonant phonemes in IDS than in ADS. Findings suggest that Korean mothers speaking to infants in the IDS speech style use sounds that more closely match infant production propensities as well as highlighting perceptually salient properties. IDS may serve to facilitate infant learning of ambient language phonological regularities. PMID:18588716

Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L; Macneilage, Peter F

2008-08-01

338

Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.  

PubMed

Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Arias-Merino, Elva D; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P; Macías-Islas, Miguel A

2014-01-01

339

Prevalence, predictors, and perceived effectiveness of complementary, alternative and integrative medicine in adult-onset primary dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use is on the rise in both the US and Europe, despite questions about its safety, effectiveness and lack of national standards. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of CAM and integrative medicine use (CAM-I) and perceived effectiveness compared to the standard treatment of botulinum toxin injections in patients with adult-onset primary dystonia. Methods This was a retrospective questionnaire study of 389 dystonia patients examining the effects age, gender, education level and number of anatomical regions affected on botulinum toxin and CAM-I use and their perceived effectiveness. Results 53% (208) of patients reported CAM-I use, while 90% (349) used the standard treatment (botulinum toxin), and 48% used both. Education was the only significant predictor of CAM-I use – individuals with bachelor’ s degrees were more likely to try CAM-I whereas those with high school diplomas were less likely. The mean effectiveness rate for botulinum toxin injections (59%) significantly exceeded that for and CAM-I (28%, p<0.0001). Conclusions Our work highlights the need for scientifically sound studies to determine the safety, effectiveness and expense of CAM-I treatments for dystonia and other neurological disorders given that CAM-I use is steadily increasing, there is great variability in what is classified as CAM-I, and the effectiveness of some modalities may be significantly less than conventional medical treatments. PMID:22633698

Fleming, Brandy M.; Schwab, Emiko L.; Nouer, Simonne S.; Wan, Jim Y.; LeDoux, Mark S.

2012-01-01

340

Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL), increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men). Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability. PMID:24795758

Velazquez-Brizuela, Irma E.; Ortiz, Genaro G.; Ventura-Castro, Lucia; Arias-Merino, Elva D.; Pacheco-Moises, Fermin P.; Macias-Islas, Miguel A.

2014-01-01

341

Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID)  

PubMed Central

Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs), as per American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065) of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632) patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and total cholesterol in the study were 60.48% (N = 3236), 57.54% (N = 3107), and 92.24% (N = 4981) respectively. Among those with overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), target LDL-C level of < 70 mg/dL was achieved in 22.87% (70 out of 306) patients. The LDL-C levels of 49.03% (N = 1768) patients who were on statin therapy were within target levels, while 53.46% (N = 634) patients who were on statin and their combinations with other LLDs had their LDL-C levels within the stipulated range. Conclusions: This study has reveled that dyslipidemia control in Indian T2DM patients is very poor with almost half of them not reaching their LDL -C goal. Dyslipidemia being one of the main risk factors for CVD in T2DM patients there is a need to treat dyslipidemia aggressively to reduce risk of future CV events.

Mithal, Ambrish; Majhi, Debashish; Shunmugavelu, M.; Talwarkar, Pradeep G.; Vasnawala, Hardik; Raza, Ammar S.

2014-01-01

342

Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

2009-01-01

343

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 12-month Prevalence: 4.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Prevalence � 12-month Prevalence: 4.1% of U, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General

Baker, Chris I.

344

School Bullying and Suicidal Risk in Korean Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. Objective. Being a victim or a perpetra- tor of school bullying, the most common type of school violence, has been frequently associated with a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional, and social problems. In a Korean middle school community sample, this study specifically investigated the prevalence of suicidal ide- ations and behaviors in victims, perpetrators, and victim- perpetrators of school

Young Shin Kim; Yun-Joo Koh; Bennett Leventhal

2005-01-01

345

Prevalence of Mental Disorders, Psychological Distress, and Mental Health Services Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults in the United States  

PubMed Central

Recent estimates of mental health morbidity among adults reporting same-gender sexual partners suggest that lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals may experience excess risk for some mental disorders as compared with heterosexual individuals. However, sexual orientation has not been measured directly. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 2,917 midlife adults, the authors examined possible sexual orientation-related differences in morbidity, distress, and mental health services use. Results indicate that gay–bisexual men evidenced higher prevalence of depression, panic attacks, and psychological distress than heterosexual men. Lesbian–bisexual women showed greater prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder than heterosexual women. Services use was more frequent among those of minority sexual orientation. Findings support the existence of sexual orientation differences in patterns of morbidity and treatment use. PMID:12602425

Cochran, Susan D.; Sullivan, J. Greer; Mays, Vickie M.

2014-01-01

346

Low prevalence of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive adults in a rural HIV clinic in Kenya.  

PubMed

Low levels of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) have previously been reported from many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). However, recent data, mostly from urban settings, suggest an increase in the prevalence of HIV-1 TDR. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of TDR mutations among HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral (ARV)-naive adults enrolling for care in a rural HIV clinic in Kenya. Two cross-sectional studies were carried out between July 2008 and June 2010. Plasma samples from ARV-naive adults (>15 years old) at the time of registering for care after HIV diagnosis and before starting ARVs were used. A portion of the pol subgenomic region of the virus containing the protease and part of the reverse transcriptase genes was amplified and sequenced. TDR mutations were identified and interpreted using the Stanford HIV drug resistance database and the WHO list for surveillance of drug resistance strains. Overall, samples from 182 ARV-naive adults [mean age (95% CI): 34.9 (33.3-36.4) years] were successfully amplified and sequenced. Two TDR mutations to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [n=1 (T215D)] and protease inhibitors [n=1 (M46L)] were identified, giving an overall TDR prevalence of 1.1% (95% CI: 0.1-3.9). Despite reports of an increase in the prevalence of HIV-1 TDR in some urban settings in sSA, we report a prevalence of HIV-1 TDR of less than 5% at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya. Continued broader surveillance is needed to monitor the extent of TDR in sSA. PMID:22900472

Hassan, Amin S; Mwaringa, Shalton M; Obonyo, Clare A; Nabwera, Helen M; Sanders, Eduard J; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Cane, Patricia A; Berkley, James A

2013-01-01

347

Correlation between the prevalence of type 1 diabetes with the daily insulin dose and the autoimmune process against glutamic acid decarboxylase in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we compared the rate of insulin requirement among adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in 24 Ukrainian regions. The glutamic acid decaroxylase 65 antibody (GADA), insulin antibody (IA), and plasma c-peptide levels were investigated. The data included the prevalent cases of T1D in Ukraine at the end of 2006. Only persons aged over 14 years at the time

M. Khalangot; V. Kravchenko; M. Tronko; V. Gur'ianov

2009-01-01

348

Social fears and social phobia in a community sample of adolescents and young adults: prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The paper describes prevalence, impairments, patterns of co-morbidity and other correlates of DSM-IV social phobia in adolescents and young adults, separating generalized and non-generalized social phobics. Methods. Data are derived from the baseline investigation of the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology Study (EDSP), a prospective longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects, aged 14-24. Diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV

H.-U. WITTCHEN; M. B. STEIN; R. C. KESSLER

1999-01-01

349

PREVALENCE AND THE FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BINGE DRINKING, ALCOHOL ABUSE, AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF CHINESE ADULTS IN HONG KONG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. Method: An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3%

JEAN H. KIM; SING LEE; J ULIE CHOW; J OSEPH LAU; ADLEY TSANG; JACQUELINE CHOI; SIAN M. GRIFFITHS

2008-01-01

350

Greater Prevalence of Proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder Compared to DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence in Treated Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Aims Compared to DSM-IV nicotine dependence, proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder (NUD) would lower the threshold from 3 to 2 symptoms, and increase the number of criteria used for diagnosis from 7 to 11. The impact of the proposed changes on nicotine disorder prevalence, and the concurrent validity of diagnostic criteria were examined. Design Cross-sectional survey to compare DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 algorithms. Setting and Participants Adolescent (N=179) and young adult (N=292) past year cigarette users recruited from addictions treatment. Measurements Semi-structured clinical interview to evaluate DSM-IV nicotine dependence, and 10 of the 11 proposed DSM-5 NUD criteria; 30-day Time Line Follow-Back; and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Findings Prevalence of proposed DSM-5 NUD (2-symptom threshold) was much higher (adolescents: 69%, young adults: 86%) than DSM-IV nicotine dependence (33% and 60%, respectively), although prevalence of DSM-5 severe NUD (4-symptom threshold) was similar to DSM-IV nicotine dependence. Concurrent validity analyses in both samples indicated consistent support for DSM-5 severe NUD diagnosis (4-symptoms) but not for the moderate NUD (2-symptoms) diagnosis, which had modest relations with only FTND score. IRT analyses indicated strong support for the new Craving item, but not for the proposed Interpersonal Problems and Hazardous Use items. Conclusions The proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder criteria have substantial limitations when applied to adolescents and young adults, and appear to have low concurrent validity. PMID:22092543

Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Clark, Duncan B.

2011-01-01

351

Depression and Korean American immigrants.  

PubMed

Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants. PMID:18207052

Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

2008-02-01

352

Korean Women in America: A Comparison of the Perception of Leadership between Korean American Women and Korean International Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study supplements the scarcity of research on Korean women in America. It explores the perception of leadership between Korean American women and Korean international women. It was inspired by stories that were told by Korean women indicating that Korean women in America first and foremost deal with the question, \\

Eun Hye Kang

2006-01-01

353

Bridging worlds, breaking rules: Clinician perspectives on transitioning young people with perinatally acquired HIV into adult care in a low prevalence setting.  

PubMed

The first generation of young people with perinatally acquired HIV is moving into adulthood, precipitating a transition from pediatric to adult care. As the first research appraisal of Australian clinician perspectives on this process, this article makes a unique contribution by examining the particular challenges associated with transitioning this population into adult care in regions of low HIV prevalence among young people. Qualitative interviews were conducted with twelve pediatric and adult care clinicians and analyzed for dominant and diverging themes. Clinicians anticipated significant client vulnerabilities during transition and worked beyond the boundaries of their roles and service parameters to keep clients engaged as they moved between pediatric and adult care. Strategies to strengthen the transition process focused on communication and teamwork, informed by and responsive to the needs of individual young people and their families. Clinicians working in settings with very small numbers of young people with HIV must advocate for a hidden minority with little potential for gaining large scale recognition or system changes. New conversations are needed to design a stronger and more sustainable transition process for both young people living with HIV, and their clinicians who care for them, in low prevalence settings. PMID:24749770

Newman, Christy; Persson, Asha; Miller, Angela; Cama, Elena

2014-07-01

354

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in a rural community in South India: Results from the kidney disease screening (KIDS) project  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears to be increasing in India. A few studies have studied the prevalence of CKD in urban populations, but there is a paucity of such studies in the rural populations. This project was undertaken to study the prevalence of CKD among adults in a rural population near Shimoga, Karnataka and to study the risk factor profile. Door-to-door screening of 2091 people aged 18 and above was carried out. Demographic and anthropometric data were obtained, urine was analyzed for protein by dipstick and serum creatinine was measured in all participants. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) using the 4-variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected to the body surface area (CG-BSA). The total number of subjects studied was 2091. Mean age was 39.88 ± 15.87 years. 45.57% were males. The prevalence of proteinuria was 2.8%. CKD was seen in 131 (6.3%) subjects when GFR was estimated by MDRD equation. The prevalence of CKD was 16.54% by the CG-BSA method. There was a statistically significant relationship of CKD with gender, advancing age, abdominal obesity, smoking, presence of diabetes and hypertension. The prevalence of CKD is higher compared to the previous studies from rural India and is comparable to that in the studies from the urban Indian populations. The wide difference between the CKD prevalence between MDRD and CG-BSA equations suggests the need for a better measure of kidney function applicable to Indian population. PMID:25097333

Anupama, Y. J.; Uma, G.

2014-01-01

355

[Prevalence and temporal trend of known diabetes mellitus: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].  

PubMed

The first wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1, 2008-2011) allows for up-to-date, representative prevalence estimates of known diabetes amongst the 18- to 79-year-old resident population of Germany. Temporal trends can be shown by comparing the survey findings with those of the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98). The definition of known diabetes was based on self-reports in physician-administered interviews that asked respondents if they had ever been diagnosed with diabetes by a doctor or were on anti-diabetic medication. Overall, diabetes had been diagnosed in 7.2?% of the adults (7.4?% of the women; 7.0?% of the men). The prevalence increased substantially with advancing age and was higher in persons of low than of high socioeconomic status. Prevalence varied depending on the type of health insurance held and was highest amongst those insured with AOK health insurance funds. In comparison with GNHIES98, there was a 38?% increase in prevalence, of which approximately one third is to be attributed to demographic ageing. In the context of other nationwide studies, the results indicate a figure of at least 4.6 million 18- to 79-year-olds having been diagnosed with diabetes at some point. Planned analyses of undiagnosed diabetes will contribute to the interpretation of the observed increase in the prevalence of known diabetes. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:23703485

Heidemann, C; Du, Y; Schubert, I; Rathmann, W; Scheidt-Nave, C

2013-05-01

356

The acquisition of Korean word-initial stops.  

PubMed

A number of studies have investigated acquisition of stop voicing contrast in various languages by voice onset time measurement. Korean stops, however, are all voiceless word-initially and are differentiated by multiple acoustic-phonetic parameters resulting in a three-way contrast (fortis, aspirated, and lenis). The present study examines developmental patterns of Korean word-initial stops produced by 40 Korean children aged 2;6 (year; month), 3;0, 3;6, and 4;0 years, and compare the children's productions to those of 10 female adults. Voice onset time, fundamental frequency, and amplitude difference between the first and second harmonics of the post-stop vowel are obtained from monosyllabic near-minimal triplets at three places of articulation (labial, alveolar, and velar). Acoustic measures of children's productions reveal both universal phonetic patterns and phonetic variation associated with articulatory complexity specific to Korean. Language-specific fundamental frequency variation begins to emerge as early as 2;6, but appears to be mastered later than the voice onset time distinction. In comparison to the adults, young Korean children exhibit greater overlap across stop categories, and the acoustic overlap decreases over age. Results suggest that language-specific phonetic details as well as universal patterns should be examined to provide a better understanding of the speech sound development of a given language. PMID:19507977

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2009-06-01

357

The Immunogenicity of a Single Dose of Hepatitis A Virus Vaccines (Havrix(R) and Epaxal(R)) in Korean Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Assessing the immunogenicity of a single dose of hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccines is important because some people receive only a single dose. However, previous studies have shown variable results and have not examined the effects of demographic characteristics other than gender. This study was performed to examine the immunogenicity of a single dose of HAV vaccine according to the vaccine type and demographic characteristics in young adults. Materials and Methods Seronegative medical school students were randomly allocated to receive either Havrix or Epaxal. Results After approximately 11 months, the seroconversion rate in 451 participants was 80.7%. In men, the Havrix group showed a significantly higher seroconversion rate (81.9%) than the Epaxal group (69.2%), whereas both vaccine groups showed similarly high immunogenicity in women (Havrix: 90.1%, Epaxal: 92.9%; P for interaction=0.062). According to the results of a multivariate analysis, Epaxal showed significantly lower immunogenicity than Havrix only in men. Age, obesity, drinking, smoking, and follow-up time did not significantly affect seroconversion in either gender. Conclusion The seroconversion rate of single-dose HAV vaccines was low in men, particularly in those who received Epaxal. Our results suggest that gender effects should be considered when comparing the immunogenicity of different HAV vaccines. PMID:24339297

Lim, Jiseun; Song, Yeong-Jun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae

2014-01-01

358

Chronic Daily Headache in Korea: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, Medical Consultation and Management  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a commonly reported reason for visiting hospital neurology departments, but its prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management have not been well documented in Korea. The objective of this study was to characterize the 1-year prevalence, clinical characteristics, medical consultations, and treatment for CDH in Korea. Methods The Korean Headache Survey (KHS) is a nationwide descriptive survey of 1507 Korean adults aged between 19 and 69 years. The KHS investigated headache characteristics, sociodemographics, and headache-related disability using a structured interview. We used the KHS data for this study. Results The 1-year prevalence of CDH was 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.5%), and 25.7% of the subjects with CDH met the criteria for medication overuse. Two-thirds (66.7%) of CDH subjects were classified as having chronic migraine, and approximately half of the CDH subjects (48.1%) reported that their headaches either substantially or severely affected their quality of life. Less than half (40.7%) of the subjects with CDH reported having consulted a doctor for their headaches and 40.7% had not received treatment for their headaches during the previous year. Conclusions The prevalence of CDH was 1.8% and medication overuse was associated with one-quarter of CDH cases in Korea. Many subjects with CDH do not seek medical consultation and do not receive appropriate treatment for their headaches. PMID:25045377

Park, Jeong-Wook; Moon, Heui-Soo; Kim, Jae-Moon; Lee, Kwang-Soo

2014-01-01

359

Chronic kidney disease in US adults with type 2 diabetes: an updated national estimate of prevalence based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) staging  

PubMed Central

Background Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2013 updated the classification and risk stratification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to include both the level of renal function and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). The update subclassifies the previous category of moderate renal impairment. There is currently limited information on the prevalence of CKD based on this new classification in United States (US) adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to provide such estimates, for T2DM both overall and in those???65 years of age. We used the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2012 to identify participants with T2DM. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and UAE were calculated using laboratory results and data collected from the surveys, and categorized based on the KDIGO classification. Projections for the US T2DM population were based on NHANES sampling weights. Results A total of 2915 adults diagnosed with T2DM were identified from NHANES, with 1466 being age???65 years. Prevalence of CKD based on either eGFR or UAE was 43.5% in the T2DM population overall, and 61.0% in those age???65 years. The prevalence of mildly decreased renal function or worse (eGFR?Prevalence of more severe renal impairment (eGFR?prevalence of elevated UAE (>?30 mg/g) was 32.2% overall and 39.1% in those age???65 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, retinopathy, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of CKD in T2DM, impacting 43.5% of this population. Additionally, this study is among the first to report US prevalence estimates of CKD based on the new KDIGO CKD staging system. PMID:24990184

2014-01-01

360

Prevalence and Overlap of Childhood and Adult Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse: A Descriptive Analysis of Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

Abuse is associated with a wide variety of health problems, yet comprehensive population-based data are scant. Existing literature focuses on a single type of abuse, population, or lifestage. Using a racially/ethnically diverse community-based sample, we document the prevalence of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by lifestage and gender; assess variation in abuse by socio-demographics; establish overlap of abuses; and examine childhood abuse relationships with abuse in adulthood. Prevalence of abuse ranges from 15% to 27%; women report more adulthood emotional abuse and lifetime sexual abuse than men; reports of abuse can vary by race/ethnicity and poverty status, particularly in women; there is overlap between types of abuse; and a history of childhood abuse is associated with a greater risk of abuse as an adult. PMID:23862305

Chiu, Gretchen R.; Lutfey, Karen E.; Litman, Heather J.; Link, Carol L.; Hall, Susan A.; McKinlay, John B.

2012-01-01

361

Drought reduces chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection intensity and mortality but not prevalence in adult crawfish frogs (Lithobates areolatus).  

PubMed

To fully understand the impacts of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) on amphibians it is necessary to examine the interactions between populations and their environment. Ecologic variables can exacerbate or ameliorate Bd prevalence and infection intensity, factors that are positively related when Bd is acting on naive amphibian populations as an epidemic disease. In crawfish frogs (Lithobates areolatus), a North American species with a complex life history, we have shown that Bd acts as an endemic disease with impacts that vary seasonally; the highest infection prevalences and intensities and highest frog mortality occurred during late spring in postbreeding individuals. In this study, conducted between 28 February and 23 August 2011 in southwestern Indiana on the same population, we report an uncoupling of the previously observed relationship between Bd prevalence and intensity following an extreme drought. Specifically, there was a postdrought reduction in Bd infection intensity and mortality, but not in infection prevalence. This result suggests that the relationship between prevalence and intensity observed in Bd epidemics can be uncoupled in populations harboring endemic infections. Further, constant prevalence rates suggest either that crawfish frogs are being exposed to Bd sources independent of ambient moisture or that low-level infections below detection thresholds persist from year to year. Drought has several ecologically beneficial effects for amphibians with complex life histories, including eliminating fish and invertebrate populations that feed on larvae. To these ecologic benefits we suggest another, that drought can reduce the incidence of the severe skin disease (chytridiomycosis) due to Bd infection. PMID:24171560

Terrell, Vanessa C K; Engbrecht, Nathan J; Pessier, Allan P; Lannoo, Michael J

2014-01-01

362

Korean American Digital Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by the Korean Heritage Library (KHL) at the University of Southern California, this archive brings together a wide collection of digitized materials related to the Korean-American experience in a single searchable interface. The database indexes over 11,000 pages of documents, more than 1,300 photos, and some oral history recordings from five collections, which are described on the homepage. While the archive offers numerous options for searching (word or phrase, name, title, subject, etc.), a browse function would be a very helpful addition. Initial returns include a brief description and the option to mark records for printing. Full records contain a thumbnail image (or link to the audio), title, rights owner, distribution restrictions, and a contact email address, among other details.

2001-01-01

363

Development and evaluation of the korean health literacy instrument.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the Korean Health Literacy Instrument, which measures the capacity to understand and use health-related information and make informed health decisions in Korean adults. In Phase 1, 33 initial items were generated to measure functional, interactive, and critical health literacy with prose, document, and numeracy tasks. These items included content from health promotion, disease management, and health navigation contexts. Content validity assessment was conducted by an expert panel, and 11 items were excluded. In Phase 2, the 22 remaining items were administered to a convenience sample of 292 adults from community and clinical settings. Exploratory factor and item difficulty and discrimination analyses were conducted and four items with low discrimination were deleted. In Phase 3, the remaining 18 items were administered to a convenience sample of 315 adults 40-64 years of age from community and clinical settings. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the instrument. The Korean Health Literacy Instrument has a range of 0 to 18. The mean score in our validation study was 11.98. The instrument exhibited an internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.82, and a test-retest reliability of 0.89. The instrument is suitable for screening individuals who have limited health literacy skills. Future studies are needed to further define the psychometric properties and predictive validity of the Korean Health Literacy Instrument. PMID:25315597

Kang, Soo Jin; Lee, Tae Wha; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Kim, Gwang Suk; Won, Hee Kwan

2014-10-01

364

Formaldehyde Exposure Levels and Serum Antibodies to Formaldehyde-Human Serum Albumin of Korean Medical Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study, we estimated formaldehyde exposure levels of Korean medical students during their cadaver dissection practice hours. In addition, we examined the prevalence rates of formaldehyde-specific immunoglobulin E or immunoglobulin G antibodies and compared the results with the symptoms the students experienced as a result of formaldehyde exposure. There were 167 Korean medical students (i.e., subjects) aged 23.8 ±

Heon Kim; Yong-Dae Kim; Soo-Hun Cho

1999-01-01

365

Prevalence and psychological correlates of complicated grief among bereaved adults 2.5-3.5 years after September 11th attacks.  

PubMed

A Web-based survey of adults who experienced loss during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of complicated grief (CG) 2.5-3.5 years after the attacks. Forty-three percent of a study group of 704 bereaved adults across the United States screened positive for CG. In multivariate analyses, CG was associated with female gender, loss of a child, death of deceased at the World Trade Center, and live exposure to coverage of the attacks on television. Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and increase in post-9/11 smoking were common among participants with CG. A majority of the participants with CG reported receiving grief counseling and psychiatric medication after 9/11. Clinical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:17597124

Neria, Yuval; Gross, Raz; Litz, Brett; Maguen, Shira; Insel, Beverly; Seirmarco, Gretchen; Rosenfeld, Helena; Suh, Eun Jung; Kishon, Ronit; Cook, Joan; Marshall, Randall D

2007-06-01

366

The Treated Prevalence of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System: Results from the Integration of Longitudinal Data on Shelter and Mental Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=28,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children had

Dennis P Culhane; June M Averyt; Trevor R Hadley

1996-01-01

367

Obesity Prevalence Maps  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence Maps Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and territories ... 9% in Puerto Rico. + Prevalence* of Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ...

368

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and associated factors among adults in Southern Brazil: a population-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders. Local data on the epidemiology of the infection are scarce in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence rate and to explore the associated factors among the adult population living in Pelotas, a southern Brazilin city. Methods This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Through a multi-stage sampling method all individuals 20 years and over living at the selected households at the urban area of the city were interviewed regarding past and current socio-economic indicators; demographic characteristics; nutritional and behavioural habits; and history of upper gastrointestinal symptoms.Hp infection was ascertained through the 13C-UBT. Due to the high prevalence, data were analysed through robust Poisson regression. All analyses took into account the family clustering of the data. Results Among 563 eligible individuals, 363 agreed to perform the 13C-UBT (refusal rate of 35.5%). Refusals were associated with female sex, consumption of mate drinking, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection was 63.4% (95%CI 59.3%–69.3%). In crude analyses, prevalence was associated with increasing age, non-white skin colour, lower current family income, lower education level, higher size of the family, low socio-economic conditions in childhood, higher number of siblings and attendance to day-care centres in childhood, and presence of dyspeptic symptoms. In adjusted analysis the level of education of the father was inversely associated with the infection, whereas number of siblings and attendance to day-care centre in childhood were directly associated with it. Non-white skin colour remained significantly associated with increased prevalence even after allowing for past and current socio-economic characteristics, age and sex. Compared to non-symptomatic individuals, those reporting dyspeptic symptoms presented a higher prevalence of the infection even after allowing for current and past socio-economic conditions, ethnicity, age, and sex. Conclusion Hp infection is as common among adults in southern Brazil as it is in other developing countries. Socio-economic conditions in childhood besides ethnicity and presence of dyspeptic symptoms were the factors significantly associated with the infection. PMID:16283940

Santos, Ina S; Boccio, Jose; Santos, Ari S; Valle, Neiva CJ; Halal, Camila S; Bachilli, Marta Colvara; Lopes, Ricardo D

2005-01-01

369

Prevalence of high-risk food consumption and food-handling practices among adults: a multistate survey, 1996 to 1997. The Foodnet Working Group.  

PubMed

Risk factors for foodborne diseases include consumption of high-risk foods and unsanitary food-handling practices; however, little is known about the prevalence of these risk factors in the general population. A survey was done in five FoodNet sites (California, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, Oregon) to determine the prevalence of these risk factors in the population. A total of 7,493 adults were interviewed by telephone between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 1997. Results showed that 1.5% drank raw milk, 1.9% ate raw shellfish, 18% ate runny egg, 30% preferred pink hamburger, 93% said they almost always washed their cutting board after cutting raw chicken, and 93% said they almost always washed their hands after handling raw meat or poultry, during 5 days before interview. The results differed by state and demographic group. Consumption of raw shellfish (3.2%) and undercooked hamburger (43%) were more common in Connecticut than other states. Raw milk consumption was more common among people who lived on a farm (8.6%) compared with people who lived in a city or urban area (1.1%). Preference for undercooked hamburger was more common among men (35%), young adults (18 to 25 years, 33%), people with college education (38%), and among people with household income of more than $100,000/year (49%). African-Americans were less likely to prefer undercooked hamburger compared to other racial groups (10% versus 30%). Young adults compared to older adults were less likely to wash their hands after handling raw chicken (88% versus 95%), and men washed their hands less often than women (89% versus 97%). Although there were statistical differences between demographic groups, they are insufficient to warrant targeted educational programs. PMID:11079697

Shiferaw, B; Yang, S; Cieslak, P; Vugia, D; Marcus, R; Koehler, J; Deneen, V; Angulo, F

2000-11-01

370

The Effect of Age of Acquisition and Second-Language Experience on Segments and Prosody: A Cross-Sectional Study of Korean Bilinguals' English and Korean Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current dissertation investigated segmental and prosodic aspects of first- (L1) and second-language (L2) speech production. Forty Korean-speaking adults and children varying in L2 experience (6 months-inexperienced vs. 6 years-experienced) as well as twenty age-matched native English speaking adults and children participated. Experienced…

Oh, Grace Eunhae

2011-01-01

371

Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations.

Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2014-01-01

372

Analysis of reports on orphan lung diseases in Korean children  

PubMed Central

Purpose Orphan lung diseases are defined as lung diseases with a prevalence of 1 or less in 2,000 individuals. Despite an increase in the numbers of patients with such diseases, few studies on Korean children have appeared. To obtain epidemiologic and demographic data on these diseases, we systematically reviewed reports on pediatric orphan lung diseases in Korea over the last 50 years. Methods We reviewed 223 articles that have appeared since 1958 on orphan lung diseases in Korean children. These articles described a total of 519 patients aged between 0 and 18 years. We classified patients by year of publication, diagnosis, geographic region, and journal. Results Of 519 patients, 401 had congenital cystic lung diseases and 66 had bronchiolitis obliterans. About 80% of patients were described in reports published in three journals, Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease (Korea), the Korean Journal of Pediatrics, and the Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, in which papers on 157 (30.2%), 138 (26.6%), and 111 (21.4%) patients appeared, respectively. The frequency of publication of case reports has increased since 1990. Of the 519 patients, 401 (77.3%) were from Seoul/Gyeonggi-do and 72 (13.9%) from Busan/Gyeongsangnam-do. Conclusion The prevalence of pediatric orphan lung disease has increased since 1990, and some provinces of Korea have a higher incidence of these diseases than do others. Studies exploring the incidence of pediatric orphan lung diseases in Korea are needed for effective disease management. PMID:21189943

Jang, Sun Jung; Seo, Hyun Kyung; Yi, Sung Jae; Kim, Kyong Min; Jee, Hye Mi

2010-01-01

373

Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

374

Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

2013-01-01

375

Prevalence of sleep disorders by sex and ethnicity among older adolescents and emerging adults: relations to daytime functioning, working memory and mental health.  

PubMed

The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health. PMID:24931561

Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M

2014-07-01

376

Long-term exposure of adults to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased airway obstruction and higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the association between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the severity of obstructive pulmonary disease and prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity to {beta}2 agonists in two groups of adult patients who were of similar ages and who had similar smoking habits. The subjects lived in downtown districts or in the outer suburbs of Marseilles, the neighborhood that contained air samplers. The regions were similar with respect to sulfur dioxide levels, but levels of nitric oxides and particulate matter were higher in the downtown area than the suburbs. The authors assessed airway obstruction, as determined by a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s, mean forced expiratory flow measured between 25% and 75% of vital capacity, and an elevated value of central airway resistance. The authors tested the changes in these variables induced by inhalation of a {beta}2 agonist. Baseline lung function was altered more significantly in both male and female patients who lived in downtown Marseilles than in those who resided in the suburbs, and the differences persisted regardless of the season during which the study occurred. Prevalence of bronchial hyperreactivity and symptoms of asthma were higher in the downtown than suburban male subjects. The results of this study suggest that an association exists between actual environmental exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory effects in sensitive adults represented by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma.

Jammres, Y.; Delpierre, S.; Burnet, H. [Univ. de la Mediterranee, Marseilles (France); Delvolgo, M.J.; Humbert-Tena, C. [Hopital Nord et, Marseilles (France). Lab. des Explorations Fonctionnelles

1998-11-01

377

Reported Hours of Sleep, Diabetes Prevalence and Glucose Control in Jamaican Adults: Analysis from the Jamaica Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background. There are limited data on sleep duration and diabetes from developing countries. We therefore examined the relationship between reported hours of sleep, diabetes prevalence and glucose control in Jamaican adults. Methods. Data on reported hours of sleep and diabetes (based on glucose measurement and medication use) from a national survey of 15–74-year-old Jamaicans were analyzed. Results. The 2,432 participants (31% M, Age 42 ± 16 years, BMI 27.6 ± 6.6?kg/m2, diabetes prevalence 12%) reported sleeping 8.2 ± 1.8 hours. In men, sleeping less than 6 hours (OR (95% CI) = 2.65 (1.09–6.48)) or more than 10 hours (OR (95% CI) = 4.36 (1.56–12.19)) was associated with diabetes when adjusted for age, BMI, and family history of diabetes. In women sleeping less than 6 hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of diabetes after adjusting for the same confounders ((OR (95% CI) = 0.43 (0.23–0.78)). There was no significant association between sleep and glucose control. Conclusion. Insufficient and excessive sleep was associated with increased diabetes prevalence in Jamaican men but not women. PMID:22164161

Cumberbatch, Chisa G.; Younger, Novie O.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; Francis, Damian K.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.

2011-01-01

378

Prevalence and comorbidity of diabetes mellitus among non-institutionalized older adults in Germany - results of the national telephone health interview survey 'German Health Update (GEDA)' 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the major public health impact of diabetes, recent population-based data regarding its prevalence and comorbidity are sparse. Methods The prevalence and comorbidity of diabetes mellitus were analyzed in a nationally representative sample (N = 9133) of the non-institutionalized German adult population aged 50 years and older. Information on physician-diagnosed diabetes and 20 other chronic health conditions was collected as part of the national telephone health interview survey ‘German Health Update (GEDA)’ 2009. Overall, 51.2% of contacted persons participated. Among persons with diabetes, diabetes severity was defined according to the type and number of diabetes-concordant conditions: no diabetes-concordant condition (grade 1); hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia only (grade 2); one comorbidity likely to represent diabetes-related micro- or macrovascular end-organ damage (grade 3); several such comorbidities (grade 4). Determinants of diabetes severity were analyzed by multivariable ordinal regression. Results The 12-month prevalence of diabetes was 13.6% with no significant difference between men and women. Persons with diabetes had a significantly higher prevalence and average number of diabetes-concordant as well as diabetes-discordant comorbidities than persons without diabetes. Among persons with diabetes, 10.2%, 46.8%, 35.6% and 7.4% were classified as having severity grade 1–4, respectively. Determinants of diabetes severity included age (cumulative odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.07, per year) and number of discordant comorbidities (1.40, 1.25-1.55). With respect to specific discordant comorbidities, diabetes severity was correlated to depression (2.15, 1.29-3.56), respiratory disease (2.75, 1.72-4.41), musculoskeletal disease (1.53, 1.06-2.21), and severe hearing impairment (3.00, 1.21-7.41). Conclusions Diabetes is highly prevalent in the non-institutionalized German adult population 50 years and older. Diabetes comorbidities including diabetes-concordant and diabetes-discordant conditions need to be considered in epidemiological studies, in order to monitor disease burden and quality of diabetes care. Definitional standards of diabetes severity need to be refined and consented. PMID:23433228

2013-01-01

379

Urban-Rural Differences in the Nature and Prevalence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In the general population there are statistically significant urban-rural differences in the rate of common mental disorders. In people with intellectual disability (ID) no study has attempted to address this issue. Aims: To compare the prevalence of mental illness, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behaviour disorder in people with…

Kiani, R.; Tyrer, F.; Hodgson, A.; Berkin, N.; Bhaumik, S.

2013-01-01

380

Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major

Aklimunnessa Khan; Alexander Kraemer; Mitsuru Mori

2009-01-01