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1

Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend?=?0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend?=?0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

2014-01-01

2

Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Korean adults.  

PubMed

The objective was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1/DSM-IV (N = 6275, response rate 79.8%). The lifetime and 12-month prevalences for all types of DSM-IV disorders were 33.5% and 20.6%, respectively. Those of specific disorders were as follows: 17.2% and 7.1% for alcohol use disorder, 11.2% and 7.4% for nicotine use disorder, 5.2% and 4.2% for specific phobia, 4.3% and 1.7% for major depressive disorder, and 2.3% and 1.0% for generalized anxiety disorder. Among the sociodemographic variables, widowed status, higher income, and rural residence were the risk factors for both lifetime major depressive disorder and alcohol use disorder after controlling for gender, age, and education. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was higher than those observed in other East-Asian countries and most European countries, but lower than that in the United States. Alcohol use disorder was particularly high in Korea. PMID:17468679

Cho, Maeng Je; Kim, Jang-Kyu; Jeon, Hong Jin; Suh, Tongwoo; Chung, In-Won; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae-Nam; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Choong-Koung; Hahm, Bong-Jin

2007-03-01

3

Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), measured by a simple step test, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults, in a cross sectional design. Methods A total of 1,007 Korean adults (488 men and 519 women) who underwent routine health checkups were recruited. CRF was measured by Tecumseh step test. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III guideline was used to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. A logistic regression was performed to reveal possible associations. Results The results of the study showed that a lower level of CRF was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men, but not in women. On the other hand, higher BMI was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. However, BMI was not associated with fasting glucose nor hemoglobinA1c in men. When the combined impact of BMI and CRF on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was analyzed, a significantly increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found in both men (odds ratio [OR]: 18.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 5.0 - 70.5) and women (OR: 8.1, 95% CI: 2.8 - 23.9) who had high BMI and low cardiorespiratory fitness. On the other hand, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was only increased 7.9 times (95% CI: 2.0 - 31.2) in men and 5.4 times (95% CI: 1.9 - 15.9) in women who had high level of CRF and high BMI. Conclusion In conclusion, the current study demonstrated the low CRF and obesity was a predictor for metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. PMID:24886636

2014-01-01

4

Serum HBV Surface Antigen Positivity is Associated With Low Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adult Men  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome has clinical implications for chronic liver disease, but the relationship between chronic hepatitis B and metabolic syndrome remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity is associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods Data were obtained from the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Participant sera were tested for HBsAg. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines for Koreans. Results Of the 5108 participants, 209 (4.1%) tested positive for HBsAg, and 1364 (26.7%) were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23.4% in HBsAg-positive men, 31.5% in HBsAg-negative men, 18.6% in HBsAg-positive women, and 23.7% in HBsAg-negative women. After adjusting for multiple factors, male participants who tested positive for serum HBsAg had an odds ratio of 0.612 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.375–0.998) for metabolic syndrome and an odds ratio of 0.631 (95% CI 0.404–0.986) for elevated triglycerides. Women who tested positive for serum HBsAg had an odds ratio of 0.343 (95% CI 0.170–0.693) for elevated triglycerides. Conclusions Positive results for serum HBsAg are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in men and with elevated triglycerides in men and women. This suggests that elevated triglycerides may contribute to the inverse association between HBsAg and metabolic syndrome.

Choi, Ja Sung; Han, Ki Jun; Lee, Sangheun; Chun, Song Wook; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Man Kim, Hee

2015-01-01

5

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (?19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],?65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ?65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ? 24% of Korean adults and ? 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

6

Korean Adults' Attitudes towards Varieties of English   

E-print Network

This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research ...

Kim, Young Soo

2007-11-28

7

What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

2007-01-01

8

Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

2014-01-01

9

Gender Differences in Hypertension Control Among Older Korean Adults: Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients’ attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ?60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Results: Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one’s blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013). Conclusions: This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults. PMID:25652709

Chu, Sang Hui; Baek, Ji Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Stefani, Katherine M.; Lee, Won Joon; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

2015-01-01

10

Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ?+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

Han, Seung Seok [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myounghee, E-mail: dkkim73@gmail.com [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su Mi [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sejoong [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kwon Wook [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chun Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 156-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15

11

Prevalence and Predictors of Polypharmacy among Korean Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective Polypharmacy is widespread in the elderly because of their multiple chronic health problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with polypharmacy in a nationally representative sample of Korean elderly individuals. Methods We used the Korea Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service – National Patient Sample (HIRA-NPS) data from 2010 and 2011. We used information on 319,185 elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 from the HIRA-NPS database. We defined ‘polypharmacy’ as the concurrent use of 6 medications or more per person, ‘major polypharmacy’ as 11 medications or more, and ‘excessive polypharmacy’ as 21 medications or more. The frequency and proportion (%) and their 95% confidence intervals were presented according to the polypharmacy definition. Polypharmacy was visualized by the Quantum Geographic Information Systems (QGIS) program to describe regional differences in patterns of drug use. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) to investigate the risk factors for polypharmacy. Results Of the Korean elderly studied, 86.4% had polypharmacy, 44.9% had major polypharmacy and 3.0% had excessive polypharmacy. Polypharmacy was found to be primarily concentrated in the Southwest region of the country. Significant associations between polypharmacy and the lower-income Medical Aid population (OR?=?1.52, 95% CI 1.47, 1.56) compared with National Health Insurance patients was observed. Conclusions Nationwide efforts are needed for managing polypharmacy among Korean elderly patients. In particular, a national campaign and education to promote appropriate use of medicines for the Medical Aid population is needed. PMID:24915073

Kim, Mi-Hee; Park, Byung-Joo

2014-01-01

12

Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

2015-01-01

13

Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California  

PubMed Central

This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2012-01-01

14

Refractive errors in a rural Korean adult population: the Namil Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the prevalence of refractive errors, including myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia, in rural adult Koreans. Methods We identified 2027 residents aged 40 years or older in Namil-myeon, a rural town in central South Korea. Of 1928 eligible residents, 1532 subjects (79.5%) participated. Each subject underwent screening examinations including autorefractometry, corneal curvature measurement, and best-corrected visual acuity. Results Data from 1215 phakic right eyes were analyzed. The prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent (SE) +0.5 D) was 41.8% (95% CI: 38.9?44.4%), of astigmatism (cylinder 1.0 D) was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.9?15.8%). Myopia prevalence decreased with age and tended to transition into hyperopia with age up to 60?69 years. In subjects older than this, the trend in SE refractive errors reversed with age. The prevalence of astigmatism and anisometropia increased consistently with age. The refractive status was not significantly different between males and females. Conclusions The prevalence of myopia and hyperopia in rural adult Koreans was similar to that of rural Chinese. The prevalence of high myopia was lower in this Korean sample than in other East Asian populations, and astigmatism was the most frequently occurring refractive error. PMID:24037232

Yoo, Y C; Kim, J M; Park, K H; Kim, C Y; Kim, T-W

2013-01-01

15

Comorbidity of PTSD and depression in Korean War veterans: Prevalence, predictors, and impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRates of PTSD and depression are high in Korean War veterans. The prevalence and impact of the two disorders occurring comorbidly, however, has not been investigated. This paper aims to investigate the extent to which PTSD and depression co-occur in Australian veterans of the Korean War, the symptom severity characteristics of comorbidity, the impact on life satisfaction and quality, and

Jillian F. Ikin; Mark C. Creamer; Malcolm R. Sim; Dean P. McKenzie

2010-01-01

16

Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.  

PubMed

Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity from various diseases, some of which have rarely been explored in previous epidemiologic studies. PMID:24906069

Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

2014-08-01

17

Sociodemographic Characteristics of Underweight Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Underweight is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. It is reported that the prevalence of underweight is increasing among Korean young women. However, there have been few studies on sociodemographic factors related to being underweight. This study was conducted to elucidate the sociodemographic characteristics of Korean underweight adults. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of 7,776 adults aged 25 to 69 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010. Study subjects were composed of underweight and normal-weight adults excluding overweight adults. Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight. Health behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and physical activity were surveyed through self-administered questionnaires, and socioeconomic status, marital status, and history of morbidity were surveyed through face-to-face interviews. Results Women had a higher frequency of underweight (10.4% vs. 7.0%, P < 0.001) than men. Among men, current smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.62) and past history of cancer (OR, 2.55) were independently related to underweight. Among women, young age (OR, 2.06), former smoking (OR, 1.69), and being unmarried (OR, 1.56) were identified as independently related factors of underweight. In addition, among both men and women, alcohol drinking (men OR, 0.57; women OR, 0.77) and past history of chronic diseases (men OR, 0.55; women OR, 0.43) were independently related to a lower frequency of underweight. Conclusion We showed that various sociodemographic factors were associated with underweight. It was ascertained that there were differences in the sociodemographic factors related to underweight between Korean men and women. PMID:24340160

Park, Sung Il; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Kang, Hye Jin

2013-01-01

18

Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010).  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for the dairy and carbohydrate pattern whereas sodium (P for trend < 0.0001) intake was decreased for this pattern. In conclusion, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern may be associated with a reduced risk of hypertension whereas the western pattern may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension among Korean adults. PMID:23766884

Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung; Kim, Yuri

2013-06-01

19

The prevalence of obesity and the level of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides in Korean preschool children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the degree of adherence to the Korean Dietary Action Guides for Children (KDAGC). In a cross-sectional study based on a child care center-based survey in Seoul, Korea, we collected parental-reported questionnaires (n = 2,038) on children's weight and height, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the quality of dietary and activity behaviors based on the 2009 KDAGC Adherence Index (KDAGCAI) which was developed as a composite measure of adherence to the KDAGC. Overweight and obesity were determined according to age- and sex-specific BMI percentile from the 2007 Korean national growth chart. Associations were assessed with generalized linear models and polytomous logistic regression models. Approximately 17.6% of Korean preschool children were classified as overweight or obese. Obese preschoolers had lower adherence to the KDAGCAI compared to those with lean/normal weight. Preschoolers with a high quality of dietary and activity behaviors had a 51% decreased odds ratio (OR) of being obese (highest vs. lowest tertile of KDAGCAI-score, 95% CI 0.31, 0.78; P = 0.001); the associations were more pronounced among those who were older (P = 0.048) and lived in lower income households (P = 0.014). A greater frequency of vegetable consumption, but not fruit, was associated with a borderline significant reduction in the prevalence of obesity. Our findings support the association between obesity prevention and high compliance with the Korean national dietary and activity guideline among preschool children. PMID:23766882

Choi, Yuni; You, Yeji; Go, Kyeong Ah; Tserendejid, Zuunnast; You, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Seungmin

2013-01-01

20

Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Age-Related and Anterior Polar Cataracts in a Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the potential risk factors associated with nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and anterior polar cataracts (APC) in the Korean population. Research Design and Methods This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 7992 adults (over 40 years of age) from the data of the fourth annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed from 2007 to 2009. The presence of lens opacity was examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and evaluated according to LOCS II standard photographs. The subtype of cataract present, including nuclear, cortical, posterior subcapsular, and anterior polar cataracts, was noted. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for association of each specific type of cataract with age, sex, health examination, and medical history. Results The prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataract increased gradually with increasing age. However, the prevalence of APC peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old subjects. All types of cataract except for APCs were more prevalent in women. Oral steroid use was associated with a lower risk of APC. Conclusions These findings showed the unique characteristics of APC in the Korean population. PMID:24936893

Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Mok, Jee Won; Joo, Choun-Ki

2014-01-01

21

Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

2008-01-01

22

Redeeming Immigrant Parents: How Korean American Emerging Adults Reinterpret Their Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Korean American youth experience immigration-related parent-child challenges including language barriers, parent-child conflicts, and generational cultural divides. Using grounded theory methods, this article examines the ways in which 18 Korean American college-enrolled emerging adults retrospectively made sense out of their experiences of…

Kang, Hyeyoung; Okazaki, Sumie; Abelmann, Nancy; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Lan, Shanshan

2010-01-01

23

Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

2011-01-01

24

Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents  

PubMed Central

Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun

2013-01-01

25

Prevalence of Dementia and Its Subtypes in an Elderly Urban Korean Population: Results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: We estimated the prevalence of dementia and its major subtypes in an elderly urban Korean population. Methods: A study population of 1,118 Korean elders was randomly sampled from the residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea. Standardized face-to-face interviews, and neurological and physical examinations were conducted on 714 respondents. Dementia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV

Jin Hyeong Jhoo; Ki Woong Kim; Yoonseok Huh; Seok Bum Lee; Joon Hyuk Park; Jung Jae Lee; Eun Ae Choi; Changsu Han; Il Han Choo; Jong Chul Youn; Dong Young Lee; Jong Inn Woo

2008-01-01

26

Association between alcohol intake amount and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean rural male population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate alcohol consumption is known to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. However, few studies reported that long-term alcohol drinking may increase the prevalence of central obesity, and cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between metabolic syndrome, nutritional factors and alcohol intake amount in Korean male rural population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis on data from

Mi Young Lee; Min Young Kim; Song Yi Kim; Jae Hyun Kim; Bo Hwan Kim; Jang Yel Shin; Young Goo Shin; Jin Ha Yun; So Yeon Ryu; Tae Yong Lee; Sang Baek Koh; Choon Hee Chung

2010-01-01

27

Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults  

SciTech Connect

Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

Kim, Kisok, E-mail: kimkisok@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Public Health, Keimyung University, 1000 Shindang-dong, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-15

28

Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

2014-01-01

29

Elderly Koreans‘ tendency to live independently from their adult children: Adaptation to cultural differences in America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korean elderly persons who immigrated to America tend to live apartfrom their adult children, contrary to the assumption that theywould adhere to their old custom of intergenerational family livingprevalent in Korea where the tradition of filial piety is stillinfluential. This paper explores factors associated with theelderly immigrants‘ living separate from their adult children andelicits the reasons they give for this

Seong Ho Yoo; Kyu-Taik Sung

1997-01-01

30

Composition of Metabolic Syndrome Among Korean Adults in a Lifestyle Modification Intervention  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the composition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components among middle-aged and older Koreans. Methods A total of 263 participants (age 40 + years) in a lifestyle modification intervention program who met the MetS definition of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) – Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria were included in the study. The frequent patterns and clustering of MetS components were investigated. Clustering of changes in individual components, through a lifestyle modification intervention, was also identified. All characteristics were stratified by and compared between sexes. Results Approximately 80% of the participants had three of five MetS risk factors at baseline. The prevalence of each risk differed by sex. MetS composition patterns that do not include low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were more noticeable in men because of the low prevalence of low HDL cholesterol. In women, with higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol, more patterns that include low HDL cholesterol were observed. The most common combination was “elevated blood pressure + abdominal obesity + impaired fasting glucose” in both sexes. Clustering of MetS risks was also found with most of the frequent combinations of MetS components. Through the lifestyle intervention, the greatest change was observed in HDL cholesterol among men and blood pressure among women. Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were likely to be improved with blood pressure in men and abdominal obesity in women. Conclusion Differences in the prevalent patterns of MetS compositions were observed prior to and after the intervention, along with during-intervention changes. It is recommended that intervention strategies and guidelines for MetS management consider the MetS composition patterns for effectiveness.

Yoon, Nan-He; Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Hyekyeong

2014-01-01

31

Willingness of older Korean-American adults to use hospice.  

PubMed

Responding to an urgent need for more research on end-of-life concerns of racial and ethnic minorities, the present study explored predictors of willingness of older Korean-American adults (N=675) to use hospice. Guided by Andersen's behavioral health model, the study considered predisposing factors (age, sex, marital status, education), potential health needs (chronic conditions, functional disability), and enabling factors (health insurance, acculturation, prior awareness of hospice). Nearly three-quarters of the sample answered yes to the following statement and question, "Hospice is a program that helps people who are dying by making them feel comfortable and free of pain when they can no longer be cured of their disease. If you needed hospice services, would you use them?" A greater willingness was observed in younger persons (odds ratio (OR)=0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.93-0.98) and those with higher levels of education (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.12-2.48), more chronic conditions (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.05-1.44), health insurance (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94), higher levels of acculturation (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.03-1.10), and prior awareness of hospice (OR=4.43, 95% CI=2.85-6.90). The present study highlights the role of prior awareness in shaping individuals' attitudes toward services, calling attention to a need for community education and outreach programs for racial and ethnic minorities, with specific emphasis on dissemination of information and greater awareness of hospice services. PMID:20374409

Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Allen, Jessica Y; Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E

2010-02-01

32

Prevalence and sociodemographic trends of weight misperception in Korean adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid physical and emotional growth occurs during youth. Adolescence is one of the most important periods for adapting to body change and establishing an ideal body image. Body change is an important and sensitive concern for adolescents, and the values and self-conception established at this time affect various aspects of the entire life. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and trends of weight misperception among adolescents in Korea. Methods We analyzed raw data from the 2011 Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey-VII (KYRBWS-VII), in which 73,474 adolescents from the middle-school first grade to the high-school third grade (aged 12–18) participated. For the multivariate logistic regression model, the dependent variable was existence of misperception (yes/no) and independent variables were sociodemographic factors. Results We found that the prevalence of weight misperception was 49.3% (overestimation, 23.7%; underestimation, 25.6%). Among male students, 65.0% underestimated their weight, whereas 62.2% of female students overestimated their weight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that gender (OR?=?1.254; 95% CI?=?1.214–1.294; p?

2014-01-01

33

ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

2007-01-01

34

The Impact of HLA and KIR Ligand Mismatching on Unrelated Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Korean Adult Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of HLA and KIR ligand mismatching on the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclear. Previous reports have identified considerable ethnic differences in the impact of HLA and KIR ligand mismatches, as well as KIR ligand status, on HSCT; however, to date, no data has been acquired in Korean adult patients. Methods We investigated the association of high-resolution HLA matching on five loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1), KIR ligand mismatching, and KIR ligand status on the outcome of allogeneic HSCT from unrelated donors in 154 Korean adult patients treated at Seoul National University Hospital. Results In a multivariate analysis, less than 9/10 allelic matches in five HLA loci was an independent risk factor for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (grade II to IV) (P=0.019, odds ratio [OR]=2.7). In addition, HLA-A allele mismatching was increasingly prevalent in patients with acute GVHD compared to patients without (61.9% vs. 34.5%, P=0.06). For KIR ligand status, the patient and donor combination of both C1/C1 ligands showed better event-free and overall survival than combinations with C2 ligand patients or donors (P=0.048, P=0.034, respectively) by log-rank test. Conclusions Korean adult transplant patients with less than 9 of 10 HLA allele matches in the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and DQB1 loci have a higher likelihood of developing acute GVHD (grade II to IV). Impact of KIR ligand status on clinical outcome should be further studied in a larger patient population. PMID:25553290

Park, Hyewon; Rho, Eun Youn; In, Ji Won; Kim, Inho; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Shin, Sue; Park, Kyoung Un

2015-01-01

35

Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

2011-01-01

36

Development and Initial Validation of a Trait Emotional Intelligence Scale for Korean Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a trait emotional intelligence (EI) measurement for Korean adults. This scale was developed because there is still a lack of EI measurements that consider the effects of culture on emotions. It was found that the scale has a three-factor structure, and this structure was confirmed in…

Lee, Hyuneung; Kwak, Yunjung

2012-01-01

37

Adult Korean Americans: Their Attitudes Toward SeekingProfessional Counseling Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined the attitudes of 157 adult Korean Americans, who routinely gather at a community center, about obtaining professional counseling services. Data gathered from self-report instruments were used to determine gender, income, and educational differences and preferences for seeking sources of help. No significant gender or income level differences were found among the participants with respect to their

Sung Hye Yi; Romeria Tidwell

2005-01-01

38

Diet quality scores and oxidative stress in Korean adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:The purpose of diet-quality indices is to assess and guide individual dietary intake for the promotion of health and prevention of disease, and food based dietary-quality indices need to be applied by using each country's own unique diet. We assessed the relationships between relatively simple dietary quality scores modified for a Korean diet, such as the Recommended Food Score (RFS)

J Y Kim; Y J Yang; Y K Yang; S-Y Oh; Y-C Hong; E-K Lee; O Kwon

2011-01-01

39

Role of children in end-of-life treatment planning among Korean American older adults.  

PubMed

Three focus groups (n = 23) with Korean American older adults explored the role of culture in end-of-life decision making. No participants had completed an advance directive and few had discussed end-of-life treatment preferences. Focus group themes addressed: (a) whether children are resistant or receptive to discussing their parents' end-of-life treatment preferences; (b) whether the older adults or their children should make decisions about end-of-life treatment; (c) whether decision making should be the responsibility of the eldest son or of all the children; and (d) whether children would implement the parent's preferences for end-of-life treatment. Understanding the role of children in end-of-life decision making among Korean American older adults is important for culturally competent care. PMID:21132598

Ko, Eunjeong; Berkman, Cathy S

2010-01-01

40

Reference ranges for induced sputum eosinophil counts in Korean adult population  

PubMed Central

Background Induced sputum analyses are widely utilized to evaluate airway inflammation in asthmatics. However, the values have not been examined in Korean adults. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine reference ranges for induced sputum eosinophils and their influencing factors in Korean adults. Methods A total of 208 healthy nonasthmatic adults were recruited. Sputum induction and processing followed the international standard protocols. Results Adequate sputum samples were successfully collected from 81 subjects (38.9%). The upper 90 percentile for sputum eosinophil was calculated as 3.5%. The median value of eosinophil count percentage was significantly higher in subjects with atopy than those without atopy (median, 1.6%; range, 0-11.0% vs. median, 0%; range 0-3.6%, p=0.030). However, no significant correlations were found with age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, blood eosinophil, or fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. Conclusion Current study was the first attempt to determine the reference ranges of induced sputum eosinophils in Korean adults. The cutoff value for sputum eosinophilia was 3.5%, and was significantly associated with atopy. PMID:25097850

Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Hur, Gyu-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Bum; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Park, Hae-Sim; Min, Kyung-Up

2014-01-01

41

Predictors of the Severity and Serious Outcomes of Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Differences in definitions of the condition, relevant triggers, and the geographical locations of study centers, cause estimates of the prevalence of anaphylaxis to vary. Recent epidemiological data indicate that the incidence of anaphylaxis is rising. Methods To investigate the causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis in Korean adults, factors associated with the severity of the condition, and serious outcomes, a retrospective medical record review was performed on adult patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2007 and 2011 in 15 University Hospitals of South Korea. Results A total of 1,806 cases (52% male, age 16-86 years) were reported. Cutaneous symptoms (84.0%), combined with respiratory (53.9%) and/or cardiovascular (55.4%) symptoms, were the most frequent presentations. Using a recognized grading system, 1,776 cases could be classified as either mild, 340; moderate, 690; or severe, 746. Although eliciting factors varied significantly by age, gender, and regional and seasonal factors, drugs (46.5%; including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and radiocontrast media) were the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by foods (24.2%), insect stings (16.4%), exercise (5.9%), and unknown etiology (7.0%). All of age, multi-organ involvement, a history of allergic disease, and drug-induced anaphylaxis, were significant predictors of serious outcomes requiring hospital admission or prolongation of hospital stay. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed for 7.4% of reported cases. Conclusions The principal causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adults were drugs, food, and insect stings. Drug-associated anaphylaxis, a history of allergic disease, multi-organ involvement, and older age, were identified as predictors of serious outcomes. PMID:25553259

Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Hur, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heon; Choi, Gil-Soon; Lee, Soo-Keol

2015-01-01

42

Community-based research on the benign prostatic hyperplasia prevalence rate in Korean rural area  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the prevalence rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among Korean males in a rural area through a cross-sectional, community-based epidemiologic survey and analyzed the correlation with epidemiologic factors. Materials and Methods A total of 779 males who lived in Yangpyeong County participated in a prostate examination campaign. Targeting these men, we collected the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), medical history, demographic information, serum prostate-specific antigen, and prostate volume as measured by transrectal ultrasonography. The data for 599 participants were analyzed, excluding 180 men who had a possibility of prostate cancer. BPH was defined as an IPSS of 8 points or higher and a prostate volume of 25 mL or more. Results The prevalence rate of BPH was 20.0%. The prevalence rate increased with age. There were 2 subjects (4.4%) in the age group of 40-49 years, 18 subjects (10.9%) in the age group of 50-59 years, 44 subjects (22%) in the age group of 60-69 years, and 56 subjects (26.6%) in the age group of over 70 years; this increase with age was statistically significant (p<0.001). In the BPH group, the average IPSS was 14.67±5.95, the average prostate volume was 37.04±11.71 g, and the average prostate-specific antigen value was 1.56±0.88 ng/mL. In the analysis of correlations between the epidemiologic factors and the risk of BPH, smoking was the only statistically significant factor. Conclusions The total prevalence rate of BPH in this study was 20.0%, which was a little lower than the rate reported in other cities or rural areas.

Goh, Hyeok Jun; Kim, Shin Ah; Nam, Ji Won; Choi, Bo Youl

2015-01-01

43

The Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Men Aged 40 Years or Older: A Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Korean men aged ?40 years. Methods We performed a population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey on a geographically stratified random sample of men aged ?40 years. All respondents were asked about the presence of individual LUTS using a questionnaire based on 2002 International Continence Society definitions. For comparison, we also defined nocturia as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire was used to assess LUTS severity. Results Responses from 1,842 subjects were analyzed. The overall prevalence of LUTS was 83.4%. Storage LUTS (70.1%) were more prevalent than voiding (60.4%) or postmicturition LUTS (38.3%). When nocturia was defined as two or more nocturnal micturitions per night, voiding symptoms became most prevalent (storage, 39.7%; voiding, 60.4%; and postmicturition, 38.3%). More than 90% of our population described the severity of their urinary symptoms as moderate (8-19) or severe (20-35). The prevalence and severity of LUTS increased with age. Conclusions LUTS are highly prevalent among Korean men, and its prevalence increases with age. Increased public awareness and a larger number of treatment options are needed to appropriately manage symptoms and their consequences. PMID:25279239

Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun

2014-01-01

44

Distinct composition of the oral indigenous microbiota in South Korean and Japanese adults  

PubMed Central

A comparison of national surveys on oral health suggested that the population of South Korea has a better periodontal health status than that of Japan, despite their similar inherent backgrounds. Here, we investigated differences in oral bacterial assemblages between individuals from those two countries. To exclude potential effects of oral health condition on the microbiota, we selected 52 Korean and 88 Japanese orally healthy adults (aged 40–79 years) from the participants of two cohort studies, the Yangpyeong study in South Korea and the Hisayama study in Japan, and compared the salivary microbiomes. The microbiota of the Japanese individuals comprised a more diverse community, with greater proportions of 17 bacterial genera, including Veillonella, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium, compared to the microbiota of the Korean individuals. Conversely, Neisseria and Haemophilus species were present in much lower proportions in the microbiota of the Japanese individuals than the Korean individuals. Because higher proportions of Prevotella and Veillonella and lower proportions of Neisseria and Haemophilus in the salivary microbiome were implicated in periodontitis, the results of this study suggest that the greater proportion of dysbiotic oral microbiota in the Japanese individuals is associated with their higher susceptibility to periodontitis compared to the Korean individuals. PMID:25384884

Takeshita, Toru; Matsuo, Kazuki; Furuta, Michiko; Shibata, Yukie; Fukami, Kaoru; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Akifusa, Sumio; Han, Dong-Hung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2014-01-01

45

Vitamin D Status and Its Association with the SCORAD Score and Serum LL-37 Level in Korean Adults and Children with Atopic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Vitamin D insufficiency could be associated with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD). Objective To examine vitamin D status and the relations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, SCORAD score, serum LL-37 level, and body mass index (BMI) in Korean AD patients, and to explore whether these associations differ between adults and children. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, serum LL-37, and clinical features were analyzed in a total of 72 Korean patients with AD (39 adults and 33 children) and 140 healthy control subjects (70 adults and 70 children). Results Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly reduced in children with AD (15.06±4.64 ng/ml) compared with normal children in the control group (16.25±6.60 ng/ml) (p=0.036). Significant inverse correlations were found between BMI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (r=-0.315, p=0.007) and between the SCORAD score and serum LL-37 level (r=-0.3, p=0.011) in the total AD patients. Conclusion The results showed that serum vitamin D levels were lower in children with AD than in healthy children; however, the same relation was not observed between adults with AD and healthy adults. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not significantly correlated with AD severity or serum LL-37 levels in our study population. PMID:25673925

Kong, Tae Seok; Kim, Min Ho; Chae, Jeong Don; Lee, June Hyun Kyung; Son, Sook-Ja

2015-01-01

46

HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Korean voxel model, named ‘High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)’, was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented

Chan Hyeong Kim; Sang Hyoun Choi; Jong Hwi Jeong; Choonsik Lee; Min Suk Chung

2008-01-01

47

Spousal Support in Diabetes Self-Management Among Korean Immigrant Older Adults.  

PubMed

The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 20xx; x(x):xxx-xxx.]. PMID:25420183

Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

2014-12-01

48

Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Korean Population Based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011  

PubMed Central

Purpose We analyzed age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and compared with those of U.S and Japanese participants to investigate the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea. Materials and Methods The data were collected in the 2008-2011 in Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V to select a representative sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized South Korean population. Bone mineral measurements were obtained from 8332 men and 9766 women aged 10 years and older. Results BMD in men continued to decline from 3rd decade, however, in women, BMD remained nearly constant until the 4th decade and declined at rapid rate from the 5th decade. The prevalence of osteoporosis in Korea is 7.3% in males and 38.0% in females aged 50 years and older. The prevalence of osteopenia in Korea is 46.5% in males and 48.7% in females, aged 50 years and older. The lumbar spine and femur BMD in Korean females 20 to 49 years of ages was lower than in U.S. and Japan participants. Conclusion There was obvious gender, and age differences in the BMD based on the 2008-2011 KNHANES IV and V, a nationwide, cross-sectional survey conducted in a South Korean population. We expect to be able to estimate reference data through ongoing KNHANES efforts in near future. PMID:24954336

Park, Eun Jung; Joo, Il Woo; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Young Taek

2014-01-01

49

Agoraphobia 12-month Prevalence: 0.8% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Agoraphobia Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 0.8% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 40.0 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 1.4 0.8 0.3 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 1 Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity

Baker, Chris I.

50

The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

Nho, Sung Hyun

2012-01-01

51

Prevalence and molecular characterization of meq in feather follicular epithelial cells of Korean broiler chickens.  

PubMed

Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens. Meq is the relevant oncogene and four isoforms, long (L)-meq, meq, short (S)-meq and very short (VS)-meq, have been identified. Although MD is important in the poultry industry, the prevalence and molecular properties of Korean MD virus (MDV) among broiler chickens remain unclear. Therefore, we characterized meq in pooled feather tips sampled at 3- and 5-week-old chickens from 21 unvaccinated and 22 vaccinated broiler farms via nested-PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis. Multiple bands consisting of L-meq, meq, and S-meq amplicons were observed in a commercial vaccine (CVI988 + HVT), 1 (4.8%) and 5 samples (22.7%) from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. A strong meq amplicon was observed in a MD-related tumor tissue, 6 (28.6%) and 1 (4.5%) samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. Six and one amplicons from unvaccinated (28.6%) and vaccinated farms (4.5%), respectively, were differentiated from CVI988 by nucleotide sequence analysis. Therefore, the relatively high rate of meq in the unvaccinated broiler farms constitutes support for vaccination. However, the existence of CVI988-related meq in unvaccinated chickens necessitates further study regarding the origins and pathoimmunological effects of the viruses on chickens. PMID:17516161

Kang, Jung-Won; Cho, Sun-Hee; Mo, In-Pil; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon

2007-10-01

52

Association Between Kimchi Intake and Asthma in Korean Adults: The Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2011)  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was performed to investigate the relationship between dietary factors and asthma in a representative population-based sample of 19,659 men and women, aged 19–64 years, using data from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007–2011. The presence of asthma was based on self-reported physician diagnosis of asthma in the Health Interview Surveys. Food intake was estimated by trained interviewers using a 24-h recall method. The prevalence of asthma in Korean adults was 2.4%. Adults with asthma consumed fewer amounts of kimchi (P=.0444) and fish (P=.0175) but had a higher cereal intake than those without asthma (P=.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis after controlling for confounding factors showed a significant inverse relationship between kimchi consumption and the prevalence of asthma [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects consuming 1 to <2 servings (40–79.9?g), 2 to <3 servings (80–119.9?g), and ?3 servings (?120?g), relative to those consuming <1 serving (<40?g): 0.726 (0.534–0.987), 0.506 (0.348–0.736), and 0.678 (0.502–0.916), respectively; P for trend=0.0131]. These results warrant future studies to explore the mechanisms responsible for the association between kimchi consumption and asthma. PMID:24456368

Kim, Hyesook; Oh, Se-Young; Kang, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Yuri

2014-01-01

53

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population. PMID:24350922

2013-01-01

54

Prevalence of Sleepwalking in an Adult Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence,

Celestine Okorome Mume

2010-01-01

55

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hearing Loss Using the Korean Working Conditions Survey  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives The hearing loss of workers can occur when they are affected by age, otologic disease, and work-related risks such as noise and chemicals. Based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2010, this research aimed to estimate the prevalence rate of hearing loss and to identify the risk factors affecting its occurrence. Subjects and Methods The subjects were 10019 employees who completed an interview conducted as part of KWCS in 2010. The prevalence rate of hearing loss according to sex, age, education, income, smoking, drinking, hypertension, industrial type, occupations, employment status, working period, and hazards at the workplace were assessed. The factors that could affect the occurrence of hearing loss were investigated based on a logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rate of hearing loss was 2.7%. In a logistic multivariate analysis, sex, age, occupations, working period, noise, and exposure to chemicals showed statistically significant correlations to the occurrence of hearing loss. The adjusted odd ratios were as follows: 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.96] for males, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.14-3.89) for those in their 40s, 2.24 (95% CI, 1.19-4.20) for those in their 50s, 2.21 (95% CI, 1.18-4.15) for manage/professional works, 2.73 (95% CI, 1.69-4.41) for manufacturing, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.36-3.15) for those who have worked for more than 20 years, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.14-2.58) for noise exposure, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02-2.30) for vibration exposure and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.11-2.24) for chemical exposure. Conclusions The overall occupational and non-occupational risk factors related to employees' hearing loss were reviewed. In addition to the exposure to noise, occupational risks of hearing loss, such as isolated exposure to vibration and chemicals, and combined exposure to noise and these hazards, were identified. Multiple exposure to hazards, along with prolonged noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. PMID:24653872

Kwon, Oh Jun

2012-01-01

56

Mood Disorders 12-month Prevalence: 9.5% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Mood Disorders Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 9.5% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 45 25 30 35 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 9.5 4.3 20.8 Lifetime Prevalence3 Average Age-of-Onset: 30 years old4 Demographics (for lifetime

Baker, Chris I.

57

Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence among Northern Mexican Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dietary habits in the Mexican population have changed dramatically over the last few years, which are reflected in increased overweight and obesity prevalence. The aim was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated risk factors in Northern Mexican adults aged ?16 years. Methods and Results The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a sub-sample of 1,200 subjects aged 16 and over who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity, blood pressure and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were obtained from all subjects. The prevalence of MetS in Mexican adults aged ?16 years was 54.8%, reaching 73.8% in obese subjects. This prevalence was higher in women (60.4%) than in men (48.9%) and increased with age in both genders. Multivariate analyses showed no evident relation between MetS components and the level of physical activity. Conclusions Obese adults, mainly women, are particularly at risk of developing MetS, with the associated implications for their health. The increasing prevalence of MetS highlights the need for developing strategies for its early detection and prevention. PMID:25141255

Salas, Rogelio; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Ramos, Esteban; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.; Sureda, Antoni

2014-01-01

58

Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in adult dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of G. duodenalis genotypes was determined in adult dairy cows. Fecal specimens were collected from two farms each in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. Specimens, cleaned of fecal debris and concentrated using CsCl density gradient centr...

59

The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Using nationwide stratified random sampling, 8,596 participants aged ? 40 years of age with available spirometry results were recruited. After selecting participants who never smoked, the duration of exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed based on the KNHANES questionnaire. Results The prevalence of COPD was 6.67% in participants who never smoked. We divided the participants who had never smoked into those with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. The group exposed to secondhand smoke was younger with less history of asthma and tuberculosis, higher income, and higher educational status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that secondhand smoke did not increase the prevalence of COPD. Conclusions There was no significant difference in the prevalence of COPD between participants who had never smoked with or without exposure to secondhand smoke in our study. Thus, secondhand smoke may not be an important risk factor for the development of COPD in patients who have never smoked. PMID:25228837

Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo

2014-01-01

60

Knee Pain and Its Severity in Elderly Koreans: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Impact on Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the epidemiology (prevalence, risk factors, and impact on quality of life) of knee pain and its severity in elderly Koreans. The subjects (n=3,054) were participants aged ?50 yr from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2010. Knee pain was defined as pain in the knee lasting ?30 days during the most recent 3 months; severity was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. EQ-5D was used to measure quality of life. The prevalence of knee pain was 23.1% (11.7% in men, 31.9% in women). The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe knee pain were 4.3%, 9.1%, and 9.7%, respectively (2.8%, 5.4%, and 3.5% in men and 5.4%, 12.0%, and 14.4% in women). Old age, female gender, a low level of education, a manual occupation, obesity, and radiographic osteoarthritis were risk factors for knee pain, and were associated with increased severity of knee pain. Excluding men with mild knee pain, people with knee pain had significantly lower quality of life than those without knee pain. Early interventional approaches are needed to reduce the medical, social, and economic burden of knee pain in elderly Koreans. PMID:24339713

Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Sung, Nak-Jeong

2013-01-01

61

Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= -9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= -2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= -6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized ?= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized ?= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

2014-08-01

62

Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= ?9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= ?2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= ?6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized ?= ?0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized ?= ?0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual’s 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

2014-01-01

63

Channels of health communications used among Korean and Asian Indian older adults.  

PubMed

According to Healthy People 2010, health communication is an important tool to reduce health disparities. Communication channels in which people prefer to receive health information may differ by race/ethnicity. One of the main challenges in designing an effective health communication program is to identify the most trusted and most often used channels of health information by Asian older adults. The aim of this study is to determine which health communication channels can be used to promote healthy lifestyles among older adults. A non-probability, convenience-sampling technique was used to recruit Korean (n = 9) and Asian Indian (n = 9) older adults from two senior centers in New York City. The findings from the two focus groups identified three distinct channels used by Asian older adults when obtaining health information: interpersonal (i.e., health care providers, word of mouth), mass media (i.e., ethnic mass media sources), and community specific (i.e., religious organizations, community centers). Health communication is an important area for prevention. Increased efforts are needed to develop culturally appropriate health messages and equally important to deliver these messages in the context in which Asian older adults trust and use the most. PMID:20175021

Lee, Ji Seon

2010-01-01

64

Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.  

PubMed

This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements. PMID:25297054

Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

2014-10-01

65

Patterns of physical activity and metabolic syndrome among adult Koreans: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether leisure time physical activity (PA) affects risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Korean adults. We studied 1728 Korean adults over age 20 years who visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Korea. All subjects completed an International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and were examined for MetS criteria as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The association between PA and MetS was assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for having MetS and engaging in vigorous PA, moderate PA or light PA (walking) compared with having MetS and not engaging in vigorous PA, moderate PA or light PA (walking) were 0.482 (0.322-0.721, p < 0.001), 0.547 (0.370-0.810, p = 0.003) and 0.482 (0.318-0.731, p < 0.001) for PA once a week; 0.763 (0.468-1.243, p = 0.277), 0.697 (0.419-1.160, p = 0.165) and 0.674 (0.403-1.128, p = 0.134) for PA twice a week; 0.449 (0.248-0.815, p = 0.008), 0.568 (0.338-0.954, p = 0.033) and 0.451 (0.260-0.780, p = 0.004) for PA 3 times a week; 0.321 (0.123-0.835, p = 0.020), 0.737 (0.362-1.502, p = 0.401) and 0.411 (0.185-0.916, p = 0.030) for PA 4 times a week; and 0.216 (0.064-0.727, p = 0.013), 0.390 (0.166-0.915, p = 0.031) and 0.318 (0.181-0.558, p < 0.001) for PA 5 or more times a week, respectively. These findings indicate vigorous PA, moderate PA and light PA may reduce the risk of MetS among Korean adults. PMID:25417524

Kiml, Dong-Hyun; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Jong-Shik

2014-09-01

66

Prevalence and risk factors of low bone mineral density in Korean HIV-infected patients: impact of abacavir and zidovudine.  

PubMed

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in HIV-infected patients. We aimed to describe the prevalence of low BMD and risk factors in Korean HIV-infected patients and to assess the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on BMD. We retrospectively evaluated 224 HIV infected-patients. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 41.5% and 12.9%. These were much higher in 53 patients aged 50 yr and older (52.8% and 34.0%). Older age, lower body mass index, and ART > 3 months were independent risk factors for low BMD. Osteoporosis was more prevalent in patients on the abacavir-based regimen for < 1 yr than ? 1 yr; however, it was more prevalent in patients on the zidovudine-based regimen for ? 1 yr than < 1 yr (P = 0.017). Osteoporosis in patients on the abacavir-based regimen was more common in the spine than in the femur (P = 0.01). Given such a high prevalence of low BMD, close monitoring of BMD for HIV-infected patients on ART is required. The different prevalence of osteoporosis over time and affected areas between two regimens suggest they may play roles in different mechanisms in bone loss. PMID:23772145

Kim, Hee-Sung; Chin, Bum Sik; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

2013-06-01

67

Social Phobia 12-month Prevalence: 6.8% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Social Phobia Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 6.8% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 29 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 12.1 6.8 2.0 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5 · Sex: Not Reported · Race: Not Reported

Baker, Chris I.

68

Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Values for the Diagnosis of Abdominal Obesity in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Abdominal obesity is associated closely with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Waist circumference (WC) is a useful surrogate marker commonly used for abdominal adiposity. The determination of WC cutoff levels is important in the prevention and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related cardiovascular diseases. Recent epidemiological evidence suggested that appropriate optimal cutoffs for Koreans ranged over 80 to 89.8 cm in males and 76.1 to 86.5 cm in females. We analyzed the data from two large cohorts using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the incidences of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarct, angina, coronary artery disease, and multiple metabolic risk factors as outcome variables. Optimal WC cutoff points for Koreans were 85 cm in males and 80 cm in females. However, considering the prevalence of abdominal obesity and the health costs for its prevention and management, 90 cm in males and 85 cm in females are probably more appropriate thresholds for abdominal obesity. These values may be modified once better research is performed through prospective studies using representative populations, common health outcomes, and proper analytical approaches.

Yoon, Yeong Sook

2014-01-01

69

Anxiety Disorders 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Anxiety Disorders Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 18.1% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 22.8% of these cases (e.g., 4.1% of U.S. adult population) are classified as "severe"2 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 4

Baker, Chris I.

70

Panic Disorder 12-month Prevalence: 2.7% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Panic Disorder Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 2.7% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 44.8% of these cases (e.g., 1.2% of U.S. adult population) are classified as "severe"2 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2.7 4.7 1

Baker, Chris I.

71

Dysthymic Disorder 12-month Prevalence: 1.5% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Dysthymic Disorder Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 1.5% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 49.0 1.5 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 0.8 2.5 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5 · Sex: Not Reported · Race: Not Reported · Age: 18

Baker, Chris I.

72

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 1.0% of U.S. adult population 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 0.5 1.0 1.6 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5

Baker, Chris I.

73

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 12-month Prevalence: 3.5% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 3.5% of U.S. adult 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.3 3.5 6.8 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5 · Sex

Baker, Chris I.

74

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) 12-month Prevalence: 3.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 3.1% of U.S. adult population1U.S.AdultPopulation 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 1.0 3.1 5.7 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5 · Sex: Not Reported · Race: Not Reported

Baker, Chris I.

75

Bipolar Disorder 12-month Prevalence: 2.6% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Bipolar Disorder Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 2.6% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 82 Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 2.6 3.9 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 2.2 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5 · Sex: Not Reported · Race: Not Reported · Age: 18­29 30

Baker, Chris I.

76

Development and validation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess nutritional status in Korean adults  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the validity of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which is being used at the Samsung Medical Center. In total, 305 (190 males and 115 females) participants consented and completed the 3-day diet records and FFQ. Age, gender and energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0.317 (polyunsaturated fatty acid) to 0.748 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.550. The weighted kappa value ranged from 0.18 (vitamin A) to 0.57 (carbohydrate) with a median value of 0.36. More than 75% of the subjects were classified into the same or adjacent quartiles. The FFQ had reasonably good validity compared with that of another study. Therefore, our FFQ is considered a proper method to assess nutrient intake in healthy Korean adults. PMID:23198024

Na, Youn Ju

2012-01-01

77

Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI<18.5 kg/m2. Results Of the total sample, 19.5% of males and 10.1% of females were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2). The wealth index showed that 30.9% of the adult population with low a BMI belongs to the poorest 20% of the households while only 9.6% comprised of the richest 20% of the households. Results from logistic regression analysis indicated that both adult men and women who had no education and belonged to the low socioeconomic group had a statistically significant association with low BMI. Among the female adult population, being young and not having watched TV at least once a week were significantly associated with low BMI. For the male adult population, being unmarried was significantly associated with low BMI. Conclusions Programme interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status of adults can use these findings to make appropriate policy, to establish baselines and study nutritional changes over time and its covariates. PMID:25054546

Letamo, Gobopamang; Navaneetham, Kannan

2014-01-01

78

High prevalence of low bone mass and associated factors in Korean HIV-positive male patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Low bone mass is prevalent in HIV-positive patients. However, compared to Western countries, less is known about HIV-associated osteopenia in Asian populations. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey in Seoul National University Hospital from December 2011 to May 2012. We measured bone mineral density using central dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, with consent, in male HIV-positive patients, aged 40 years and older. Diagnosis of low bone mass was made using International Society for Clinical Densitometry Z-score criteria in the 40–49 years age group and World Health Organization T-score criteria in the >50-year age group. The data were compared with those of a community-based cohort in Korea. Results Eighty-four HIV-positive male patients were included in this study. Median age was 49 (interquartile range [IQR], 45–56) years, and median body mass index (BMI) was 22.6 (IQR, 20.9–24.4). Viral suppression was achieved in 75 (89.3%) patients and median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 71 (IQR, 36–120) months. The overall prevalence of low bone mass was 16.7% in the 40–49 years age group and 54.8% in the>50 years age group. Our cohort had significantly lower bone mass at the femur neck and total hip than HIV-negative Koreans in the 40–49 years age group. Low bone mass was significantly associated with low BMI, and a high level of serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks, but was not associated with antiretroviral regimen or duration of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Low bone mass is prevalent in Korean HIV-positive males undergoing antiretroviral therapy, and may be associated with increased bone resorption. PMID:24433984

Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Park, Wan Beom; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Bang, Ji Hwan; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-don; Kim, Nam Joong

2014-01-01

79

What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

2005-01-01

80

Normal ST Segment Elevation and Electrocardiographic Patterns in the Right-Sided Precordial Leads (V3R and V4R) in Healthy Young Adult Koreans  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives It is important to analyze right-sided chest electrocardiograms (ECGs) to rule out combined right ventricular infarction in patients with inferior wall infarction. However, the patterns of right-sided chest ECGs in healthy adults have not been thoroughly investigated. This study was conducted to analyze the normal patterns of ECGs and the prevalence of ST segment elevation (STE) in the right-sided precordial leads (V3R and V4R) in healthy adult Koreans. Subjects and Methods One hundred thirty healthy male volunteers who registered at the Armed Forces Daejeon Hospital for military recruitment were enrolled between December 2006 and April 2007. Standard 12-lead ECGs and right-sided precordial ECGs were obtained. The characteristic features of the QRS complex configuration, STE, and T wave morphology from right-sided precordial ECGs were analyzed. Results The most common QRS configuration in right-sided precordial leads was the rS pattern. The Q waves were present in lead V4R in 4.6% of the study population. STEs of 0.5-1 mm were present in 25.4% of V3R recordings and 6.2% of V4R recordings. T waves were usually negative in the right-sided precordial leads. However, if there was a STE in V4R, the associated T waves were usually positive. There were statistically significant correlations between STEs in V4R and STEs in II, III, aVF, V1, V3, and V6 (p<0.01). Conclusion The STEs, Q waves, and T wave inversions in the V3R and V4R leads were relatively common findings in young, healthy, Korean adults. However, there were no cases in which there was a STE ?1 mm and a STE concurrently with a q wave. PMID:20514331

Kim, Won Young; Park, Jong Sung

2010-01-01

81

Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ?40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of???40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ?50 (OR?=?3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR?=?1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR?=?1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR?=?2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR?=?1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI???30 Kg/meter squared (OR?=?2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

2014-01-01

82

Gingival recession: prevalence and risk indicators among young greek adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. Material and Methods: A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. Results: The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. Conclusions: The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults. PMID:25136424

2014-01-01

83

No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Objective Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Methods Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Korean version was used to evaluate neuroticism, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR)-Korean version was used to evaluate body dissatisfaction, and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES)-Korean version was used to evaluate self-esteem. The 5-HTTLPR genotype by neuroticism (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total BDDE-SR score, and 5-HTTLPR genotype by BDDE-SR (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total SES score. Results The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism (high : low) with respect to body dissatisfaction showed no main effects of genotype whereas neuroticism did influence the BDDE-SR score and no interaction of the genotype with neuroticism. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and BDDE-SR (high : low) with respect to self-esteem score showed no main effects of genotype whereas BDDE-SR did influence the self-esteem score and no interaction of the genotype with body dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and neuroticism does not affect body dissatisfaction and an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and body dissatisfaction does not affect self-esteem in a young adult Korean population.

Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan

2014-01-01

84

Age- and Sex-Specific Relationships between Household Income, Education, and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Methods Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. Results The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected. Conclusions We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations. PMID:25622031

Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

2015-01-01

85

Specific Phobia 12-month Prevalence: 8.7% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Specific Phobia Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 8.7% of U.S. adult population1 · Severe: 21 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 12.5 1.9 8.7 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5 · Sex: Not Reported · Race: Not Reported · Age

Baker, Chris I.

86

National survey of prevalent HIV strains: limited genetic variation of Korean HIV-1 clade B within the population of Korean men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

The evolution of HIV is the result of an explosive combination of factors-a high rate of mutation, replication dynamics, frequent recombination, and natural selection. To understand the evolution of the distinctive Korean HIV-1 B clade, we investigated the characteristics of the genetic variation of the HIV-1 subtype B env gene within the group of Korean men who have sex with men (MSM). From 1985 to 2005, 700 HIV-1-infected Koreans were sequenced at the V1 to V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, 560 isolates were identified as HIV-1 subtype B, and 489 of the 560 isolates were HIV-1 Korean clade B. Based on epidemiologic investigation, 249 of 700 HIV-1-infected patients were HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM. Interestingly, the proportion of the GPGS motif in MSM infected by Koreans was 1.6 times higher than in MSM infected by foreigners, and the genetic expansions of diversity and divergence for HIV-1 subtype B in Korean MSM were 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. This was much lower than those observed in other countries. Therefore, our findings imply that the HIV strains in this group were closely related. This result may be helpful for understanding the evolution of the distinct HIV-1 Korean B clade. PMID:18317230

Kim, Gab Jung; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Shin, Bo Gyeong; Kee, Mee Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

2008-06-01

87

Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan’s day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE?22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11?MMSE?21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE?10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

2014-01-01

88

Prevalence of Back Problems in 1069 Adults With Idiopathic Scoliosis and 158 Adults Without Scoliosis.  

PubMed

Study Design. Multi-center case-control studyObjective. To investigate the prevalence of back problems in adults with idiopathic scoliosis.Summary of Background Data. Information on the prevalence of back problems in adults with idiopathic scoliosis is scarce, especially in untreated individuals, males and individuals with an age at onset of the scoliosis of less than 10 years.Methods. 1069 individuals with idiopathic scoliosis and 158 individuals without scoliosis, all aged 20-65 years, answered a questionnaire on back problems. Individuals with scoliosis were diagnosed between ages 4 and 20 years and any treatment was terminated before age 20. Logistic regression or ANCOVA was used for group comparisons.Results. Mean (SD) age at the time of investigation in individuals with scoliosis (123 men and 946 women) was 41 (9) years, and in individuals without scoliosis (75 men and 83 women) 45 (13) years. 374 individuals with scoliosis were untreated, 451 had been brace treated and 244 surgically treated. The mean prevalence of back problems was 64% in the individuals with scoliosis and 29% in the individuals without scoliosis (p<0.001). Among the untreated individuals with scoliosis, 69% reported back problems, among the brace treated 61%, and among the surgically treated 64% (p = 0.06). When comparing females and males with scoliosis, and individuals with juvenile and adolescent scoliosis, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of back problems (p = 0.10 and p = 0.23, respectively).Conclusion. Adults with idiopathic scoliosis have a higher prevalence of back problems than individuals without scoliosis. Treatment, gender and juvenile or adolescent onset of diagnosis was not related to the prevalence of back problems in adulthood. PMID:24718070

Grauers, A; Topalis, C; Möller, H; Normelli, H; Karlsson, Mk; Danielsson, A; Gerdhem, P

2014-04-01

89

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in adults with metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non- communicable diseases continues to rise globally, and recent studies suggest that metabolic syndrome (MS) may add to this burden by contributing to the development of CKD. Given that reports on the prevalence of CKD in patients with MS in this environment are scanty, this study was undertaken with the sole aim of determining the prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). A total of 240 consenting adults (18-70 years) attending the general out- patient clinic of the General Hospital Okrika for various ailments were studied. Subjects were screened for MS as per the above- mentioned criteria. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined with Modification of Diet for Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and CKD was defined as eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 and Epi info version 4.06d; P <0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 88 males and 152 females were screened for MS by both criteria. Eighty- four (35.0%) of 240 subjects had MS as defined by NCEP ATP III, while 85 (35.4%) had MS as defined by the IDF. The subjects were predominantly females, and mean age was between 54.74 ± 15.30 and 55.60 ± 14.81 years. Four of the 84 (4.8%) subjects with MS by NCEP ATP III definition had CKD while three of the 85 (3.5%) subjects with MS by IDF definition had CKD. Among subjects without MS by either definition, the prevalence of CKD was four of 140 (2.9%). Although the prevalence of CKD was higher among subjects with MS by ATP III compared with those with MS as defined by IDF and subjects without MS, the differences were not statistically significant (X2 = 0.14; P = 0.710). A comparison of MS subjects without CKD and those with CKD did not show any significant difference in age, waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile (P > 0.05). CKD was more common in subjects with MS compared with those without, although the difference was not statistically significant. The prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS in our study population did not differ significantly when the different MS definitions were employed. PMID:21912024

Emem-Chioma, P C; Siminialayi, I M; Wokoma, F S

2011-09-01

90

Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest. PMID:24228237

Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

2013-01-01

91

A Disease Modification Effect of APOE E4 on the Association between Urinary Albumin Excretion and Cognition in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. No previous study examined a disease modifying effect of APOE E4 status on the association between the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and cognition. This study aimed to investigate whether APOE E4 modified the association in Korean adults. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study in adults aged 45 to 74 who were living in Namwon City, Republic of Korea. Cognitive function was measured with the Korean version of modified Mini-Mental State Examination (K-mMMSE) and cognitive impairment was defined as scores falling below the 25th percentile of the K-mMMSE according to age, sex, and educational attainments. Results. A total of 10,190 participants (4006 men and 6184 women) were analyzed in the present study. Of these, 1698 subjects (16.7%) were APOE E4 carriers. The UACR values were negatively associated with the K-mMMSE scores, even after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, education, and vascular risk factors. APOE E4 modified the association significantly, resulting in a steeper decline of cognitive function with the increase in UACR in E4 carriers (P for interaction?=?0.021). Conclusion. Higher UACR values were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general Korean population, with cognition in APOE E4 carriers being more severely affected by increased UACR.

Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Jin-Su; Lee, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hee Nam; Oh, Sun-Young

2014-01-01

92

Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25486720

Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

93

Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes. PMID:25508851

Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

94

Characteristics of Visual-Perceptual Function Measured by the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To adapt and standardize the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3) to Koreans and investigate the change in visual-perceptual function using the MVPT-3 in healthy Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the MVPT-3 was developed through a cross-cultural adaptation process according to 6 steps, including translation, reconciliation, back translation, cognitive debriefing, feedback, and final reconciliation. A total of 321 healthy Korean volunteers (mean age, 51.05 years) were recruited. We collected participant demographic data, such as sex, age, and years of education, and performed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and MVPT-3. Internal consistency of the MVPT-3 and the relationships between demographic data, K-MMSE and MVPT-3 scores were analyzed. The results of this study were compared with published data from western countries including the United States and Canada. Results Total score on the MVPT-3 was positively correlated with years of education (r=0.715, p<0.001) and K-MMSE score (r=0.718, p<0.001). However, it had a negative correlation with age (r=-0.669, p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis of MVPT-3 scores classified age into 5 groups of ?49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, ?80 years and years of education into 4 groups of 0, 1-9, 10-12, ?13 years. No significant differences in MVPT-3 scores were observed according to sex or country. Conclusion Visual perception was significantly influenced by age, years of education, and cognitive function. Reference values for the MVPT-3 provided in this study will be useful for evaluating and planning a rehabilitation program of visual perceptual function in patients with brain disorders. PMID:25229034

Han, A-Reum; Kim, Doo-Yung; Choi, Tae-Woong; Moon, Hyun-Im; Ryu, Byung-Joo; Yang, Seung-Nam

2014-01-01

95

Effect of Symptoms of Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Korean Conscripts  

PubMed Central

Objective This study is conducted to investigate the effect of symptoms of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among 224 conscripts during 5 weeks of military basic training. Methods Total number of subject is 224 conscripts. We evaluated past and present symptoms of ADHD with Korean-Wender Utah rating scale (K-WURS) and Korean adult attention -deficit/hyperactivity disorder scale (K-AADHDS) and stress and symptoms of PTSD with Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument-K (BEPSI-K), the Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R-K) on 1 week and 5 weeks later of basic military training. Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate risk factors of PTSD using SPSS program and Path analysis also was used to find relationship between past and present ADHD and PTSD simultaneously using AMOS program. Results Present symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.145, CI=1.054-1.245, p=0.001) and Past symptoms of ADHD (OR=1.049, CI=1.005-1.095, p=0.028) were significant risk factor of PTSD symptoms on 1st week of basic military training. The symptoms of PTSD on fist week was also significant risk factor of PTSD after 5weeks of basic military training (OR=1.073, CI=1.020-1.129, p=0.006). Using path analysis, we could found confirm these relations between past and present ADHD symptoms and symptoms of PTSD. Conclusion The result suggests that past and present symptoms of ADHD are the risk factor of symptoms of PTSD on first week. And the symptoms of PTSD on first week are also risk factor of PTSD symptoms on last weeks in Korean conscripts. The symptoms of ADHD might make an important role in vulnerability of the symptoms of PTSD in Korean conscripts. PMID:22707966

Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Bo-Seok; Lee, So-Jin; Bhang, Soo Young

2012-01-01

96

Prevalence of dietary supplement use in Korean children and adolescents: insights from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents and to examine the related factors associated with DS use from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total 6,131 participants aged between 2 and 18 yr were included in the analysis. We estimated the prevalence of DS use mainly from the DS questionnaire data of the Nutrition Survey. Reported supplements were classified according to the Health Functional Food Code. We also assessed the relationship between DS use and anthropometry, socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and chronic diseases. Approximately 34% of Korean children and adolescent was taking DS. Younger age (P = 0.003), higher household income (P < 0.001), presence of chronic diseases (P = 0.05), regular meal consumption (P = 0.002), frequent snack consumption (P = 0.001), and normal body mass index rather than overweight (P = 0.10) or obesity (P = 0.03) were associated with the DS use after adjustment for related factors. Vitamin/mineral supplements (343.5/10(3) persons) were the most commonly taken DS in Korean children and adolescents, followed by Omega-3 (28.8), ginseng (18.3), colostrums (14.1) and chlorella/spirulina (10.0). In conclusion, DS use is common as much as in 34% of Korean children and adolescents and is associated with age, household income level, chronic diseases, meal regularity, and obesity status. PMID:22563216

Yoon, Ji Ye; Park, Hyun Ah; Kang, Jae Heon; Kim, Kyung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Park, Jin Joo; Lee, Ran; Lee, Hyun Hye

2012-05-01

97

High Prevalence of Self-Reported Photophobia in Adult ADHD  

PubMed Central

Many adult outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N?=?494). Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms). The ADHD (symptoms) group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

Kooij, J. J. Sandra; Bijlenga, Denise

2014-01-01

98

Prevalence and predictors for periodontitis among adults in China, 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Although the interrelationship between poor oral health and chronic diseases is well established, few related studies are available in China. In this study, the prevalence of severe periodontitis and its association with chronic diseases among adults in China have been explored. Design During China's 2010 Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance (CCDRFS) survey among adults aged 18 and older, 3 out of 162 surveillance points and the entire sample from each point (600×3=1,800 subjects) were selected as pilot study sites in which oral examination was performed. Basic demographic information, chronic diseases status, and results of oral examination were collected from 2010 CCDRFS data. A standard oral examination was conducted by trained staff. Periodontitis was defined as moderate (4–5 mm pockets) or severe (?6 mm pockets). Chronic disease status was determined by using standard methods and criteria. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to identify the independent association of various factors with severe periodontitis. Results Of 1,800 subjects, 1,728 subjects (96%) provided complete information. The prevalence of severe periodontitis was 1.9% (32/1,728) (95% CI=1.2–2.5). In multivariate model, participants with diabetes were 2.4 times (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.1–5.6) more likely to have severe periodontitis. Being male was significantly associated with severe periodontitis (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.6–7.7). Living in a rural area was related to an increased chance of having severe periodontitis (OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0– 4.9). Attainment of at least 6 years of education was inversely associated with severe periodontitis (OR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1–0.8). Conclusions According to this pilot project, prevalence of severe periodontitis was low. Control measures should be particularly emphasized for high-risk groups such as less educated people (<6 years of education), people living in rural areas, men, and diabetes patients. Population-based studies, including oral examination by trained staff, are feasible and should be done in order to understand the burden of periodontitis and to provide an effective response to this key oral health issue. PMID:25008055

Zhang, Qi; Li, Zhixin; Wang, Chunxiao; Shen, Tao; Yang, Yang; Chotivichien, Saipin; Wang, Linhong

2014-01-01

99

Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis and Contributing Factors to Current Arthritic Pain in South Korean Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. Materials and Methods The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Results Age (p=0.005), female gender (p<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and osteoporosis (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for osteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (p<0.001), and unfavorable subjective health status (p<0.001) were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain among subjects with osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Conclusion Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain. PMID:25510755

Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok

2015-01-01

100

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level, and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem…

Melville, Craig A.; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Morrison, Jill; Smiley, Elita; Allan, Linda; Jackson, Alison; Finlayson, Janet; Mantry, Dipali

2008-01-01

101

Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

102

Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of lifestyle factors and bowel habits in Korean college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is considered to be prevalent in the general population, but there are little data on bowel habits and IBS in Korea. Because nurses are frequently called on to help this patient population with IBS and help manage their symptoms, it is very necessary to get some practical information about patients’ experiences and to

You Joung Kim; D. J. Ban

2005-01-01

103

Overweight, Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults and Children in South Korea: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are increasing in South Korea dramatically. This review of the literature summarizes published studies on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults and children; summarizes studies related to obesity management and prevention in South Korean adults and children; and identifies gaps in the literature for further research. A PubMed, CINAHL,

Myoungock Jang; Diane Berry

2011-01-01

104

Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Cell Cycle Related Protein Expression in Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinomas of Korean Patients with Clinicopathologic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) has recently been characterized as a distinct subset with a favorable prognosis. The prevalence and clinicopathologic significance of HPV-related TSCC in Koreans are not well known. Methods HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) accompanied by p53, p16, pRb, and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining were performed on 89 resection cases of TSCC from 2000 through 2010. Results HPV was detected by ISH in 59 of 89 cases (66.3%). HPV-positive TSCCs were more common in younger ages (p=0.005), and tumor sizes were smaller in the HPV-positive compared to the HPV-negative group (p=0.040). Positive HPV staining was significantly correlated with p16 expression (p<0.001), pRb inactivation (p=0.003), and cyclin D1 down-regulation (p<0.001) but not with p53 expression (p=0.334). Seventeen cases that showed p16-immunopositivity with HPV-negativity by ISH were retested by HPV typing; HPV DNA was not detected in all cases. There was no significant difference between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients either in the disease-specific survival (DSS, p=0.857) or overall survival (p=0.910). Furthermore, pRb-inactivated cases showed better DSS (p=0.023), and p53-positive cases showed worse DSS (p=0.001). Conclusions Although high HPV prevalence was noted, it was not correlated with histopathologic findings or survival benefit. In addition to p53 expression, pRb inactivation along with p16 overexpression and down-regulation of cyclin D1 are thought to be important pathogenetic steps for developing TSCCs. PMID:23667374

Lee, Miji; Kim, Sung Bae; Lee, Sang-wook; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

2013-01-01

105

The Prevalence and Incidence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, and incidence, of mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and autism were compared with\\u000a the whole population with intellectual disabilities, and with controls, matched individually for age, gender, ability-level,\\u000a and Down syndrome. Although the adults with autism had a higher point prevalence of problem behaviours compared with the whole\\u000a adult population with intellectual disabilities, compared with individually

Craig A. Melville; Sally-Ann Cooper; Jill Morrison; Elita Smiley; Linda Allan; Alison Jackson; Janet Finlayson; Dipali Mantry

2008-01-01

106

Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28 years. Former smokers were more likely to have smoked fewer cigarettes per day and to have smoked for significantly less time than current smokers. DISCUSSION: Given the fact that free education is provided at all levels by the government, anti-tobacco education and awareness should be included as an integral part of the curriculum in schools and colleges. PMID:11143190

Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

2000-01-01

107

Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.  

PubMed

Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive. PMID:24968689

Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

2014-03-01

108

REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS FOR ADULT PREVALENCE STUDY Preliminary Document Submission Deadline  

E-print Network

of Florida, 2002. , as well as with the studies prepared #12;among young adults (i.e., college students2 ) and older adults3 Note: The FCCG's prevalence studies identified above among adults, college students Association in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as an "impulse control disorder

McQuade, D. Tyler

109

Prevalence of clonorchiasis in patients with gastrointestinal disease: A Korean nationwide multicenter survey  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and the relation of the infection to hepatobiliary diseases in 26 hospitals in Korea. METHODS: Consecutive patients who had been admitted to the Division of Gastroenterology with gastrointestinal symptoms were enrolled from March to April 2005. Of those who had been diagnosed with clonorchiasis, epidemiology and correlation between infection and hepatobiliary diseases were surveyed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Of 3080 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, 396 (12.9%) had clonorchiasis and 1140 patients (37.2%) had a history of eating raw freshwater fish. Of those with a history of raw freshwater fish ingestion, 238 (20.9%) patients had clonorchiasis. Cholangiocarcinoma was more prevalent in C. sinensis-infected patients than non-infected patients [34/396 (8.6%) vs 145/2684 (5.4%), P = 0.015]. Cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis showed statistically significant positive cross-relation (P = 0.008). Choledocholithiasis, cholecystolithiasis, cholangitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and biliary pancreatitis did not correlate with clonorchiasis. CONCLUSION: Infection rate of clonorchiasis was still high in patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Korea, and has not decreased very much during the last two decades. Cholangiocarcinoma was related to clonorchiasis, which suggested an etiological role for the parasite. PMID:19115472

Kim, Ho Gak; Han, Jimin; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Cho, Kyu Hyun; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Jae Seon; Kim, Jin Bong; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Tae Hyo; Kim, Jae Woo; Ryu, Ji Kon; Moon, Young-Soo; Moon, Jong Ho; Park, Sung Jae; Park, Chan Guk; Bang, Sung-Jo; Yang, Chang Heon; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Yoo, Byung Moo; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Dong Ki; Lee, Byung Seok; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Woo Jin; Cho, Chang Min; Joo, Young-Eun; Cheon, Gab Jin; Choi, Young Woo; Chung, Jae Bok; Yoon, Yong Bum

2009-01-01

110

Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ? 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. PMID:24929722

Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2014-09-01

111

Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Programs Training and Jobs Prevalence of Adult Vision Impairment and Age-Related Eye Diseases in America ... U.S. Census populations) Estimated Number of Cases by Vision Problem Age ? 40 Total Population ? 40 142,648, ...

112

Chronic Kidney Disease Awareness, Prevalence, and Trends among U.S. Adults, 1999 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of kidney failure treatment in the United States increased 57% from 1991 to 2000. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence was 11% among U.S. adults surveyed in 1988 to 1994. The objective of this study was to estimate awareness of CKD in the U.S. population during 1999 to 2000 and to determine whether the prevalence of CKD in the

Josef Coresh; Danita Byrd-Holt; Brad C. Astor; Josephine P. Briggs; Paul W. Eggers; David A. Lacher; Thomas H. Hostetter

113

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

2006-01-01

114

Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

2013-01-01

115

Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,…

van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

2009-01-01

116

Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

2005-01-01

117

Validation of the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey screening questionnaire for use in epidemiologic studies for adult asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Standardized questionnaire is one of key instruments for general population surveys. Objective The present study aimed to develop and validate the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire for adult asthma surveys. Methods The ECRHS screening questionnaire was translated into Korean language according to the international criteria. Study participants were prospectively recruited from six referral hospitals and one health check-up center. Comprehensibility of the translation was tested in a pilot study of 10 patients. The reliability was evaluated by internal consistency and test-retest repeatability. Validity was assess with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma. Results A total of 100 adult asthma patients and 134 volunteers were recruited. Reliability was examined for 10 items in 100 asthmatics; Cronbach ? coefficients were 0.84, and test-retest repeatability was good (Cohen ? coefficient, 0.71-1.00). Validity was assessed for 8 items in 234 participants; in particular, 'recent wheeze' showed a high sensitivity (0.89) for physician-diagnosed asthma. 'Recent asthma attack' and 'current asthma medication' showed high specificity (0.96-0.98). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the Korean version of the ECRHS screening questionnaire was comprehensible, reliable and valid. We suggest the questionnaire to be utilized in further epidemiological studies for asthma in Korean adult populations. PMID:25653917

Song, Woo-Jung; Lee, So-Hee; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sun-Sin; Lee, Jong-Myung; Min, Kyung-Up

2015-01-01

118

The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

2008-01-01

119

Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

2012-01-01

120

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

121

Higher Glycated Hemoglobin Level Is Associated with Increased Risk for Ischemic Stroke in Non-Diabetic Korean Male Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The role of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the prediction of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic subjects is not clear. We performed a study to analyze the role of HbA1c in the risk prediction of ischemic stroke in non-diabetic Korean males adult. Methods A total of 307 non-diabetic male patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled, and 253 age-matched control subjects without a history of diabetes, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease were selected from a Health Check-up database. Anthropometric measurement data, fasting glucose level, lipid profile, and HbA1c level were available for all subjects. Associations of the variables and the presence or absence of ischemic stroke were analyzed. Results The ischemic stroke patient group had significantly higher HbA1c levels (5.8±0.5% vs. 5.5±0.5%, P<0.01) and mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with the control group. Among the variables, smoking, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c were the significant determinants for ischemic stroke. The highest quartile of HbA1c showed a 9.6-fold increased odds ratio for ischemic stroke compared with the lowest quartile of HbA1c (odds ratio, 9.596; 95% confidence interval, 3.859 to 23.863, P<0.01). The proportion of ischemic stroke patients showed a significant trend for increment as the deciles of HbA1c increased (P for trend <0.01). Conclusion Higher HbA1c indicated a significantly increased risk for ischemic stroke after adjusting for other confounding variables in non-diabetic Korean adult males. HbA1c might have significance in predicting the risk for ischemic stroke even in the non-diabetic range. PMID:22111048

Oh, Hyung Geun; Kim, Tae-Woong; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Jeong-Ho; Yang, Kwang-Ik; Jeong, Dushin; Park, Hyung-Kook

2011-01-01

122

A fruit, milk and whole grain dietary pattern is positively associated with bone mineral density in Korean healthy adults.  

PubMed

Background/Objectives:Osteoporosis is a major health problem that will grow in burden with ageing of the global population. Modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis, including diet, have significant implications for disease prevention. We examined associations between dietary patterns and bone mineral density (BMD) in a Korean adult population.Subjects/Methods:In total, 1828 individuals from the Healthy Twin Cohort were included as subjects. Information on general characteristics, lifestyles and health status was obtained through a health examination, and BMD was assessed using DEXA. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record, and dietary patterns were examined by factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMD were examined using mixed linear regression, adjusting for family and twin structure as well as other potential risk factors for bone health.Results:Four dietary patterns were identified (Rice and kimchi; eggs, meat and flour; Fruit, milk and whole grains; and Fast food and soda). The 'Fruit, milk and whole grains' pattern was associated with a reduced risk of having low BMD in men (odds ratio (OR)=0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.22-0.67) and women (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.28-0.72) and was positively associated with BMD at multiple sites. The 'rice and kimchi' pattern had a positive association with only whole-arm BMD in men and women.Conclusions:Our results suggest that a dietary pattern with high intake of dairy products, fruits and whole grains may contribute positively to bone health in a Korean adult population, and dietary pattern-based strategies could have potential in promoting bone health.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 5 November 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.231. PMID:25351648

Shin, S; Sung, J; Joung, H

2014-11-01

123

Reproducibility and validity of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire measuring dietary trans-fatty acids intake among Korean adults  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Compelling evidence indicates that consumption of trans-fatty acids (TFA) is associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few validated tools for TFA intake assessment are available in Korea. We aimed to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) estimating usual intake of TFA in Korean adults. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-two healthy adults completed an FFQ with a 3-day diet record (3DDR), and 58 completed a second FFQ at a 1-month interval. To assess the reproducibility of the FFQ, we compared estimated TFA intakes from each FFQ. To assess the validity, we compared estimates from the FFQ with those from the 3DDR. RESULTS The FFQ was reproducible (Spearman r = 0.71) and provided modest correlations with the 3DDR (Spearman r = 0.38). After adjustment for total energy intake, the correlations increased (r = 0.45). Measurement-error correction also de-attenuated the correlations (r = 0.57). When quintiles of the FFQ and 3DDR were joint-classified, 9% on average were misclassified into extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the developed FFQ is reproducible and reasonably valid in categorizing individuals according to TFA intakes among healthy young and middle aged adults in Korea.

Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Eun

2015-01-01

124

Korean and American Music Reduces Pain in Korean Women After Gynecologic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women

Marion Good; Sukhee Ahn

2008-01-01

125

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 12-month Prevalence: 4.1% of U.S. adult  

E-print Network

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Prevalence · 12-month Prevalence: 4.1% of U as "severe"2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PercentofU.S.AdultPopulation 12-month Prevalence1 12-month Prevalence Classified as Severe2 Lifetime Prevalence3 8.1 4.1 1.7 Demographics (for lifetime prevalence)5 · Sex

Baker, Chris I.

126

Prevalence of Underweight Among Adults Aged 20 Years and Over  

MedlinePLUS

... aged 20 years and over, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1988-1994 through 2007- ... adults aged 20-74 years, by age and sex: United States, selected years 1960-1962 through 2007- ...

127

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma in off-reserve Aboriginal children and adults in Canada.  

PubMed

Only a few studies have investigated asthma morbidity in Canadian Aboriginal children. In the present study, data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey were used to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma in Canadian Aboriginal children six to 14 years of age and adults 15 to 64 years of age living off reserve. The prevalence of asthma was 14.3% in children and 14.0% in adults. Children and adults with Inuit ancestry had a significantly lower prevalence of asthma than those with North American Indian and Métis ancestries. Factors significantly associated with ever asthma in children included male sex, allergy, low birth weight, obesity, poor dwelling conditions and urban residence. In adults, factors associated with ever asthma varied among Aboriginal groups; however, age group, sex and urban residence were associated with ever asthma in all four Aboriginal groups. The prevalence of asthma was lower in Aboriginal children and higher in Aboriginal adults compared with that reported for the Canadian population. Variation in the prevalence of and risk factors for asthma among Aboriginal ancestry groups may be related to genetic and environmental factors that require further investigation. PMID:23248805

Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

2012-01-01

128

Prevalence and Predictors of Burnout Among Adult Day Care Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, an extensive research literature has focused on stress, burden, and coping among family caregivers to improve the quality of care to dependent elders. Although a better understanding of the prevalence and predictors of burnout among formal service providers could be expected to produce similar benefits, little is known about stress and burnout among paid caregivers. The

Kathleen H. Wilber; Clare V. Specht

1994-01-01

129

Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.  

PubMed

Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects. PMID:21715284

Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

2011-06-01

130

Chronic Low Back Pain in Young Korean Urban Males: The Life-Time Prevalence and Its Impact on Health Related Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed the life-time prevalence (LTP) of chronic low back pain (LBP) in young Korean males. We also evaluated the relationship between lumbar spinal lesions and their health related quality-of-life (HRQOL). Methods A cross-sectional, self-reported survey was conducted in Korean males (aged 19-year-old) who underwent physical examinations for the conscript. We examined 3331 examinees in November 2014. We included 2411 subjects, who accepted to participate this study without any comorbidities. We interviewed using simple binary questions for their LBP experience and chronicity. HRQOL was assessed by Short-Form Health-Survey-36 (SF-36) in chronic LBP and healthy control groups. Radiological assessment was performed in chronic LBP group to determine whether there were any pathological causes of their symptoms. Results The LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%. Most (71.7%) of them didn't have any lumbar spinal lesions (i.e., non-specific chronic LBP). The SF-36 subscale and summary scores were significantly lower in subjects with chronic LBP. Between specific and non-specific chronic LBP group, all physical and mental subscale scores were significantly lower in specific chronic LBP group, except mental health (MH) subscale score. In MH subscale and mental component summary score, statistical significant differences didn't appear between two groups (p=0.154, 0.126). Conclusion In Korean males 19 years of age, the LTP of chronic LBP was 13.4%, and more than two-thirds were non-specific chronic LBP. Chronic LBP had a significant impact on HRQOL. The presence of lumbar spinal pathoanatomical lesions affected mainly on the physical aspect of HRQOL. It influenced little on the mental health.

Shim, Jae-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Young; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Doh, Jae-Won; Bae, Hack-Gun

2014-01-01

131

Prevalence of Depression and Dementia among Adults with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba, Canada  

PubMed Central

Study Objective. To estimate and compare the prevalence of dementia and depression among adults with and without developmental disabilities (DDs). Methods. We linked data from several provincial administrative databases to identify persons with DDs. We matched cases with DD with persons without DD as to sex, age, and place of residence. We estimated the prevalence of dementia and depression and compared the two groups using the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) technique. Results. The estimated prevalence of depression and dementia among younger adults (20–54) and older adults (50+) with DD was significantly higher than the estimated rates for the matched non-DD group (Depression: younger adults: RR = 2.96 (95% CI?2.59–3.39); older adults: RR = 2.65 (95% CI?1.84–3.81)), (Dementia: younger adults: RR = 4.01 (95% CI?2.72–5.92); older adults: RR = 4.80 (95% CI?2.48–9.31)). Conclusion. Significant disparities exist in mental health between persons with and without DDs. PMID:22295184

Shooshtari, Shahin; Martens, Patricia Joan; Burchill, Charles A.; Dik, Natalia; Naghipur, Saba

2011-01-01

132

Influences of Body Size and Cardiac Workload on the Left Ventricular Mass in Healthy Korean Adults with Normal Body Weight and Blood Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives:The left ventricular mass is known to be influenced by both hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic factors. Body size and gender are the most representative non-hemodynamic factors. This study was performed to establish the influences of these variables on the variation of the left ventricular mass in healthy Korean adults. Subjects and Methods:368 subjects (male=184, female=184), with a normal body

Jinho Shin; Kyung Soo Kim; Jeong Hyun Kim; Heon Kil Lim

133

Sunburn prevalence among adults in the United States, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exposure to high levels of sunlight, such as a sunburn, is a strong determinant of melanoma risk.Methods: To describe statewide and U.S. estimates of sunburn prevalence in the United States and determine demographic and behavioral predictors of sunburn, we analyzed data from the 1999 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based telephone survey conducted in all 50 states, the

Mona Saraiya; H. Irene Hall; Robert J Uhler

2002-01-01

134

Study on the prevalence of some risk factors in the adult population of one Brazilian state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge on the prevalence of risk factors (CVRF) is important to help plan health policies, which aim at reversing these risks.Estimate the prevalence of some CVRF in the adult population of the state of Goiás\\/Brazil.Descriptive, observational and transversal study of a population base, substantiated by a home survey of a simple random sample, considered to be representative of the population

Paulo C. B. V. Jardim; Maria Peixoto; Estelamaris Monego; Amanda Miranda; Carolina Costa; Humberto Moreira; Priscila Couto; Weimar Souza; Luiz Scala; Joemil Araújo; Juliana Fontes; Denise Alves

2003-01-01

135

A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Measurement of Chronic Pain in Asian Adults.  

PubMed

There are limited epidemiologic studies on chronic pain in Asian populations. The aim of this review was to gather all epidemiologic studies of chronic pain in Asian countries and systematically describe the measurement and prevalence of chronic pain in Asian adults. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psych INFO, Cochrane Database for Systematic Review, and CINAHL. Additional studies were identified manually by searching bibliographies. We identified 19 relevant articles for this review. Most articles used the definition of chronic pain set by the International Association for the Study of Pain. The majority of the articles used simple single-question methods to measure chronic pain. The prevalence of chronic pain among Asian adults ranges from 7.1% (Malaysia) to 61% (Cambodia and Northern Iraq), whereas among the Asian geriatric population, the prevalence is even higher and ranges from 42% to 90.8%. This review showed that there is great variation in the reported prevalence of chronic pain in Asian adults and the prevalence of chronic pain is high among the Asian geriatric population. To measure the distribution of chronic pain in adults, a uniform measurement strategy should be adopted. PMID:25439125

Mohamed Zaki, Lily R; Hairi, Noran N

2014-11-01

136

Antigay Behaviors Among Young AdultsPrevalence, Patterns, and Motivators in a Noncriminal Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first empirical research into prevalence rates of and motivations for antigay harassment and violence by noncriminal young adults. In an anonymous survey of 484 young adults, 1 in 10 admitted physical violence or threats against presumed homosexuals, and another 24% acknowledged name-calling. Factor analyses revealed four motivational themes: peer dynamics, antigay ideology, thrill-seeking, and perceived self-defense. Compared

KAREN FRANKLIN

2000-01-01

137

Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in an Adult Normal Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The vitamin D status of a general adult urban population was estimated between November and April in 1569 subjects selected\\u000a from 20 French cities grouped in nine geographical regions (between latitude 43° and 51° N). Major differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin\\u000a D (25(OH)D) concentration were found between regions, the lowest values being seen in the North and the greatest in the

M.-C. Chapuy; P. Preziosi; M. Maamer; S. Arnaud; P. Galan; S. Hercberg; P. J. Meunier

1997-01-01

138

Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia linked CSF1R mutation: Report of four Korean cases.  

PubMed

We describe detailed clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), linked to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutations in four Korean cases. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings were obtained by direct evaluation and from previous medical records. The genetic analysis of the CSF1R gene was done in two autopsy-confirmed ALSP cases and two cases where ALSP was suspected based on the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics. We identified two known mutations: c.2342C>T (p.A781V) in one autopsy-proven HDLS and clinically ALSP-suspected case and c.2345G>A (p.R782H) in another autopsy-proven POLD case. We also found a novel mutation (c.2296A>G; p.M766V) in a patient presenting with hand tremor, stuttering and hesitant speech, and abnormal behavior whose father died from a possible diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented ALSP-linked CSF1R mutation in Korea and supports the suggestion that HDLS and POLD, with pathological characteristics that are somewhat different but which are caused by CSF1R mutations, are the same spectrum of disease, ALSP. PMID:25563800

Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Hun; Na, Duk L; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Hwang, Sun Jae; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young Min; Shin, Myung-Jun; Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Yoon, Uicheul; Park, Do Youn; Jung, Dae Soo; Ahn, Jae Woo; Sung, Suk; Huh, Gi Yeong

2015-02-15

139

Prevalence and reasons for initiating use of electronic cigarettes among adults in Montana, 2013.  

PubMed

We used data from the 2013 Montana Adult Tobacco Survey to estimate the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and reasons for initiation among Montana adults. More than 1 in 10 (11.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-13.2%) adults reported ever using e-cigarettes, and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.9%) reported current use. Most respondents reported "trying something new" (64%) or "trying to quit or reduce cigarette use" (56%) as a reason for initiating use. Ongoing surveillance of these addictive products is needed. PMID:25412027

Schmidt, Lisa; Reidmohr, Alison; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

2014-01-01

140

Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: Implications for clinical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports on the prevalence of the DSM-IV symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of 720 adults applying for or renewing their driver's licenses in central Massachusetts (ages 17-84 years). Symptoms were assessed using two self- report rating scales: One for current symptoms and a second for retrospective recall of child hood symptoms (ages

K. Murphy; R. A. Barkley

1996-01-01

141

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) were studied. One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. They observed that multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of…

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O'Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

142

Hand Eczema in Swedish Adults – Changes in Prevalence between 1983 and 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand eczema is the most frequent occupational skin disease. Our aim was to study changes in its prevalence in Swedish adults. Cross-sectional studies were performed in 1983 and 1996. Random samples from the population of Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 20–65 y, were drawn from the population register. Data were collected with a postal questionnaire, which was identical in the two studies.

Birgitta Meding; Bengt Järvholm

2002-01-01

143

Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

Hove, Oddbjorn

2004-01-01

144

Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia in Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation without Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been…

Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K.; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne

2004-01-01

145

Characteristics and Prevalence of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA)  

PubMed Central

Diabetes, one of the most commonly seen metabolic disorders, is affecting a major area of population in many developing as well as most of the developed countries and is becoming an alarming concern for the rising cost of the healthcare system. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes which is less recognized and underdiagnosed type of diabetes which appears to have characteristics of both type 1 (autoimmune in nature) and type 2 diabetes (adult age at onset and initial response to oral hypoglycemic agents). An epidemiological study was carried out on 500 patients in the western region of India. Various parameters such as age at onset, duration of diabetes, gender, basal metabolic index (BMI), type of diabetes, family history, HbA1c levels, cholesterol levels, and current treatment regimen were evaluated and correlated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, diagnostic markers for LADA, namely, GAD autoantibodies and C-peptide levels, were determined for 80 patients selected from the epidemiological study. Some of the results obtained were found to be consistent with the literature whereas some results were found to be contradictory to the existing data. PMID:22577577

Brahmkshatriya, Priyanka P.; Mehta, Anita A.; Saboo, Banshi D.; Goyal, Ramesh K.

2012-01-01

146

E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison.  

PubMed

Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ?18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ?18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors. PMID:24680203

Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

2014-07-01

147

Factors That Affect Suicidal Attempt Risk Among Korean Elderly Adults: A Path Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Among the Korean elderly (those 65 years of age and older), the suicide rate is 80.3/100 000 people, which is ten times higher than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development average. Because South Korea is rapidly becoming an aging population, this high elderly suicidal rate will only get worse. Although the size of the elderly suicide problem is quite large, previous research in South Korea has surveyed restricted areas and not the entire country. Even though the factors that affect elderly suicide are complicated, there has been little research into these influencing factors. Thus, this research uses the national survey data (Community Health Survey) that was obtained in 2009. Additionally, we analyze factors affecting elderly suicidal ideation and attempts as well as the paths of these effects. Methods: Community Health Survey data obtained by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009 was used for this study. We additionally examined the factors that affect suicide with chi-squared tests, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation test, and path analysis. Results: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation are the only factors that directly affect suicidal attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors have indirect effects on suicidal attempts. Conclusions: Depression has the strongest influence on suicidal ideation and attempts. Demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts mostly through depressive symptoms. In addition, there is a path that suggests that demographic, behavioral, and physical activity factors affect suicidal attempts not through depression symptoms but only through suicidal ideation. This means that the elderly who do not have depression symptoms attempt suicide according to their own situations and characteristics. PMID:25652708

Ro, Junsoo; Park, Jongheon; Lee, Jinsuk; Jung, Hyemin

2015-01-01

148

Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.  

PubMed

The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

Park, S M

2014-12-01

149

HIV testing among clients in high HIV prevalence venues: disparities between older and younger adults.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (aged ?50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided to younger adults in these venues should also be provided to older adults. We examined aging-related disparities in recent (past 12 months) and ever HIV testing in a probability sample of at-risk adults (N = 1238) seeking services in needle exchange sites, sexually transmitted disease clinics, and Latino community clinics that provide HIV testing. Using multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we estimated associations between age category (<50 years vs. ?50 years) and each HIV testing outcome. Even after controlling for covariates such as recent injection drug use, older adults had 40% lower odds than younger adults did of having tested in the past 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40-0.90) or ever (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.40-0.90). Aging-related disparities in HIV testing exist among clients of these high HIV prevalence venues and may contribute to known aging-related disparities in late diagnosis of HIV infection and poor long-term prognosis. PMID:25303208

Ford, Chandra L; Lee, Sung-Jae; Wallace, Steven P; Nakazono, Terry; Newman, Peter A; Cunningham, William E

2015-02-01

150

Prevalence of selected clinical problems in older adults with autism and intellectual disability  

PubMed Central

Background Originally described as a disorder of childhood, evidence now demonstrates the lifelong nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite the increase of the population over age 65, older adults with ASD remain a scarcely explored subpopulation. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of clinically relevant behaviors and medical problems in a sample of US adults aged 30 to 59 with ASD and intellectual disability (ID), in comparison to those with ID only. Methods A cross-sectional study, with both an exploratory and replication analysis, was conducted using National Core Indicators (NCI) multi-state surveys from 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011. There were 4,989 and 4,261 adults aged 30–59 with ID examined from the 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011 samples, respectively. The two consecutive annual samples consisted of 438 (9%) and 298 (7%) individuals with ASD and ID. Variables were chosen from the NCI data as outcomes, including medication use for behavior problems, severe or aggressive behavior problems and selected medical conditions. Results No age-associated disparities were observed between adults with ASD and ID versus adults with ID only in either sample. For the 2009 to 2010 sample, the prevalence of support needed to manage self-injurious, disruptive and destructive behavior in subjects with ASD and ID ranged from 40 to 60%. Similarly, the prevalence estimates of self-injurious, disruptive and destructive behavior were each almost double in adults with ASD and ID relative to those with ID only. These results were replicated in the 2010 to 2011 sample. Conclusions The findings of this study highlight the urgent need for research on the nature and treatment of severe behavior problems in the rapidly increasing population of older adults with ASD. They also suggest the importance of developing policies that expand our capacity to care for these individuals. PMID:24066979

2013-01-01

151

The prevalence of disorders causing disability in young adult males in Turkey between 2009-2011  

PubMed Central

Objective: Disability is one of the significant problems that the public faces as regards social aspects, economics, public health and politics. Our aim was to review the prevalence of diseases causing disabilities in young adult men who are declared “unfit for military service” in Turkey after medical examination. Methods: We reviewed the prevalence of diseases among 113,175 young adult men who were referred for medical examination between 2009 and 2011. Results: Prevalence of unfitness for military service was 5.56% in 2009, 6.74% in 2010 and 6.77% in 2011. Leading causes for young adult men to be rejected from military service was intellectual disability 6.88, hearing loss 3.71, epilepsy 1.59, schizophrenia 1.54 and diabetes mellitus 1.47 per thousand people. Conclusion: Screening for the prevalence of disability conditions is an important data source for policies to be developed. Supporting such survey with community based studies in different populations in future shall be beneficial for improvement of policies in social and health fields. PMID:24353728

Kocak, Necmettin; Turker, Turker; Aydin, Ibrahim; Istanbulluoglu, Hakan; Akyildiz, Ramazan; Kilic, Selim

2013-01-01

152

First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.  

PubMed

Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

Penezi?, Aleksandra; Selakovi?, Sanja; Pavlovi?, Ivan; ?irovi?, Duško

2014-09-01

153

Association between Low-level Mercury Exposure and Neurobehavioral Functions in Korean Adults Living in a Coastal City  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between low-level mercury exposure and neurobehavioral functions in adults living in coastal regions of Korea. Methods We selected 172 adults aged 20-65 years living in a city in the coastal region of Korea. A sociodemographic survey was conducted, mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were measured, and the associations according to computerized neurobehavioral tests were determined using univariate analysis. After adjustment for associated variables, a multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. Results The geometric mean mercury levels in the blood, urine, and hair were 5.41 µg/L (range, 0.00-15.84 µg/L), 1.17 µg/g-creatinine (range, 0.00-32.86 µg/g-creatinine), and 1.37 mg/kg (range, 0.42-6.56 mg/kg), respectively. Variables that were associated with simple reaction time according to the neurobehavioral test results were age and urine mercury level. Variables associated with choice reaction time were the recent use of Korean traditional medicine and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the right-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, smoking behavior, education level, monthly household income, and urine mercury level. Variables associated with the left-hand finger tapping speed test were age, gender, education level, and urine mercury level. After adjustment for associated variables, there was no significant association between urine mercury level and simple reaction time (?=25.96; p=0.47), choice reaction time (?=50.37; p=0.32), or the number of left-hand finger taps (?=-1.54; p=0.21). However, urine mercury level was significantly associated with the number of right-hand finger taps (?=-3.86; p=0.01). Conclusions We found no evidence that low-level mercury exposure in adults is associated with deficits in neurobehavioral functions. A longer follow-up study is required to confirm this conclusion. PMID:24303351

Kim, Rock Bum; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Hong, Young-Seoub; You, Chang-Hun

2013-01-01

154

Decomposition of educational differences in life expectancy by age and causes of death among South Korean adults  

PubMed Central

Background Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy by ages and causes allow us to better understand the nature of socioeconomic mortality inequalities and to suggest priority areas for policy and intervention. This study aimed to quantify age- and cause-specific contributions to socioeconomic differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level among South Korean adult men and women. Methods We used National Death Registration records in 2005 (129,940 men and 106,188 women) and national census data in 2005 (15, 215, 523 men and 16,077,137 women aged 25 and over). Educational attainment as the indicator of socioeconomic position was categorized into elementary school graduation or less, middle or high school graduation, and college graduation or higher. Differences in life expectancy at age 25 by educational level were estimated by age- and cause-specific mortality differences using Arriaga’s decomposition method. Results Differences in life expectancy at age 25 between college or higher education and elementary or less education were 16.23 years in men and 7.69 years in women. Young adult groups aged 35–49 in men and aged 25–39 in women contributed substantially to the differences between college or higher education and elementary or less education in life expectancy. Suicide and liver disease were the most important causes of death contributing to the differences in life expectancy in young adult groups. For older age groups, cerebrovascular disease and lung cancer were important to explain educational differential in life expectancy at 25–29 between college or higher education and middle or higher education. Conclusions The contribution of the causes of death to socioeconomic inequality in life expectancy at age 25 in South Korea varied by age groups and differed by educational comparisons. The age specific contributions for different causes of death to life expectancy inequalities by educational attainment should be taken into account in establishing effective policy strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in life expectancy. PMID:24897953

2014-01-01

155

Characteristics of Adults with Down Syndrome: Prevalence of Age-Related Conditions  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In the last decades, life expectancy of persons with Down syndrome (DS) has dramatically increased and it is estimated that they will be living as long as the general population within a generation. Despite being included among the progeroid syndromes, because of the presence of features typically observed in older adults, DS is still regarded as a disease of pediatric interest. Because limited knowledge is available on the clinical characteristics of adults with DS, this study aimed to assess clinical and non-clinical features of this population and to describe similarities to the geriatric population. Methods: In this study, we described 60 adults with DS evaluated at the Day Hospital of the Geriatric Department of the Policlinico A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome. Individuals were assessed through a standardized protocol. Results: The mean age of study participants was 38?years (range, 18–58?years) and 42 (70.0%) were women. Geriatric conditions were highly prevalent: severe cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 39 (65.0%) participants, behavioral symptoms were present in 25 (41.7%), and functional impairment in 23 (38.3%). Six (10.0%) participants lived in institutions and 11 (18.3%) were diagnosed as obese. The mean number of drugs used was 2.4; use of psychotropic drugs was highly prevalent. The most common chronic diseases were thyroid problems (44, 73.3%), followed by mood disorders (19, 31.7%), osteoporosis (18, 30.0%), and cardiac problems (10, 16.7%). Geriatric conditions and chronic diseases were more prevalent among participants aged ?40?years. Conclusion: Several similarities between older adults and adults with DS were observed. Comorbidities, geriatric conditions, cognitive and functional deficits, and social problems are highly prevalent in both populations, contributing to the high complexity of these patients’ assessment and treatment. PMID:25593924

Carfì, Angelo; Antocicco, Manuela; Brandi, Vincenzo; Cipriani, Camilla; Fiore, Francesca; Mascia, Donatella; Settanni, Silvana; Vetrano, Davide L.; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

2014-01-01

156

Comparison of Serum Ferritin and Vitamin D in Association with the Severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Increased serum ferritin and decreased vitamin D levels associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, their association with the severity of NAFLD has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the association of serum ferritin and 25(OH)D3 levels with the severity of ultrasonographically detected NAFLD (US-NAFLD) and hepatic steatosis defined by fatty liver index (FLI) in Korean adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of clinical and anthropometric data, including serum ferritin and 25(OH)D3, from men (n=295) and women (n=263) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2012. Results In men, with an increase in the quartile of serum ferritin level, the incidences of subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.002), US-NAFLD (P=0.041), and FLI ?60 (P=0.010) were significantly elevated. In women, the incidence of subjects with US-NAFLD was also significantly elevated with increases in the serum ferritin quartile (P=0.012). Regarding 25(OH)D3, no statistical differences were observed among the different quartiles in either gender. Serum ferritin level significantly increased as the severity of US-NAFLD increased (P<0.001); however, no significant differences in 25(OH)D3 level were observed in men. No significant differences in either serum ferritin or 25(OH)D3 level were observed among women with different levels of severity of US-NAFLD. Conclusion Increased serum ferritin level showed a closer association with severity of NAFLD compared with level of serum vitamin D, suggesting that serum ferritin level may be a better marker than vitamin D level for predicting the severity of US-NAFLD and hepatic steatosis in a clinical setting. PMID:25559574

Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Cho, Young Hye; Yi, Dong Won; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Son, Seok Man

2014-01-01

157

Diabetes and hypertension prevalence in homeless adults in the United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

We estimated hypertension and diabetes prevalence among US homeless adults compared with the general population, and investigated prevalence trends. We systematically searched 5 databases for published studies (1980-2014) that included hypertension or diabetes prevalence for US homeless adults, pooled disease prevalence, and explored heterogeneity sources. We used the National Health Interview Survey for comparison. We included data from 97?366 homeless adults. The pooled prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 27.0% (95% confidence interval?=?23.8%, 29.9%; n?=?43 studies) and of diabetes was 8.0% (95% confidence interval?=?6.8%, 9.2%; n?=?39 studies). We found no difference in hypertension or diabetes prevalence between the homeless and general population. Additional health care and housing resources are needed to meet the significant, growing burden of chronic disease in the homeless population. PMID:25521899

Bernstein, Rebecca S; Meurer, Linda N; Plumb, Ellen J; Jackson, Jeffrey L

2015-02-01

158

The effect of education on decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain: a longitudinal study in Korean male adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents. Methods A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education. Results The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Of the 570 students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months. Conclusions Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up. PMID:25301193

Koh, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Park, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Hea Rim; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

2014-01-01

159

Adult Height and Prevalence of Coronary Artery Calcium: The NHLBI Family Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adult height has been hypothesized to be inversely associated with coronary heart disease but studies have produced conflicting results. We sought to examine the relationship between adult height and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a direct measure of subclinical atherosclerosis and surrogate marker of CHD. Method and Results We evaluated the relationship between adult height and CAC in 2,703 participants from the NHLBI Family Heart Study who underwent cardiac computed tomography. We used generalized estimating equations to calculate the prevalence odds ratios for the presence of CAC (CAC>0) across sex-specific quartiles of height. The mean age of the sample was 54.8 years and 60.2% were female. There was an inverse association between adult height and CAC. After adjusting for age, race, field center, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, diabetes, diabetic medications, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, lipid-lowering medications, and income, individuals in the tallest quartile had 30% lower odds of having prevalent CAC. The odds ratios (95% CI) for the presence of CAC across consecutive sex-specific quartiles of height were 1.0 (reference), 1.15 (0.86–1.53), 0.95(0.73–1.22), and 0.70 (0.53–0.93), p for trend <0.01. There was no evidence of effect modification for the relationship between adult height and CAC by age or socioeconomic status. Conclusions The results of our study suggest an inverse, independent association between adult height and CAC. PMID:24336983

Miedema, Michael D.; Petrone, Andrew B.; Arnett, Donna K.; Dodson, John A.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Pankow, James S.; Hunt, Steven C.; Province, Michael A.; Kraja, Aldi; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djousse, Luc

2014-01-01

160

Older Adults in Prime-Time Television Dramas in Taiwan: Prevalence, Portrayal, and Communication Interaction  

E-print Network

male (60%; n = 51) and female characters (40%; n = 34) appeared, ?2 (1, N = 85) = 3.40, Cramer’s V = .02, p > .05. A secondary Lien, S-C, Zhang, Y.B., & Hummert, M. L. (2009). Older adults in prime-time television in Taiwan: Prevalence, portrayal... characters (47.4%), ?2 (3, N = 430) = 32.92, Cramer’s V = .16, p .05. [Place Table 2 Here] Lien, S-C, Zhang, Y.B., & Hummert, M. L. (2009). Older adults...

Lien, Shu-Chin; Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee

2009-09-01

161

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians – a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms “prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria” or “overweight and obesity in Nigeria.” In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%–35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%–22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders. PMID:23573067

Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

2013-01-01

162

Distribution of Abdominal Obesity and Fitness Level in Overweight and Obese Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio), and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.045, P = 0.499), whereas VAT (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (r = 0.214, P = 0.001) remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (? = 0.204, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (? = 0.163, P = 0.008) but not with SAT (? = 0.097, P = 0.111). Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults. PMID:24723950

Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Duk-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won; Jeon, Justin Y.

2014-01-01

163

Prevalence estimates of cognitive impairment in medical model adult day health care programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite an increasing emphasis on adult day health care (ADHC) programs as alternatives to institutional care for persons\\u000a with dementia, little research based on direct assessment of clients' cognitive status has been conducted in such settings.\\u000a The goal of this analysis was to estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment among ADHC clients using commonly used screening\\u000a measures. Age-adjusted and non-age-adjusted

J. A. Teresi; D. Holmes; M. J. Koren; E. Dichter; M. Ramirez; S. Fairchild

1998-01-01

164

Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea. PMID:24956921

Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

2014-01-01

165

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tinnitus: Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Tinnitus is a common condition and frequently can be annoying to affected individuals. We investigated the prevalence and associated factors for tinnitus in South Korea using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) during 2009–2011. Methods KNHANES is a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n = 21 893). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist moved with a mobile examination unit and performed interviews and physical examinations. Results Among the population over 12 years of age, the prevalence of any tinnitus was 19.7% (95% CI 18.8%–20.6%). Tinnitus was more prevalent in women, and the prevalence rate increased with age (P < 0.001). Among those with any tinnitus, 29.3% (95% CI 27.3%–31.3%) experienced annoying tinnitus that affected daily life. Annoying tinnitus also increased with age (P < 0.001), but no sex difference was demonstrated (P = 0.25). In participants aged 40 years or older, age, quality of life, depressive mood, hearing loss, feeling of dizziness, and rhinitis were associated with any tinnitus (P < 0.05). Age, hearing loss, history of cardiovascular disease, and stress were associated with annoying tinnitus (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tinnitus is a common condition, and a large population suffers from annoying tinnitus in South Korea. Public understanding of associated factors might contribute to better management of tinnitus. PMID:24953134

Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Park, Hun Yi; Lee, Kyu Yup; Choi, Young Seok; Oh, Kyung Won; Lee, Ari; Yang, Ji-Eun; Woo, Sook-Young; Kim, Seon Woo; Cho, Yang-Sun

2014-01-01

166

Prevalence and Determinants of Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants' demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7%) reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31), drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63), subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08), and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87) were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury. PMID:25371674

Orces, Carlos H.

2014-01-01

167

Incidence and prevalence of dementia in elderly adults with mental retardation without down syndrome.  

PubMed

Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been hypothesized to be due to variation in cognitive reserve, adults with mental retardation, who have long-standing intellectual and cognitive impairments, should be at increased risk. This suggests that factors determining intelligence may have little or no direct relationship to risk for dementia and that dementia risk for individuals with mental retardation will be comparable to that of adults without mental retardation unless predisposing risk factors for dementia are also present. PMID:15000676

Zigman, Warren B; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne

2004-03-01

168

Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference. Results Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]). Conclusions Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects. PMID:25360593

Yoon, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hoon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Han, Kyung-Do; Jung, Dong-Wook; Park, Sang-Woon; Kim, Young-Eun; Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Su; Kim, Yang-Hyun

2014-01-01

169

Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in older adults: evidence from the SABE Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in older adults. METHODS The prevalence and factors associated with anemia in older adults were studied on the basis of the results of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Welfare and Aging) study. A group of 1,256 individuals were interviewed during the third wave of the SABE study performed in Sao Paulo, SP, in 2010. The study included 60.4% females; the mean age of the participants was 70.4 years, and their average education was 5.3 years. The dependent variable was the presence of anemia (hemoglobin levels: 12 g/dL in women and 13 g/dL in men). Descriptive analysis and hierarchical logistic regression were performed. The independent variables were as follows: a) demographics: gender, age, and education and b) clinical characteristics: self-reported chronic diseases, presence of cognitive decline and depression symptoms, and body mass index. RESULTS The prevalence of anemia was 7.7% and was found to be higher in oldest adults. There was no difference between genders, although the hemoglobin distribution curve in women showed a displacement toward lower values in comparison with the distribution curve in men. Advanced age (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 0.57;1.64; p < 0.001), presence of diabetes (OR = 2.30; 95%CI 1.33;4.00; p = 0.003), cancer (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.2;6.11; p = 0.016), and presence of depression symptoms (OR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.06;2.88; p = 0.028) remained significant even after multiple analyses. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of anemia in older adults was 7.7% and was mainly associated with advanced age and presence of chronic diseases. Thus, anemia can be an important marker in the investigation of health in older adults because it can be easily diagnosed and markedly affects the quality of life of older adults. PMID:25372162

Corona, Ligiana Pires; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lucia

2014-01-01

170

Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation. PMID:20977363

Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.

2010-01-01

171

Similar prevalence of coeliac disease in children and middle-aged adults in a district of Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coeliac disease in children and adults is considered to be a variety of the same disorder. This gains epidemiological support in the present study, which reports on the observed prevalence of coeliac disease in an area of Sweden (population, 140 500). On 1 July 1981, the prevalence rate was found to be 104\\/100 000 (1:960) among children, and the same

C Hallert; R Gotthard; G Jansson; K Norrby; A Walan

1983-01-01

172

Self-reported anthropometric information cannot vouch for the accurate assessment of obesity prevalence in populations of middle-aged and older Korean individuals.  

PubMed

While there are strong correlations between self-reported and directly measured anthropometric data, the discrepancy and systematic errors associated with these, particularly among middle-aged and older persons residing in South Korea, remain a contentious issue. All participants were selected from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), a panel study conducted by the Korea Labor Institute; data from 510 participants (290 females; 56.9%) were analyzed. We considered general characteristics, including sex, age, education, marital status, employment, income, and residential region, and used self-rated health (SRH) as a generic indicator of health status. One-way ANOVA, t-test, and Scheffé's test (?=0.1) were employed to explore the difference between directly measured and self-reported values. Sensitivity and specificity values were used to assess the validity of obesity diagnoses based on self-reported body mass index (BMI: body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters). The means of BMI differences were 1.3 (±1.2)kg/m(2) among men and 1.8 (±1.5)kg/m(2) among women. In men, the difference could be attributed to measured BMI and residential region; among women, age and education level influenced the discrepancy in BMI. Scheffé's test (?=0.1) for multiple comparisons of group means revealed that women over the age of 65 years, with lower than middle-school education, who lived in rural areas, and had a measured BMI of 25kg/m(2) or more, were more likely to have significant BMI discrepancies. In contrast, for men, significant predictors were living in rural areas and being obese. Although adequate correlations were seen in self-reported BMI, they indicated low sensitivity, with 46.5% and 60.1% among males and females, respectively. However, specificities were very high, at 97.8% and 98.0% for males and females, respectively. The diagnostic performance of self-reported BMI is insufficient for assessing obesity prevalence among middle-aged or older Koreans. PMID:25179443

Yoon, Kyuhyun; Jang, Soong-Nang; Chun, Heeran; Cho, Sung-Il

2014-01-01

173

A Review of Adult Obesity Prevalence, Trends, Risk Factors, and Epidemiologic Methods in Kuwait  

PubMed Central

Objective. Kuwait is among the countries with the highest obesity rates worldwide; however, little is known about the state of obesity epidemiology research in Kuwait. In this paper, we therefore review the findings and methodology of studies on the prevalence, trends and risk factors of obesity in Kuwait. Methods. The PubMed database was searched using the keyword combination: obesity and adults and Kuwait. Out of 111 articles, 39 remained after abstract review, and 18 were selected after full-text review. Results. The studies were all cross-sectional and published in the last fifteen years (1997–2012). The sample size ranged from 177 to 38,611 individuals. Only 30% of studies used random sampling. The prevalence (BMI ? 30) in studies with a nationally representative sample ranged from 24% to 48% overall and in adults >50 years was greater than 52%. Rates were significantly higher in women than those in men. Studies that examined trends showed an increase in obesity prevalence between 1980 and 2009. Multiple risk factors including sociocultural factors were investigated in the studies; however, factors were only crudely assessed. Conclusion. There is a need for future studies, particularly surveillance surveys and prospective cohort studies utilizing advanced methods, to monitor trends and to comprehensively assess the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic in Kuwait. PMID:24455212

Alsmadi, Osama; Behbehani, Kazem

2013-01-01

174

The prevalence and epidemiology of genetic renal disease amongst adults with chronic kidney disease in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background There are an established and growing number of Mendelian genetic causes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults, though estimates of prevalence have been speculative. The CKD Queensland (CKD.QLD) registry enables partial clarification of this through the study of adults with CKD receiving nephrology care throughout Queensland, Australia. Methods Data from the first 2,935 patients consented to the CKD.QLD registry across five sites was analysed, with a comparison between those with and without Genetic Renal Disease (GRD). Prevalence of GRD amongst those with diagnosed CKD, the general population, and commencing renal replacement therapy (RRT) was calculated using the CKD.QLD registry, national census data and extracted Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplantation (ANZDATA) registry report data respectively. Results Patients with GRD constituted 9.8% of this Australian adult CKD cohort (287/2935). This was lower than in local incident RRT cohorts (2006–2011: 9.8% vs 11.3%, x2?=?0.014). Cases of adult CKD GRD were more likely to be female (54.0% vs 45.6%; x2?=?0.007), younger (mean 52.6 yrs vs 69.3 yrs, p?adult CKD population in specialty renal practice is similar to past estimations. GRD is a significant cause for CKD and for RRT commencement, presenting opportunities for ongoing longitudinal study, directed therapeutics and clinical service redesign. PMID:24980890

2014-01-01

175

The Prevalence, Incidence, and Factors Predictive of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Profound Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There are no previous studies of the prevalence and incidence of mental ill-health in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Method: In this population-based prospective cohort study, adults with profound intellectual disabilities underwent psychiatric assessment (n = 184), with further assessment after 2 years (n = 131).…

Cooper, Sally-Ann; Smiley, Elita; Finlayson, Janet; Jackson, Alison; Allan, Linda; Williamson, Andrew; Mantry, Dipali; Morrison, Jillian

2007-01-01

176

Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241

Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

2014-01-01

177

High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy  

PubMed Central

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2013-01-01

178

High prevalence of chronic non-communicable conditions among adult refugees: implications for practice and policy.  

PubMed

The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

2012-10-01

179

The PACE study: past-year prevalence of tension-type headache and its subtypes in Parma's adult general population.  

PubMed

The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE, aimed at detecting the prevalence of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face to face by a physician of our Headache Centre. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9; 18.4 %, 95 % CI 14.6-22.3 in men, and 20.1 %, 95 % CI 16.6-23.6 in women), namely, 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3; 2 %, 95 % CI 0.6-3.4 in men, and 2.6 %, 95 % CI 1.2-3.9 in women). Our results indicate a TTH prevalence (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %). PMID:25109814

Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Taga, A; Camarda, C; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

2015-01-01

180

The Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Adults: Findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to examine the association between circulating vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the associations between depressive symptoms and various sociodemographic factors. Data on serum 25(OH)D levels, sociodemographic factors, and information on depressive symptoms were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1 2010. A total of 3,570 Koreans aged ?20 years were included in the statistical analysis. Subjects with depressive symptoms had lower serum levels of 25(OH)D (41.6±16.2 nmol/L) than those without (44.3±16.2 nmol/L; P-value<0.05; effect size?=?0.17). In a logistic regression analysis, the 25(OH)D sufficiency group (?50 nmol/L) revealed fewer depressive symptoms (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53–0.97; P-value?=?0.032) after adjusting for multiple factors. In addition, females (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.55–5.11; P-value<0.001), problematic alcohol users (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.63–3.34; P-value<0.001), current smokers (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.02–1.99; P-value?=?0.036), and subjects who experienced weight loss (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.30–2.44; P-value<0.001) were more likely to answer “yes” on question for depressive symptoms. In conclusion, low serum levels of 25(OH)D were associated with an increased risk for depression symptoms in Korean adults. In addition, several sociodemographic factors were related to the depressive symptoms. Our results provide insight into the relationships among vitamin D status, sociodemographic factors, and depression in the Korean population. PMID:24945632

Chung, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Yoonsu; Choi, Sumi; Shin, Min-Jeong

2014-01-01

181

Longitudinal prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment among older adults receiving home visiting nursing.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify elder mistreatment (EM) prevalence among a cohort of older adults receiving visiting nurse care in their homes, determine EM subtypes, and identify factors associated with EM. EM data were collected by nurses during monthly home visits for up to 24 months. It took the nurses a mean of 10.5 visits to discern EM. Fifty-four (7.4%) of 724 patients were identified as mistreated, of which 33 had enough information to subtype the EM. Of these 33, 27 were victims of neglect, 16 of psychological abuse, and 10 of financial exploitation, and 17 suffered more than one type. Among the entire sample, 11 variables were positively correlated with EM presence. Nurses visiting older adults in their homes should be aware that their patients are, as a group, vulnerable to EM, and that the factors identified here may be specific markers of greater risk. PMID:25208218

Friedman, Bruce; Santos, Elizabeth J; Liebel, Dianne V; Russ, Ann J; Conwell, Yeates

2015-01-01

182

Generational Differences in the Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

There were significant changes in health and lifestyle throughout the 20th century which may have changed temporal patterns of hearing impairment in adults. In this study, the authors aimed to assess the effect of birth cohort on the prevalence of hearing impairment in an adult population aged 45–94 years, using data collected between 1993 and 2008 from 3 cycles of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (n?=?3,753; ages 48–92 years at baseline) and a sample of participants from the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (n?=?2,173; ages ?45 years). Hearing impairment was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz greater than 25-dB HL [hearing level]. Descriptive analysis, generalized additive models, and alternating logistic regression models were used to examine the birth cohort effect. Controlling for age, with every 5-year increase in birth year, the odds of having hearing impairment were 13% lower in men (odds ratio?=?0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.92) and 6% lower in women (odds ratio?=?0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.98). These results suggest that 1) older adults may be retaining good hearing longer than previous generations and 2) modifiable factors contribute to hearing impairment in adults. PMID:20008889

Zhan, Weihai; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Huang, Guan-Hua; Pankow, James S.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Tweed, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

183

Adult depression screening in Saudi primary care: prevalence, instrument and cost  

PubMed Central

Background By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. Depression is a mental illness which causes persistent low mood, a sense of despair, and has multiple risk factors. Its prevalence in primary care varies between 15.3-22%, with global prevalence up to 13% and between 17-46% in Saudi Arabia. Despite several studies that have shown benefit of early diagnosis and cost-savings of up to 80%, physicians in primary care setting continue to miss out on 30-50% of depressed patients in their practices. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at three large primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aiming at estimating point prevalence of depression and screening cost among primary care adult patients, and comparing Patient Health Questionnaires PHQ-2 with PHQ-9. Adult individuals were screened using Arabic version of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9. PHQ-2 scores were correlated with PHQ-9 scores using linear regression. A limited cost-analysis and cost saving estimates of depression screening was done using the Human Capital approach. Results Patients included in the survey analysis were 477, of whom 66.2% were females, 77.4% were married, and nearly 20% were illiterate. Patients exhibiting depressive symptoms on the basis of PHQ9 were 49.9%, of which 31% were mild, 13.4% moderate, 4.4% moderate-severe and 1.0% severe cases. Depression scores were significantly associated with female gender (p-value 0.049), and higher educational level (p-value 0.002). Regression analysis showed that PHQ-2 & PHQ-9 were strongly correlated R = 0.79, and R2 = 0.62. The cost-analysis showed savings of up to 500 SAR ($133) per adult patient screened once a year. Conclusion The point prevalence of screened depression is high in primary care visitors in Saudi Arabia. Gender and higher level of education were found to be significantly associated with screened depression. Majority of cases were mild to moderate, PHQ-2 was equivocal to PHQ 9 in utility and that screening for depression in primary care setting is cost saving. PMID:24992932

2014-01-01

184

Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme ?-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 ?g/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

1996-01-01

185

Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %). PMID:23695063

Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

2013-05-01

186

Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 2009–2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ?3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

2014-01-01

187

Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

2014-01-01

188

Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination. Results The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI?28 kg/m2) was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as “fat” (OR?=?3.78 in men, OR?=?2.91 in women). Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise. Conclusion Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic. PMID:25225884

Cai, Li; Han, Xiaoyan; Qi, Zhi; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping

2014-01-01

189

The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>?0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between ?0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. PMID:25000872

Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

2014-01-01

190

Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Sodium Phosphate Tablets and Polyethylene Glycol Solution for Bowel Cleansing in Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bowel cleansing is generally regarded as time-consuming and unpleasant among patients. Patients commonly state that bowel preparation provokes more discomfort than the actual colonoscopic examination. The purpose of this study was to compare two regimens of sodium phosphate (NaP) tablets versus polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel preparation in healthy Korean adults. Materials and Methods This was a single center, prospective, open-label, investigator-blinded, randomized, controlled-pilot study. A total of 62 healthy Korean subjects were randomly assigned to two groups (NaP vs. PEG). Efficacy, safety, and patient-related outcomes, as well as procedural parameters, were evaluated. Results Although there were no significant differences in total Ottawa bowel quality score, fluid scores and the rate of adequate bowel preparation were significantly better in the NaP group than the PEG group. Additionally, the NaP group showed better results regarding patient tolerance, satisfaction, preference, and rate of adverse events than the PEG group. Significant fluctuations in specific serum electrolytes were common and of a greater magnitude in the NaP group than the PEG group. However, these abnormalities were transient and did not result in serious complications and side effects. Conclusion In this study, NaP tablets were shown to be an effective, well-tolerated, and acceptable regimen for bowel preparation. Also, our study suggests that NaP tablets may be safe and can be used as a bowel cleansing agent in healthy adults undergoing elective colonoscopy. Further multicenter, large scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25323890

Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Seo, Sang-Wook; Kang, Joon-Koo; Lee, Eun-Hye; Lee, Dong-Ryul

2014-01-01

191

Trends in adult current asthma prevalence and contributing risk factors in the United States by state: 2000–2009  

PubMed Central

Background Current asthma prevalence among adults in the United States has reached historically high levels. Although national-level estimates indicate that asthma prevalence among adults increased by 33% from 2000 to 2009, state-specific temporal trends of current asthma prevalence and their contributing risk factors have not been explored. Methods We used 2000–2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) to estimate state-specific current asthma prevalence by 2-year periods (2000–2001, 2002–2003, 2004–2005, 2006–2007, 2008–2009). We fitted a series of four logistic-regression models for each state to evaluate whether there was a statistically significant linear change in the current asthma prevalence over time, accounting for sociodemographic factors, smoking status, and weight status (using body mass index as the indicator). Results During 2000–2009, current asthma prevalence increased in all 50 states and D.C., with significant increases in 46/50 (92%) states and D.C. After accounting for weight status in the model series with sociodemographic factors, and smoking status, 10 states (AR, AZ, IA, IL, KS, ME, MT, UT, WV, and WY) that had previously shown a significant increase did not show a significant increase in current asthma prevalence. Conclusions There was a significant increasing trend in state-specific current asthma prevalence among adults from 2000 to 2009 in most states in the United States. Obesity prevalence appears to contribute to increased current asthma prevalence in some states. PMID:24325173

2013-01-01

192

Prevalence and determinants of obesity - a cross-sectional study of an adult Northern Nigerian population  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is assuming an epidemic dimension globally. It is important to appreciate factors associated with the disease so that a holistic approach can be taken in tackling the rising burden. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the factors independently associated with obesity in an urban Nigerian population. Methods A cross-sectional study of 300 healthy adult subjects was conducted in the urban city of Katsina, northern Nigeria. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical information were obtained. Screening for obesity was done using the Body Mass Index while relevant laboratory investigations were conducted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the predictors of obesity. Results Overweight and obesity was found in 53.3% and 21.0% respectively with a significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (overweight: 62.0% vs 41.9%, p < 0.001; obesity: 29.8% vs 9.3%, p < 0.001). In univariate analysis, the odds of obesity were higher in women and in the presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperuricaemia. However, in multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with obesity were female sex (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.705-13.842, p < 0.001), hypercholesterolaemia (OR 2.138, 95% CI 1.109-4.119, p = 0.023) and hyperuricaemia (OR 2.906, 95% CI 1.444-5.847, p = 0.003). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of obesity in northern Nigeria and women are significantly more affected. The high prevalence is independently associated with female sex, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperuricaemia. Public health education is urgently needed in order to reduce this burden and prevent other non-communicable cardiovascular disorders. PMID:21362196

2011-01-01

193

Estimating the prevalence of problem gambling among older adults in Singapore.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence rates of problem gambling among older adults in Singapore. A stratified sampling method was used to select the nationally representative sample of 3010 older adults aged 55 years and above. The survey participants were of varying ethnicities living in the community, including Chinese, Malay, and Indian (and others). A structured questionnaire, including the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, gambling attitudes and behaviors, and demographic information was administered face-to-face at participants' homes, using one of the four language versions preferred by the participants. Among those who had gambled lifetime, 69.7% (or weighted population = 39.2%) gambled in the past 12 months and 2.2% (or weighted population = .9%) met the problem gambling criteria. Individuals with problem gambling were likely to have started gambling at an younger age and to have gambled in activities characterized by continuity and no set money limits. Future research should examine changes in gambling behaviors of older adults over time in non-Western societies. PMID:23850433

Tse, Samson; Hong, Song-Iee; Ng, King-Lam

2013-12-15

194

Prevalence of comorbid substance use disorder during long-term central stimulant treatment in adult ADHD.  

PubMed

Central stimulant (CS) therapy is a cornerstone in treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Substance use disorder (SUD) is a common comorbid disorder of ADHD and might complicate the treatment. Our main objectives were to investigate the prevalence of SUD during CS treatment, and identify variables associated with SUD during the treatment. The collection of data was based on a naturalistic, retrospective approach using the medical records of a cohort of all adult ADHD patients (N = 117) starting treatment with CS in a specific catchment area in the period 1997 to May 2005. A logistic regression model was applied to identify possible predictors of SUD during CS treatment. The study showed no onset of SUD during the CS treatment in the group of patients without comorbid SUD at baseline (mean CS treatment length 41.1 months). In the group of patients with comorbid SUD at baseline, 58.5 % had one or more relapses of SUD during treatment (mean CS treatment length 27.9 months). Younger age and comorbid antisocial personality disorder were associated with relapse. In a logistic regression analysis, cannabis abstinence for more than 12 months was a negative predictor for relapse of SUD. CS treatment does not precipitate onset of SUD in adults without previous SUD. PMID:23104523

Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjørn; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Vaaler, Arne; Nordahl, Hans M

2013-03-01

195

Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Adults from Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the prevalence rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adults from two First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods. Body weight, height, and waist circumference as well as fasting and postprandial glucose levels following an oral glucose tolerance test were measured in 31 men and 41 women. Results. The mean age of the sample was 43 ± 13?y. The prevalence of obesity was 65.3% and was comparable between men and women. 90.3% of the individuals presented waist circumference levels greater than the thresholds associated with an increased risk of developing health problems. 26 of the 72 individuals (36.1%) were found to be type 2 diabetic. The prevalence of diabetes was not different between men and women. Conclusion. Using objective measurements, this study confirms that First Nations adults from remote communities of Canada continue to experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than nonaboriginal Canadians. PMID:21603265

Imbeault, Pascal; Haman, François; Blais, Jules M.; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krümmel, Eva M.; Robidoux, Michael A.

2011-01-01

196

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data. A.A. Arif, G.L. Delclos, E.S. Lee, S.R. Tortolero, L.W. Whitehead. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: The prevalence of asthma has been on the increase in the USA and worldwide. To understand the worsening epidemiological trends of asthma, this study analysed the data

A. A. Arif; G. L. Delclos; E. S. Lee; S. R. Tortolero; L. W. Whitehead

2003-01-01

197

Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors  

PubMed Central

Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Malaysia. Continuous and more comprehensive anti-smoking policy measures are needed in order to further prevent the increasing prevalence of smoking among Malaysian men, particularly those who are younger, of Malay ethnicity, less educated, reside in rural residential area and with lower socio-economic status. PMID:23294728

2013-01-01

198

Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Behavior among Adult Female Victims of Intimate Partner Violence  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal threats and attempts among 662 racially and ethnically diverse adult female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). One in five women had threatened or attempted suicide during her lifetime. Multiple logistic regression results indicated that women at greater risk of severe or potentially lethal assaults as measured by the Danger Assessment and those who reported having a chronic or disabling illness were more likely to have threatened or attempted suicide. A linear association was found between age and suicide threats/attempts, with younger women having increased odds. Finally, African American IPV victims were less likely to have threatened or attempted suicide as compared to Latina victims. Study implications are discussed. PMID:21535096

Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Messing, Jill Theresa; Del-Colle, Melissa; O’Sullivan, Chris; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2011-01-01

199

Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-01-01

200

Delirium in an adult acute hospital population: predictors, prevalence and detection  

PubMed Central

Background To date, delirium prevalence and incidence in acute hospitals has been estimated from pooled findings of studies performed in distinct patient populations. Objective To determine delirium prevalence across an acute care facility. Design A point prevalence study. Setting A large tertiary care, teaching hospital. Patients 311 general hospital adult inpatients were assessed over a single day. Of those, 280 had full data collected within the study's time frame (90%). Measurements Initial screening for inattention was performed using the spatial span forwards and months backwards tests by junior medical staff, followed by two independent formal delirium assessments: first the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) by trained geriatric medicine consultants and registrars, and, subsequently, the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98) by experienced psychiatrists. The diagnosis of delirium was ultimately made using DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria. Results Using DSM-IV criteria, 55 of 280 patients (19.6%) had delirium versus 17.6% using the CAM. Using the DRS-R98 total score for independent diagnosis, 20.7% had full delirium, and 8.6% had subsyndromal delirium. Prevalence was higher in older patients (4.7% if <50 years and 34.8% if >80 years) and particularly in those with prior dementia (OR=15.33, p<0.001), even when adjusted for potential confounders. Although 50.9% of delirious patients had pre-existing dementia, it was poorly documented in the medical notes. Delirium symptoms detected by medical notes, nurse interview and patient reports did not overlap much, with inattention noted by professional staff, and acute change and sleep-wake disturbance noted by patients. Conclusions Our point prevalence study confirms that delirium occurs in about 1/5 of general hospital inpatients and particularly in those with prior cognitive impairment. Recognition strategies may need to be tailored to the symptoms most noticed by the detector (patient, nurse or primary physician) if formal assessments are not available. PMID:23299110

Ryan, Daniel James; O'Regan, Niamh Annmarie; Caoimh, Ronán Ó; Clare, Josie; O'Connor, Marie; Leonard, Maeve; McFarland, John; Tighe, Sheila; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Trzepacz, Paula T; Meagher, David; Timmons, Suzanne

2013-01-01

201

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among Panamanian Adults. 1982–2010  

PubMed Central

Background In Central America, there has been a marked increase in obesity in the last 30 years. Over this time frame, in Panama, there have been lifestyle changes associated with economic development and urbanization that may have facilitated increases in body weight. The aim of the study is to describe the change in the prevalence of obesity in the country since 1982 and to analyze the association of obesity with gender, place of residence and socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed three nationally representative cross-sectional studies and one sub-national study of Panamanian adults that evaluated anthropometric and socioeconomic variables; ENPA-1982 (n?=?11 611), ENV-II 2003 (n?=?14 737), ENV-III 2008 (n?=?15 484), PREFREC-2010 (n ?=?3 590). We also evaluated one nationally representative study that evaluated people’s perception of their body weight, ENSCAVI-2007 (n?=?25 748). Results In 1982, the prevalence in males of a body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2 was 3.8% (3.3 – 4.2) and in females 7.6% (6.9 – 8.2). In 2003, the prevalence in males increased to 14.4% (13.6 – 15.2) and in females to 21.8% (20.8 – 22.7). In 2008, the prevalence in males was 16.9% (16.0 – 17.7) and in females it was 23.8% (22.8 – 24.7). Nevertheless, in 2007, the national perception of being obese was only 4% among males and 6.7% among females. The highest prevalence of obesity was noted in urban areas. Female gender and higher income were found to be positively associated with obesity. Income level was positively associated with abdominal obesity in men but not in women. Conclusions There has been a marked increase of obesity in Panama in the last 3 decades. Initiatives to control this problem will have to take into consideration the observed gender difference and the lifestyle changes that have contributed to the rise of this problem. PMID:24621825

Sasson, Morris; Lee, Marcos; Jan, Carmen; Fontes, Flavia; Motta, Jorge

2014-01-01

202

Influence of education in the prevalence of obesity in Iranian northern adults  

PubMed Central

Background The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether prevalence of obesity in educational levels is different and some related factors in Iranian northern adults. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on population and 2452 cases (1224 men and 1228 women) aged 15–65 years were chosen by cluster and stratify sampling. Subjects were randomly chosen from 125 clusters and each cluster included 20 cases. Interviewers recorded the data using a multidimensional questionnaire including socio-demographic indexes. Results As a whole, the prevalence of obesity was seen in 24% of subjects (15.5% in male and 32.5% in female) and significantly was seen in 3.1% and 14.1% of uneducated people more than in 1–9 year schooling and in high school or college-educated people, respectively (P = 0.001). The risk of obesity was 2.294 (P = 0.001) in uneducated compared to high school or college-educated people, 1.668 (P = 0.001) in urban area compared to rural area, 2.619 (P = 0.001) in 40–65 year people compared to 15–40 year people, and 1.534 (P = 0.003) in good economic compared to poor economic groups. After adjusted for location area, gender, age, and economic stats, the risk of obesity was 2.044 (P = 0.001) in uneducated people compared to high school or college-educated subjects. Conclusion The obesity as a health problem in Iranian northern adults supported in this study and it was negatively associated with educational levels. Public health programs that aim to reduce obesity should primarily focus on the illiterate and low-educated people. PMID:24023468

Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Maghsodlo, Siavash; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas

2013-01-01

203

Prevalence of sapovirus infection among infant and adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Aim This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in patient with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. Background Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting both children and adult individuals. There isn't enough data about prevalence and genotypes of sapovirus infection in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Patients and methods A total of 42 fecal samples were collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis from May to July 2009. RT nested- PCR was performed for screening. To genotype the sapovirus isolates, some positive samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by sequencing of fragments of viral capsid gene region. Results Sapovirus was detected in 5 of 42 stool specimens from patients with acute gastroenteritis. Sapovirus detected in this study was clustered into only one distinct genogroup I/2. Sapovirus GI/2 was predominant. Conclusion Our results show that among the studied viruses responsible for this disease, sapovirus was a major viral isolate virus. PMID:24834197

Romani, Sara; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Bozorgi, Sajad Majidizadeh; Zali, Narges; Jadali, Farzaneh

2012-01-01

204

Falls among Adult Patients Hospitalized in the United States: Prevalence and Trends  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide normative data on fall prevalence in US hospitals by unit type and to determine the 27-month secular trend in falls prior to the implementation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) rule which does not reimburse hospitals for care related to injury resulting from hospital falls. Methods We used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) collected between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2008 to estimate prevalence and secular trends of falls occurring in adult medical, medical-surgical and surgical nursing units. More than 88 million patient days (pd) of observation were contributed from 6,100 medical, surgical, and medical-surgical nursing units in 1,263 hospitals across the United States. Results A total of 315,817 falls occurred (rate=3.56 falls/1,000 pd) during the study period, of which 82,332 (26.1%) resulted in an injury (rate=0.93/1,000 pd). Both total fall and injurious fall rates were highest in medical units (fall rate=4.03/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=1.08/1,000 pd) and lowest in surgery units (fall rate=2.76/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=0.67/1,000 pd). Falls (0.4% decrease/quarter, p<0.0001) and injurious falls (1% decrease per quarter, p<0.0001) both decreased over the 27-month study. Conclusions In this large sample, fall and injurious fall prevalence varied by nursing unit type in US hospitals. Over the 27 month study, there was a small, but statistically significant, decrease in falls (p<0.0001) and injurious falls (p<0.0001). PMID:23143749

Bouldin, Erin D.; Andresen, Elena M.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Simon, Michael; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Shorr, Ronald I.

2012-01-01

205

Prevalence of Self-Reported Stroke and Disability in the French Adult Population: A Transversal Study  

PubMed Central

In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named “the Disability Health survey” was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%–1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without. PMID:25521057

Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

2014-01-01

206

Prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

AIM—To assess the prevalence of subclinical anterior uveitis in adult patients with inflammatory bowel disease.?METHODS—In 179 consecutive patients (96 with Crohn's disease, 55 with ulcerative colitis, and 28 with inflammatory bowel disease of undetermined nature) without previous or concurrent ocular complaints, quantitative flare measurements were obtained with the Kowa FC laser flare to detect the presence of subclinical uveitis.?RESULTS—The mean flare value was 3.9 (SD 1.1) ph/ms in patients younger than 30 years of age, rising to 5.8 (2.5) ph/ms in those over 60 years of age. No measurement performed in this patient population fell outside the mean observed value plus or minus SD of the normal controls within the same age category.?CONCLUSION—In an adult population of 179 consecutive patients with inflammatory bowel disease the presence of a form of subclinical uveitis, as described by Hofley et al in a group of juvenile patients, is highly unlikely.?? PMID:11159490

Verbraak, F; Schreinemachers, M; Tiller, A; van Deventer, S J H; de Smet, M D

2001-01-01

207

Relationship Between Intraocular Pressure and Parameters of Obesity in Korean Adults: The 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: To examine the associations of various parameters of obesity including adiposity with intraocular pressure (IOP) using nationally representative data of South Korean adults. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed the data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 15,271 subjects (6600 men and 8671 women) participated. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat mass, and total and regional body fat percentage were measured as parameters of obesity. Results: IOP showed positive linear associations with BMI, WC, total fat mass, and total and regional body fat percentages in men, and with BMI, WC, total fat mass, and trunk fat percentage in women after adjusting for confounding variables. Men with higher BMI, WC, total fat mass, and total and regional body fat percentages exhibited increasing trends in odd ratios for having IOP ? 18?mmHg after adjusting for all confounding factors (p for trend <0.001 for BMI and total fat mass; p for trend?=?0.038 for WC; 0.003 for total body fat percentage; 0.002 for trunk fat percentage; 0.004 for leg fat percentage). However, only BMI showed a significantly increasing trend in the risk of IOP ?18?mmHg in women. Conclusions: In addition to BMI, WC and total fat mass, total and regional body fat percentage in men and trunk fat percentage in women are positively associated with IOP. Increased BMI, WC, and total and regional body fat are positively associated with a risk of higher IOP (IOP ?18?mmHg), especially in Korean men. PMID:25380054

Jang, Hyung-Deok; Kim, Do Hoon; Han, Kyungdo; Ha, Suk Gyu; Kim, Yang Hyun; Kim, Jae Woo; Park, Ji Young; Yoon, Su Jung; Jung, Dong Wook; Park, Sang Woon; Nam, Ga Eun

2014-11-01

208

Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

2012-01-01

209

Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. METHODS: A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on

Christos Pitsavos; George A Milias; Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Dimitra Xenaki; George Panagopoulos; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2006-01-01

210

Accuracy of the estimated prevalence of obesity from self reported height and weight in an adult Scottish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine whether self reported heights and weights from Scottish adults can provide an accurate assessment of obesity prevalence in the population.DESIGNStandardised clinic measurements of weight and height were compared against self reported values on a postal questionnaire in the fourth Scottish MONICA cross sectional study.SETTINGA sex and five year age band stratified random population sample drawn from general

Caroline Bolton-Smith; Mark Woodward; Hugh Tunstall-Pedoe; Caroline Morrison

2000-01-01

211

A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability, 2003-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research regarding the prevalence of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with intellectual disability in adults was reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the qualities of sampling and diagnostic methodology, which have been identified as needs in two recent reviews. Sixteen articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2009…

Buckles, Jason; Luckasson, Ruth; Keefe, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

212

Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

2010-01-01

213

Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

2012-01-01

214

The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

2010-01-01

215

Alcohol Prevalence and Attitudes Among Adults and Adolescents: Their Relation to Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Rural Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has identified numerous neighborhood mechanisms influencing urban adolescent risk behaviors, less is known about how community contexts influence rural adolescents. This study explores perceived controls against adolescent drinking (i.e., tolerance of community adolescent alcohol use), adolescent perceptions of community supportiveness, and the prevalence of community alcohol use exhibited by adolescents and adults. Multilevel analyses were applied to 1,424

Laura DeHaan; Tina Boljevac

2010-01-01

216

Diabetes mellitus prevalence in out-patient Marshallese adults on Ebeye Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to use a low-cost method of estimating prevalence of diabetes mellitus for a small island population receiving medical care from a single facility. A suitable sample of 692 (16.4%) from a total of 4,223 medical records of Ebeye Island Marshallese adult outpatients 30 or more years of age was reviewed in July and August 2000 for evidence of diabetes mellitus. Diagnosed diabetes was defined as having a diagnosis of diabetes noted in the chart. In patients without a diagnosis of diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes was defined as one fasting whole blood glucose > or = 70 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) or one random whole blood glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl). Impaired fasting glucose was defined as one fasting whole blood glucose 6.1-7.0 mmol/l (110-125 mg/dl). For this population of adults 30 or more years in age, the crude prevalence of diabetes [diagnosed cases 13% (confidence interval, CI = 10-15%) and undiagnosed cases 6.9% (CI = 5.0-8.8%)] was 20% (CI = 17-23%). As the population of Ebeye is younger than the world population, adjustment to a standard world population gives an age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in adults 30 or more years of age of 27%, and an age-adjusted prevalence in adults 20 or more years of age of 20%. In comparison, the crude prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in the U.S. in adults 20 or more years of age is 8.3%, and the worldwide prevalence in adults 20 or more years of age is 4.0%. Limitations of our methodology include lack of randomization, lack of access to proper laboratory equipment, and passive case-finding, necessitating revision of standard diagnostic criteria. Prevalence rates of diabetes in Marshallese outpatients are thus significantly higher than US or worldwide rates. In addition, there are many cases of undiagnosed diabetes in the RMI. Recommended are a cross-sectional serosurvey of a large age- and gender-stratified population, increased resources to care for people with diabetes, and public health interventions to improve nutrition and facilitate physical activity in order to lower the prevalence of diabetes. The large-scale social forces that lead to diabetes need to be addressed accordingly. PMID:15072347

Yamada, Seiji; Dodd, Anna; Soe, Tin; Chen, Tai-Ho; Bauman, Kay

2004-02-01

217

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Pudong New Area of Shanghai using three proposed definitions among Chinese adults  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been increasing in China in recent years. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the prevalence of MS among Chinese adults in Shanghai, one of the most economic developed areas in China, using definitions proposed by World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (modified ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Methods This cross-sectional study included 5,584 adults at age 20-79 randomly selected from Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China, through a three-stage sampling. All participants were interviewed in-person between April and July of 2008 to collect information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics. At the interview, anthropometry and blood pressure were measured and bio-specimens were collected. Results The prevalence estimates for the MS increased with age for each definition in men and women, but the estimates varied greatly between the definitions and by sex. The prevalence of the MS was higher in men (20.2%) than in women (18.7%) using WHO definition but this sex difference was reversed when using the modified ATP III (28.4% for men vs. 35.1% for women) and the IDF (15.9% for men vs. 26.7% for women) criteria. The most common metabolic disorder in this population was dyslipidaemia, regardless of the definition used. Substantial agreement, estimated using the kappa statistic, was found between the modified ATP III and IDF definition, whereas the lowest agreement was observed between the WHO and ATP III criteria. Conclusions The MS is highly prevalent among Chinese adults in Pudong New Area of Shanghai and the most prevalent component was dyslipidemia. These findings underscore the importance of prevention and control efforts for the MS in this area and the need for a unified predictive definition for the syndrome for use by clinical practitioners and public health agencies. PMID:20459855

2010-01-01

218

Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.  

PubMed

Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P < .05). Total daily energy intake declined steadily from 1931 in 1998 to 1691 kcal in 2010. Carbohydrate intakes were unchanged over the study period; however, fat-derived energy intake increased slightly from 19.7% to 20.0% (P < .05). Our factor and cluster analyses identified 3 dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea. PMID:25262419

Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

2014-09-01

219

Psychometric Properties of the Korean Versions of Three Sleep Evaluation Questionnaires.  

PubMed

Psychometric properties of the Korean versions of three sleep evaluation questionnaires were described to provide tools for practitioners and researchers interested in transcultural studies in Korea. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS), and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) were analyzed using data from 959 community-dwelling adults in Korea. Furthermore, cut-off points and prevalence of sleep disturbance were identified. Reliability and concurrent validity for all measures were acceptable. Optimal cut-off points of PSQI, GSDS, and LSEQ with highest Youden's index were 5, 33, and 66, and prevalence of sleep disturbance was 22.1%, 26.3%, and 25.8%, respectively. The Korean PSQI, GSDS, and LSEQ are all valid and reliable tools for detecting sleep disturbance. We provide suggestions for selecting the right tools according to the purpose, setting, and participants of transcultural studies. PMID:25287067

Choi, Heejung; Kim, Sungjae; Kim, Beomjong; Kim, Inja

2014-10-01

220

Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 +  

E-print Network

Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Age, BRFSS, 2008 7.1 8.1 7.2 7.6 8.6 8.7 10.2 8.2 7.8 8.5 9.0 8.0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + Percent IL U.S. Adult current asthma prevalence was highest among adults aged 18-24 years throughout the U.S. Adult Current Asthma Prevalence by Sex, BRFSS

221

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Durame Town, Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background To date, non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, are becoming severe public health challenges particularly in developing countries. Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor that contributes the leading role for mortality. The problem is significant in low- and middle-income countries like sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are limited studies in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. Hence, determining the magnitude of hypertension and identifying risk groups are important. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in April 2013 among adults (age>31 years) old. A systematic sampling technique was used to select a total of 518 study participants. Data were collected after full verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to control the effect of confounding. Adjusted Odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to measure associations. Variables having P-value <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension in Durame town was 22.4% (95% CI: 18.8–26.0). Nearly 40% of hypertensive patients were newly screened. Male sex [AOR ?=?2.03, 95% CI; 1.05–3.93], age [AOR ?=?29.49, 95% CI; 10.60–81.27], salt use [AOR ?=?6.55, 95% CI; 2.31–18.53], eating vegetable three or fewer days per week [AOR ?=?2.3,95% CI; 1.17–4.51], not continuously walking at least for 10 minutes per day [AOR ?=?7.82, 95% CI; 2.37–25.82], having family history of hypertension [AOR ?=?2.46, 95%CI; 1.31–4.61] and being overweight/obese [AOR ?=?15.7, 95% CI 7.89–31.21)] were found to be risk factors for hypertension. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Older age, male sex, having family history of hypertension, physical inactivity, poor vegetable diet, additional salt consumption and obesity were important risk factors associated with hypertension among adults. Community level intervention measures with a particular emphasis on prevention by introducing lifestyle modifications are recommended. PMID:25415321

Helelo, Tsegab Paulose; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Adane, Akilew Awoke

2014-01-01

222

Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults aged 19 years and older in Basrah, Iraq  

PubMed Central

Background Six of the top ten countries in the world with the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus are in the Middle East. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Southern Iraq. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional, simple random study screened 5,445 persons aged 19–94 years in Basrah, with glycated hemoglobin measured in 88.3% of the population and fasting plasma glucose in 18.7%. Body mass index and other demographic parameters were also measured. Results Of the 5,445 persons screened, 8.7% had already been diagnosed with diabetes and 11% were found by screening to have undiscovered diabetes, giving an age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes of 19.7%, with 55.7% of those with diabetes being previously undiagnosed. In addition, 29.1% of the screened population had prediabetes, giving a prevalence of dysglycemia of 48.8%, with only 51.2% of the persons screened being normoglycemic. The prevalence of diabetes in both sexes peaked at age 46–60 years. Diabetes was slightly more prevalent in females than in males, and about 70.3% of diabetic individuals had a body mass index ?25 kg/m2. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Iraq, is very high, affecting one in five adults. The epidemic of diabetes will result in strain on the financial resources of health care systems. PMID:24833912

Mansour, Abbas Ali; Al-Maliky, Ahmed A; Kasem, Bashar; Jabar, Abdulsatar; Mosbeh, Khalid Abdulabass

2014-01-01

223

Severely disabling chronic pain in young adults: prevalence from a population-based postal survey in North Staffordshire  

PubMed Central

Background Severely disabling chronic pain in the adult population is strongly associated with a range of negative health consequences for individuals and high health care costs, yet its prevalence in young adults is less clear. Methods All adults aged 18–25 years old registered with three general practices in North Staffordshire were invited to complete a postal questionnaire containing questions on pain within the last 6 months, pain location and duration. Severity of chronic pain was assessed by the Chronic Pain Grade. Severely disabling chronic pain was defined as pain within the last six months that had lasted for three months or more and was highly disabling-severely limiting (Grade IV). Results 858 responses from 2,389 were received (adjusted response = 37.0%). The prevalence of any pain within the previous six months was 66.9% (95%CI: 63.7%, 70.1%). Chronic pain was reported by 14.3% (95%CI: 12.0%, 16.8%) of respondents with severely disabling chronic pain affecting 3.0% (95%CI: 2.0%, 4.4%) of this population. Late responders were very similar to early responders in their prevalence of pain. Cross-checking the practice register against the electoral roll suggested register inaccuracies contributed to non-response. Conclusion Pain is a common phenomenon encountered by young adults, affecting 66.9% of this study population. Previously observed age-related trends in severely disabling chronic pain in older adults extend to younger adults. Although a small minority of younger adults are affected, they are likely to represent a group with particularly high health care needs. High levels of non-response in the present study means that these estimates should be interpreted cautiously although there was no evidence of non-response bias. PMID:16042761

Mallen, Christian; Peat, George; Thomas, Elaine; Croft, Peter

2005-01-01

224

Prevalence and factors associated with polypharmacy in Victorian adults with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Although polypharmacy is a medication safety concern leading to increased risk of non-adherence, adverse drug reaction and drug-drug interactions, polypharmacy and associated risk factors has rarely been investigated involving people with ID at a population level. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of polypharmacy and to evaluate the role of different factors associated with polypharmacy in a state-wide representative population of adults with ID. In a population-based survey in Victoria, Australia, 897 people with ID 18 years of age or older were selected by simple random sampling. The data were collected from proxy respondents on behalf of people with ID. Polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications. The data were weighted to reflect the age/sex/geographic distribution of the population. Results revealed that more than 76% of adults with ID had used prescribed medicine and about 21% were exposed to polypharmacy in the last two weeks. In both univariate and multivariate analyses, polypharmacy was significantly associated with older age, unemployment and inability to get help from family and friends if needed. After controlling for age, sex and severity of intellectual disability, polypharmacy was associated with having a blood pressure, blood cholesterol and blood glucose level check. Polypharmacy was also associated with a greater number of visits to general practitioners, fair or poor reported health status and inability to walk unaided. Subjects with epilepsy, diabetes, stroke, osteoporosis and cancer had a higher probability of polypharmacy. None of the disease inducing behaviors was associated with polypharmacy. This study highlights the need that medication should be regularly reviewed overall in ID population and particularly when polypharmacy exists. PMID:25129201

Haider, Syed Imran; Ansari, Zahid; Vaughan, Loretta; Matters, Helen; Emerson, Eric

2014-11-01

225

Pattern of blood pressure distribution and prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia: disclosing the hidden burden  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is the 3rd cause of death accounting for one in eight deaths worldwide. Hypertension was thought to be rare in Africa, but it is now recognized as one of the most important cerebrovascular diseases contributing to about 40% of these diseases in the continent. The aims of this study were to describe the pattern of blood pressure distribution among adults, and determine prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia. Method The study was done on a community-based sample of 1183 adults of 697 (58.8%) urban and 486 (41.1%) rural residents using statistical multistage sampling procedures. The study was based on the recent WHO and JNC-7 classification of blood pressure. Multi-item structured questionnaires were also developed to elicit additional information on the subjects. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in the study population was 18.1% and 37.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension positively correlated with body mass index and age in both urban and rural residents (P?=?0.001). Sex and age adjusted mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically higher in urban than in rural population (P?=?0.001). Conclusion Hypertension was found to have high prevalence in the study region. However, people’s awareness and control of hypertension was found to be very poor. Lack of a clear hypertension prevention guidelines and strategies nationwide can aggravate the impact of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24592854

2014-01-01

226

Prevalence of influenza A antibodies in yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) eggs and adults in southern Tunisia.  

PubMed

Investigating the prevalence of anti-influenza A viruses (AIV) antibodies in wild birds can provide important information for the understanding of bird exposure to AIV, as well as for prevention purposes. We investigated AIV exposure in nature by measuring the prevalence of anti-AIV antibodies in the nests and adults of an abundant and anthropophilic waterbird species common around the Mediterranean sea, the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Sampling took place in two colonies located in the gulf of Gabès in southern Tunisia: Sfax and Djerba. Antibodies were detected in the two sites, with higher prevalence in adults, eggs, and nests at Sfax than Djerba. Across both colonies, clutches that were laid later in the season, and, thus, more likely by younger parents, showed lower prevalence. Using patch occupancy modeling applied to egg clutches, we found that it is unnecessary to sample all the eggs in a given nest; nest status (antibody positive or negative) can be reliably estimated from a single egg. Differences in the density of birds, notably Larids, between the two sites may explain the observed differences in prevalence. The higher concentration of Larids in the Sfax colony could favor the transmission of AIV to yellow-legged gulls. This study highlights the importance of further developing ecological-based approaches to the factors determining the circulation of infectious agents in species such as the yellow-legged gull, which exist at the interface between diverse biological communities and human activities. PMID:21919723

Hammouda, Abdessalem; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Chokri, Mohamed Ali; Arnal, Audrey; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Boulinier, Thierry; Selmi, Slaheddine

2011-12-01

227

Twelve-year trends in the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and prediabetes in Turkish adults.  

PubMed

There is concern about an emerging diabetes epidemic in Turkey. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes and their 12-year trends and to identify risk factors for diabetes in the adult Turkish population. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, 'TURDEP-II' included 26,499 randomly sampled adults aged ? 20 years (response rate: 87 %). Fasting glucose and biochemical parameters were measured in all; then a OGTT was performed to identify diabetes and prediabetes in eligible participants. The prevalence of diabetes was 16.5 % (new 7.5 %), translating to 6.5 million adults with diabetes in Turkey. It was higher in women than men (p = 0.008). The age-standardized prevalence to the TURDEP-I population (performed in 1997-98) was 13.7 % (if same diagnostic definition was applied diabetes prevalence is calculated 11.4 %). The prevalence of isolated-IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and combined prediabetes was 14.7, 7.9, and 8.2 %, respectively; and that of obesity 36 % and hypertension 31.4 %. Compared to TURDEP-I; the rate of increase for diabetes: 90 %, IGT: 106 %, obesity: 40 % and central obesity: 35 %, but hypertension decreased by 11 % during the last 12 years. In women age, waist, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, low education, and living environment; in men age, BMI, and hypertension were independently associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. In women current smoking, and in men being single were associated with a reduced risk. These results from one of the largest nationally representative surveys carried out so far show that diabetes has rapidly become a major public health challenge in Turkey. The figures are alarming and underscore the urgent need for national programs to prevent diabetes, to manage the illness and thus prevent complications. PMID:23407904

Satman, Ilhan; Omer, Beyhan; Tutuncu, Yildiz; Kalaca, Sibel; Gedik, Selda; Dinccag, Nevin; Karsidag, Kubilay; Genc, Sema; Telci, Aysegul; Canbaz, Bulent; Turker, Fulya; Yilmaz, Temel; Cakir, Bekir; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

2013-02-01

228

The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.  

PubMed

Few epidemiological studies have investigated prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the general population of Asian countries, including China. The aim of this study was to explore the rates and risks of PGD, and the association between PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in bereaved Chinese adults. The PG-13, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were administered to 445 subjects. Prevalence within the general population of China was 1.8% (i.e., 8/445). Among the eight subjects who met the PGD diagnosis, 75%, 87.5% and 75% scored above the cut-off point on the PCL-C, SDS and SAS, respectively, although a portion remained free from comorbidity. ANOVA, correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that kinship to deceased, age of the deceased, religion belief and cause of death were predictive of prolonged grief. A small proportion of bereaved persons may exhibit PGD. There is a substantial but far from complete overlap between PGD and the other three diagnoses. Bereaved parents and the widowed have high risk of PGD. These findings highlight the need for prevention, diagnosis and treatment for PGD patients. PMID:24924526

He, Li; Tang, Suqin; Yu, Wei; Xu, Wei; Xie, Qiuyuan; Wang, Jianping

2014-10-30

229

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

2014-01-01

230

Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Adults with Klinefelter Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of depressive symptoms among adolescents and adults with Klinefelter syndrome (XXY). Methods Individuals (n=310) aged 14–75 years with self-reported XXY were recruited from regional and national support networks to complete a web-based survey. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Perceived consequences (Illness Perceptions Questionnaire), perceived stigma (Perceived Social Stigmatization Scale), and coping (Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised) were also measured and evaluated as correlates of depressive symptoms. Results 68.8% of the study participants reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms as indicated by a CES-D score ?16. The use of emotion-focused coping strategies (p<0.01), perceptions of stigmatization (p<0.01), perceived negative consequences of XXY (p<0.01), and the importance of having children in the future (p<0.05) were all significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions Individuals with XXY may be at increased risk for depression. Routine screening for depressive symptoms and appropriate referral and evaluation may be warranted. PMID:21799429

Turriff, Amy; Levy, Howard P.; Biesecker, Barbara

2011-01-01

231

Prevalence of coeliac disease among adult patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism in Jordan.  

PubMed

The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. Of 87 seropositive patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, 39 had positive histological findings of coeliac disease (44.8%). Extrapolating from these findings the overall rate of coeliac disease among autoimmune hypothyroidism patients was estimated to be 5.7%. In multivariate logistic regression coeliac disease was significantly associated with older age (> 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia. PMID:24932934

Farahid, O H; Khawaja, N; Shennak, M M; Batieha, A; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

2014-01-01

232

Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (? 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ? 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

2015-01-01

233

Self-reported Snoring and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Middle-aged and Older Adults: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the relation of self-reported snoring with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods In total, 7330 community-dwelling subjects in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study were included in the analysis. Common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and plaque were evaluated by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Snoring status was evaluated using a structured interview. Results Snorers had a significantly greater average CCA-IMT than non-snorers (0.726 vs 0.713 mm; P < 0.001), after adjusting for age and gender. The odds ratios (OR) for high CCA-IMT (fifth quintile) were significantly higher for snorers than for non-snorers in multivariate-adjusted analysis (OR 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–1.42). However, there was no significant relationship between snoring and carotid plaques. Conclusions Our data suggest that self-reported snoring is significantly associated with increased IMT, but not with the presence of plaques. These findings suggest that early screening and intervention for snoring in the general population are needed to prevent adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:24727753

Lee, Young-Hoon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Shin, Dong Hoon; Shin, Min-Ho

2014-01-01

234

A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.  

PubMed

Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p < 0.05); Ascaridia galli (69% of growers, 29% of adults); Syngamus trachea (14%, 3%); Tetrameres americana (94%, 82%); Trichostrongylus tenuis (43%, 7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (15%, 6%); Davainea proglottina (9%, 2%); and Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p < 0.05). There were significantly higher worm burdens (p < 0.05) in growers than in adults for A. galli, Capillaria caudinflata, R. tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively. PMID:12094676

Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

2002-05-01

235

Cultural Influences on Caregiving Burden: Cases of Koreans and Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares cultural influences on caregiver burdens of Korean adult children and American adult children caring for parents with dementia. Identifies culturally specific values, norms, and customs associated with low or high burden. Findings show low burden for Korean caregivers and high burden for American caregivers. (MKA)

Lee, Yoon-Ro; Sung, Kyu-Taik

1998-01-01

236

Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code ?10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure. PMID:24840377

Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

2014-01-01

237

Korean Confusion  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: American educators, take heart: US students are not the only ones in the world with a shaky grasp of their own country's history. Students in South Korea are alarmingly in the dark about circumstances of the Korean War. A poll...

Hacker, Randi; Greene, Megan

2008-08-27

238

Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ? 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

2010-01-01

239

Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) adults in New Jersey, 2000-2001.  

PubMed

Using polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 529 Ixodes scapularis Say adults collected from 16 of New Jersey's 21 counties for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Overall, 261 (49.3%) were positive. B. burgdorferi was detected in ticks obtained from each county and from 53 of the 58 (93.1%) municipalities surveyed. The observed statewide prevalence in New Jersey is similar to those reported from other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states. PMID:14680126

Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Hung, Robert W; Puelle, Rose S; Markowski, Daniel; Chomsky, Martin S

2003-07-01

240

Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake after 1 year: prevalence and correlates.  

PubMed

This study investigates the prevalence and predictors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in adult survivors 1year after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Check List-Civilian (PCL-C), and PTG was assessed using the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). A total of 2,300 individuals were involved in the survey with 2,080 completing the questionnaire, a response rate of 90.4%. The PTSD prevalence estimate in this study was found to be 40.1%, and the prevalence for PTG among the participants was measured at 51.1%. A bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive association between PTG and PTSD. In the conclusions, possible explanations for the findings and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24506990

Jin, Yuchang; Xu, Jiuping; Liu, Hai; Liu, Dongyue

2014-02-01

241

Prevalence and risk factors of asthma and wheezing among US adults: an analysis of the NHANES III data.  

PubMed

The prevalence of asthma has been on the increase in the USA and worldwide. To understand the worsening epidemiological trends of asthma, this study analysed the data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) to determine the prevalence and risk factors for asthma and wheezing among US adults. This analysis used data from 18,825 US adults aged > or = 20 yrs who had participated in the NHANES III project. After excluding subjects with physician-diagnosed emphysema, a total of 18,393 subjects were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of current asthma (asthma) was 4.5% and the prevalence of wheezing in the previous 12 months (wheezing) was 16.4%. Mexican-Americans exhibited the lowest prevalence of asthma when compared with other race/ethnic groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that Mexican-Americans were less likely to report asthma when compared to non-Hispanic whites. Low education level, female sex, current and past smoking status, pet ownership, lifetime diagnosis of physician-diagnosed hay fever and obesity were all significantly associated with asthma and/or wheezing. No significant effect of indoor air pollutants, as derived from the use of household heating/cooking appliances, on asthma and wheezing was observed in this study. In conclusion, this study observed racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of asthma and wheezing and identified several important risk factors that may contribute to development and/or exacerbation of asthma and wheezing. Contrary to earlier reports, the proxy measures of indoor air pollution used in this study were not found to be associated with increased risk of asthma and wheezing. PMID:12765429

Arif, A A; Delclos, G L; Lee, E S; Tortolero, S R; Whitehead, L W

2003-05-01

242

Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in Mexico, physical inactivity could continue to increase in the coming years unless effective public health interventions are implemented. PMID:24215173

2013-01-01

243

Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Simmons D, McKenzie A, Eaton S, Cox N, Khan MA, Shaw J, Zimmet P. Choice and availability of takeaway and restaurant food is not related to the prevalence of adult obesity in rural communities in Australia.

244

Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Fasting Glucose, Associated with Risk Factors in Rural Kazakh Adults in Xinjiang, China  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a Kazakh population aged ?18 years living in the YiLi District of Xinjiang, China and to evaluate the associated risk factors of diabetes. Methods: Randomly selected adults, living for at least 6 months in the YiLi District in Xinjiang had their clinical characteristics and standard blood chemistries measured. DM and IFG were defined according to WHO 1999 criteria. The adjusted odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the association of diabetes risk factors in multivariate logistic regression models. Results: A total of 3919 subjects were randomly selected. The age-and gender-standardized prevalence of DM and IFG were 5.9% and 10.0%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IFG increased with age and BMI. Prevalence of 7.4%, 12.2% in males and 4.9%, 8.6% in females for DM and IFG. Compared by sex, prevalence of DM and IFG was higher in males. Prevalence of 3.4%, 8.1% in normal, 6.7%, 11.9% in overweight and 12.0%, 13.0% in obesity for diabetes and IFG. In the multivariable logistic models, male sex, older age, unmarried, overweight, obesity, hypertension, triglycerides and smoking were all significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Conclusions: The prevalence of DM and IFG among minorities was lower than the overall national level both in men and women (9.7% in total, 10.6% in males, 8.8% in females), and also lower than among the Han ethnicity (9.26%) which predominates in China today. PMID:25584422

Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia; He, Fei; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yizhong; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Jingyu; Liu, Jiaming; Guo, Heng; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Rulin

2015-01-01

245

Prevalence of Dentin Hypersensitivity and Related Factors Among Adult Patients Visiting a Dental School in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common problem which may disturb the patient during eating, drinking, brushing and sometimes even breathing. It is a painful condition highly prevalent in the general adult population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DH and to examine some associated factors such as initiating stimuli among adult patients. Materials and Methods: The study is done under two phases. In the first phase a cross-sectional study was carried out in 665 study volunteers. Only 212 adult patients who were meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conveniently selected to the study. A detailed demographic data and a structured questionnaire regarding type of response, sensitivity episodes, and duration of sensation, and stimulus for initiation were recorded by the examiner. Evidence of DH was confirmed by the use of air blast and water from the air-water jet of the dental chair and scratching the suspected tooth surfaces which is indicated by study subjects with a dental probe and noting the responses by using visual analog scale (VAS). In the second phase the related factors or characteristics of DH were surveyed. Statistical analysis preformed by using methods of descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: The overall prevalence of DH was found to be 32%. The most common cause was consuming cold food or drinks (92%) and common predisposing factor was gingival recession (28%). Probe method yields a higher VAS score followed by Air at 10 seconds and Water at 10 seconds which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of DH in present study was 32% which is attributed to gingival recession as predisposing factor and cold stimuli. PMID:25386522

Ram K, Chaitanya; Sirisha, N R; Sree Y, Sandhya; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Satti, Narayana Reddy; Thatimatla, Chandrasekar

2014-01-01

246

Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

Kim, Jihye

2014-01-01

247

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Hypertensive Adults Aged 45 to 75 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45–75 years. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ?7.0mmol/l] and IFG (6.1–6.9mmol/l) were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Results The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ?25kg/m2), abdominal obesity (waist circumference ?90cm for men and ?80cm for women), non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal) were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal) were important independent associated factors for IFG. Conclusion In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if only based on the FPG evaluation), and treatment of diabetes should be urgently taken to overcome the diabetes epidemic in Chinese hypertensive adults. PMID:22880024

Zhang, Yan; Ma, Wei; Fan, Fangfang; Wang, Binyan; Xing, Houxun; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Xiaobin; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong

2012-01-01

248

Effects of a Walking Program on Self-management and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program on increasing an individual's self-management and decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the older adult population. [Subjects] A total of 31 older adults participated in this study. Eighteen participants in the experimental group and 13 controls completed the pretest and posttest measures. A walking exercise and health education were provided for the experimental group. Data were analyzed by ANCOVAs to examine group differences. [Results] At the end of the 12-week study period, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in individuals' ability to self-manage their health compared to the control group. Also, there were significant differences between the two groups in the total numbers of risk factors of metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure and BMI. No significant difference in blood sugar levels, HDL-C, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels were found between the experimental and control group. [Conclusion] This study revealed that a combination of health education and for walking exercise can lead to improved lifestyle management and reduce risk factors of metabolic syndrome for the elderly population of Korea. PMID:24567686

Lee, Eun-Gyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, Jee-Hee

2014-01-01

249

Effects of a Walking Program on Self-management and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program on increasing an individual’s self-management and decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the older adult population. [Subjects] A total of 31 older adults participated in this study. Eighteen participants in the experimental group and 13 controls completed the pretest and posttest measures. A walking exercise and health education were provided for the experimental group. Data were analyzed by ANCOVAs to examine group differences. [Results] At the end of the 12-week study period, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in individuals’ ability to self-manage their health compared to the control group. Also, there were significant differences between the two groups in the total numbers of risk factors of metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure and BMI. No significant difference in blood sugar levels, HDL-C, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels were found between the experimental and control group. [Conclusion] This study revealed that a combination of health education and for walking exercise can lead to improved lifestyle management and reduce risk factors of metabolic syndrome for the elderly population of Korea. PMID:24567686

Lee, Eun-Gyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, Jee- Hee

2014-01-01

250

Epidemiological Aspects of Pertussis among Adults and Adolescents in a Korean Outpatient Setting: A Multicenter, PCR-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data of Bordetella pertussis infection among adolescents and adults are limited in Korea. Patients (? 11 yr of age) with a bothersome cough for less than 30 days were enrolled during a 1-yr period at 22 hospitals in Korea. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for bacteriologic culture. In total, 490 patients were finally enrolled, and 34 (6.9%) patients tested positive for B. pertussis; cough duration (14.0 days [7.0-21.0 days]) and age distribution were diverse. The incidence was the highest in secondary referral hospitals, compared to primary care clinics or tertiary referral hospitals (24/226 [10.6%] vs. 3/88 [3.4%] vs. 7/176 [4.0%], P = 0.012), and the peak incidence was observed in February and August (15.8% and 15.9%), with no confirmed cases between March and June. In the multivariate analysis, post-tussive vomiting was significantly associated with pertussis (odds ratio, 2.508; 95% confidence interval, 1.146-5.486) and secondary referral hospital showed a borderline significance. In conclusion, using a PCR-based method, 6.9% of adolescent and adult patients with an acute cough illness had pertussis infection in an outpatient setting. However, hospital levels and seasonal trends must be taken into account to develop a better strategy for controlling pertussis. Graphical Abstract PMID:25246741

Park, Yong Bum; Lee, Myung Goo; Kim, Hui Jung; Cheon, Ki Tae; Jeong, Eui Hun

2014-01-01

251

Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in relation to socioeconomic status among Jamaican young adults: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome has a high prevalence in many countries and has been associated with socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components among Jamaican young adults and evaluate its association with parental SES. METHODS: A subset of the participants from the 1986 Jamaica Birth Cohort was evaluated at ages

Trevor S Ferguson; Marshall K Tulloch-Reid; Novie OM Younger; Jennifer M Knight-Madden; Maureen Samms-Vaughan; Deanna Ashley; Jan Van den Broeck; Rainford J Wilks

2010-01-01

252

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all) in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females. PMID:24284611

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Alfawaz, Hanan A.; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

2013-01-01

253

Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adults in Kinondoni municipal district, Dar es Salaam Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity is on the rise worldwide, not sparing developing countries. Both demographic and socio-economic factors play parts in obesity causation. Few surveys have been conducted in Tanzania to determine the magnitude of obesity and its association with these risk factors. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among adults aged 18 - 65 years in Kinondoni municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from April 2007 to April 2008. Methods Random sampling of households was performed. Interviews and anthropometric measurement were carried out to eligible and consenting members of the selected households. Obesity was defined using Body Mass Index (BMI). Results Out of 1249 subjects recruited, 814 (65.2%) were females. The overall prevalence of obesity was 19.2% (240/1249). However, obesity was significantly more prevalent in women (24.7%) than men (9%), p < 0.001, among respondents with high socio-economic status (29.2%) as compared to those with medium (14.3%) and low socio-economic status (11.3%), p value for trend < 0.001, and among respondents with light intensity activities (26.0%), p value for trend < 0.001. Conclusion This study revealed a higher prevalence of obesity among Kinondoni residents than previously reported in other parts of the country. Independent predictors of obesity in the population studied were increasing age, marriage and cohabitation, high SES, female sex and less vigorous physical activities. PMID:21605360

2011-01-01

254

Clinical respiratory abnormalities in Michigan. Prevalence by sex and smoking history in a representative sample of the adult population.  

PubMed

A stratified random sample of a large state (Michigan) was studied by respiratory questionnaire, medical history, and physical examination. Data were obtained on 1,169 white adults. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and chronic wheezing varied with sex (greater in men) and smoking history (greatest in current smokers). The prevalence of chronic bronchitis varied depending on whether it was (1) defined simply as chronic production of sputum, (2) diagnosed by the examining physician, or (3) previously diagnosed by a physician. Dyspnea was more common in women; in men, it was least common in nonsmokers but was of similar prevalence in ex-smokers and current smokers. Angina was more commonly reported by women, but previously diagnosed heart attack was consistently more common in men. Wheezing was by far the most common physical sign, present in 5.1 percent of the total population and 9.2 percent of male current smokers. Clubbing and rales were each noted in 1.2 percent of the total population. The prevalences of clinical findings in this cross section of a large state should be useful for comparison with other populations. PMID:3056659

Miller, A; Thornton, J C; Anderson, H A; Selikoff, I J

1988-12-01

255

Association between Self-Reported Global Sleep Status and Prevalence of Hypertension in Chinese Adults: Data from the Kailuan Community  

PubMed Central

Background: Assessment of sleep only by sleep duration is not sufficient. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the potential association of self-reported global sleep status, which contained both qualitative and quantitative aspects, with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 5461 subjects (4076 of them were male) were enrolled in the current study and were divided into two groups with the age of 45 years as the cut-off value. Sleep status of all subjects was assessed using the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ?140/90 mmHg in the current study. Results: After adjusting for basic cardiovascular characteristics, the results of multivariate logistic regression indicated that sleep status, which was defined as the additive measurement of sleep duration and sleep quality, was associated with hypertension prevalence in males of both age groups (odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.15, p < 0.05; OR = 1.12, 95% CI, 1.08–1.15, p < 0.05) and in females aged ?45years (OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.02–1.18, p < 0.05). As one component of PSQI, short sleep duration was associated with hypertension prevalence only in Chinese male subjects, but this association disappeared after the further adjustment of the other components of PSQI that measured the qualitative aspect of sleep. Conclusion: Association between sleep status and hypertension prevalence in Chinese adults varied by age and sex. Sleep should be measured qualitatively and quantitatively when investigating its association with hypertension. PMID:25575370

Lu, Kai; Ding, Rongjing; Tang, Qin; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

2015-01-01

256

Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

2005-01-01

257

Correlation between the prevalence of herniation pits and the alpha angle of the hip: computed tomography evaluation in healthy Chinese adults  

PubMed Central

Background Herniation pits (HPs) commonly develop over time at the femoral head–neck junction in adults, but their cause is still under debate. The purpose of study reported here was to investigate the correlation between the prevalence of HPs of the femoral neck and the alpha angle of the hips of healthy Chinese adults, by using computed tomography (CT). Methods Six hundred and seventy Chinese adults (representing 1145 hips) who had no known diseases affecting the proximal femur and had no symptoms of femoroacetabular impingement underwent a 64-slice CT scan for medical purposes that included the hip in the scan range. Their CT data were analyzed for the prevalence of HPs in the femoral necks and for hip alpha angles. Results The overall prevalence of femoral-neck HPs was 12.5% (143 of 1145 hips). The prevalence in the left versus right femoral necks was 12.1% (69 of 569 hips) versus 12.8% (74 of 576 hips). There was no statistically significant difference between the two sides (?2 = 0.136; p = 0.712). The prevalence of HPs was greater in men than in women (15.9% vs 7.7%; p < 0.01) and greater in adults older than 30 years than in adults younger than 30 years (?2= 14.547; p < 0.01). The alpha angles were greater in the 143 proximal femora with HPs than in the 1002 without pits (39.95° ± 6.01° vs 37.97° ± 5.14°; p < 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of HPs of the femoral neck in healthy adults was 12.5%, and the prevalence was greater in men than in women. There is a correlation between the prevalence of HPs and the contour of the femoral head–neck junction. The formation of pits may be attributed to the combination of degeneration and morphologic variances in the femoral head–neck junction. PMID:24106774

2013-01-01

258

Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported asthma in an adult Indian population: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY BACKGROUND AND METHODS We estimated the prevalence of self-reported asthma in adult Indians and examined several risk factors influencing disease prevalence. Analysis is based on 99 574 women and 56 742 men aged 20–49 years included in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratios for asthma, adjusting for various risk factors. RESULTS The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.8% (95%CI 1.6–2.0) among men and 1.9% (95%CI 1.8–2.0) among women, with higher rates in rural than in urban areas and marked geographic differences. After adjustment for known asthma risk factors, women were 1.2 times more likely to have asthma than men. Daily/weekly consumption of milk/milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were associated with a lower asthma risk, whereas consumption of chicken/meat, a lower body mass index (BMI; <16 kg/m2, OR 2.08, 95%CI 1.73–2.50) as well as a higher BMI (>30 kg/m2, OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36–2.06), current tobacco smoking (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.12–1.50) and ever use of alcohol (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.05–1.39) were associated with an increased asthma risk. CONCLUSIONS There are wide regional variations in the prevalence of asthma in India. With the exception of the findings for BMI, however, most of the associations of asthma with the risk factors are relatively weak and account for only a small proportion of cases. PMID:23317966

Agrawal, S.; Pearce, N.; Ebrahim, S.

2014-01-01

259

Standardized Prevalence Ratios for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Adult Japanese Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have estimated the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody among hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, the prevalence of HCV core antigen—which indicates the presence of chronic HCV infection—is not known. Methods Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen among HD patients (n = 1214) were calculated on the basis of data from the general population (n = 22 472) living in the same area. Results The prevalences of anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen were 12.5% and 7.8%, respectively, in male hemodialysis patients, and 8.5% and 4.1% in female hemodialysis patients. The SPRs (95% confidence interval) for anti-HCV antibody and HCV core antigen were 8.39 (6.72–10.1) and 12.9 (9.66–16.1), respectively, in males, and 5.42 (3.67–7.17) and 8.77 (4.72–12.8) in females. Conclusions The prevalences of chronic HCV infection among male and female HD patients were 13-fold and 9-fold, respectively, those of the population-based controls. Further studies should therefore be conducted to determine the extent of chronic HCV infection among HD patients in other populations and to determine whether chronic HCV infection contributes to increased mortality in HD patients. PMID:19881229

Ohsawa, Masaki; Kato, Karen; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Tanno, Kozo; Fujishima, Yosuke; Konda, Ryuichiro; Okayama, Akira; Abe, Koichi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Kawamura, Kazuko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Akiba, Takashi; Fujioka, Tomoaki

2010-01-01

260

Secular Trends in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Rural Tianjin, China from 1991 to 2011: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obesity is associated with cardiovascular diseases and has become the main public health issue in western countries and urban China. However, the prevalence and secular trends of obesity in rural China are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in northern China between 1991 and 2011. Method The prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed in adults aged 35–74 years living in a rural area in northern China by comparing two surveys that were conducted in 1991 and 2011, respectively. Result The age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 24.5% in 1991 to 42.0% in 2011, and the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.7% in 1991 to 19.6% in 2011. Over the 21-year period, there were significant increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women in all age groups; however, the greatest increase was observed in men aged 35–44 years, with an 10.3-fold increase in obesity prevalence. The prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all risk factors categories, including education levels, blood pressure categories, diabetes previous history, current smoking situation and alcohol drinking situation over the past 21 years overall (p<0.05). The greatest increase in obesity prevalence appeared among those who consumed alcohol (increased by 8.0-fold). Next, there was a 5.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity in illiterate residents. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly among rural adults in Tianjin over the past 21 years, with the most dramatic increase observed in young men. Therefore, the burden of obesity should serve as a call for action. PMID:25544990

Ning, Xianjia; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Yihe; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Su, Ta-Chen; Wang, Jinghua

2014-01-01

261

Prevalence of Periodontal Disease and Characterization of its Extent and Severity in an Adult Population – An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in an adult population and to further characterize the extent and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 700 randomly selected individuals reporting to out patient department of dental college and hospital. Demographic details and lifestyle characteristics of the all the subjects were recorded and a thorough oral examination was performed. In order to evaluate the periodontal status of subjects, five indices (CAL, PD, OHI, PI and GI) were assessed and subjects having at least one site with clinical attachment loss (CAL) ?3mm were diagnosed as having periodontitis. Further, to analyse the extent of disease, subjects having periodontitis were divided into two groups as having at least one site with CAL ?5mm and having at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Results: Results showed that there was a high prevalence of periodontitis amongst population with almost 72% of the individuals having at least one site with CAL ?3mm. A trend was noted in which periodontal status worsened as the age increased. Analysing the extent and severity of disease amongst the population, results revealed that almost 41% of population had at least one site with CAL ?5mm whereas almost 21% of individuals had at least three sites with CAL ?5mm. Conclusion: Present study provides with evidence of high prevalence of periodontal disease amongst the population. Importantly, this study also unveils the lack of awareness for dental health amidst the population. PMID:25654019

Peter, Kalpak Prafulla; Pitale, Unnati Mahesh; Shetty, Sujan; HC, Shashikiran; Satpute, Pranali Shirish

2014-01-01

262

Prevalence and risk factors of posterior vitreous detachment in a Chinese adult population: the Handan eye study  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the prevalence and associations of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in a rural adult Chinese population. Methods All eligible subjects were requested to carry out a comprehensive eye examination; PVD was a pre-specified outcome variable and was determined via biomicroscopical examination (slit-lamp biomicroscopy) with a +90-D preset lens after mydriasis. Prevalence was standardized to China population census (2000). Results 5890 (86.2%) subjects completed the examination of slit-lamp biomicroscopy with a +90-D lens. PVD was present in 160 participants (2.7%); the standardized prevalence was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.3%). PVD developed increasingly with age (P for trend?

2013-01-01

263

Prevalence and Perceived Preventability of Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events – A Population-Based Survey of 7099 Adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common and often preventable among inpatients, but self-reported ADEs have not been investigated in a representative sample of the general public. The objectives of this study were to estimate the 1-month prevalence of self-reported ADEs among the adult general public, and the perceived preventability of 2 ADE categories: adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and sub-therapeutic effects (STEs). Methods In this cross-sectional study, a postal survey was sent in October 2010 to a random sample of 13 931 Swedish residents aged ?18 years. Self-reported ADEs experienced during the past month included ADRs, STEs, drug dependence, drug intoxications and morbidity due to drug-related untreated indication. ADEs could be associated with prescription, non-prescription or herbal drugs. The respondents estimated whether ADRs and STEs could have been prevented. ADE prevalences in age groups (18–44, 45–64, or ?65 years) were compared. Results Of 7099 respondents (response rate 51.0%), ADEs were reported by 19.4% (95% confidence interval, 18.5–20.3%), and the prevalence did not differ by age group (p>0.05). The prevalences of self-reported ADRs, STEs, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indications were 7.8% (7.2–8.4%), 7.6% (7.0–8.2%) and 8.1% (7.5–8.7%), respectively. The prevalence of self-reported drug dependence was 2.2% (1.9–2.6%), and drug intoxications 0.2% (0.1–0.3%). The respondents considered 19.2% (14.8–23.6%) of ADRs and STEs preventable. Although reported drugs varied between ADE categories, most ADEs were attributable to commonly dispensed drugs. Drugs reported for all and preventable events were similar. Conclusions One-fifth of the adult general public across age groups reported ADEs during the past month, indicating a need for prevention strategies beyond hospitalised patients. For this, the underlying causes of ADEs should increasingly be investigated. The high burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from widely used drugs across care settings supports redesigning a safer healthcare system to adequately tackle the problem. PMID:24023828

Hakkarainen, Katja Marja; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

2013-01-01

264

Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Self-Injurious Behaviour, and Related Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a serious condition, with implications for the person, their family and financial costs to the state providing care. The previously reported prevalence of SIB has ranged from 1.7% to 41%, or 1.7%-23.7% in community studies. There has been little study of remission rate, and incidence has not previously…

Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Allan, L. M.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

2009-01-01

265

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

2012-01-01

266

Metabolic Syndrome: Comparison of Prevalence in Young Adults at 3 Land-Grant Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The study examines metabolic syndrome (MetS) among college students at 3 geographically distinct US campuses. Participants: Undergraduates ("N" = 360; 68% women), 18 to 24 years of age, were recruited at each public university in January and February 2011. MetS prevalence was evaluated in 83% ("n" = 299)…

Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Dent, Amanda; Carey, Gale B.

2014-01-01

267

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has scarcely been researched in the elderly. There is no population-based information on prevalence and risk factors in older persons. Patients with PTSD are often not recognized or incorrectly diagnosed. As the disorder has great implications for the quality of life, a correct diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Increased knowledge on vulnerability factors for PTSD

Willeke H. van Zelst; Edwin de Beurs; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Richard van Dyck

2003-01-01

268

Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

269

Prevalence and risk of migraine headaches in adult fragile X premutation carriers.  

PubMed

FMR1 premutation carriers are common in the general population (1/130-260 females and 1/250-810 males) and can be affected by fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, anxiety, depression, hypertension, sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, and hypothyroidism. Here we report the results of a pilot study to assess the prevalence and risk of migraine in FMR1 premutation carriers. Three hundred fifteen carriers (203 females; 112 males) and 154 controls (83 females; 71 males) were seen sequentially as part of a family study. A standardized medical history, physical examination and confirmation of diagnosis of migraine headaches were performed by a physician. The prevalence of migraine was 54.2% in female carriers (mean age/SD: 49.60/13.73) and 26.79% in male carriers (mean age/SD: 59.94/14.27). This prevalence was higher compared to female (25.3%; mean age/SD: 47.60/15.21; p =? 0.0001) and male controls (15.5%; mean age/SD; 53.88/13.31; p =? 0.0406) who underwent the same protocol and were confirmed to be negative for the FMR1 mutation by DNA testing. We hypothesize that the increased prevalence of migraine headaches in FMR1 premutation carriers is likely related to the mitochondrial abnormalities that have recently been reported. Screening for migraine should be considered when evaluating FMR1 premutation carriers in the future. PMID:23373759

Au, J; Akins, R S; Berkowitz-Sutherland, L; Tang, H-T; Chen, Y; Boyd, A; Tassone, F; Nguyen, D V; Hagerman, R

2013-12-01

270

Increasing hepatitis C prevalence and associated risk behaviors among incarcerated young adults.  

PubMed

This study sought to assess the rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and associated risk factors in young adults 18-28 years of age who were incarcerated in the Rhode Island Department of Corrections. The majority of participants reported injection drug use and engaged in high-risk behaviors such as needle sharing. Despite having these risk factors and believing themselves to be at risk, the majority of youths reported no prior HCV testing. Correctional facilities present a unique opportunity to detect HCV infection and provide risk reduction education to young adults, the population with the highest rates of new infections in the US. Seventy-two incarcerated individuals with a history of drug use were approached to participate in the study; 68 completed the screening and interview. The rate of HCV infection among adults <30 years of age and incarcerated at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections in 2011 was high (24%). In 1998, the rate of HCV among inmates <30 years of age at the same facility was only 11.4%. These data follow the same increase in HCV infection rates among young adults observed in non-incarcerated young adults across the nation. HCV is the leading cause of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma in the US. Despite a decline and leveling in HCV incidence nationwide, alarming increases in HCV rates among adolescents and young adults have been reported during the period between the years 1992 and 2005. This disquieting epidemic is attributable to injection drug use amongst young adults. PMID:23722268

McNamara, Blair C; Losikoff, Phyllis T; Huguenin, Linda; Macalino, Grace E; Rich, Josiah D; Gregory, Stephen H

2014-04-01

271

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in New Zealand Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors Among M?ori and Non-M?ori  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Examine the distribution of symptoms and risk factors, and estimate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among M?ori and non-M?ori New Zealanders. Design: Mail-out survey to a stratified random sample from the electoral roll of 10,000 people aged 30-59 y, and overnight MESAM IV monitoring during sleep of a similarly aged stratified random sample of 364 people from the Wellington electoral roll. Setting: Nationwide survey of OSA symptoms (71% response rate) and regional home-based measurement of respiratory disturbance index (RDI, 4% oxygen desaturations/h of sleep, plus bursts of snoring or ? 10/min increase in heart rate). Participants: Sample designs aimed for equal numbers of M?ori and non-M?ori participants, men and women, and participants in each decade of age. Interventions: N/A Measurements and results: M?ori were more likely than non-M?ori to report OSAS risk factors and symptoms. After controlling for sex and age, M?ori were 4.3 times more likely to have RDI ? 15 (95% CI = 1.3–13.9). Ethnicity was not an independent risk factor after controlling for body mass index (BMI) and neck circumference. The prevalence of OSAS (RDI ? 5 and ESS > 10) was conservatively estimated to be 4.4% for M?ori men, 4.1% for non-M?ori men, 2.0% for M?ori women, and 0.7% for non-M?ori women. Conclusions: The national survey and the regional monitoring study indicate a higher prevalence of OSA among M?ori and among men. The higher prevalence among M?ori appears to be attributable to recognized risk factors, notably body habitus. In addition to increased prevention and treatment services, strategies are needed to reduce ethnic disparities in OSAS prevalence. Citation: Mihaere KM; Harris R; Gander PH; Reid PM; Purdie G; Robson B; Neill A. Obstructive sleep apnea in New Zealand adults: prevalence and risk factors among m?ori and non-m?ori. SLEEP 2009;32(7):949-956. PMID:19639758

Mihaere, Kara M.; Harris, Ricci; Gander, Philippa H.; Reid, Papaarangi M.; Purdie, Gordon; Robson, Bridget; Neill, Alister

2009-01-01

272

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an adult urban population in Paraguay.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was conducted on a 20-74-year-old population in an urban white-Hispanic population in Paraguay to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. In total 1606 subjects completed the study (response rate 80.3%; 1094 women, 512 men). The overall prevalences were: DM 6.5%, IGT 11.3%, hypertension 17.1%, and obesity 31.6% with more obesity in women (35.7% vs 22.8%, p < 0.05). Age-standardized prevalences were: DM 6.5%, IGT 13.5% in females and DM 5.5%, IGT 7.2% in males. DM and IGT subjects had two or more CV risk factors significantly more often than the normal population. In conclusion, DM, IGT, hypertension, and obesity are common in this South American Hispanic urban population, particularly in women. Public health measures, such as lifestyle education, are required to decrease these noncommunicable diseases. PMID:9585400

Jimenez, J T; Palacios, M; Cañete, F; Barriocanal, L A; Medina, U; Figueredo, R; Martinez, S; de Melgarejo, M V; Weik, S; Kiefer, R; Alberti, K G; Moreno-Azorero, R

1998-04-01

273

Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.  

PubMed

Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (<18 years old) students. The scores of all of these scales were significantly correlated. The strong correlation among different addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours. PMID:20559694

Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

2011-06-01

274

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

275

Prevalence of Physical Inactivity and Recommended Physical Activity in Community-Based Adults with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults with mental retardation (76 men, 74 women) reported their leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Men and women in community settings were similarly inactive, with 47% to 51% participating in little to no LTPA. Forty-two% to 47% reported participating in moderate to vigorous LTPA five or more times per week. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Draheim, Christopher C.; Williams, Daniel P.; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

2002-01-01

276

Prevalence of Obesity in Adults with Mental Retardation: Implications for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurement of obesity among 364 adults with mental retardation indicated that rates of obesity were significantly higher among females than males; subjects with severe mental retardation had the lowest overall rates of obesity; and residents of a state-operated institution had lower obesity rates than group home, family, and Intermediate Care…

Rimmer, James H.; And Others

1993-01-01

277

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Depressive Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of 798 adults with intellectual disability in German residential facilities and group homes revealed that subjects did not seem especially vulnerable to depressive disorders. Almost 5% were identified with depressive disorder. Those with depressive disorders experienced reduced social support. Age, epilepsy, and etiology did not show…

Meins, Wolfgang

1993-01-01

278

Physical Aggression towards Others in Adults with Learning Disabilities: Prevalence and Associated Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many people with learning disabilities (LD) show aggressive behaviour, but the extent of the problem and its associated factors and effects are unclear. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using interview data from 3065 adults with LD on the Leicestershire LD Register. Physical aggression towards others was defined as…

Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.; Thorp, C. F.; Donaldson, M.; Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Hollin, C.

2006-01-01

279

The dosing frequency of sustained-release opioids and the prevalence of end-of-dose failure in cancer pain control: a Korean multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  End-of-dose failure is commonly observed as therapeutic levels of sustained-release opioids fall. However, little is known\\u000a about using these medications for cancer pain control. To determine the dosing frequency of sustained-release opioids (morphine,\\u000a oxycodone, and transdermal fentanyl) and the prevalence of end-of-dose failure in clinical practice, a patient-reported survey\\u000a was performed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A multicenter survey was conducted in 56 hospitals in

Do-Yeun Kim; Hong-Suk Song; Jin-Seok Ahn; Baek-Yeol Ryoo; Dong-Bok Shin; Chang-Yeol Yim; Si-Young Kim

2010-01-01

280

Early Korean War Coverage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

Lee, Raymond S. H.

1978-01-01

281

High prevalence of central hypothyroidism in adult patients with ?-thalassemia major.  

PubMed

The commonest form of thyroid dysfunction seen in subjects with TM is primary hypothyroidism due to abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Central hypothyroidism (CH) has been reported as an uncommon clinical entity in TM patients although the anterior pituitary gland is particularly sensitive to free radical oxidative stresses. Diagnosis is usually made on a biochemical basis showing low circulating concentrations of thyroid hormone associated with an inappropriately low TSH levels. The diagnosis is not clinically obvious and a basal normal TSH level does not exclude the diagnosis of CH. Therefore, it is important that clinicians accurately interpret thyroid function tests. In TM patients, CH prevalence differs at different ages is unknown and it is not easy to diagnose because most of the symptoms of symptoms of CH are non specific and are frequently attributed to anaemia or other associated complications . We performed a cross-sectional analysis on a large database using the clinical records of our TM patients to explore the prevalence of CH in prepubertal (<11 years: 25 patients; 13 males) peripubertal (between 11 and 16 years: 9 patients; 3 males), and pubertal TM subjects (>16 years: 305 patients; 164 males). Central hypothyroidism was present in 26 (7,6%) TM patients. Their mean age was 29.9 ± 8.4 years, 14 (53.8%) were males and 12 (46.1%) were females. The prevalence of CH was 6% in patients with a chronological age below 21 years and 7.9% in those above 21 years. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of CH through accurate interpretation of thyroid function tests. We recommend L-thyroxine therapy if the level of FT4 is consistently low provided that the patient has normal cortisol levels. PMID:24099820

De Sanctis, V; Soliman, A; Candini, G; Campisi, S; Anastasi, S; Iassin, M

2013-09-01

282

Comorbidity of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder: prevalence and clinical correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity\\u000a with lifetime bipolar disorder, and the influence of this comorbidity on various demographic and clinical variables in patients.\\u000a Patients (n = 159) with a previous diagnosis of bipolar disorder (79 female, 80 male) were included in this study. All patients were\\u000a interviewed for the

Lut Tamam; Gonca Karakus; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

2008-01-01

283

Prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity in community-dwelling older adults in ireland.  

PubMed

The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

Murtagh, Elaine M; Murphy, Marie H; Murphy, Niamh M; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M; Lane, Aoife

2015-01-01

284

Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Ireland  

PubMed Central

The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). TILDA includes an assessment of the mental and physical health, and social and financial circumstances of participants assessed in a home interview and self-completion questionnaire. Chi squared statistics and forced entry logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with physical inactivity. Females were over twice as likely to be inactive as their male counterparts (Odds Ratio 2.2). Increasing old age was associated with inactivity among males and females. Those who reported above secondary level education, no reported falls in the last year and no fear of falling were less likely to be physically inactive. While older adults who noted poor/fair self-reported health, that they did not look after grandchildren, did not own a car or did not attend a course were also more likely to be inactive than those who reported positively for these items. Gender displayed a strong but often contrasting influence on factors that affect physical activity among older adults. Among females, living alone or in a rural area, retirement, fair/poor emotional health and activity being limited by illness were all significantly associated with inactivity. While cohabiting, being employed and residing in an urban area were related to low levels of activity in males. Our findings identify specific groups of the older Irish population who may be at particular risk of physical inactivity and thereby the associated physiological and psychological hazards. These results can support the development of tailored interventions to promote healthy ageing. PMID:25671621

Murtagh, Elaine M.; Murphy, Marie H.; Murphy, Niamh M.; Woods, Catherine; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Aoife

2015-01-01

285

Declining Estimated Prevalence of Alcohol Drinking and Smoking among Young Adults Nationally: Artifacts of Sample Undercoverage?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone

Cristine D. Delnevo; Daniel A. Gundersen; Brett T. Hagman

286

Long-term impact of earthquake stress on fasting glucose control and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults of Tangshan  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the long-term influence of stresses from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake on blood glucose control and the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Chinese people of Tangshan. Methods: 1,551 adults ? 37 years of age were recruited for this investigation in Tangshan city of China, where one of the deadliest earthquakes occurred in 1796. All subjects finished a questionnaire. 1,030 of them who experienced that earthquake were selected into the exposure group, while 521 were gathered as the control group who have not exposed to any earthquake. The numbers of subjects who were first identified with diabetes or had normal FBG but with diabetic history were added for the calculation of diabetes prevalence. Statistic-analysis was applied on the baseline data, and incidences of IFG as well as diabetes among all groups. Results: Statistic comparisons indicate there is no significant difference on average fasting glucose levels between the control group and the exposure group. However, the prevalence of IFG and diabetes among the exposure group displays significant variance with the control group. The prevalence of diabetes among exposure groups is significantly higher than the control group. Women are more likely to have diabetes after experiencing earthquake stresses compared to men. The earthquake stress was linked to higher diabetes incidence as an independent factor. Conclusions: The earthquake stress has long-term impacts on diabetes incidence as an independent risk factor. Emerging and long-term managements regarding the care of IFG and diabetes in populations exposed to earthquake stress should be concerned.

An, Cuixia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Lulu; Li, Na; Song, Mei; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Xiaochuan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueyi

2014-01-01

287

Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) among residents of rural China with dental fluorosis aged 30-69 years. A village located in northern China in which dental fluorosis was common was selected. Some 1250 residents with fluorosis ranging in age from 30 to 69 years completed a structured questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. Diagnosis of DH was based on the combination of the subject's self-evaluation and clinical examination. Dental fluorosis was evaluated using Dean's index (DI). In the village, the fluoride concentration in drinking water was 1.15-1.50 mg L(-1) . The community fluorosis index was 1.47, and 74 (9.7%) of the participants with dental fluorosis were diagnosed with DH. There was no significant difference between men and women. DH was most commonly observed in the lower incisors, and the most common cause of DH was cold stimulation. Logistic regression analysis showed acid reflux to be the only risk factor for DH in the current study. Among subjects with DH, none took treatment measures, visited a hospital or clinic, or used antisensitivity toothpaste. The prevalence of DH in the selected subjects with dental fluorosis was 9.7%. Acid reflux was found to be a risk factor for DH in the current study. PMID:24484047

Zhang, Y; Cheng, R; Cheng, G; Zhang, X

2014-04-01

288

Acoustic characteristics of Korean stops in Korean child-directed speech  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of cross-linguistic studies have documented that the acoustic properties of speech addressed to young children include exaggeration of pitch contours and acoustically salient features of phonetic units. It has been suggested that phonetic modifications of child-directed speech facilitate young children's speech perception by providing detailed phonetic information about the target word. While there are several studies reporting vowel modifications in speech to infants (i.e., hyper-articulated vowels), there has been relatively little research about consonant modifications in speech to young children (except for VOT). The present study examines acoustic properties of Korean stops in Korean mothers' speech to their children aged 29 to 38 months (N=6). Korean tense, lax, and aspirated stops are all voiceless in word-initial position, and are perceptually differentiated by several acoustic parameters including VOT, f0 of the following vowel, and the amplitude difference of the first and second harmonics at the voice onset of the following vowel. This study compares values of these parameters in Korean motherese to those in speech to adult Koreans from same speakers. Results focus on the acoustic properties of Korean stops in child-directed speech and how they are modified to help Korean young children learn the three-way phonetic contrast.

Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-04-01

289

Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

Lee, Byung-Kook [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yangho, E-mail: yanghokm@nuri.net [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 290-3 Cheonha-Dong, Dong-Gu, Ulsan 682-060 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15

290

Gender Dysphoria – Prevalence and Co-Morbidities in an Irish Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) is a condition in which there is a marked incongruence between an individual’s psychological perception of his/her sex and their biological phenotype. Gender identity disorder was officially renamed “gender dysphoria” in the DSM-V in 2013. The prevalence and demographics of GD vary according to geographical location and has not been well-documented in Ireland. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 218 patients with suspected or confirmed GD referred to our endocrine service for consideration of hormonal therapy (HT) between 2005 and early 2014. We documented their demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatment during the study period. Results: The prevalence of GD in the Irish population was 1:10,154 male-to-female (MTF) and 1:27,668 female-to-male (FTM), similar to reported figures in Western Europe. 159 of the patients were MTF and 59 were FTM, accounting for 72.9% and 27.1% of the cohort, respectively. The rate of referral has increased year-on-year, with 55 patients referred in 2013 versus 6 in 2005. Mean ages were 32.6?years (MTF) and 32.2?years (FTM). 22 of the patients were married and 41 had children, with 2 others having pregnant partners. 37.6% were referred by a psychologist, with the remainder evenly divided between GPs and psychiatric services. There were low rates of coexistent medical illness although psychiatric conditions were more prevalent, depression being a factor in 34.4% of patients. 5.9% of patients did not attend a mental health professional. 74.3% are currently on HT, and 9.17% have had gender reassignment surgery (GRS). Regret following hormonal or surgical treatment was in line with other Western European countries (1.83%). Conclusion: The incidence of diagnosis and referral of GD in Ireland is increasing. This brings with it multiple social, health, and financial implications. Clear and accessible treatment pathways supported by mental health professionals is essential. PMID:24982651

Judge, Ciaran; O’Donovan, Claire; Callaghan, Grainne; Gaoatswe, Gadintshware; O’Shea, Donal

2014-01-01

291

The prevalence and correlates of sitting in European adults - a comparison of 32 Eurobarometer-participating countries  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged sitting is an emerging health risk. However, multi-country comparative sitting data are sparse. This paper reports the prevalence and correlates of sitting time in 32 European countries. Methods Data from the Eurobarometer 64.3 study were used, which included nationally representative samples (n?=?304-1,102) from 32 European countries. Face-to-face interviews were conducted during November and December 2005. Usual weekday sitting time was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-version). Sitting time was compared by country, age, gender, years of education, general health status, usual activity and physical activity. Multivariable-adjusted analyses assessed the odds of belonging to the highest sitting quartile. Results Data were available for 27,637 adults aged 15–98 years. Overall, mean reported weekday sitting time was 309 min/day (SD 184 min/day). There was a broad geographical pattern and some of the lowest amounts of daily sitting were reported in southern (Malta and Portugal means 194–236 min/day) and eastern (Romania and Hungary means 191–276 min/day) European countries; and some of the highest amounts of daily sitting were reported in northern European countries (Germany, Benelux and Scandinavian countries; means 407–335 min/day). Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed adults with low physical activity levels (OR?=?5.10, CI95?=?4.60-5.66), those with high sitting in their main daily activity (OR?=?2.99, CI95?=?2.74-3.25), those with a bad/very bad general health state (OR?=?1.87, CI95?=?1.63-2.15) and higher education levels (OR?=?1.48, CI95?=?1.38-1.59) were more likely to be in the highest quartile of daily sitting time. Adults within Greece (OR?=?2.91, CI95?=?2.51-3.36) and Netherlands (OR?=?2.56, CI95?=?2.22-2.94) were most likely to be in the highest quartile. High-sit/low-active participants comprised 10.1% of the sample. Adults self-reporting bad/very bad general health state (OR?=?4.74, CI95?=?3.97-5.65), those within high sitting in their main daily activities (OR?=?2.87, CI95?=?2.52-3.26) and adults aged ?65 years (OR?=?1.53, CI95?=?1.19-1.96) and were more likely to be in the high-sit/low-active group. Conclusions Weekday sitting time and its demographic correlates varied considerably across European countries, with adults in north-western European countries sitting the most. Sitting is prevalent across Europe and merits attention by preventive interventions. PMID:24020702

2013-01-01

292

Prevalence and impact of pain among older adults in the United States: findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States. Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7601 adults ages ?65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the United States. Pain did not vary across age groups (P = 0.21), and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P < 0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower-extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.72 [95% confidence interval 1.56-1.90]). Participants with 1, 2, 3, and ?4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other potential confounders (P < 0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the United States in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

Patel, Kushang V; Guralnik, Jack M; Dansie, Elizabeth J; Turk, Dennis C

2013-12-01

293

Muscular strength is inversely related to prevalence and incidence of obesity in adult men.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between quintiles of muscular strength after adjustment for age and body weight, and excessive body fat (EBF) and excessive abdominal fat (EAF) when controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other potential confounders. A two-phased cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted assessing the prevalence and incidence of EBF and EAF across quintiles of muscular strength. The sample included 3,258 men (mean age = 42.2 ± 8.9; weight (kg) = 81.2 ± 11.0; BMI = 25.3 ± 2.9; %fat = 19.4 ± 5.8; waist girth (cm) = 91.2 ± 9.0) who completed at least two clinical examinations as part of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS). Muscular strength was assessed with tests of upper and lower body muscular strength using rack-mounted weights with participants placed into strength quintiles. CRF was measured by a modified Balke treadmill test, %fat via underwater weighing or seven-site skinfold measurements, and waist girth measured at the level of the umbilicus. EBF was defined as ?25% and EAF was defined as >102 cm. There was a strong inverse gradient across quintiles of muscular strength for prevalence and incidence of EBF and EAF (P trend <0.01, each). With the lowest quintile serving as the referent, reductions in risk of EBF and EAF exceeded 70% for the highest strength quintile. Evidence suggests muscular strength may provide protection from EBF and EAF and their related comorbidities. PMID:19960002

Jackson, Allen W; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Morrow, James R; Church, Timothy S; Maslow, Andrea L; Blair, Steven N

2010-10-01

294

Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or…

Herek, Gregory M.

2009-01-01

295

A General Practice-Based Prevalence Study of Epilepsy among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and of Its Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Behaviour Disturbance and Carer Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although the elevated occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is well recognized, the nature of seizures and their association with psychopathology and carer strain are less clearly understood. The aims were to determine the prevalence and features of epilepsy in a community-based population of adults with…

Matthews, T.; Weston, N.; Baxter, H.; Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

2008-01-01

296

Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism) and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa †  

PubMed Central

Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention. PMID:25361046

Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E.; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J.; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E.; Kowal, Paul

2014-01-01

297

Prevalent and Incident HIV Diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-Infected Adult Males: A Changing Epidemiology Associated with Sexual Transmission — Taiwan, 2006–2013  

PubMed Central

Background Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P?=?0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P?=?0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI. PMID:25299178

Lo, Yi-Chun; Ji, Dar-Der; Hung, Chien-Ching

2014-01-01

298

Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Ooccurrence of Pulp Stone in Adult Restorative Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Pulp stone, though of an unclear aetiology, is clinically common. It potentially poses procedural difficulty to the endodontist and may also be a marker of an underlying systemic condition. Objectives: The study investigated pulp stone occurrence in adult restorative patients. It also highlighted the relationship between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth with abrasion, as well as the effect of age and gender on pulp stone occurrence. Method: Three hundred subjects, aged 18-60 years participated in the cross sectional study. Pristine teeth, teeth with chronic periodontitis and those with abrasion were recruited. Result: Pulp stone was seen more often in the 41-50 years age band, in molars and in teeth with chronic periodontitis but less often in teeth with abrasion. In addition, coronal and free form of pulp stone were more popular. Conclusion: It is recommended that researchers should pay special care in case selections, and during biomechanical coronal instrumentation. PMID:23209949

Udoye, CI; Sede, MA

2011-01-01

299

Prevalence of Otolaryngologic Diseases in South Korea: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which were cross-sectional surveys of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of South Korea (n=4,930). A field survey team that included an otolaryngologist, nurses, and interviewers moved with a mobile examination unit and performed otolaryngologic interviews and physical examinations. Results The prevalence of subjective hearing loss, tinnitus, preauricular fistua, tympanic membrane perforation, and cholesteatoma were 11.97%, 20.27%, 2.08%, 1.60%, and 1.18%, respectively. Dizziness and vestibular dysfunction were common among Korean adults, since 23.33% of the participants reported symptoms of dizziness or imbalance, and the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction was 3.86%. The prevalence of nasal diseases was relatively high, as the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and a deviated nasal septum were 28.01%, 7.12%, and 42.94%, respectively. Subjective dysphonia was found in 6.60% of the participants, and the prevalence of subjective dysphonia increased with age. Conclusion This is the first nation-wide epidemiologic study to assess the prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases by both the Korean Otolaryngologic Society and the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Considering the high prevalence of otolaryngologic diseases in Korea, the results call for additional studies to better prevent and manage otolaryngologic diseases. PMID:21217958

Cho, Yang-Sun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Park, Kyoung Ho; Park, Hong Ju; Kim, Jeong-Whun; Moon, Il Joon; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Sun, Dong-Il; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koo, Ja-Won; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Kun Hee; Lee, Seung Won; Oh, Kyung Won; Pyo, Eun Young; Lee, Ari

2010-01-01

300

Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences  

PubMed Central

Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s?1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s?1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ? 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ? 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165

2012-01-01

301

Costing adult male circumcision in high HIV prevalence, low circumcision rate countries.  

PubMed

The dramatic evidence that male circumcision has a substantial effect in preventing HIV infection might be the most important medical finding in the course of the AIDS epidemic since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The transition from clinical trails to implementation of a general adult male circumcision (AMC) program is beginning, and this paper uses an AMC cost model (in Microsoft Excel) to estimate the cost of a rapid scale-up of an AMC program in Mozambique, a country with a generalized epidemic and low rate of male circumcision. There are three major findings: (1) Even the most modest of AMC programs would place great stress on human resources, and task-shifting might lead to more accidents or adverse events that would increase the cost per AMC. (2) The fiscal burden of AMC is surprisingly low, but a rapid scale-up of AMC poses additional fiscal stress for Mozambique's already under-funded public health system. (3) AMC as an HIV prevention tool is very robust in terms of its cost-effectiveness in Mozambique, even at a high AMC accident or complication rate. Any AMC roll-out in Mozambique would face severe constraints in the health system (namely human resources) that would likely limit the scale of an AMC program and perhaps its effectiveness against its generalized epidemic. PMID:18484318

Fieno, John Vincent

2008-05-01

302

Prevalence of Airflow Obstruction in U.S. Adults Aged 40-79 Years: NHANES Data 1988-1994 and 2007-2010.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The study evaluated the change in the prevalence of airflow obstruction in the U.S. population 40-79 years of age from years 1988-1994 to 2007-2010. Methods: Spirometry data from two representative samples of the U.S. population, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 1988-1994 and 2007-2010, were used. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria were used to define airflow obstruction. Results: Based on ATS/ERS criteria, the overall age-adjusted prevalence of airflow obstruction among adults aged 40-79 years decreased from 16.6% to 14.5% (p < 0.05). Significant decreases were observed for the older age category 60-69 years (20.2% vs. 15.4%; p < 0.01), for males (19.0% vs. 15.4%; p < 0.01), and for Mexican American adults (12.7% vs. 8.4%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of moderate and more severe airflow obstruction decreased also (6.4% vs. 4.4%; p < 0.01). Based on ATS/ERS criteria, during 2007-2010, an estimated 18.3 million U.S. adults 40-79 years had airflow obstruction, 5.6 million had moderate or severe airflow obstruction and 1.4 million had severe airflow obstruction. Conclusions: The overall age-adjusted prevalence of airflow obstruction among U.S. adults aged 40-79 years decreased from 1988-1994 to 2007-2010, especially among older adults, Mexican Americans, and males. PMID:25244575

Doney, Brent; Hnizdo, Eva; Dillon, Charles F; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Tilert, Timothy; Wolz, Michael; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann

2014-09-22

303

Unsafe Sex and STI Prevalence Among HIV-Infected Adults in Guangzhou, China: Opportunities to Deamplify Sexual HIV Transmission.  

PubMed

This project examined sexual behavior and STI prevalence among HIV-infected individuals in South China. Adult HIV-infected outpatients in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China completed a self-administered survey about behaviors and antiretroviral treatment. Participants were screened for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Univariate and multivariate relationships with any STI were calculated using logistic regression. 810 HIV-infected individuals participated and 3 refused. 52.5 % (n = 415) of individuals reported having sex in the past 3 months, among whom 26.4 % (n = 111) reported inconsistent condom use. 10.4 % (n = 84) of all individuals had at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI). HIV-infected individuals not on antiretroviral treatment had an increased STI risk (aOR 2.5, 95 % CI: 1.4-4.5, P = 0.002). Unsafe sex was markedly reduced among HIV-infected individuals on treatment, possibly a reflection of integrated ART initiation counseling. Improved STI services among HIVinfected individuals are urgently needed to deamplify sexual HIV transmission. PMID:23054038

Wang, Xiao B; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Zhang, Fujie; Cohen, Myron S; Yang, Bin; Cai, Weiping

2013-03-01

304

Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID)  

PubMed Central

Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs), as per American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065) of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632) patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and total cholesterol in the study were 60.48% (N = 3236), 57.54% (N = 3107), and 92.24% (N = 4981) respectively. Among those with overt cardiovascular disease (CVD), target LDL-C level of < 70 mg/dL was achieved in 22.87% (70 out of 306) patients. The LDL-C levels of 49.03% (N = 1768) patients who were on statin therapy were within target levels, while 53.46% (N = 634) patients who were on statin and their combinations with other LLDs had their LDL-C levels within the stipulated range. Conclusions: This study has reveled that dyslipidemia control in Indian T2DM patients is very poor with almost half of them not reaching their LDL -C goal. Dyslipidemia being one of the main risk factors for CVD in T2DM patients there is a need to treat dyslipidemia aggressively to reduce risk of future CV events. PMID:25285280

Mithal, Ambrish; Majhi, Debashish; Shunmugavelu, M.; Talwarkar, Pradeep G.; Vasnawala, Hardik; Raza, Ammar S.

2014-01-01

305

Age Is the Strongest Effector for the Relationship between Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered one of the most common risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a potential mechanism that explains the association between renal function and cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association between renal function and CAC in apparently healthy Korean subjects. Methods A total of 23,617 participants in a health-screening program at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital were included in the study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured via multidetector computed tomography. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the CKD Staging system with eGFR grade: stage 1, eGFR ?90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stage 3, eGFR 30 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results The mean age of the participants was 41.4 years and the mean eGFR was 103.6±21.7 mL/min/1.73 m2. Hypertension and diabetes were noted in 43.7% and 5.5% of the participants, respectively. eGFR showed a weakly negative but significant association with CACS in bivariate correlation analysis (r=-0.076, P<0.01). Mean CACS significantly increased from CKD stage 1 to 3. The proportion of subjects who had CAC significantly increased from CKD stage 1 to 3. Although the odds ratio for CAC significantly increased from stage 1 to 3 after adjustment for confounding factors, this significance was reversed when age was included in the model. Conclusion In early CKD, renal function negatively correlated with the degree of CAC in Korean subjects. Age was the strongest effector for this association. PMID:25309790

Chae, Hyun Beom; Lee, Shin Yeoung; Kim, Nam Hee; Han, Ki Joong; Lee, Tae Hoon; Jang, Choel Min; Yoo, Kyung Mo; Park, Hae Jung; Lee, Min Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Moon, Heui-Soo; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

2014-01-01

306

Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2013-01-01

307

Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.  

PubMed

The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

2013-12-01

308

Direct estimates of prevalent HIV infection in adults in England and Wales for 1991 and 1993: an improved method  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of prevalent HIV infections in England and Wales at the end of 1991 and 1993. METHOD: A direct method was used whereby population estimates derived from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyle (NATSAL) and prevalence data from the Unlinked Anonymous HIV Prevalence Monitoring Programme (UAPMP) were combined to produce estimates of the number

A Petruckevitch; A Nicoll; A M Johnson; D Bennett

1997-01-01

309

Alcohol and tobacco use among South Korean adolescents: An ecological review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents a comprehensive review of the literature on the predictors, consequences and prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among South Korean youth. A systematic review of the literature in Korean and English social science journals was undertaken. Findings suggest that processes at multiple levels may lead to problems with alcohol and tobacco among these youth. In particular, the

Jun Sung Hong; Na Youn Lee; Andrew Grogan-Kaylor; Hui Huang

2011-01-01

310

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Korean Conflict and World War II Combat Veterans Seeking Outpatient Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given important differences in the Korean conflict and World War II, samples of treatment-seeking combat veterans from these wars (30 Korea, 83 World War II) were compared on the prevalence and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). With age, ethnicity, and combat exposure taken into account, the Korean veterans reported significantly more severe symptoms on both interview and self-report PTSD

Edward W. McCranie; Leon A. Hyer

2000-01-01

311

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in US Hispanic/Latino adults: results from the NHANES 2007-2010 and HCHS/SOL studies.  

PubMed

Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody has been reported in Mexican Americans, but its prevalence in other US Hispanic/Latino groups is unknown. We studied 2 populations of US Hispanic/Latino adults; 3210 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 and 11 964 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Age-standardized prevalence of HCV antibody was similar in NHANES 2007-2010 (1.5%) and HCHS/SOL (2.0%) but differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background in HCHS/SOL (eg, 11.6% in Puerto Rican men vs 0.4% in South American men). These findings suggest that the HCV epidemic among US Hispanics/Latinos is heterogeneous. PMID:24423693

Kuniholm, Mark H; Jung, Molly; Everhart, James E; Cotler, Scott; Heiss, Gerardo; McQuillan, Geraldine; Kim, Ryung S; Strickler, Howard D; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Youngblood, Marston; Kaplan, Robert C; Ho, Gloria Y F

2014-05-15

312

Greater Prevalence of Proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder Compared to DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence in Treated Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Aims Compared to DSM-IV nicotine dependence, proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder (NUD) would lower the threshold from 3 to 2 symptoms, and increase the number of criteria used for diagnosis from 7 to 11. The impact of the proposed changes on nicotine disorder prevalence, and the concurrent validity of diagnostic criteria were examined. Design Cross-sectional survey to compare DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 algorithms. Setting and Participants Adolescent (N=179) and young adult (N=292) past year cigarette users recruited from addictions treatment. Measurements Semi-structured clinical interview to evaluate DSM-IV nicotine dependence, and 10 of the 11 proposed DSM-5 NUD criteria; 30-day Time Line Follow-Back; and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Findings Prevalence of proposed DSM-5 NUD (2-symptom threshold) was much higher (adolescents: 69%, young adults: 86%) than DSM-IV nicotine dependence (33% and 60%, respectively), although prevalence of DSM-5 severe NUD (4-symptom threshold) was similar to DSM-IV nicotine dependence. Concurrent validity analyses in both samples indicated consistent support for DSM-5 severe NUD diagnosis (4-symptoms) but not for the moderate NUD (2-symptoms) diagnosis, which had modest relations with only FTND score. IRT analyses indicated strong support for the new Craving item, but not for the proposed Interpersonal Problems and Hazardous Use items. Conclusions The proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder criteria have substantial limitations when applied to adolescents and young adults, and appear to have low concurrent validity. PMID:22092543

Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Clark, Duncan B.

2011-01-01

313

Association between Nutrition Label Reading and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2007-2009 (KNHANES IV)  

PubMed Central

Background Nutrition labels provide various information on the nutrient contents of food. However, despite the recent increase in the interest in dietary intake and expansion of related policies, studies on the association between nutrition label reading and dietary intake are lacking in Korea. Methods This study analyzed the 2007-2009 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data. To examine macronutrients and micronutrients intake according to nutrition label reading, analysis of covariance was used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also used to examine the association between adherence to dietary reference intake and nutrition label reading. Results Nutrition label reading was significantly high among women, youth, and those with high education and high household income. Nutrition label reading was associated with higher intake of calcium and vitamin C in men and the lower intake of calorie, carbohydrates and higher energy ratio of protein in women. Additionally, male nutrition label readers were associated with adherence to dietary reference intake of fiber (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.26) and calcium (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.54). In women, there were no significant differences in the adherence to the dietary reference intake in fat, fiber, sodium, potassium, and calcium according to the nutrition label reading. Conclusion In men, nutrition label reading was associated with healthier intake of several micronutrients, although this was not observed in women. Consideration for clearly reporting vulnerable micronutrients in nutrition labels is necessary. PMID:25120890

Kim, Min-Gyou; Han, Na-Rae; Song, Dong-Ju; Um, Jae-Yean; Bae, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Lee, Cheol-Min; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Hong, Sung-woo

2014-01-01

314

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in a rural community in South India: Results from the kidney disease screening (KIDS) project  

PubMed Central

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) appears to be increasing in India. A few studies have studied the prevalence of CKD in urban populations, but there is a paucity of such studies in the rural populations. This project was undertaken to study the prevalence of CKD among adults in a rural population near Shimoga, Karnataka and to study the risk factor profile. Door-to-door screening of 2091 people aged 18 and above was carried out. Demographic and anthropometric data were obtained, urine was analyzed for protein by dipstick and serum creatinine was measured in all participants. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) using the 4-variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation and Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected to the body surface area (CG-BSA). The total number of subjects studied was 2091. Mean age was 39.88 ± 15.87 years. 45.57% were males. The prevalence of proteinuria was 2.8%. CKD was seen in 131 (6.3%) subjects when GFR was estimated by MDRD equation. The prevalence of CKD was 16.54% by the CG-BSA method. There was a statistically significant relationship of CKD with gender, advancing age, abdominal obesity, smoking, presence of diabetes and hypertension. The prevalence of CKD is higher compared to the previous studies from rural India and is comparable to that in the studies from the urban Indian populations. The wide difference between the CKD prevalence between MDRD and CG-BSA equations suggests the need for a better measure of kidney function applicable to Indian population. PMID:25097333

Anupama, Y. J.; Uma, G.

2014-01-01

315

A pilot study to evaluate the effect of Taeumjowi-tang on obesity in Korean adults: study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity, which is described as excessive or abnormal body fat, increases the risk of diet-related diseases. In Korea and around the world, the prevalence of obesity has grown annually from 1998 to 2008. This growth has continued despite various therapeutic efforts. The discovery of new and alternative treatments for obesity should be considered an important priority. Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001), a traditional Korean medicinal extract consisting of eight herbs, is a widely used herbal remedy for obesity in Korea. However, the efficacy and safety of TJ001 have not been fully investigated in a clinical trial. The purpose of this pilot study is to estimate obesity-related parameters and to assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001. Methods Our study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial of Taeumjowi-tang (TJ001). For this study, we will recruit obese Korean patients of both sexes, ages 18 to 65 years, from four university hospitals. A total of 104 subjects will be recruited. The participants will receive either 7 g of TJ001 or a placebo three times daily for 12 weeks. The primary end point will be the rate of subjects who lose at least 5% of their baseline body weight. The secondary end points will be changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, lipid profiles, body fat composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose concentration, C-reactive protein and questionnaires related to the quality of life. The outcomes will be measured every 4 weeks. The study period will be 12 weeks and will include a total of five visits with each subject (at screening and at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks). Conclusions The results of our study will inform various estimates of TJ001 and will serve as the basis for a larger-scale trial. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of TJ001 as an alternative herbal remedy for obesity. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87153759 PMID:22483238

2012-01-01

316

The population prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot osteoarthritis in community-dwelling older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the population prevalence of symptomatic radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) affecting the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), 1st and 2nd cuneometatarsal joints (CMJs), navicular first cuneiform joint (NCJ) and talonavicular joint (TNJ) in community-dwelling older adults. Methods 9334 adults aged ?50?years registered with four general practices were mailed a health survey. Responders reporting foot pain within the last 12?months were invited to undergo weight-bearing dorso-plantar and lateral radiographs of both feet. OA at the 1st MTPJ, 1st and 2nd CMJs, NCJ and TNJ was graded using a validated atlas. Population prevalence estimates for symptomatic radiographic foot OA overall and for each joint were calculated using multiple imputation and weighted logistic regression modelling to account for missing data and non-response. Results 5109 health surveys were received (adjusted response 56%). Radiographs were obtained on 557 participants. Overall population prevalence of symptomatic radiographic OA was 16.7% (95% CI 15.3% to 18.0%), 1st MTPJ 7.8% (6.7% to 8.9%), 1st CMJ 3.9% (2.9% to 4.9%), 2nd CMJ 6.8% (5.7% to 7.8%), NCJ 5.2% (4.0% to 6.4%) and TNJ 5.8% (4.8% to 6.9%). With the exception of the 1st CMJ, prevalence was greater in females than males, increased with age and was higher in lower socioeconomic classes. Three-quarters of those with symptomatic radiographic OA reported disabling foot symptoms. Conclusions While cautious interpretation due to non-response is warranted, our study suggests that symptomatic radiographic foot OA affects one in six older adults and the majority report associated disability. Clinicians should consider OA as a possible cause of chronic foot pain in older people. PMID:24255544

Roddy, Edward; Thomas, Martin J; Marshall, Michelle; Rathod, Trishna; Myers, Helen; Menz, Hylton B; Thomas, Elaine; Peat, George

2015-01-01

317

The female-male disparity in obesity prevalence among black American young adults: contributions of sociodemographic characteristics of the childhood family1234  

PubMed Central

Background: In the United States, black women are at much greater risk of obesity than are black men. Little is known about the factors underlying this disparity. Objective: We explored whether childhood sociodemographic factors (parental education, single-mother household, number of siblings, number of minors in household, birth order, and female caregiver's age) were associated with the gender disparity in obesity prevalence in young black adults in the United States. Design: An analytic data set (n = 7747) was constructed from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Childhood sociodemographic factors were assessed in 1994–1995 in nonimmigrant black and white youths aged 11–19 y. Obesity was assessed in 2001–2002. For each childhood sociodemographic factor, we evaluated whether the prevalence difference (female obesity minus male obesity) was modified by the factor. We described the contribution of each variable category to the overall prevalence difference. Results: In unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted models, parental education consistently modified gender disparity in blacks (P = 0.01). The gender gap was largest with low parental education (16.7% of men compared with 45.4% of women were obese) and smallest with high parental education (28.5% of men compared with 31.4% of women were obese). In whites, there was little overall gender difference in obesity prevalence. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this was the first study to document that the gender disparity in obesity prevalence in young black adults is concentrated in families with low parental education. In these low-socioeconomic-status families, obesity development is either under the control of distinct mechanisms in each gender, or men and women from these households adopt different obesity-related behaviors. PMID:19190069

Robinson, Whitney R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Kaufman, Jay S; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Stevens, June

2009-01-01

318

Korean History: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Kenneth Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, this comprehensive bibliography is offered as an update and supplement to the 1980 annotated bibliography Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide. Robinson's bibliography includes his earlier Korean War bibliography (see the November 5, 1999 Scout Report), as well as covering early modern Korean history, the nineteenth century, modern history of the North and South into the 1960s, economics, literature, the Korean diaspora, law, women, demography, education, and music, among others. An excellent resource for students and scholars alike, the bibliography is easily navigated via a table of contents or menu buttons on the left-hand side of the browser window.

319

Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

2009-01-01

320

Time trend analysis of the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has rapidly increased in the Taiwanese population with the increasing prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle and high-calorie dietary intake. This study aims to determine the annual trends of the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007. Methods A population-based study of all residents aged 20 years and over (12,191,076 in 2000 and 18,772,180 in 2007) enrolled in the National Health Insurance (NHI) program, the database of which was used to identify patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The annual prevalence and incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes were estimated using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes based on age, gender, insurance premium, and urbanization degree. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of risk factors, as well as to examine the trend in the annual prevalence or incidence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes from 2000 to 2007. Results The crude annual prevalence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes increased significantly from 5.79% in 2000 to 8.30% in 2007. The increase was highest in 2007, among men, individuals aged ? 80 years, and individuals residing in aging society areas [OR (95% CI): 1.416 (1.412–1.420), 1.033 (1.032–1.034), 31.810 (31.690–31.931), and 1.090 (1.085–1.094), respectively]. The crude incidence fluctuated throughout the study period, ranging from 7.72 per 1,000 in 2006 to 8.98 per 1,000 in 2000. The decrease was highest in 2006, among individuals with an insurance premium ? median value [0.933 (0.925–0.942) and 0.810 (0.805–0.815), respectively]. The greatest increase was among men, individuals aged 60 to 79 years, and individuals residing in aging society areas [1.150 (1.145–1.155), 15.452 (15.329–15.576), and 1.127 (1.113–1.142), respectively]. Conclusion This study demonstrated the substantial increase in annual prevalence of diagnosed type 2 diabetes among adults in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007. The incidence fluctuated between 2000 and 2007. PMID:23570503

2013-01-01

321

Obesity Prevalence Maps  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence Maps Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and territories ... 9% in Puerto Rico. + Prevalence* of Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ...

322

Changes in the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas  

PubMed Central

Young injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for acquiring blood-borne diseases like HIV and Hepatitis C. Little is known about the population prevalence of young IDUs. We (1) estimate annual population prevalence rates of young IDUs (aged 15–29) per 10,000 in 95 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) from 1992 to 2002; (2) assess the validity of these estimates; and (3) explore whether injection drug use among youth in these MSAs began to rise after HAART was discovered. A linear mixed model (LMM) estimated the annual population prevalence of young IDUs in each MSA and described trends therein. The population prevalence of IDUs among youths across 95 MSAs increased from 1996 (mean = 95.64) to 2002 (mean = 115.59). Additional analyses of the proportion of young IDUs using health services suggest this increase may have continued after 2002. Harm reduction and prevention research and programs for young IDUs are needed. PMID:21739288

Chatterjee, Sudip; Tempalski, Barbara; Pouget, Enrique R.; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Cleland, Charles M.

2012-01-01

323

Utilization of the respiratory virus multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test for adult patients at a Korean tertiary care center  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Respiratory viruses (RVs) are considered to be important respiratory pathogens in adult patients, and the multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is used frequently in adult patients with respiratory infections. However, clinical data regarding utilization of the multiplex RT-PCR test for RVs are lacking. Methods We investigated the utilization of the multiplex RT-PCR test for RVs at Chung-Ang University Hospital in Seoul, Korea, between January 2012 and April 2013. Results During the study period, the multiplex RT-PCR test was performed for 291 adult patients. The test frequency was 4.9% of rapid influenza antigen detection tests and 0.8% of respiratory bacterial culture studies. A turnaround time of < 48 hours was observed in 25.9% of positive tests. Most of the tests were performed for admitted patients (97.9%) with a community-acquired infection (84.2%) during the flu season (82.5%). RVs were detected in 81 of 291 cases (27.8%). The RV positivity rates for community- and hospital-acquired infections did not differ (28.6% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.52). Of 166 patients with pneumonia, 44 (26.5%) had a viral infection. Among the patients with RV-associated pneumonia, an RV other than influenza was detected in 20 patients (45.4%). Conclusions The multiplex RT-PCR test for RVs was infrequently performed at a tertiary care center, and the test results were often reported late. The test was most often performed for admitted adult patients with community-acquired infections during the flu season. The utilization of multiplex RT-PCR testing for RVs in current clinical practice should be improved. PMID:25589841

Ahn, Mi Young; Chung, Jin-Won; Kim, Hye Ryoun

2015-01-01

324

The Treated Prevalence of Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders among Adults Admitted to the Philadelphia Shelter System: Results from the Integration of Longitudinal Data on Shelter and Mental Health Services Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results from a study of the treated prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders among adults admitted to Philadelphia public shelters between 1990 and 1992 (N=28,638). Identifiers and service records from longitudinal databases on shelter and mental health services were merged, finding that 49% of single homeless adults and 33.2% of homeless adults with children had

Dennis P Culhane; June M Averyt; Trevor R Hadley

1996-01-01

325

Prevalence of herpes simplex type 2 and syphilis serology among young adults in a rural Gambian community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To estimate prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex 2 (HSV2) positivity, syphilis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection among rural people aged 15–34 in the Gambia.Methods: Questionnaires and serum samples were collected from 1076 men and women aged 15–34 during a cross sectional prevalence survey in a rural area of the Gambia. Sera were screened for antibodies to herpes simplex

Matthew Shaw; Marianne van der Sande; Beryl West; Katie Paine; Seihou Ceesay; Robin Bailey; Gijs Walraven; Linda Morison; Keith McAdam

2001-01-01

326

Drought reduces chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection intensity and mortality but not prevalence in adult crawfish frogs (Lithobates areolatus).  

PubMed

To fully understand the impacts of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) on amphibians it is necessary to examine the interactions between populations and their environment. Ecologic variables can exacerbate or ameliorate Bd prevalence and infection intensity, factors that are positively related when Bd is acting on naive amphibian populations as an epidemic disease. In crawfish frogs (Lithobates areolatus), a North American species with a complex life history, we have shown that Bd acts as an endemic disease with impacts that vary seasonally; the highest infection prevalences and intensities and highest frog mortality occurred during late spring in postbreeding individuals. In this study, conducted between 28 February and 23 August 2011 in southwestern Indiana on the same population, we report an uncoupling of the previously observed relationship between Bd prevalence and intensity following an extreme drought. Specifically, there was a postdrought reduction in Bd infection intensity and mortality, but not in infection prevalence. This result suggests that the relationship between prevalence and intensity observed in Bd epidemics can be uncoupled in populations harboring endemic infections. Further, constant prevalence rates suggest either that crawfish frogs are being exposed to Bd sources independent of ambient moisture or that low-level infections below detection thresholds persist from year to year. Drought has several ecologically beneficial effects for amphibians with complex life histories, including eliminating fish and invertebrate populations that feed on larvae. To these ecologic benefits we suggest another, that drought can reduce the incidence of the severe skin disease (chytridiomycosis) due to Bd infection. PMID:24171560

Terrell, Vanessa C K; Engbrecht, Nathan J; Pessier, Allan P; Lannoo, Michael J

2014-01-01

327

ON FARM RISK: PREVALENCE OF ZOONOTIC GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN ADULT DAIRY COWS IN SEVEN EASTERN STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine if adult dairy cattle can harbor zoonotic species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and thus serve as potential sources of water or food contamination. Fecal samples were collected from 541 adult dairy cows (>24 months of age), on two farms in each of...

328

Prevalence and associated factors of self-reported hypertension among Tehran adults in 2011: a population-based study (Urban HEART-2)  

PubMed Central

Background: Hypertension is an important public-health challenge worldwide. The prevalence of hypertension greatly varies across countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and to determine related factors in a large random sample of Tehran population in 2011. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 69173 individuals aged 25–64 years were selected using multistage cluster random sampling method. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel using standard questionnaires. Weighted prevalence and incidence rates were calculated and principle component analysis (PCA) was used to construct wealth index. Chi-square and odds ratio were used to assess associations in univariate analysis. Logistic Regression model was used in multivariate analysis. Results: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 5.27% in total, 3.83% in men and 6.64% in women (p< 0.001). The annual incidence rate of self-reported hypertension was 6.87 per 1000; 5.26 in men and 8.43 in women (p< 0.001), obviously varied across various districts. In multivariate analysis, age, sex (woman), marital status (single), obesity and smoking were positively associated with prevalence of self-reported hypertension. Education level was negatively associated to hypertension. On the other hand, wealth status was not associated to self-reported hypertension. Conclusion: Our study findings highlighted low awareness rates of hypertension among Tehran adults especially in men and younger people. Hence, we recommend public health strategies to improve health education programs. Moreover, programs to develop the surveillance system and screening programs to early detection of undiagnosed cases are urgently needed particularly in high risk population subgroups.

Cheraghian, Bahman; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza; Mohammad, Kazem; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

2014-01-01

329

Prevalence of abnormalities in knees detected by MRI in adults without knee osteoarthritis: population based observational study (Framingham Osteoarthritis Study)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees with no radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to determine the prevalence of structural lesions associated with osteoarthritis and their relation to age, sex, and obesity. Design Population based observational study. Setting Community cohort in Framingham, MA, United States (Framingham osteoarthritis study). Participants 710 people aged >50 who had no radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0) and who underwent MRI of the knee. Main outcome measures Prevalence of MRI findings that are suggestive of knee osteoarthritis (osteophytes, cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions, subchondral cysts, meniscal lesions, synovitis, attrition, and ligamentous lesions) in all participants and after stratification by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and the presence or absence of knee pain. Pain was assessed by three different questions and also by WOMAC questionnaire. Results Of the 710 participants, 393 (55%) were women, 660 (93%) were white, and 206 (29%) had knee pain in the past month. The mean age was 62.3 years and mean BMI was 27.9. Prevalence of “any abnormality” was 89% (631/710) overall. Osteophytes were the most common abnormality among all participants (74%, 524/710), followed by cartilage damage (69%, 492/710) and bone marrow lesions (52%, 371/710). The higher the age, the higher the prevalence of all types of abnormalities detectable by MRI. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of any of the features between BMI groups. The prevalence of at least one type of pathology (“any abnormality”) was high in both painful (90-97%, depending on pain definition) and painless (86-88%) knees. Conclusions MRI shows lesions in the tibiofemoral joint in most middle aged and elderly people in whom knee radiographs do not show any features of osteoarthritis, regardless of pain. PMID:22932918

2012-01-01

330

Prevalence of sleep disorders by sex and ethnicity among older adolescents and emerging adults: relations to daytime functioning, working memory and mental health.  

PubMed

The study determined the prevalence of sleep disorders by ethnicity and sex, and related daytime functioning, working memory, and mental health among older adolescent to emerging adult college students. Participants were U.S.A. undergraduates (N = 1684), aged 17-25, recruited from 2010 to 2011. Participants completed online questionnaires for all variables. Overall, 36.0% of the sample screened positive for sleep disorders with insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement disorder being the most prevalent. Women reported more insomnia and daytime impairment. African-Americans reported more early morning awakenings and less daytime impairment. Students with insomnia symptoms or restless legs syndrome tended to have lower working memory capacities. Students with nightmares or parasomnias had greater odds for mental disorders. In an older adolescent to emerging adult college student sample, sleep disorders may be a common source of sleep disturbance and impairment. Certain sleep disorders may be associated with lower working memory capacity and poor mental health. PMID:24931561

Petrov, Megan E; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Baldwin, Carol M

2014-07-01

331

Association of cortisol and the metabolic syndrome in Korean men and women.  

PubMed

Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related and have become increasingly prevalent in Korea. The cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors comprising the metabolic syndrome have previously been associated with increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity, but the associations have not been extensively examined in non-Caucasian populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between cortisol, adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in a Korean population. A total of 1,881 adults participated in the study between January 2001 and February 2008. Sociodemographic data were assessed by questionnaires. Body composition, clinic blood pressures as well as metabolic variables including glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed and analyzed in relation to cortisol levels. Mean age of the participants was 58.7 ± 10.8 yr. Higher levels of cortisol was associated with elevated blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in men, and between cortisol and systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol in women. There was an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome associated with higher cortisol levels in both men (P < 0.001) and women (P = 0.040) adjusting for age and body mass index. Higher cortisol levels are associated with several CVD risk factors and the metabolic syndrome, independent of overall of adiposity level, in Korean men and women. PMID:21738345

Park, Sat Byul; Blumenthal, James A; Lee, Soon Young; Georgiades, Anastasia

2011-07-01

332

Development of Tibiofemoral Angle in Korean Children  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to identify the chronological changes of the knee angle or the tibiofemoral angles in normal healthy Korean children. Full-length anteroposterior view standing radiographs of 818 limbs of 452 Korean children were analyzed. The overall patterns of the chronological changes in the knee angle were similar to those described previously in western or Asian children, but the knee angle development was delayed, i.e., genu varum before 1 yr, neutral at 1.5 yr, increasing genu valgum with maximum a value of 7.8° at 4 yr, followed by a gradual decrease to approximately 5-6° of genu valgum of the adult level at 7 to 8 yr of age. These normative data on chronological changes of knee angles should be taken into consideration when evaluating lower limb alignment in children. PMID:18756063

Yoo, Jae Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Chung, Chin Youb; Yoo, Won Joon

2008-01-01

333

Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the prevalence of hypertension among US adults: result from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a large and growing public health problem worldwide. Hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity are two of the most important risk factors for hypertension. However, their combined effect on the risk of hypertension is not known. Participants aged 20 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999-2012 were used to evaluate the separate and combined effects of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of prevalent hypertension among different race, gender and age groups. Participants (31,473) were used to estimate separate and combined effects on the prevalence of hypertension. The overall prevalence of hypertension among adults with a combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (50.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48.3-52.1%) was significantly higher than separate hyperuricemia (41.7%, 95% CI 37.2-46.2%) and overweight/obesity (30.6%, 95% CI 29.5-31.8%). The magnitude of odds ratio (OR) from the combination of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity (OR=4.53, 95% CI 4.05-5.07) was significantly higher than both hyperuricemia (OR=2.62, 95% CI 2.07-3.32) and overweight/obesity (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.89-2.30). Combined effect of hyperuricemia and overweight/obesity on the risk of hypertension is much stronger than any separate one. These data can provide important information for identification of target populations for future intervention and patient management. PMID:24785975

Han, G-M; Gonzalez, S; DeVries, D

2014-10-01

334

Incidence and clinical features of herpes simplex viruses (1 and 2) and varicella-zoster virus infections in an adult Korean population with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis.  

PubMed

Since there are limited data on the incidence and clinical findings of central nervous system (CNS) infection by three ?-herpesviruses including human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Korea, a retrospective analysis of clinical data and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results was performed in patients who presented with suspicion of acute viral meningitis and/or encephalitis at the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, Korea. During the 3-year study period, a total of 224 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 224 patients were examined. Among the 224 patients, 135 (60.3%) patients were identified as having aseptic meningitis (n?=?70, 51.9%), encephalitis (n?=?41, 30.4%) or meningoencephalitis (n?=?24, 17.8%) at discharge. Twenty-four (17.8%) patients were identified as having VZV meningitis (n?=?16, 11.9%), VZV meningoencephalitis (n?=?2, 1.5%), HSV-2 meningitis (n?=?4, 3.0%), or HSV-1 encephalitis (n?=?2, 1.5%). Of the 24 patients infected with the three herpesviruses, immunocompromised patients accounted for 33.3% (n?=?8). Skin rashes were observed in half (n?=?9) of the patients with VZV, and none with HSV-1 or HSV-2. One patient with VZV meningitis and four patients with brain parenchymal involvement had neurologic sequelae. In conclusion, three herpesviruses are important causative agents of CNS infectious disease with significant morbidity in adults, regardless of the immunologic status. Therefore, CSF should be examined for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV using sensitive diagnostic methods in all cases of adult patients with clinical manifestations of CNS disease in order to identify the correct etiology and to determine appropriate therapy. PMID:24610349

Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Jo, Ik Joon; Sim, Min Seob; Song, Keun Jeong; Kim, Byoung Joon; Na, Duk L; Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

2014-06-01

335

Prevalence and Risk Markers of Behavior Problems among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Total Population Study in Orebro County, Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavior problems among people with administratively defined intellectual disability (ID) and identify possible risk markers for behavior problems using the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI). Sixty-two percent of the ID population (n = 915) had a behavior problem (self-injurious,…

Lundqvist, Lars-Olov

2013-01-01

336

Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in a Middle-Aged, Biracial Population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. Methods and Results Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code (MC) and Novacode (NC) criteria. Among 2585 participants, of whom 57% were women and 44% were black (mean age 45 years), the prevalence of major and minor abnormalities were significantly higher (all P<0.001) among black men and women compared to whites. These differences were primarily due to higher QRS voltage and ST/T wave abnormalities among blacks. There was also a higher prevalence of Q waves (MC 1-1, 1-2, 1-3) than described by previous studies. These racial differences remained after multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Conclusions Black men and women have a significantly higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, independent of traditional CV risk factors, than whites in a contemporary cohort middle-aged participants. PMID:20374967

Walsh, Joseph A; Prineas, Ronald; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Steven; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

2013-01-01

337

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria infections in post-weaned and adult cattle on three Maryland farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Eimeria, in healthy, asymptomatic, post-weaned and mature cattle was investigated on three Maryland farms. One farm, a dairy research facility, had 150 multiparous Holstein milking cows; 24 were examined and Cryptosporidium andersoni was detected in three (12.5%) but neither Giardia nor Eimeria was detected. The second farm, a commercial dairy, had 57 multiparous Holstein

R Fayer; J. M Trout; T. K Graczyk; E. J Lewis

2000-01-01

338

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Constipation in Adults with Intellectual Disability in Residential Care Centers in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The normal aging process is not in itself a risk factor for constipation, but age-related morbidities, immobility, neurologic impairment or specific drugs are risk factors for constipation. This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors for constipation in a large sample of 2400 persons with intellectual disability (ID) aged…

Morad, Mohammed; Nelson, Noele P.; Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Carmeli, Eli

2007-01-01

339

Urban-Rural Differences in the Nature and Prevalence of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In the general population there are statistically significant urban-rural differences in the rate of common mental disorders. In people with intellectual disability (ID) no study has attempted to address this issue. Aims: To compare the prevalence of mental illness, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behaviour disorder in people with…

Kiani, R.; Tyrer, F.; Hodgson, A.; Berkin, N.; Bhaumik, S.

2013-01-01

340

Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.  

PubMed

Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

2014-03-01

341

Prevalence and Determinants of Diabetic Nephropathy in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Korean patients with diabetes. Methods The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652), and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011) was used to define CKD (n=21,521). Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results Among subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes. Conclusion Korean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes. PMID:24851205

Ahn, Jae Hee; Yu, Ji Hee; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo; Cha, Bong-Yun

2014-01-01

342

Association Between the Prevalence of Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose We investigated the association between prevalence of symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adult survivors of childhood cancer enrolled in the St Jude Lifetime Cohort study. Methods Eligibility criteria include childhood malignancy treated at St Jude, survival ? 10 years from diagnosis, and current age ? 18 years. Study participants were 1,667 survivors (response rate = 65%). Symptoms were self-reported by using a comprehensive health questionnaire and categorized into 12 classes: cardiac; pulmonary; motor/movement; pain in head; pain in back/neck; pain involving sites other than head, neck, and back; sensation abnormalities; disfigurement; learning/memory; anxiety; depression; and somatization. HRQOL was measured by using physical/mental component summary (PCS/MCS) and six domain scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to investigate associations between symptom classes and HRQOL. Cumulative prevalence of symptom classes in relation to time from diagnosis was estimated. Results Pain involving sites other than head, neck and back, and disfigurement represented the most frequent symptom classes, endorsed by 58.7% and 56.3% of survivors, respectively. Approximately 87% of survivors reported multiple symptom classes. Greater symptom prevalence was associated with poorer HRQOL. In multivariable analysis, symptom classes explained up to 60% of the variance in PCS and 56% of the variance in MCS; demographic and clinical variables explained up to 15% of the variance in PCS and 10% of the variance in MCS. Longer time since diagnosis was associated with higher cumulative prevalence in all symptom classes. Conclusion A large proportion of survivors suffered from many symptom classes, which was associated with HRQOL impairment. PMID:24127449

Huang, I-Chan; Brinkman, Tara M.; Kenzik, Kelly; Gurney, James G.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Lanctot, Jennifer; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Krull, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

343

Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean

Jeon, Mihyon

2008-01-01

344

Comparison of Ertapenem and Ceftriaxone Therapy for Acute Pyelonephritis and Other Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Korean Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Trial  

PubMed Central

The efficacy and safety of ertapenem, 1 g once daily, were compared with that of ceftriaxone, 2 g once daily, for the treatment of adults with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) in a prospective, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized study. After ? 3 days of parenteral study therapy, patients could be switched to an oral agent. Of 271 patients who were initially stratified by APN (n = 210) or other cUTIs (n = 61), 66 (48.9%) in the ertapenem group and 71 (52.2%) in the ceftriaxone group were microbiologically evaluable. The mean duration of parenteral and total therapy, respectively, was 5.6 and 13.8 days for ertapenem and 5.8 and 13.8 days for ceftriaxone. The most common pathogen was Escherichia coli. At the primary efficacy endpoint 5-9 days after treatment, 58 (87.9%) patients in the ertapenem group and 63 (88.7%) in the ceftriaxone had a favorable microbiological response. When compared by stratum and severity, the outcomes in the two groups were equivalent. The frequency and severity of drug-related adverse events were generally similar in both treatment groups. The results indicate that ertapenem is highly effective and safe for the treatment of APN and cUTIs. PMID:22563210

Park, Dae Won; Peck, Kyong Ran; Chung, Moon Hyun; Lee, Jin Seo; Park, Yoon Soo; Kim, Hyo Youl; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Jung Yeon; Yeom, Joon Sup

2012-01-01

345

Prevalence of Psychotropic Drug Use in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Positive and Negative Findings from a Large Scale Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4,069 adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Similar to other studies it was found that 58 % (2,361/4,069) received one or more psychotropics. Six percent received typical, 6 % received…

Tsiouris, John A.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Brown, W. Ted; Pettinger, Jill; Cohen, Ira L.

2013-01-01

346

Prevalence of Visual Impairments in Adults with Cognitive and Developmental Disabilities in a Sheltered Workshop in Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with cognitive and developmental disabilities have a high probability of visual impairment. This study revealed the effects of deficits in the appropriate diagnosis of vision and medical treatment, as well as the lack of necessary refraction correction and support, specifically for adults with intellectual and developmental…

Henriksen, Anne; Degenhardt, Sven

2009-01-01

347

Korean Geodetic VLBI Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by

T. Kondo; T. Kim; S. Han; Y. Kwak; H. Oh; S. Yi; M. Bae; K. Kim; J. Moon

2009-01-01

348

Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity, Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Chinese Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Aim: This article examined the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese older adults. Methods: For this study, older adults with one or more cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease were randomly selected using health check medical records from the Changshu and Beijing Fangshan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exploratory factor analysis and cluster analysis was used to extract dietary pattern factors. Log binomial regression analysis was used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and chronic disease related risk factors. Results: Four factors were found through factor analysis. A high level of internal consistency was obtained, with a high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.83. Cluster analysis identified three dietary patterns: healthy diet, Western diet, and balanced diet. Findings in this sample of Chinese adults correspond to those reported in previous studies, indicating that a Western diet is significantly related to likelihood of having obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome. The identification of distinct dietary patterns among Chinese older adults and the nutritional status of people with chronic diseases suggest that the three dietary patterns have a reasonable level of discriminant validity. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a FFQ is a valid and reliable tool to assess the dietary patterns of individuals with chronic diseases in small- to medium-size urban and rural settings in China. It also validates the significant association between dietary pattern and cardiovascular disease risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic conditions. Clinical diagnosis of chronic disease further confirmed this relationship in Chinese older adults. PMID:24727356

Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas J.; Hills, Andrew P.

2014-01-01

349

Grand Strategies on the Korean Peninsula  

E-print Network

that lived through the Korean War, and whose views of theKorean grand strategy is still struggling with the collapse of the Cold WarWar order in Europe, it took nearly a decade before an op- South Korean

HAGGARD, Stephen

2012-01-01

350

Health Information in Korean (???): MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... SARS)??????? - ??? (Korean) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CT Scans CT (Computerized Tomography) Scan CT ?? (??? ????) - ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations D ... Diabetes 4 Steps to Control Your Diabetes for Life ??? (Korean) Bilingual PDF ...

351

Insomnia: prevalence and its impact on excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological well-being in the adult Taiwanese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  This study examined the national age- and sex-specific prevalence rates of insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS),\\u000a the associations of insomnia symptoms with daytime consequences, and the impact of insomnia on EDS and psychological well-being.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data of 36,743 men and women aged 18 years and above from the 2005 Survey of Social Development Trends—Health Security in\\u000a Taiwan were analyzed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Over 25%

Ching-Chiu Kao; Chun-Jen Huang; Mei-Yeh Wang; Pei-Shan Tsai

2008-01-01

352

Nutrient- and non-nutrient-based natural health product (NHP) use in adults with mood disorders: prevalence, characteristics and potential for exposure to adverse events  

PubMed Central

Background To address knowledge gaps regarding natural health product (NHP) usage in mental health populations, we examined their use in adults with mood disorders, and explored the potential for adverse events. Methods Food and NHP intake was obtained from 97 adults with mood disorders. NHP data was used to compare prevalence with population norms (British Columbia Nutrition Survey; BCNS). Bivariate and regression analyses examined factors associated with NHP use. Assessment of potential adverse effects of NHP use was based on comparing nutrient intakes from food plus supplements with the Dietary Reference Intakes and by reviewing databases for reported adverse health effects. Results Two-thirds (66%; 95% CI 56 to 75) were taking at least one NHP; 58% (95% CI 47 to 68) were taking NHPs in combination with psychiatric medications. The proportion of each type of NHP used was generally higher than the BCNS (range of p’s?prevalent use of NHPs in this population suggests that health care providers need to be knowledgeable about their characteristics. The efficacy and safety of NHPs in relation to mental health warrants further investigation. PMID:23570306

2013-01-01

353

Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.  

PubMed

The association between serum carotenoids and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, and little is known about this relationship in the Chinese population. The present study examined the association between serum carotenoid concentrations and the MetS in Chinese adults. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in which 2148 subjects (1547 women and 601 men) aged 50-75 years were recruited in urban Guangzhou, China. Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, glucose and serum carotenoids (?-, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) were examined. We found dose-response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0.31 (95% CI 0.20, 0.47) for ?-carotene, 0.23 (95% CI 0.15, 0.36) for ?-carotene, 0.44 (95% CI 0.29, 0.67) for ?-cryptoxanthin, 0.39 (95% CI 0.26, 0.58) for lycopene, 0.28 (95% CI 0.18, 0.44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0.19 (95% CI 0.12, 0.30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0.001-0.023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. PMID:25345663

Liu, Jun; Shi, Wen-Qi; Cao, Yi; He, Li-Ping; Guan, Ke; Ling, Wen-Hua; Chen, Yu-Ming

2014-12-01

354

Prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from adolescents and adults in Hamedan, Western Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are a common cause of acute infectious diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, virulence markers and antibiotic resistance patterns of diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolated from adolescents and adults in Hamadan, west of Iran. Materials and Methods A total of 187 stool samples were collected from adults with acute diarrhea. Stool culture was performed by conventional methods for enteropathogenic bacteria. Virulence factor genes for DEC were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method. Results Among the 187 patients, 40 (21.4%) were positive for DEC. The most frequently identified DEC was enteropathogenic E. coli (47.5%), followed by enteroaggregative (20%), enterotoxigenic (17.5%) and shiga-toxin producing E. coli (15%). No isolates of enteroinvasive E. coli were detected. All STEC strains were stx+ / eaeA-. Out of the seven ETEC strains, five (71.4%) produced ST, one (14.3%) produced only LT and one (14.3%) of the isolates produced both ST and LT encoded by est and elt genes, respectively. Among the 40 DEC strains 27(67.5%) were multidrug resistant. Conclusion DEC contribute to the burden of diarrhea in adults in Hamadan. Enteropathogenic E. coli was the most commonly identified DEC strain in the region studied. PMID:23466523

Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Hashemi, Seyyed Hamid; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi; Farajnia, Safar

2013-01-01

355

The prevalence of middle ear pathogens in the outer ear canal and the nasopharyngeal cavity of healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Culturing middle ear fluid samples from children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) using standard techniques results in the isolation of bacterial species in approximately 30-50% of the cases. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, the classic middle ear pathogens of acute otitis media, are involved but, recently, several studies suggested Alloiococcus otitidis as an additional pathogen. In the present study, we used species-specific PCRs to establish the prevalence, in both the nasopharyngeal cavity and the outer ear, of H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae and A. otitidis. The study group consisted of 70 healthy volunteers (aged 19-22 years). The results indicate a high prevalence (>80%) of A. otitidis in the outer ear in contrast to its absence in the nasopharynx. H. influenzae was found in both the outer ear and the nasopharynx (6% and 14%, respectively), whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis were found only in the nasopharynx (9% and 34%, respectively).A. otitidis, described as a fastidious organism, were able to be cultured using an optimized culture protocol, with prolonged incubation, which allowed the isolation of A. otitidis in five of the nine PCR-positive samples out of the total of ten samples tested. Given the absence of the outer ear inhabitant A. otitidis from the nasopharynx, its role in the aetiology of OME remains ambiguous because middle ear infecting organisms are considered to invade the middle ear from the nasopharynx through the Eustachian tube. PMID:19895585

De Baere, T; Vaneechoutte, M; Deschaght, P; Huyghe, J; Dhooge, I

2010-07-01

356

Low Prevalence of Pneumococcal Carriage and High Serotype and Genotype Diversity among Adults over 60 Years of Age Living in Portugal  

PubMed Central

Pneumococcal disease is frequent at the extremes of age. While several studies have looked at colonization among young children, much less is known among the elderly. We aimed to evaluate pneumococcal carriage among elderly adults living in Portugal. Between April 2010 and December 2012, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs of adults over 60 years of age, living in an urban area (n?=?1,945) or in a rural area (n?=?1,416), were obtained. Pneumococci were isolated by culture-based standard procedures, identified by optochin susceptibility, bile solubility and PCR screening for lytA and cpsA, and characterized by antibiotype, serotype, and MLST. Associations between pneumococcal carriage, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. The global prevalence of carriage was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.8–2.8). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, smoking, being at a retirement home, and living in a rural area increased the odds of being a pneumococcal carrier by 4.4-fold (95% CI: 1.9–9.2), 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.1–3.6) and 2.0-fold (95% CI: 1.2–3.5), respectively. Among the 77 pneumococcal isolates, 26 serotypes and 40 STs were identified. The most prevalent serotypes were (in decreasing order) 19A, 6C, 22F, 23A, 35F, 11A, and 23B, which accounted, in total, for 60.0% of the isolates. Most isolates (93.5%) had STs previously described in the MLST database. Resistance to macrolides, non-susceptibility to penicillin and multidrug resistance were found in 19.5%, 11.7%, and 15.6% of the isolates, respectively. We conclude that the prevalence of pneumococcal carriage in the elderly, in Portugal, as determined by culture-based methods, is low. Serotype and genotype diversity is high. Living in a rural area, in a retirement home, and being a smoker increased the risk of pneumococcal carriage. This study contributes to the establishment of a baseline that may be used to monitor how novel pneumococcal vaccines impact on colonization among the elderly. PMID:24604030

Santos Paulo, Ana Cristina; Valadares, Idalina; Martins, Sara; Breia, Fátima; Brito-Avô, António; Morais, Ana; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

2014-01-01

357

Two Causative Constructions in Korean  

E-print Network

Two types of causative constructions in Korean behave differently both syntactically and semantically. This paper presents the syntactic differences between syntactic causative constructions and morphological causative ...

Choi, Dong-Ik

1993-01-01

358

Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish metric standards for the determination of sex from the upper limb bones of Korean. We took a set of eleven measurements on each of 175 right sides of adult skeletons chosen at Korean sample. Classification accuracy dropped only one or two individuals when only vertical head diameter of humerus is used. Variables in relation with maximal length were less accurate than head diameter of humerus. Two variables were selected by the stepwise procedure: maximal length of humerus, vertical head diameter of humerus. The combined accuracy was 87%. This study of modern Korean skeletons underscores the need for population-specific techniques, not only for medicolegal investigations, but also for the study of population affinities and factors affecting bone configurations. PMID:25276479

Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yi-Suk; Lee, U-Young; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Kim, Kyung-Yong

2014-01-01

359

Old Age at Diagnosis Is Associated With Favorable Outcomes in Korean Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Despite the rising incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Asian populations, data regarding clinical characteristics of patients in Asia based on age at diagnosis are relatively sparse. The aim of this study was to compare clinical characteristics based on the age at diagnosis according to the Montreal Classification in Korean IBD patients. Methods We recruited consecutive patients with IBD at two tertiary hospitals and retrospectively reviewed their medical information. Patients were divided into three groups according to their age at diagnosis: youth (<17 years), young adult (17-40 years), and middle-old (>40 years). The main clinical characteristics for comparison were the achievement of a remission state at the last follow-up visit, cumulative rate of surgery, and cumulative use of immunomodulators and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) blockers during the follow-up period. Results In total, 346 IBD patients were included (Crohn's disease [CD] 146 and ulcerative colitis 200; 36 youth, 202 young adult, and 113 middle-old). The middle-old group with CD was characterized by a predominance of uncomplicated behavior (P=0.013) and a lower frequency of perianal disease (P=0.009). The middle-old group was associated more with a less aggressive disease course than the younger group, as shown by more frequent remission (P=0.004), being less likely to undergo surgery (P<0.001), and lower cumulative use of immunomodulators and TNF? blockers (P<0.001). Conclusions Age at diagnosis according to the Montreal Classification is an important prognostic factor for Korean IBD patients.

Choi, Jae Hyuk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Yu Jin; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Kyeong Ok

2015-01-01

360

High prevalence of measles seronegativity in adults with HIV infection born in the era of measles vaccination in Northern France.  

PubMed

We investigated measles humoral immunity levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adult patients in France and attempted to identify risk factors for antimeasles antibodies seronegativity. Being born after 1983 [odds ratio (OR) 4.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-14.09; P?=?0.0013] and a nadir CD4 cell count below 100?cells/?l (OR 4.79; 95% CI 1.61-14.82; P?=?0.0048) were the two factors independently associated with measles seronegativity. Systematic measles antibody screening should be performed in HIV-infected individuals born in the era of measles vaccination (after 1983 in France). PMID:25486416

Lambert, Dorothee; Dramé, Moustapha; Rouger, Christine; Brodard, Veronique; Nguyen, Yohan; Berger, Jean Luc; Kmiec, Isabelle; Hentzien, Maxime; Lebrun, Delphine; Jaussaud, Roland; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

2015-01-14

361

Educational Attainment by Life Course Sexual Attraction: Prevalence and Correlates in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed. PMID:25382888

Walsemann, Katrina M.; Lindley, Lisa L.; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V.

2014-01-01

362

Assessing the prevalence of non-medical prescription opioid use in the Canadian general adult population: evidence of large variation depending on survey questions used  

PubMed Central

Background Morbidity and mortality related to Prescription Opioid Analgesics (POAs) have been rising sharply in North America. Non-Medical Prescription Opioid Use (NMPOU) in the general population is a key indicator of POA-related harm, yet the role of question item design for best NMPOU prevalence estimates in general population surveys is unclear, and existing NMPOU survey data for Canada are limited. Methods We tested the impact of different NMPOU question items by comparing an item in the 2008 and 2009 (N?=?2,017) samples of the CAMH Monitor surveys – an Ontario adult general population survey – with a newly developed item used in the 2010 (N?=?2,015) samples of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor surveys. To control for a potential difference in the population demographics between surveys, we adjusted for gender, age, region, income, prescription opioid use, cigarette smoking, weekly binge drinking, cannabis use in the past three months, and psychological distress in our analyses. Results The prevalence of NMPOU as measured by the 2008 and 2009 CAMH monitor (2.0% [95% CI: 1.2% to 2.8%]) was significantly different when compared to the prevalence of NMPOU as measured by the 2010 CAMH monitor (7.7% [95% CI: 6.3% to 9.2%]) (p?prevalence differences observed from the different survey items reflect an actual increase of NMPOU or changes in NMPOU determinants, but rather point to measurement effects. It appears that we currently do not have accurate estimates of NMPOU in the Canadian general population, even though these estimates are needed to guide and implement targeted interventions. Given the current substantial morbidity and mortality impact of NMPOU, there is an urgent need to systematically develop, validate and standardize NMPOU items for future general population surveys in Canada. PMID:23286378

2013-01-01

363

Metabolic Syndrome and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation in Korean. This study was based on the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A questionnaire was used to measure suicidal ideation and physical examination was performed to measure waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and suicidal ideation among adults and adolescents. Subjects with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have suicidal ideation in adult. There would be essential needs to evaluate suicidal ideation in adult with metabolic syndrome and to follow up suicidal ideation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25110507

Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Cha, Boseok; Lee, So-Jin; Seo, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Jaemin

2014-01-01

364

Bad Dream Frequency in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Prevalence, Correlates, and Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety (CBT) to enhanced usual care (EUC), it assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post-treatment (3 months), and 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post-treatment and throughout follow-up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

Nadorff, Michael R.; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M.; Greisinger, Anthony J.; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

2012-01-01

365

Bad dream frequency in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: prevalence, correlates, and effect of cognitive behavioral treatment for anxiety.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relation between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and frequency of bad dreams in older adults. A secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety to enhanced usual care (EUC) assessed bad dream frequency at baseline, post treatment (3 months), and at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Of 227 participants (mean age = 67.4), 134 met GAD diagnostic criteria (CBT = 70, EUC = 64), with the remaining 93 serving as a comparison group. Patients with GAD had significantly more bad dreams than those without, and bad dream frequency was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, worry, and poor quality of life. CBT for anxiety significantly reduced bad dream frequency at post treatment and throughout follow up compared to EUC. PMID:23470116

Nadorff, Michael R; Porter, Ben; Rhoades, Howard M; Greisinger, Anthony J; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

2014-01-01

366

Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of tobacco use among adults in Pakistan: findings of a nationwide survey conducted in 2012  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable mortality. The World Health Organization recommends that countries should monitor tobacco use regularly. In Pakistan, the last national study on smoking in the general population was conducted in 2002 to 2003. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of men and women living in rural and urban areas of four main provinces of Pakistan from March through April 2012. Face-to-face in-house interviews were undertaken using a pre-tested structured questionnaire that asked about smoking and other forms of tobacco use. Multistage stratified random area probability sampling was used. To determine the national prevalence of tobacco use, the sample was weighted to correspond to rural–urban population proportions in each of the four provinces as in the 1998 census conducted by Pakistan’s Population Census Organization. Associations between sociodemographic variables and tobacco use were investigated using multivariable robust regression. Results Out of 2,644 respondents (1,354 men and 1,290 women), 354 men and 4 women reported being current cigarette smokers. The weighted prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 15.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 11.2, 19.3) overall, 26.6% (95% CI: 19.1, 34.1) among males, and 0.4% (95% CI: -0.2, 1.0) among females. Among females, 1.8% (95% CI: 0.4, 3.1) used any smoked tobacco and 4.6% (95% CI: 1.8, 7.4) used any smokeless tobacco daily or on some days of the week. Among males, odds of current cigarette smoking decreased with increasing level of education (OR?=?0.75; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.84) and increased with having a father who used tobacco (OR?=?2.11; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.22) after adjusting for other sociodemographic characteristics. Lower household income was associated with current cigarette smoking among rural males only (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.67; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92 per category increase in monthly household income). Conclusion A large proportion of males smoked cigarettes. Cigarette use was negligible among females, but they used other forms of tobacco. Low education was a determinant of cigarette smoking among males irrespective of socioeconomic status and area of residence. Tobacco control campaigns should target uneducated and rural poor men and monitor all forms of tobacco used by the population. PMID:24004968

2013-01-01

367

Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in adult and fetal mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Nebraska.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds. Herbivores acquire postnatal infection by ingesting oocysts from contaminated food or water. Toxoplasma gondii infection is common in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, but little is known about the prevalence of infection in mule deer, O. hemionus. We examined sera from 89 mule deer from Nebraska for agglutinating antibodies to T. gondii using the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) with formalin-fixed tachyzoites as antigen. Thirty-one (35%) of the samples were positive at dilutions of > or = 1:25. Samples were examined from 29 fetuses from these mule deer and none were positive in the MAT. Sera from 14 white-tailed deer from Nebraska were also examined and 6 (43%) were positive for T. gondii. Samples were examined from 5 fetuses from these white-tailed deer and none was positive in the MAT. Our results in both deer species from Nebraska are similar to studies conducted in white-tailed deer from other regions of the United States. Our findings indicate that mule deer are frequently infected with T. gondii and that mule-deer meat may be a source of human infection. PMID:16539039

Lindsay, David S; McKown, Richard D; DiCristina, Jennifer A; Jordan, Carly N; Mitchell, Sheila; Oates, David W; Sterner, Mauritz C

2005-12-01

368

Allowing cigarette or marijuana smoking in the home and car: prevalence and correlates in a young adult sample.  

PubMed

Given the increased marijuana use, negative health consequences of marijuana secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and dearth of research regarding marijuana SHSe in personal settings, we examined the prevalence and correlates of allowing marijuana versus cigarette smoking in personal settings among 2002 online survey respondents at two southeastern US universities in 2013. Findings indicated that 14.5% allowed cigarettes in the home, 17.0% marijuana in the home, 35.9% cigarettes in cars and 27.3% marijuana in cars. Allowing cigarettes in the home was associated with younger age, racial/ethnic minority status, living off campus, personal marijuana use, parental tobacco use and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in the home included older age, not having children, living off campus, positive perceptions of marijuana and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing cigarettes in cars included personal cigarette and marijuana use, parental tobacco and marijuana use, more cigarette-smoking friends and positive perceptions of cigarettes (P < 0.05). Correlates of allowing marijuana in cars included being non-Hispanic black; positive perceptions of marijuana; and personal, parental and friend marijuana use (P < 0.05). Interventions must target distinct factors influencing policies regarding cigarette versus marijuana use in personal settings to address the consequences of marijuana and cigarette SHSe. PMID:25214515

Padilla, Mabel; Berg, Carla J; Schauer, Gillian L; Lang, Delia L; Kegler, Michelle C

2015-02-01

369

The Korean War: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, compiled by Ken Robinson and provided by the Center for Korean Studies at the University of Hawaii, includes materials on a wide range of topics related to the Korean War. This bibliography is designed as a supplement to a comprehensive print bibliography published in 1986 and focuses primarily on recent (1990-) publications.

Robinson, Ken.

370

Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

2013-01-01

371

Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

372

Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

373

Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

374

A descriptive study of colorectal function in adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: high prevalence of constipation  

PubMed Central

Background Some patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) have symptoms of constipation, but bowel function in PWS has never been systematically evaluated. The aim of the present study was to describe colorectal function in PWS by means of validated techniques. Methods Twenty-one patients with PWS (14 women, age 17–47 (median?=?32)) were evaluated with the Rome III constipation criteria, stool diary, digital rectal examination, rectal diameter assessed from transabdominal ultrasound, and total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) determined with radio-opaque markers. Results were compared with those of healthy controls. Results Among PWS patients able to provide information for Rome III criteria, 8/20 (40%) fulfilled the criteria for constipation. Most commonly reported symptoms were a feeling of obstructed defecation (8/19, 42%), <3 defecations per week (8/17, 47%), straining during defecation (7/19, 37%) and lumpy or hard stools (6/19, 32%). Rectal diameter did not differ between PWS (median 3.56 centimeters, range 2.24–5.36) and healthy controls (median 3.42 centimeters, range 2.67–4.72) (p?=?0.96), but more PWS patients (13/20; 65%) than healthy controls (3/25; 12%) (p?3 days in 5/21 (24%) of PWS and none of the controls (p?=?0.047). Conclusion Constipation is very common in PWS. Patients with PWS have an increased prevalence of prolonged GITT and palpable stools in the rectum at digital rectal examination. PMID:24708524

2014-01-01

375

Acculturation and the Prevalence of Diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation— 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31–2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11–2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27–3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Conclusion Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos. PMID:25299982

Alos, Victor A.; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C.

2014-01-01

376

Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures  

PubMed Central

Background Although rural Canadians are reported to have higher rates of diabetes than others, little is known about the relative influence of known versus agriculture-related risk factors. The purpose of this research was to carry out a comprehensive study of prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan and to determine possible differences between those living on and off farms. Methods In 2010, we conducted a baseline mail-out survey (Saskatchewan Rural Health Study) of 11,982 households located in the province?s four agricultural quadrants. In addition to self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, the questionnaire collected information from farm and small town cohorts on possible diabetes determinants including lifestyle, family history, early life factors and environmental/agricultural-related exposures. Clustering effect within households was adjusted using Generalized Estimating Equations approach. Results Responses were obtained from 4624 (42%) households comprising 8208 males and females aged 18 years or older and 7847 self-described Caucasian participants (7708 with complete information). The overall age-standardized diabetes prevalence for the latter was 6.35% but people whose primary residence was on farms had significantly lower diabetes prevalence than those living in non-farm locations (5.11% versus 7.33% respectively; p<0.0001). Diabetes risk increased with age and affected almost 17% of those older than 65 (OR 2.57; CI? 1.63, 4.04 compared to those aged 18–45). Other known independent risk factors included family history of diabetes (OR 2.50 [CI?s 1.94, 3.23] if father; OR 3.11 [CI?s 2.44, 3.98] if mother), obesity (OR 2.66; CI?s 1.86, 3.78), as well as lower socioeconomic status, minimal/no alcohol intake and smoking. The most original finding was that exposure to insecticides conferred an increased risk for diabetes among males (OR 1.83; CI?s 1.15, 2.91). Finally, the co-morbidities with the strongest independent association with diabetes were heart disease and hypertension. Conclusions While known diabetes risk factors are important determinants of diabetes in the agricultural zones of Saskatchewan, on-farm residence is protective and appears related to increased outdoor activities. In contrast, we have now shown for the first time that exposure to insecticides is an independent risk factor for diabetes among men in rural Canada. PMID:23289729

2013-01-01

377

Differences in the Prevalence of Obesity among Fars-Native, Turkman, and Sisstanish Ethnic Groups in Iranian Northern Adults in 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences of obesity rate among three ethnic groups in northern adults in IR Iran in 2010. Methods The present cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted on 2994 cases of the same age and sex in three ethnic proportions (Fars-native=1625, Turkman=977, and Sisstani=392). The subjects aged between 15 and 65 years old and were selected by multistage cluster sampling techniques including 150 clusters each containing 20 subjects in urban and rural areas in 11 districts in Golestan province (northern IR Iran). Obesity was defined after WHO classification by BMI (Body Mass Index) equal or over 30 kg/m2. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis and P value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Mean±SD of BMI in Fars-native, Turkman, and Sisstanish ethnic groups was 26.72±5.56, 26.18±5.34, and 24.59±6.72 kg/m2, respectively. Averagely, obesity was common in 22.8% of the subjects and was significantly higher among the females compared to males (32.3% vs13.3%) (P=0.001). Also, its prevalence was estimated as 25%, 22.6%, and 14% in Fars-native, Turkman, and Sisstanish ethnic groups, respectively. Statistical differences were significant among the three ethnic groups (P=0.001). The risk of obesity was 2.041 [95% CI, 1.502-2.722] in Fars-native and 1.781 [95% CI, 1.298-2.472] in Turkman groups compared to Sisstanish ethnic group. Conclusions Over one out of five adults in northern IR Iran suffer from obesity and an alarming rate was shown among the women. Among the three ethnic groups, the highest and the lowest rates were seen in Fars-native and Sisstanish ethnic groups, respectively. PMID:24757622

Veghari, Gholamreza; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Maghsodlo, Siavash; Banihashem, Samieh; Moharloei, Pooneh; Angizeh, Abdolhamid; Tazik, Ebrahim; Moghaddami, Abbas

2013-01-01

378

Variability in the prevalence of adult ADHD in treatment seeking substance use disorder patients: Results from an international multi-center study exploring DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria??  

PubMed Central

Background Available studies vary in their estimated prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in substance use disorder (SUD) patients, ranging from 2 to 83%. A better understanding of the possible reasons for this variability and the effect of the change from DSM-IV to DSM-5 is needed. Methods A two stage international multi-center, cross-sectional study in 10 countries, among patients form inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment centers for alcohol and/or drug use disorder patients. A total of 3558 treatment seeking SUD patients were screened for adult ADHD. A subsample of 1276 subjects, both screen positive and screen negative patients, participated in a structured diagnostic interview. Results Prevalence of DSM-IV and DSM-5 adult ADHD varied for DSM-IV from 5.4% (CI 95%: 2.4–8.3) for Hungary to 31.3% (CI 95%:25.2–37.5) for Norway and for DSM-5 from 7.6% (CI 95%: 4.1–11.1) for Hungary to 32.6% (CI 95%: 26.4–38.8) for Norway. Using the same assessment procedures in all countries and centers resulted in substantial reduction of the variability in the prevalence of adult ADHD reported in previous studies among SUD patients (2–83%? 5.4–31.3%). The remaining variability was partly explained by primary substance of abuse and by country (Nordic versus non-Nordic countries). Prevalence estimates for DSM-5 were slightly higher than for DSM-IV. Conclusions Given the generally high prevalence of adult ADHD, all treatment seeking SUD patients should be screened and, after a confirmed diagnosis, treated for ADHD since the literature indicates poor prognoses of SUD in treatment seeking SUD patients with ADHD. PMID:24156882

van de Glind, Geurt; Konstenius, Maija; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Kaye, Sharlene; Degenhardt, Louisa; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Schillinger, Arild; Møller, Merete; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Casas, Miguel; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Wallhed, Sara; Barta, Csaba; Alleman, Peter; Levin, Frances R.; van den Brink, Wim

2014-01-01

379

The trend of body donation for education based on Korean social and religious culture.  

PubMed

Until a century ago, Korean medicine was based mainly on Oriental philosophies and ideas. From a religious perspective, Chinese Confucianism was prevalent in Korea at that time. Since Confucianists believe that it is against one's filial duty to harm his or her body, given to them by their parents, most Koreans did not donate their bodies or organs for education in the past. However, by the end of the 20th century, a unique fusion of Western and Oriental medicines were produced on the Korean Peninsula, revolutionizing traditional perspectives on the human body, mortality, and the relationship of medical science to society. Koreans began to think about others' lives as well as their own by realizing the importance of donating one's organs and bodies for scientific purposes. Since then, the number of people donating their bodies to Korean medical and dental schools for the purpose of improving academic learning has increased dramatically. In response, Korean medical schools have begun to hold various types of funeral ceremonies to honor body donors. We have compared such ceremonies performed in Korea with those performed in the United States of America and Taiwan. These ceremonies are viewed as a suitable way to pay proper respect to the dead and to promote knowledge about body donation programs in Korea. Overall, the transition of religions and social ethics in Korea has greatly facilitated body bequeathal programs, benefiting both medical education and the Korean public health administration. PMID:21265035

Park, Jong-Tae; Jang, Yoonsun; Park, Min Sun; Pae, Calvin; Park, Jinyi; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Park, Jin-Seo; Han, Seung-Ho; Koh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

2011-01-01

380

The prevalence of pathological gambling in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically reviews prevalence estimates of problem and pathological gambling in Canada. Populations studied are adults, adolescents and primary school children. The proportions of pathological gamblers found in Canadian studies (ranging from 1.2% to 1.9% for adults) are similar to prevalence rates reported in the United States. Given the apparent link between gambling availability and increases in the prevalence

Robert Ladouceur

1996-01-01

381

Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. Results We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45–0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50–59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46–1.60), 60–69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39–1.51), and ?70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86–2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Conclusions Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required. PMID:24808945

2014-01-01

382

Molecular and serologic detection of Coxiella burnetii in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).  

PubMed

The occurrence of Q fever in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae) was investigated for the first time in the country using ELISA and PCR. A total of 597 blood samples were collected from goats belonging to five different provinces of Korea. To detect Coxiella burnetii, sera were separated from the whole blood and analysed by ELISA; DNA was extracted directly from the whole blood and analysed by PCR. Overall, 114 (19.1%, 95% C.I.=16.1-22.4) and 57 goats (9.5%, 95% C.I.=7.5-12.2) tested positive for C. burnetii in the ELISA- and PCR-based screening, respectively, while 18 goats (3.0%, 95% C.I.=1.9-4.7) tested positive in both the assays. There was a significant difference between the number of ELISA- and PCR-positive goats (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of Q fever was significantly higher among the adult goats (?1y, 22.0%) than among the young goats (<1y, 13.8%) (P<0.05). While the results of the serologic analysis showed no seasonal variation, data from the PCR-based assay indicated that there were a higher number of positive cases during the cold seasons. Because Q fever infection has high rates of prevalence in native Korean goats, further studies on humans at a high risk of contracting this disease should be conducted. The PCR-based assay used in this study is a useful method for the direct detection of C. burnetii in blood samples from small ruminants. PMID:25061007

Jung, Byeong Yeal; Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; Byun, Jae-Won; Oem, Jae-Ku; Kwak, Dongmi

2014-09-17

383

Prevalence and Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Adult Rural Chinese Populations of the Bai Nationality in Dali: The Yunnan Minority Eye Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the prevalence and visual acuity (VA) outcomes of cataract surgery in adults of the Bai Nationality populations in rural China. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey (from randomly selected block groups) of Chinese Bai Nationality aged ?50 years in southwestern China. Presenting visual acuity (PVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded and a detailed eye examination was carried out. For all aphakic and pseudophakic subjects identified, information on the date, setting, type, and complications of cataract surgery were recorded. In eyes with VA <20/63, the principal cause of visual impairment was identified. Results Of 2133 (77.8% of 2742) subjects, 99 people (129 eyes) had undergone cataract surgery. The prevalence of cataract surgery was 4.6%. Surgical coverage among those with PVA <20/200 in both eyes because of cataract was 52.8%. Unoperated cataract was associated with older age. The main barrier to cataract surgery was lack of awareness and knowledge, cost, and fear. Among the 129 cataract-operated eyes, 22.5% had PVA of ?20/32, 25.6% had PVA of 20/40 to 20/63, 23.3% had PVA <20/63 to 20/200, and 28.7% had PVA<20/200. With BCVA, the percentages were 42.6%, 23.3%, 10.9%, and 23.3%, respectively. Aphakia (odds ratio [OR], 8.49; P<0.001) and no education (OR, 10.18; P?=?0.001) or less education (OR, 6.49; P?=?0.014) were significantly associated with postoperative visual impairment defined by PVA, while aphakia (OR, 8.49; P<0.001) and female gender (OR, 4.19; P?=?0.004) were significantly associated with postoperative visual impairment by BCVA. The main causes of postoperative visual impairment were refractive error, retinal disorders and glaucoma. Conclusions Half of those with bilateral visual impairment or blindness because of cataract remain in need of cataract surgery in Bai population. Surgical uptake and visual outcomes should be further improved in the future. PMID:23577095

Shen, Wei; Yang, Yongming; Yu, Minbin; Li, Jun; Wei, Tao; Li, Xun; Li, Juanjuan; Su, Xiaodan; Zhong, Hua; Yuan, Yuansheng

2013-01-01

384

Spinal epidural lipomatosis in korean.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo; Lee, Sang Pyung

2014-06-01

385

Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis in Korean  

PubMed Central

Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare disorder, regarded in literature as a consequence of administration of exogenous steroids, associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies and the Cushing's syndrome. Occasionally, SEL may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or suffering from endocrinopathies, namely, idiopathic SEL. Thus far, case studies of SEL among Korean have been published rather sporadically. We reviewed the clinical features of SEL cases, among Koreans with journal review, including this report of three operated cases. According to this study, there were some differences between Korean and western cases. Koreans had higher incidences of idiopathic SEL, predominant involvement in the lumbar segments, very few thoracic involvement and lower MBI, as opposed to westerners. PMID:25237435

Yoo, Je Chul; Choi, Jeong Jae; Lee, Dong Woo

2014-01-01

386

Korean "Tense" Consonants as Geminates  

E-print Network

In this paper, I argue that Korean "tense" consonants are geminates which occupy two C positions in a CV-tier. This argument is supported by phonetic evidence such as a longer closure duration of the tense consonants and ...

Choi, Dong-Ik

1995-01-01

387

Why loose rings can be tight: The role of learned object knowledge in the development of Korean spatial fit terms.  

PubMed

The Korean fit distinction has been at the center of a debate about whether language can influence spatial concepts. Most research on this issue has largely assumed that the concepts that support Korean fit terms are signaled by innate abstract visual cues (e.g., relative motion of objects), while linguistic studies in Korean suggest that fit terms are object-specific. To examine this issue, Korean-speaking three- to six year-old children and adults were asked to describe spatial scenes, which varied in object type/relations and visual cues for fit. Both groups relied on the prototypical relation between pairs of objects (e.g., rings tend to fit tightly on fingers) in selecting tight-fit terms, and this dependence increased with age. In contrast to Whorfian and Conceptual tuning accounts (Bowerman & Choi, 2003; Hespos & Spelke, 2004), these results suggest that Korean fit concepts are not entirely innate or abstract. PMID:25498745

Chang, Franklin; Choi, Youngon; Ko, Yeonjung

2015-03-01

388

Preliminary Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form for Korean American Nursing Home Residents.  

PubMed

The authors of the current article developed and investigated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF-K) to better understand cognitive functioning of Korean American nursing home residents. In Step I, normative values were established for the BCAT-SF-K based on a sample of Korean American community-dwelling older adults (n = 34). In Step II, the authors confirmed construct validity for the BCAT-SF-K in a sample of Korean American nursing home residents (n = 26), described cognitive levels, and reported key demographics. In the nursing home sample, 84.6% of individuals had severe cognitive impairment, 7.7% had mild impairment, and 7.7% had normal cognition. The BCAT-SF-K appears to be a reliable cognitive screening measure for Korean American nursing home residents. Based on the current study's findings, Korean American nursing home residents are both older and more cognitively impaired than their American-born nursing home counterparts. Study findings are discussed in relation to improving care for these vulnerable nursing home residents. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 20xx; x(x):xxx-xxx.]. PMID:25420181

Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A; Clark, Kristen M

2014-12-01

389

Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

Kim, Eunhyun

2014-01-01

390

Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

2013-01-01

391

Lack of association between vitamin D receptor genotypes and osteoporosis in Koreans  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate whether common allelic variants in the gene encoding the vitamin D receptor (VDR) were useful in predicting differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover rate in Koreans, we analyzed the restriction pattern of the polymerase chain reaction product of the VDR gene with the Bsm1 enzyme and serum osteocalcin in patients with osteoporosis. The prevalence of

Sung Kil Lim; Young Suk Park; Jae Min Park

1995-01-01

392

Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

2007-01-01

393

Bullying and Victimization Behaviors in Boys and Girls at South Korean Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bullying and victimization behaviors in boys and girls at South Korean primary schools. Method: In a cross-sectional survey, 1,344 fourth-grade primary school children completed a questionnaire on self-reported bullying and victimization behaviors, depression, anxiety, body image, coping…

Yang, Su-Jin; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

2006-01-01

394

Prevalence of Insufficient Sleep: Statistics by State  

MedlinePLUS

... Each fact sheet includes a table with the prevalence of insufficient rest or sleep ( ? 14 days in ... sheet also includes a map that presents the prevalence of insufficient sleep among adults of the state ...

395

Investigating Two-, Three-, and Four-Factor Structures of the Korean PCL-R in Serious Offenders.  

PubMed

There is no published work on different factor structures of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for Korean offenders. The current study compared the two-, three-, and four-factor structures of the Korean version of the PCL-R. A total of 451 adult male serious offenders were included. The results suggested that both three- and four-factor models offered the best overall fit to the data. To gain better insight into the construct and predictive validities of the Korean version of the PCL-R, we recommend further analysis of the three- and four-factor models with recidivism and inmates' implicit aggression levels. PMID:25480778

Sohn, Ji Seun; Lee, Soo Jung

2014-12-01

396

Select Bibliography of the Korean War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

Sandler, Stanley

20